3M Company 10-K 2010
Documents found in this filing:
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2009
Commission file number 1-3285
Principal executive offices: 3M Center, St. Paul, Minnesota 55144
Telephone number: (651) 733-1110
SECURITIES REGISTERED PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(b) OF THE ACT:
Note: The common stock of the Registrant is also traded on the SWX Swiss Exchange.
Securities registered pursuant to section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes x No o
Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes o No x
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes x No o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files). Yes x No o
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of Registrants knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K. x
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of large accelerated filer, accelerated filer and smaller reporting company in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes o No x
The aggregate market value of voting stock held by nonaffiliates of the Registrant, computed by reference to the closing price and shares outstanding, was approximately $57.3 billion as of January 29, 2010 (approximately $42.0 billion as of June 30, 2009, the last business day of the Registrants most recently completed second quarter).
Shares of common stock outstanding at January 31, 2010: 711,733,377.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Parts of the Companys definitive proxy statement (to be filed pursuant to Regulation 14A within 120 days after Registrants fiscal year-end of December 31, 2009) for its annual meeting to be held on May 11, 2010, are incorporated by reference in this Form 10-K in response to Part III, Items 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14.
This document (excluding exhibits) contains 124 pages.
The table of contents is set forth on page 2. The exhibit index begins on page 120.
For the Year Ended December 31, 2009
TABLE OF CONTENTS
For the Year Ended December 31, 2009
3M Company was incorporated in 1929 under the laws of the State of Delaware to continue operations begun in 1902. The Companys ticker symbol is MMM. As used herein, the term 3M or Company includes 3M Company and its subsidiaries unless the context indicates otherwise. In this document, for any references to Note 1 through Note 19, refer to the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8.
The SEC maintains a website that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers, including the Company, that file electronically with the SEC. The public can obtain any documents that the Company files with the SEC at http://www.sec.gov. The Company files annual reports, quarterly reports, proxy statements and other documents with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (Exchange Act). The public may read and copy any materials that the Company files with the SEC at the SECs Public Reference Room at 100 F Street, N.E., Washington, D.C. 20549. The public may obtain information on the operation of the Public Reference Room by calling the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330.
3M also makes available free of charge through its website (http://investor.3M.com) the Companys Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K, and, if applicable, amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to the Exchange Act as soon as reasonably practicable after the Company electronically files such material with, or furnishes it to, the SEC.
3M is a diversified technology company with a global presence in the following businesses: Industrial and Transportation; Health Care; Consumer and Office; Safety, Security and Protection Services; Display and Graphics; and Electro and Communications. 3M is among the leading manufacturers of products for many of the markets it serves. Most 3M products involve expertise in product development, manufacturing and marketing, and are subject to competition from products manufactured and sold by other technologically oriented companies.
At December 31, 2009, the Company employed 74,835 people (full-time equivalents), with 31,513 employed in the United States and 43,322 employed internationally.
As discussed in Note 17 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, effective in the first quarter of 2009, 3M made certain product moves between its business segments in its continuing effort to drive growth by aligning businesses around markets and customers. Segment information presented herein reflects the impact of these changes for all periods presented.
3M continues to manage its operations in six operating business segments: Industrial and Transportation; Health Care; Consumer and Office; Safety, Security and Protection Services; Display and Graphics; and Electro and Communications. 3Ms six business segments bring together common or related 3M technologies, enhancing the development of innovative products and services and providing for efficient sharing of business resources. These segments have worldwide responsibility for virtually all 3M product lines. Certain small businesses and lab-sponsored products, as well as various corporate assets and expenses, are not attributed to the business segments. Financial information and other disclosures relating to 3Ms business segments and operations in major geographic areas are provided in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
Industrial and Transportation Business: The Industrial and Transportation segment serves a broad range of markets, such as appliance, paper and packaging, food and beverage, electronics, automotive original equipment manufacturer (OEM) and automotive aftermarket (auto body shops and retail). Industrial and Transportation products include tapes, a wide variety of coated and non-woven abrasives, adhesives, specialty materials, filtration products, energy control products, closure systems for personal hygiene products, and components and products that are used in the manufacture, repair and maintenance of automotive, marine, aircraft and specialty vehicles.
Major industrial products include vinyl, polyester, foil and specialty industrial tapes and adhesives; Scotch® Masking Tape, Scotch® Filament Tape and Scotch® Packaging Tape; packaging equipment; 3M VHB Bonding Tapes; conductive, low surface energy, hot melt, spray and structural adhesives; reclosable fasteners; label materials for durable goods; and coated, nonwoven and microstructured surface finishing and grinding abrasives for the industrial
market. 3M Purification Inc. (previously referred to as CUNO Incorporated), provides a comprehensive line of filtration products for the separation, clarification and purification of fluids and gases. Other industrial products include fluoroelastomers for seals, tubes and gaskets in engines; and engineering fluids. In addition, this segment provides 3M Scotchtint Window Film for buildings; 3M Ultra Safety and Security Window Film for property and personal protection during destructive weather conditions; and closures for disposable diapers.
Major transportation products include insulation components, including components for catalytic converters; functional and decorative graphics; abrasion-resistant films; masking tapes; fasteners and tapes for attaching nameplates, trim, moldings, interior panels and carpeting; coated, nonwoven and microstructured finishing and grinding abrasives; structural adhesives; and other specialty materials. In addition, 3M provides paint finishing and detailing products, including a complete system of cleaners, dressings, polishes, waxes and other products.
Health Care Business: The Health Care segment serves markets that include medical clinics and hospitals, pharmaceuticals, dental and orthodontic practitioners, and health information systems. Products and services provided to these and other markets include medical and surgical supplies, skin health and infection prevention products, drug delivery systems, dental and orthodontic products, health information systems and anti-microbial solutions. As discussed in Note 2, 3M completed the sale of its global branded pharmaceuticals business in Europe in January 2007.
In the medical and surgical areas, 3M is a supplier of medical tapes, dressings, wound closure products, orthopedic casting materials, electrodes and stethoscopes. In infection prevention, 3M markets a variety of surgical drapes, masks and preps, as well as sterilization assurance equipment. Other products include drug delivery systems, such as metered-dose inhalers, transdermal skin patches and related components. Dental and orthodontic products include restoratives, adhesives, finishing and polishing products, crowns, impression materials, preventive sealants, professional tooth whiteners, prophylaxis and orthodontic appliances. In health information systems, 3M develops and markets computer software for hospital coding and data classification, and provides related consulting services. 3M provides microbiology products that make it faster and easier for food processors to test the microbiological quality of food.
Consumer and Office Business: The Consumer and Office segment serves markets that include consumer retail, office retail, home improvement, building maintenance and other markets. Products in this segment include office supply products, stationery products, construction and home improvement products, home care products, protective material products and consumer health care products.
