The Economic Times  Jan 18  Comment 
Sales increased 10% to Rs 5,846 crore, led by stronger zinc and lead prices.
The Hindu Business Line  Feb 26  Comment 
The margins of market leaders Amara Raja and Exide have been declining over the past few quarters


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Lead is a heavy element that is mined mostly in combination with Zinc. It has a wide variety of uses many of which value its ability to resist corrosion, low melting point and high density; uses range from sailboats (traditionally used to help balance it when it is without cargo, anti corrosion property helps) to x-ray machines (where it protects patients from radiation exposure), electronics and plumbing (used in joining metallic plates), pottery glazes, construction, weights, and most importantly batteries (batteries account for over 50% of usage).

In many cases it is combined with other elements such as antimony or tin intended to increase and decrease the density or weight of the substance used. It is about as widely used as copper, aluminum, zinc and iron but lags behind them in total aggregate use.

According to at least one scientist, at current usage rates lead could run out in less than half a century.[1]


About half comes from metals scraps and in 2008 half of primary production came from Canada, China, USA, Australia, Peru, Mexico, North Korea, South Africa and Morocco.[1]

Smelters refuse to respond to price volatility

In January 2011 lead price volatility made the lead scrap market (the source of half of lead supplies) less attractive to consumers as a result of smelters refusing to lower their prices in response.[2]


  1. 1.0 1.1 Lead Ore (2007).
  2. (AMM) Lead scrap spreads widen; weather hits battery supply (2011-01-24).
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