Exposure to lead causes adverse clinical health effects. The usage of the metal had been restricted for many applications (e.g. painting) in the past decade.
Lead is a major by-product in zinc mining activities.
The usage of lead is related to the number of deployed vehicles. Lead-acid batteries have a limited lifecycle and need frequent replacement. However, most of the lead can be recovered from the old batteries and reused.
Improving living conditions increase the number of light duty vehicles for private transport and the number of trucks required for the transport of goods. Specific for this economies will be the extensive usage of lead-acid batteries in electrical driven bicycles.
Lead-acid batteries do not suit the need for use with hybrid or fuel cell powertrains and will be replaced by other battery technology (NiMH or Lithium).