Major consumer and office products include Scotch® brand products, such as Scotch® Magic Tape, Scotch® Glue Stick and Scotch® Cushioned Mailer; Post-it® Products, such as Post-it® Flags, Post-it® Note Pads, Post-it® Labeling & Cover-up Tape, and Post-it® Pop-up Notes and Dispensers; construction and home improvement products, including surface-preparation and wood-finishing materials, Command Adhesive Products and Filtrete Filters for furnaces and air conditioners; home care products, including Scotch-Brite® Scour Pads, Scotch-Brite® Scrub Sponges, Scotch-Brite Microfiber Cloth products, O-Cel-O Sponges and Scotchgard Fabric Protectors; protective material products; certain maintenance-free respirators; certain consumer retail personal safety products, including safety glasses and hearing protectors; and Nexcare Adhesive Bandages. In July 2009, 3M acquired ACE® branded (and related brands) elastic bandage, supports and thermometer product lines.
Safety, Security and Protection Services Business: The Safety, Security and Protection Services segment serves a broad range of markets that increase the safety, security and productivity of workers, facilities and systems. Major product offerings include personal protection products, safety and security products (including border and civil security solutions), cleaning and protection products for commercial establishments, track and trace solutions, and roofing granules for asphalt shingles. In April 2008, 3M acquired Aearo Holding Corp., the parent company of Aearo Technologies Inc. (hereafter referred to as Aearo). Aearo manufactures and sells personal protection and energy absorbing products, which expanded 3Ms platform by adding hearing protection as well as eyewear and fall protection product lines to 3Ms existing line of respiratory products. The consumer retail portion of Aearos business is included in 3Ms Consumer and Office business segment.
This segments products include certain maintenance-free and reusable respirators, personal protective equipment, electronic surveillance products, films that protect against counterfeiting, and reflective materials that are widely used on apparel, footwear and accessories, enhancing visibility in low-light situations. 3Ms Track and Trace Solutions business utilizes radio frequency identification (RFID) technology to provide a growing array of solutions from library patron self-checkout systems to tracking packages. Other products include spill-control sorbents; Thinsulate Insulation and Thinsulate Lite Loft Insulation; nonwoven abrasive materials for floor maintenance and commercial cleaning; floor matting; and natural and color-coated mineral granules for asphalt shingles. In the second
quarter of 2008, 3M completed the sale of its HighJump Software business which provided supply chain execution software solutions.
Display and Graphics Business: The Display and Graphics segment serves markets that include electronic display, traffic safety and commercial graphics. This segment includes optical film solutions for electronic displays; computer screen filters; reflective sheeting for transportation safety; commercial graphics systems; and projection systems, including mobile display technology and visual systems products.
The optical film business provides films that serve numerous market segments of the electronic display industry. 3M provides distinct products for five market segments, including products for: 1) LCD computer monitors, 2) LCD televisions, 3) hand-held devices such as cellular phones, 4) notebook PCs and 5) automotive displays. Other optical products include desktop and notebook computer screen filters that address needs for light control, privacy viewing and glare reduction. In traffic safety systems, 3M provides reflective sheetings used on highway signs, vehicle license plates, construction work-zone devices, trucks and other vehicles, and also provides pavement marking systems. Major commercial graphics products include films, inks, digital signage systems and related products used to produce graphics for vehicles and signs. The projection systems business focuses on bringing technology to the projection market, including mobile display technology in addition to its visual communication products that serve the worlds office and education markets with overhead projectors and transparency films, as well as equipment and materials for electronic and multimedia presentations.
Electro and Communications Business: The Electro and Communications segment serves the electrical, electronics and communications industries, including electrical utilities; electrical construction, maintenance and repair; original equipment manufacturer (OEM) electrical and electronics; computers and peripherals; consumer electronics; telecommunications central office, outside plant and enterprise; as well as aerospace, military, automotive and medical markets; with products that enable the efficient transmission of electrical power and speed the delivery of information. Products include electronic and interconnect solutions, microinterconnect systems, high-performance fluids, high-temperature and display tapes, telecommunications products, electrical products, and touch screens and touch monitors.
Major electronic and electrical products include packaging and interconnection devices; high-performance fluids used in the manufacture of computer chips, and for cooling electronics and lubricating computer hard disk drives; high-temperature and display tapes; insulating materials, including pressure-sensitive tapes and resins; and related items. 3M Flexible Circuits use electronic packaging and interconnection technology, providing more connections in less space, and are used in ink-jet print cartridges, cell phones and electronic devices. This segment serves the worlds telecommunications companies with a wide array of products for fiber-optic and copper-based telecommunications systems for rapid deployment in fixed and wireless networks. The 3M Aluminum Conductor Composite Reinforced (ACCR) electrical power cable, with an aluminum-based metal matrix at its core, increases transmission capacity for existing power lines. The touch systems business includes touch screens and touch monitors.
3M products are sold through numerous distribution channels, including directly to users and through numerous wholesalers, retailers, jobbers, distributors and dealers in a wide variety of trades in many countries around the world. Management believes the confidence of wholesalers, retailers, jobbers, distributors and dealers in 3M and its products a confidence developed through long association with skilled marketing and sales representatives has contributed significantly to 3Ms position in the marketplace and to its growth.
Research and Patents
Research and product development constitutes an important part of 3Ms activities and has been a major driver of 3Ms sales growth. Research, development and related expenses totaled $1.293 billion in 2009, $1.404 billion in 2008 and $1.368 billion in 2007. Research and development, covering basic scientific research and the application of scientific advances in the development of new and improved products and their uses, totaled $838 million in 2009, $851 million in 2008 and $788 million in 2007. Related expenses primarily include technical support provided by 3M to customers who are using existing 3M products; internally developed patent costs, which include costs and fees incurred to prepare, file, secure and maintain patents; and amortization of acquired patents.
The Companys products are sold around the world under various trademarks. The Company also owns, or holds licenses to use, numerous U.S. and foreign patents. The Companys research and development activities generate a steady stream of inventions that are covered by new patents. Patents applicable to specific products extend for varying periods according to the date of patent application filing or patent grant and the legal term of patents in the various countries where patent protection is obtained. The actual protection afforded by a patent, which can vary
from country to country, depends upon the type of patent, the scope of its coverage and the availability of legal remedies in the country.
The Company believes that its patents provide an important competitive advantage in many of its businesses. In general, no single patent or group of related patents is in itself essential to the Company as a whole or to any of the Companys business segments. The importance of patents in the Display and Graphics segment is described in Performance by Business Segment Display and Graphics Business in Part II, Item 7, of this Form 10-K.
In 2009, the Company experienced cost decreases in most raw materials and transportation fuel costs. This was driven by lower basic feedstock costs, particularly metals and oil derived materials. To date, the Company is receiving sufficient quantities of all raw materials to meet its reasonably foreseeable production requirements. It is impossible to predict future shortages of raw materials or the impact any such shortages would have. 3M has avoided disruption to its manufacturing operations through careful management of existing raw material inventories and development and qualification of additional supply sources. 3M manages commodity price risks through negotiated supply contracts, price protection agreements and forward physical contracts.
Environmental Law Compliance
3Ms manufacturing operations are affected by national, state and local environmental laws around the world. 3M has made, and plans to continue making, necessary expenditures for compliance with applicable laws. 3M is also involved in remediation actions relating to environmental matters from past operations at certain sites (refer to Environmental and Other Liabilities and Insurance Receivables in Note 14, Commitments and Contingencies).
Environmental expenditures relating to existing conditions caused by past operations that do not contribute to current or future revenues are expensed. Reserves for liabilities for anticipated remediation costs are recorded on an undiscounted basis when they are probable and reasonably estimable, generally no later than the completion of feasibility studies or the Companys commitment to a plan of action. Environmental expenditures for capital projects that contribute to current or future operations generally are capitalized and depreciated over their estimated useful lives.
In 2009, 3M expended about $15 million for capital projects related to protecting the environment. This amount excludes expenditures for remediation actions relating to existing matters caused by past operations that do not contribute to current or future revenues, which are expensed. Capital expenditures for environmental purposes have included pollution control devices such as wastewater treatment plant improvements, scrubbers, containment structures, solvent recovery units and thermal oxidizers at new and existing facilities constructed or upgraded in the normal course of business. Consistent with the Companys policies stressing environmental responsibility, capital expenditures (other than for remediation projects) for known projects are presently expected to be about $22 million over the next two years for new or expanded programs to build facilities or modify manufacturing processes to minimize waste and reduce emissions.
While the Company cannot predict with certainty the future costs of such cleanup activities, capital expenditures or operating costs for environmental compliance, the Company does not believe they will have a material effect on its capital expenditures, earnings or competitive position.
Following is a list of the executive officers of 3M, and their age, present position, the year elected to their present position and other positions they have held during the past five years. No family relationships exist among any of the executive officers named, nor is there any undisclosed arrangement or understanding pursuant to which any person was selected as an officer. This information is presented as of the date of the 10-K filing (February 16, 2010).
Our disclosure and analysis in our Annual Report on Form 10-K contain forward-looking statements that relate to future events and typically address the Companys expected future business and financial performance based on certain assumptions. These assumptions and expectations of future events and trends are subject to risks and uncertainties. Depending on a variety of factors, actual future results and trends may differ materially from historical results or those reflected in any such forward-looking statements. Provided below is a cautionary discussion of what we believe to be the most significant risk factors applicable to the Company. Discussion of these factors is incorporated by reference into and considered an integral part of Part II, Item 7, Managements Discussion and Analysis of Financial Conditions and Results of Operations.
* Results are impacted by the effects of, and changes in, worldwide economic and capital markets conditions. The Company operates in more than 65 countries and derives approximately 63 percent of its revenues from outside the United States. The Companys business may be adversely affected by factors in the United States and other countries that are beyond its control, such as disruptions in financial markets or downturns in economic activity in specific countries or regions, or in the various industries in which the Company operates; social, political or labor conditions in specific countries or regions; or adverse changes in the availability and cost of capital, interest rates, tax rates, or regulations in the jurisdictions in which the Company operates.
* The Companys credit ratings are important to 3Ms cost of capital. The major rating agencies routinely evaluate the Companys credit profile and have assigned debt ratings to 3M that are near the top of the ratings spectrum. This evaluation is based on a number of factors, which include financial strength, business and financial risk, as well as transparency with rating agencies and timeliness of financial reporting. The Company has an AA- credit rating, with a stable outlook, from Standard & Poors and an Aa2 credit rating, with a stable outlook, from Moodys Investors Service. The Companys strong ratings serve to lower 3Ms borrowing costs and facilitate access to a variety of lenders. Failure to maintain the current ratings level could adversely affect the Companys cost of funds, liquidity and access to capital markets.
* The Companys results are affected by competitive conditions and customer preferences. Demand for the Companys products, which impacts revenue and profit margins, is affected by (i) the development and timing of the introduction of competitive products; (ii) the Companys response to downward pricing to stay competitive; (iii) changes in customer order patterns, such as changes in the levels of inventory maintained by customers and the timing of customer purchases which may be affected by announced price changes, changes in the Companys incentive programs, or the customers ability to achieve incentive goals; and (iv) changes in customers preferences for our products, including the success of products offered by our competitors, and changes in customer designs for their products that can affect the demand for some of the Companys products.
* Foreign currency exchange rates and fluctuations in those rates may affect the Companys ability to realize projected growth rates in its sales and earnings. Because the Companys financial statements are denominated in U.S. dollars and approximately 63 percent of the Companys revenues are derived from outside the United States, the Companys results of operations and its ability to realize projected growth rates in sales and earnings could be adversely affected if the U.S. dollar strengthens significantly against foreign currencies.
* The Companys growth objectives are largely dependent on the timing and market acceptance of its new product offerings, including its ability to continually renew its pipeline of new products and to bring those products to market. This ability may be adversely affected by difficulties or delays in product development, such as the inability to identify viable new products, obtain adequate intellectual property protection, or gain market acceptance of new products. There are no guarantees that new products will prove to be commercially successful.
* The Companys future results are subject to fluctuations in the costs and availability of purchased components, compounds, raw materials and energy, including oil and natural gas and their derivatives, due to shortages, increased demand, supply interruptions, currency exchange risks, natural disasters and other factors. The Company depends on various components, compounds, raw materials, and energy (including oil and natural gas and their derivatives) supplied by others for the manufacturing of its products. It is possible that any of its supplier relationships could be interrupted due to natural and other disasters and other events, or be terminated in the future. Any sustained interruption in the Companys receipt of adequate supplies could have a material adverse effect on the Company. In addition, while the Company has a process to minimize volatility in component and material pricing, no assurance can be given that the Company will be able to successfully manage price fluctuations or that future price fluctuations or shortages will not have a material adverse effect on the Company.
* Acquisitions, strategic alliances, divestitures, and other unusual events resulting from portfolio management actions and other evolving business strategies, and possible organizational restructuring could affect future results. The Company monitors its business portfolio and organizational structure and has made and may continue to make acquisitions, strategic alliances, divestitures and changes to its organizational structure. With respect to acquisitions, future results will be affected by the Companys ability to integrate acquired businesses quickly and obtain the anticipated synergies.
* The Companys future results may be affected if the Company generates fewer productivity improvements than estimated. The Company utilizes various tools, such as Lean Six Sigma, to improve operational efficiency and productivity. There can be no assurance that all of the projected productivity improvements will be realized.
* The Companys future results may be affected by various legal and regulatory proceedings, including those involving product liability, antitrust, environmental or other matters. The outcome of these legal proceedings may differ from the Companys expectations because the outcomes of litigation, including regulatory matters, are often difficult to reliably predict. Various factors or developments can lead the Company to change current estimates of liabilities and related insurance receivables where applicable, or make such estimates for matters previously not susceptible of reasonable estimates, such as a significant judicial ruling or judgment, a significant settlement, significant regulatory developments or changes in applicable law. A future adverse ruling, settlement or unfavorable development could result in future charges that could have a material adverse effect on the Companys results of operations or cash flows in any particular period. For a more detailed discussion of the legal proceedings involving the Company and the associated accounting estimates, see the discussion in Note 14.
3Ms general offices, corporate research laboratories, and certain division laboratories are located in St. Paul, Minnesota. The Company operates 72 manufacturing facilities in 28 states. The Company operates 105 manufacturing and converting facilities in 35 countries outside the United States.
3M owns substantially all of its physical properties. 3Ms physical facilities are highly suitable for the purposes for which they were designed. Because 3M is a global enterprise characterized by substantial intersegment cooperation, properties are often used by multiple business segments.
Discussion of legal matters is incorporated by reference from Part II, Item 8, Note 14, Commitments and Contingencies, of this document, and should be considered an integral part of Part I, Item 3, Legal Proceedings.
None in the quarter ended December 31, 2009.
Equity compensation plans information is incorporated by reference from Part III, Item 12, Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters, of this document, and should be considered an integral part of Item 5. At January 29, 2010, there were 110,956 shareholders of record. 3Ms stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange, Inc. (NYSE), the Chicago Stock Exchange, Inc., and the SWX Swiss Exchange. Cash dividends declared and paid totaled $.51 per share for each quarter of 2009, and $.50 per share for each quarter of 2008. Stock price comparisons follow:
Stock price comparisons (NYSE composite transactions)
Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Repurchases of common stock are made to support the Companys stock-based employee compensation plans and for other corporate purposes. In February 2007, 3Ms Board of Directors authorized a two-year share repurchase of up to $7.0 billion for the period from February 12, 2007 to February 28, 2009. In February 2009, 3Ms Board of Directors extended this share repurchase authorization until the remaining $2.6 billion (as of December 31, 2009) is fully utilized.
Issuer Purchases of Equity
Securities (registered pursuant to
Section 12 of the Exchange Act)
(1) The total number of shares purchased includes: (i) shares purchased under the Boards authorizations described above, and (ii) shares purchased in connection with the exercise of stock options (which combined totaled 2,921 shares in January 2009, 1,661 shares in March 2009, 62,049 shares in April 2009, 32,173 shares in May 2009, 682 shares in June 2009, 19,780 shares in July 2009, 30,321 shares in August 2009, 10,047 shares in September 2009, 33,643 shares in October 2009, 11,260 shares in November 2009, and 49,882 shares in December 2009).
The above income and earnings per share information exclude a cumulative effect of accounting change in 2005 ($35 million, or 5 cents per diluted share). New accounting guidance for asset retirement obligations was effective December 31, 2005, and its adoption resulted in the recognition of an asset retirement obligation liability of $59 million at December 31, 2005, and an after-tax charge of $35 million for 2005, which was reflected as a cumulative effect of change in accounting principle in the Consolidated Statement of Income.
Items included in the preceding table which had a significant impact on results are summarized as follows. 2009 results included net losses that decreased operating income by $194 million and net income attributable to 3M by $119 million. 2009 included restructuring actions ($209 million pre-tax, $128 million after tax and noncontrolling interest), which was partially offset by a gain on sale of real estate ($15 million pre-tax, $9 million after tax). 2008 results included net losses that decreased operating income by $269 million and net income attributable to 3M by $194 million. 2008 included restructuring actions ($229 million pre-tax, $147 million after-tax and noncontrolling interest), exit activities ($58 million pre-tax, $43 million after-tax) and losses related to the sale of businesses ($23 million pre-tax, $32 million after-tax), which were partially offset by a gain on sale of real estate ($41 million pre-tax, $28 million after-tax). 2007 results included net gains that increased operating income by $681 million and net income attributable to 3M by $448 million. 2007 included gains related to the sale of businesses ($849 million pre-tax, $550 million after-tax) and a gain on sale of real estate ($52 million pre-tax, $37 million after-tax), which were partially offset by increases in environmental liabilities ($134 million pre-tax, $83 million after-tax), restructuring actions ($41 million pre-tax, $27 million after-tax), and exit activities ($45 million pre-tax, $29 million after-tax). 2006 results included net gains that increased operating income by $523 million and net income attributable to 3M by $438 million. 2006 included net benefits from gains related to the sale of certain portions of 3Ms branded pharmaceuticals business ($1.074 billion pre-tax, $674 million after-tax) and favorable income tax adjustments ($149 million), which were partially offset by restructuring actions ($403 million pre-tax, $257 million after-tax), acquired in-process research and development expenses ($95 million pre-tax and after-tax), settlement costs of an antitrust class action ($40 million pre-tax, $25 million after-tax), and environmental obligations related to the pharmaceuticals business ($13 million pre-tax, $8 million after-tax). 2005 results included charges that reduced net income attributable to 3M before cumulative effect of accounting change by $75 million. This related to a tax liability resulting from 3Ms reinvestment of approximately $1.7 billion of foreign earnings in the United States pursuant to the repatriation provisions of the American Jobs Creation Act of 2004.
Managements Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (MD&A) is designed to provide a reader of 3Ms financial statements with a narrative from the perspective of management. 3Ms MD&A is presented in nine sections:
3M is a diversified global manufacturer, technology innovator and marketer of a wide variety of products. As discussed in Note 17 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, effective in the first quarter of 2009, 3M made certain business segment realignments, including both product moves between business segments and reporting changes related to revised U.S. performance measures. The financial information presented herein reflects the impact of these changes for all periods presented. 3M manages its operations in six operating business segments: Industrial and Transportation; Health Care; Consumer and Office; Safety, Security and Protection Services; Display and Graphics; and Electro and Communications.
3Ms quarterly year-on-year business results got stronger as 2009 progressed, with first nine-month 2009 year-on-year comparisons significantly negatively impacted by the economic downturn that began impacting 3M in the fourth quarter of 2008. For total year 2009, while sales declined 8.5 percent and organic volumes declined 9.5 percent, worldwide industrial production is expected to be down by a similar amount and 3Ms sales performance was in line with the overall economy. 3M restructured a number of businesses during the year, resulting in 2009 total year savings of almost $400 million, with estimated additional incremental savings of more than $150 million in 2010. In addition, 3M amended its policy regarding banked vacation, which added more than $100 million to operating income in 2009, with a slightly lower benefit expected in 2010. 3M also enacted temporary furloughs where appropriate, froze merit pay and reduced indirect spending. Finally, in the midst of this economic downturn, 3M invested $1.3 billion in research, development and related expenses during 2009.
3M has been aggressively restructuring the company since early 2008 and continued this effort through the third quarter of 2009, with these restructuring actions and exit activities in the aggregate resulting in a reduction of approximately 6,400 positions. 3M aggressively reduced structural costs across the company, including in the factories. The focus now is to accelerate growth in the various businesses and to add only those expenses that are absolutely necessary. 3M announced the reduction of approximately 200 positions in the third quarter of 2009, with the majority of those occurring in Western Europe and, to a lesser extent, the United States. In the second quarter of 2009, 3M permanently reduced approximately 900 positions spanning many businesses and geographies, and in the United States another 700 people accepted a voluntary retirement option. 3M expects that a small portion of those who accepted the voluntary separation will be replaced; thus, on a net basis, 3M estimates an employment level decline of approximately 1,400 to 1,500 due to these second quarter restructuring actions. In the first quarter of 2009, 3M announced the elimination of approximately 1,200 positions. In addition, 3M announced reductions of approximately 3,500 positions in 2008, with 2,400 of these reductions announced in the fourth quarter of 2008. The related net restructuring charges and other special items reduced net income attributable to 3M for year 2009 by $119 million, or $0.17 per diluted share. Special items reduced net income attributable to 3M for year 2008 by $194 million, or $0.28 per diluted share, with $140 million, or $0.20 per diluted share, in the fourth quarter of 2008. Refer to the special items discussion at the end of this overview section for more detail.
Fourth-quarter 2009 sales totaled $6.1 billion, an increase of 11.1 percent from the fourth quarter of 2008, with all business segments and major geographic areas showing improvement. Net income attributable to 3M was $935 million, or $1.30 per diluted share. This compares to $536 million, or $0.77 per diluted share, which includes the impact of restructuring and other special items, in the fourth quarter of 2008.
Sales in 2009 totaled $23.1 billion, a decrease of 8.5 percent from 2008. Including the preceding special items, net income attributable to 3M was $3.193 billion, or $4.52 per diluted share, in 2009, versus $3.460 billion, or $4.89 per diluted share, in 2008. In 2009, the global economic slowdown dramatically affected year-on-year comparisons for 3Ms businesses. Substantial end-market declines and inventory takedowns in major industries, including automotive, consumer electronics and general industrial manufacturing, resulted in significantly lower sales and income. Accordingly, 3M reduced its cost structure, lowered manufacturing output and intensified its attention to operational improvement. The combination of these actions drove operating income margins of 20.8 percent in 2009, compared to 20.6 percent in 2008. Restructuring charges and other special items reduced this operating income margin by approximately one percentage point in both 2009 and 2008.
In January 2007, 3M completed the sale of its branded pharmaceuticals business, resulting in a gain in the first quarter of 2007. In addition, 3M recorded a gain related to the sale of its Opticom Priority Control Systems and Canoga Traffic Detection businesses in the second quarter of 2007. In 2007, these gains on sale of businesses were partially offset by restructuring and the net impact of other special items. Refer to Special Items at the end of this overview section for additional details. Including these special items, in 2007, 3M reported net sales of $24.462 billion and net income attributable to 3M of $4.096 billion, or $5.60 per diluted share.
The following table contains sales and operating income results by business segment for the years ended December 31, 2009 and 2008. Refer to the section entitled Performance by Business Segment later in MD&A for discussion by business segment of restructuring and other items that impacted reported operating income. Refer to Note 17 for discussion of Corporate and Unallocated and Elimination of Dual Credit.
In 2009, while sales declined 8.5 percent for the total year, this was similar to the overall economy and close to the estimated decline in worldwide industrial production. Quarterly year-on-year comparisons improved throughout 2009. Sales declined 21.3 percent in the first quarter, 15.1 percent in the second quarter and 5.6 percent in the third quarter, but improved 11.1 percent in the fourth quarter. Refer to the sections entitled Performance by Business Segment and Performance by Geographic Area later in MD&A for additional discussion of sales change.
In 2008, worldwide sales growth was 3.3 percent. Local-currency sales growth was 1.4 percent for 2008, including a 3.3 percentage point benefit from acquisitions. Local-currency sales increased 17.1 percent in Safety, Security and Protection Services (including 13.0 percentage points from acquisitions), 6.7 percent in Health Care (including 1.7 percentage points from acquisitions), 4.1 percent in Industrial and Transportation (including 3.7 percentage points from acquisitions), and 1.0 percent in Consumer and Office (including 1.8 percentage points from acquisitions). Local-currency sales declined 1.6 percent in Electro and Communications and 17.9 percent in Display and Graphics.
3M generated $4.9 billion of operating cash flows in 2009, an increase of $408 million when compared to 2008. This followed an increase of $287 million when comparing 2008 to 2007. In 2009, 2008 and 2007, the Company utilized approximately $1.4 billion of cash each year to pay dividends. In February 2007, 3Ms Board of Directors authorized a two-year share repurchase of up to $7.0 billion for the period from February 12, 2007 to February 28, 2009. In February 2009, 3Ms Board of Directors extended this share repurchase authorization until the remaining amount is fully utilized. As of December 31, 2009, approximately $2.6 billion remained available for repurchase. With the Companys emphasis on maintaining ample liquidity and enhancing balance sheet strength, share repurchase activity was suspended beginning in the fourth quarter of 2008. The extension of this program provides flexibility to resume repurchase activity when business conditions permit. In 2009 no broker repurchases of stock were made,
compared to repurchases of 3M common stock of $1.6 billion in 2008 (primarily in the first nine months of 2008) and repurchases of 3M common stock of $3.2 billion in 2007. In February 2010, 3Ms Board of Directors authorized a dividend increase of 2.9 percent for 2010, marking the 52nd consecutive year of dividend increases for 3M. 3Ms debt to total capital ratio (total capital defined as debt plus equity) at December 31, 2009 was 30 percent, compared to 39 percent at December 31, 2008. A portion of the increase in debt at year-end 2008 was the result of a strategy to build and maintain a cash buffer in the U.S. given the difficult market environment at that point in time. 3M has an AA- credit rating with a stable outlook from Standard & Poors and an Aa2 credit rating with a stable outlook from Moodys Investors Service. In addition to cash on hand, the Company has sufficient access to capital markets to meet currently anticipated growth and acquisition investment funding needs.
In 2009, the Company experienced cost decreases in most raw materials and transportation fuel costs. This was driven by lower basic feedstock costs, particularly metals and oil derived materials. To date the Company is receiving sufficient quantities of all raw materials to meet its reasonably foreseeable production requirements. It is impossible to predict future shortages of raw materials or the impact any such shortages would have. 3M has avoided disruption to its manufacturing operations through careful management of existing raw material inventories and development and qualification of additional supply sources. 3M manages commodity price risks through negotiated supply contracts, price protection agreements and forward physical contracts.
In 2009, 3M changed its annual stock option and restricted stock unit grant date to more closely align the award with the timing of the Companys performance review process. In 2009 and forward, under the annual grant, 3M will grant shares in February instead of May as in previous years. Accounting rules requires recognition of expense under a non-substantive vesting period approach, requiring compensation expense recognition when an employee is eligible to retire. 3M employees in the United States are eligible to retire at age 55 and after having completed five years of service. Approximately 25 percent of the stock-based compensation award expense dollars are for this retiree-eligible population. Therefore, in 2007 and 2008, the second quarter of each year (because of the May grant date) reflected higher stock-based compensation expense than the other quarters. In 2009, the retiree-eligible impact shifted to the first quarter of 2009. In addition, both the first and second quarter of 2009 reflected higher stock-based compensation expense related to the earlier February grant date. These and other factors resulted in higher stock-based compensation cost in 2009 when compared to 2008. Refer to Note 16 for additional discussion of the Companys stock-based compensation programs.
3Ms pension plans were 90 percent funded at year-end 2009. The U.S. qualified plan, which is approximately 68 percent of the worldwide pension obligation, was 96 percent funded, and the international plans were 83 percent funded. Asset returns in 2009 for the U.S. qualified plan were 12.6 percent while the year-end 2009 discount rate was 5.77%, down 0.37 percentage points from the 2008 discount rate of 6.14%. 3M expects to contribute $500 million to $700 million of cash to its global pension plans in 2010. The Company does not have a required minimum pension contribution obligation for its U.S. plans in 2010. 3M expects pension and postretirement benefit expense in 2010 to increase by approximately $130 million pre-tax, or 12 cents per diluted share, when compared to 2009. Refer to critical accounting estimates within MD&A and Note 11 (Pension and Postretirement Benefit Plans) for additional information concerning 3Ms pension and post-retirement plans.
The preceding forward-looking statements involve risks and uncertainties that could cause results to differ materially from those projected (refer to the forward-looking statements section in Item 7 and the risk factors provided in Item 1A for discussion of these risks and uncertainties).
Special items represent significant charges or credits that are important to understanding changes in the Companys underlying operations.
In 2009, net losses for restructuring and other actions decreased operating income by $194 million and net income attributable to 3M by $119 million, or $0.17 per diluted share. 2009 included restructuring actions ($209 million pre-tax, $128 million after tax and noncontrolling interest), which were partially offset by a gain on sale of real estate ($15 million pre-tax, $9 million after tax). The gain on sale of real estate relates to the June 2009 sale of a New Jersey roofing granule facility, which is recorded in cost of sales within the Safety, Security and Protection Services business segment. Restructuring is discussed in more detail in Note 4 (Restructuring Actions and Exit Activities).
In 2008, net losses for restructuring and other actions decreased operating income by $269 million and net income attributable to 3M by $194 million, or $0.28 per diluted share. 2008 included restructuring actions ($229 million pre-tax, $147 million after-tax and noncontrolling interest), exit activities ($58 million pre-tax, $43 million after-tax) and losses related to the sale of businesses ($23 million pre-tax, $32 million after-tax), which were partially offset by a gain on sale of real estate ($41 million pre-tax, $28 million after-tax). Divestiture impacts, restructuring actions and
exit activities are discussed in more detail in Note 2 (Acquisitions and Divestitures) and Note 4 (Restructuring Actions and Exit Activities). Concerning the real estate gain, 3M received proceeds and recorded a gain in 2008 for a sale-leaseback transaction relative to an administrative location in Italy.
In 2007, gains on sale of businesses and real estate, net of restructuring and other items, increased operating income by $681 million and net income attributable to 3M by $448 million, or $0.62 per diluted share. 2007 included net benefits from gains related to the sale of businesses ($849 million pre-tax, $550 million after-tax) and a gain on sale of real estate ($52 million pre-tax, $37 million after-tax), which were partially offset by increases in other environmental liabilities ($134 million pre-tax, $83 million after-tax), restructuring actions ($41 million pre-tax, $27 million after-tax), and other exit activities ($45 million pre-tax, $29 million after-tax). These items, except the gain on sale of real estate, are discussed in more detail in Note 2 (Acquisitions and Divestitures), Note 4 (Restructuring Actions and Exit Activities) and Note 14 (Commitments and Contingencies). Gains on sale of businesses include the second-quarter 2007 sale of 3Ms Opticom Priority Control Systems and Canoga Traffic Detection businesses, and the first-quarter 2007 sale of the global branded pharmaceuticals business in Europe. Concerning the real estate sale, 3M sold a laboratory facility located in Suwon, Korea.
RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
In 2009, local-currency sales declined 5.6 percent. All major geographic areas showed local-currency declines, with the exception of the combined Latin America and Canada area, which was flat. Health Care had local-currency sales growth of 3.6 percent, while all other business segments experienced declines. Fourth-quarter 2009 local-currency sales increased 6.4 percent, with all business segments and major geographic areas showing improvement. In 2008, local-currency sales growth of 1.4 percent was led by the Safety, Security and Protection Services; Health Care; and Industrial and Transportation segments. Acquisitions increased 2008 sales by 3.3 percent, led by the April 2008 acquisition of Aearo. Refer to the sections entitled Performance by Business Segment and Performance by Geographic Area later in MD&A for additional discussion of sales change.
As discussed in the preceding overview section, 2009 included restructuring charges, partially offset by a gain on sale of real estate, which combined decreased operating income by $194 million, or 0.9 percent of net sales. In 2008, the combination of restructuring actions, exit activities and a loss on sale of businesses, partially offset by a gain on sale of real estate, decreased operating income by $269 million, or 1.1 percent of net sales. In 2007, the gain on sale of businesses and real estate, net of environmental liability charges, restructuring and exit activities, benefited 2007 operating income by $681 million, or 2.8 percent of net sales. The following tables summarize these special items by income statement caption.
Cost of Sales:
Cost of sales includes manufacturing, engineering and freight costs. Cost of sales as a percent of net sales decreased 0.5 percentage points in 2009 compared to 2008. As discussed in Note 4 (Restructuring Actions and Exit Activities), in 2009, 3M recorded $209 million in restructuring charges, of which $110 million was recorded in cost of sales. This was partially offset by a $15 million gain on sale of a New Jersey roofing granule facility, which was also recorded in cost of sales. In 2008, $122 million in restructuring and exit activities were recorded in cost of sales. Thus, restructuring and other items were $27 million lower year-on-year, benefiting cost of sales by 0.1 percentage point. Other benefits to cost of sales as a percent of net sales included increases in selling prices and a slight
decrease in material costs. The Company was also able to mitigate organic volume declines through reductions in 3Ms manufacturing cost structure. Finally, in response to deteriorating conditions in Venezuela, 3M Venezuela swapped bolivars into U.S. dollars in 2009. While increasing cost of sales, these actions mitigated 3Ms exposure to future exchange rate risks.
Cost of sales as a percent of net sales increased 0.8 percentage points in 2008 compared to 2007, with this increase primarily due to the decline in Optical Systems sales and the rapid volume declines of certain other businesses in the fourth quarter. For the majority of the year 3Ms broad-based portfolio performed as expected, with benefits from selling price increases, foreign currency translation, and a continuous focus on driving operational excellence, helping to offset raw material inflation of approximately 4 percent for 2008, compared with 2007. In 2008, restructuring and exit costs increased cost of sales by $122 million, or 0.4 percentage points as a percent of net sales, similar to the 0.3 percentage point impact in 2007.
Selling, General and Administrative Expenses:
Selling, general and administrative (SG&A) expenses as a percent of net sales increased 0.4 percentage points in 2009 when compared to 2008, but in dollars decreased $338 million, helped by restructuring and other actions. In the sales and marketing area, advertising and merchandising costs were down year-on-year, but were up in the fourth quarter. As indicated in Note 4, in 2009, $91 million in restructuring expenses was recorded in SG&A, which increased SG&A as a percent of sales by 0.4 percentage points. In 2008, restructuring actions and exit activities, net of a gain on sale of real estate, increased SG&A by $111 million, which increased SG&A as a percent of sales by 0.5 percentage points.
Selling, general and administrative (SG&A) expenses as a percent of net sales increased 0.3 percentage points in 2008 when compared to 2007, or 4.6 percent in dollars. In 2008, SG&A expenses related to restructuring actions and exit activities were partially offset by a gain on sale of real estate, which combined increased SG&A by $111 million, or 0.5 percentage points, similar to the 0.4 percentage point impact in 2007. In the fourth quarter of 2008, as part of its restructuring program, 3M took aggressive actions to reduce general and administrative expenses and also pared back selling and marketing costs in certain businesses.
Research, Development and Related Expenses:
Research, development and related expenses (R&D) were 5.6 percent of net sales in 2009, 2008 and 2007. R&D expenses in dollars declined approximately 8 percent in 2009 compared to 2008, following an increase of 2.6 percent when comparing 2008 to 2007. 3M has continued to support its key larger programs, but overall dollar spending has been impacted by company-wide cost-cutting initiatives such as reductions in indirect spending and the banked vacation policy change.
Gain/Loss from Sale of Businesses:
In June 2008, 3M completed the sale of HighJump Software to Battery Ventures, a technology venture capital and private equity firm. 3M received proceeds of $85 million for this transaction and recognized, net of assets sold, transaction and other costs, a pre-tax loss of $23 million (recorded in the Safety, Security and Protection Services segment) in the second quarter of 2008.
In January 2007, 3M completed the sale of its global branded pharmaceuticals business in Europe to Meda AB. 3M received proceeds of $817 million for this transaction and recognized, net of assets sold, a pre-tax gain of $781 million in 2007 (recorded in the Health Care segment). In June 2007, 3M completed the sale of its Opticom Priority Control Systems and Canoga Traffic Detection businesses to TorQuest Partners Inc., a Toronto-based investment firm. 3M received proceeds of $80 million for this transaction and recognized, net of assets sold, transaction and other costs, a pre-tax gain of $68 million (recorded in the Display and Graphics segment) in 2007.
3M uses operating income as one of its primary business segment performance measurement tools. Operating income was 20.8 percent of sales in 2009 compared to 20.6 percent of sales in 2008. 2009 was negatively impacted by restructuring expenses, net of a gain on sale of real estate, which combined decreased operating income by 0.9 percentage points ($194 million). 2008 was negatively impacted by restructuring actions, exit activities and a loss on sale of businesses that were partially offset by a gain on sale of real estate, which combined decreased operating income by 1.1 percentage points ($269 million). Operating income margins of 25.3 percent in 2007 were positively impacted by 2.8 percentage points ($681 million) from the gain on sale of businesses and real estate, net of environmental liabilities, restructuring and other exit activities.
Interest Expense and Income:
Interest Expense: Interest expense increased slightly in 2009, primarily due to higher average U.S. long-term debt balances largely offset by benefits from reduced short-term balances and lower interest rates. Interest expense increased slightly in 2008 compared to 2007, primarily related to higher average U.S. and international long-term debt balances, which were partially offset by lower short-term debt balances and interest rates.
Interest Income: Interest income declined in 2009 when compared to 2008, primarily due to lower yields on investments. Interest income was lower in 2008 compared to 2007, primarily due to lower interest rates, which were partially offset by higher average cash and cash equivalent balances.
Provision for Income Taxes:
The effective tax rate for 2009 was 30.0 percent, compared with 31.1 percent in 2008, and 32.1 percent in 2007. In both 2009 and 2008, the Companys tax rate primarily benefited from reduced international tax rates. Refer to Note 8 for additional information.
Net income attributable to noncontrolling interest represents the elimination of the income or loss attributable to non-3M ownership interests in 3M consolidated entities. The changes in noncontrolling interest amounts are primarily related to Sumitomo 3M Limited (Japan), which is 3Ms most significant consolidated entity with non-3M ownership interests. As discussed in Note 6, in the third quarter of 2009, 3Ms effective ownership in Sumitomo 3M Limited was reduced from 75 percent to 71.5 percent.
Currency Effects: 3M estimates that year-on-year currency effects, including hedging impacts, decreased net income attributable to 3M by approximately $220 million in 2009 and increased net income attributable to 3M by approximately $160 million in 2008 and $150 million in 2007. This estimate includes the effect of translating profits from local currencies into U.S. dollars; the impact of currency fluctuations on the transfer of goods between 3M operations in the United States and abroad; and transaction gains and losses, including derivative instruments designed to reduce foreign currency exchange rate risks and the negative impact of swapping Venezuelan bolivars into U.S. dollars. 3M estimates that year-on-year derivative and other transaction gains and losses had an immaterial impact in 2009, and increased net income attributable to 3M by approximately $40 million in 2008 and by approximately $10 million in 2007.
PERFORMANCE BY BUSINESS SEGMENT
Disclosures relating to 3Ms business segments are provided in Item 1, Business Segments. Financial information and other disclosures are provided in the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements. As discussed in Note 17 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, effective in the first quarter of 2009, 3M made certain business segment realignments, including both product moves between business segments and reporting changes related to revised U.S. performance measures. Segment information presented herein reflects the impact of these changes for all periods presented. The reportable segments are Industrial and Transportation; Health Care; Consumer and Office; Safety, Security and Protection Services; Display and Graphics; and Electro and Communications. Information related to 3Ms business segments is presented in the tables that follow. Local-currency sales change amounts are separated into organic local-currency sales (which include both organic volume impacts plus selling price impacts) and acquisition impacts. The divestiture impact, translation impact and total sales change are also provided for each segment.
As discussed in the preceding overview and results of operations section, the combination of restructuring actions, gains and losses on the sale of businesses, and other special items significantly impacted 2009, 2008 and 2007 results. The following tables summarize these special items by business segment.
Due to the significant changes in quarterly activity in both 2009 and 2008, including the impact of the economic downturn in the fourth-quarter of 2008, the following discusses both fourth-quarter and total year results in both 2009 and 2008 for each business segment.
Industrial and Transportation Business (30.8% of consolidated sales):
The Industrial and Transportation segment serves a broad range of markets, such as appliance, paper and packaging, food and beverage, electronics, automotive original equipment manufacturer (OEM) and automotive aftermarket (auto body shops and retail). Industrial and Transportation products include tapes, a wide variety of coated and non-woven abrasives, adhesives, specialty materials, filtration products, energy control products, closure systems for personal hygiene products, and components and products that are used in the manufacture, repair and maintenance of automotive, marine, aircraft and specialty vehicles.
Fourth quarter and year 2009 results:
Industrial and Transportation is a large and highly diversified set of businesses that, when taken together, correlate well with the overall economy. Early in 2009, the business saw significant sales declines that required swift and aggressive restructuring and cost reduction plans to offset the impact of lower volumes, including the impact of large inventory declines in the wholesale distribution channel. Inventories began to stabilize around mid-year 2009, and it now appears that inventory and point-of-sale levels in this channel are in reasonably good balance.
Sales in Industrial and Transportation rose 10 percent to $1.9 billion in the fourth quarter. Fourth quarter local-currency growth was 4.6 percent, which included organic volume growth of 3 percent. Fourth-quarter growth was led by the renewable energy business and the automotive OEM business. 3M also drove positive local-currency sales growth in industrial adhesives and tapes, automotive aftermarket and in Dyneon LLC, which supplies flouropolymers and elastomers into the oil, gas and transportation industries. Other businesses in this segment posted local-currency sales declines ranging from one to five percent in the fourth quarter. On a regional basis, growth was strongest in Latin America and in Asia Pacific.
The combination of positive sales volumes in the quarter, higher year-on-year factory production levels and improvements in cost structure resulted in operating income growth in the fourth quarter. This segment recorded net charges of $36 million related to restructuring actions and exit activities in the fourth quarter of 2008. Including these net charges, operating income in the fourth quarter of 2009 increased 86 percent to $397 million and operating income margins improved by 8.5 percentage points to 20.8 percent.
Full-year 2009 sales were $7.1 billion, down 12.9 percent in dollars and down 10.2 percent in local currency. Foreign currency impacts penalized sales for the year by 2.7 percent. Sales increased in the renewable energy and automotive aftermarket businesses, but sales decreased in the other businesses, impacted by end-market declines. This segment announced restructuring actions in 2009, along with plant shut-downs, furloughs and mandatory vacation across the operation. In 2009, this business segment recorded charges of $88 million related to restructuring actions, with this charge comprised of employee-related liabilities for severance and benefits of $83 million and fixed asset impairments of $5 million. Including these special items, 2009 operating income was $1.2 billion and operating income margins were 17.4 percent. This segment recorded $66 million related to restructuring and exit activities in 2008.
Industrial and Transportation continued to invest aggressively to accelerate its growth capability. For example, the renewable energy business recently opened a new large-scale high-tech manufacturing site in Singapore, and the industrial abrasives business opened a new state-of-the-art manufacturing site in North America. Recently, 3M Purification Inc. launched a high-quality disposable filtration system for the biopharmaceuticals industry. And finally,
the automotive aftermarket business introduced the 3M Dirt Trap Protection System, which increases paint booth productivity and reduces daily maintenance costs in auto body repair shops.
Fourth quarter and year 2008 results:
2008 can be characterized as a tale of two distinct chapters for Industrial and Transportation. The first was January through October, characterized by outstanding top-and bottom-line growth across most of the portfolio; the second chapter was the combined months of November and December, when many large customers slowed their operations.
Among 3Ms business segments, Industrial and Transportation has been among those most affected by recent economic contractions, particularly in big industries such as automotive and electronics. With worldwide industrial production in decline, 3Ms Industrial and Transportation business had fourth quarter 2008 sales of $1.7 billion, an 11.2 percent decline compared to 2007. Local-currency sales were down 6.4 percent, including a positive 3.1 percent impact from acquisitions. Not all divisions within Industrial were impacted equally in the fourth quarter. Those that are heavily linked to automotive manufacturing, namely automotive OEM and Dyneon LLC, saw declines of more than 20 percent, as did businesses selling to the electronics industry, such as high-tech tapes and adhesives. Most other divisions experienced local-currency sales contractions of less than 10 percent in the fourth quarter, with the exception of the automotive aftermarket business, which posted positive local-currency sales growth. Geographically, fourth quarter 2008 local-currency sales were down in all regions, with the largest declines in the U.S. and Asia Pacific, followed by Europe. Local-currency sales were flat in Latin America. Operating income in the fourth quarter declined 42 percent to $214 million, which included net charges of $36 million for restructuring actions and exit activities.
Full-year 2008 sales were up 7 percent to $8.2 billion. Local-currency growth rates were strongest in the automotive aftermarket business. 3M also drove strong sales growth in two of its largest divisions, namely abrasives and industrial tapes and adhesives. Closure systems for personal hygiene products also showed good growth. Geographically, all major regions drove positive local-currency sales growth. Strong market penetration continued in emerging economies, especially the high growth countries of Brazil, Russia, India, China and Poland, where the business drove strong organic local-currency growth. Operating income declined, but increased after adjusting for $66 million in restructuring actions and exit activities (discussed further below). Strong operational discipline was the key to protecting the bottom line as full-year operating margins totaled 18.9 percent, with operating income margins at 19.7 percent after adjusting for restructuring and exit activities.
Industrial and Transportation restructuring and exit activities totaled $66 million for total year 2008. During the fourth quarter of 2008, restructuring actions totaling $40 million (partially offset by a $4 million reduction in previously accrued exit activity charges) were comprised of severance and related benefits totaling $33 million and asset impairments of $7 million. Net exit activity charges of $26 million in 2008 largely related to employee reductions at an Industrial and Transportation manufacturing facility located in the United Kingdom, which totaled $19 million. This compared to restructuring actions and exit activities of $9 million in 2007.
Industrial and Transportation continued to invest in innovative new products along with complementary gap-fill acquisitions, evidenced by the closing of eight acquisitions in 2008, with some of the larger acquisitions summarized as follows. In July 2008, 3M acquired K&H Surface Technologies Pty. Ltd., an Australian-based manufacturing company specializing in a range of repair products for the professional do-it-yourself automotive refinish markets. In August 2008, 3M acquired Polyfoam Products Inc., a structural adhesives company specializing in foam adhesives for tile roofing and other adhesive products for the building industry. In October 2008, 3M completed its acquisition of EMFI S.A. and SAPO S.A.S., manufacturers of polyurethane-based structural adhesives and sealants headquartered in Haguenau, France. In October 2008, 3M also completed its acquisition of Meguiars Inc., a 100-year-old business that manufactures the leading Meguiars brand of car care products for cleaning and protecting automotive surfaces, which is headquartered in Irvine, California.
In March 2005, 3Ms automotive business completed the purchase of 19 percent of TI&M Beteiligungsgesellschaft mbH (TI&M) for approximately $55 million. TI&M is the parent company of I&T Innovation Technology Entwicklungsund Holding Aktiengesellschaft (I&T), an Austrian maker of flat flexible cable and circuitry. Pursuant to a Shareholders Agreement, 3M marketed the firms flat flexible wiring systems for automotive interior applications to the global automotive market. I&T filed a petition for bankruptcy protection in August 2006. As part of its agreement to purchase the shares of TI&M, the Company was granted a put option, which gave the Company the right to sell back its entire ownership interest in TI&M to the other investors from whom 3M acquired its 19 percent interest. The put option became exercisable January 1, 2007. The Company exercised the put option and recovered approximately $25 million of its investment from one of the investors based in Belgium in February 2007. The other two TI&M investors have filed a bankruptcy petition in Austria. The Company is pursuing recovery of the balance of