AU OPTRONICS CORP 20-F 2010
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
Commission file number: 001-31335
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)
1 LI-HSIN ROAD 2
HSINCHU SCIENCE PARK
REPUBLIC OF CHINA
(Address of principal executive offices)
1 Li-Hsin Road 2
Hsinchu Science Park
Republic of China
Telephone No.: +886-3-500-8800
Fascimile No.: +886-3-564-3370
(Name, Telephone, Email and/or Facsimile number and Address of Company Contact Person)
Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act.
Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Securities for which there is a reporting obligation pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Act: None
Indicate the number of outstanding shares of each of the issuer’s classes of capital or common stock as of the close of the period covered by the annual report. 8,827,045,535 Common Shares
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. x Yes o No
If this report is an annual or transition report, indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. o Yes x No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. x Yes o No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, or a non-accelerated filer. See definition of “accelerated filer and large accelerated filer” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
Indicate by check mark which basis of accounting the registrant has used to prepare the financial statements included in this filing:
U.S. GAAP o International Financial Reporting Standards as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board oOther x
If “Other” has been checked in response to the previous question, indicate by check mark which financial statement item the registrant has elected to follow. o Item 17 x Item 18
If this is an annual report, indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).
o Yes x No
This annual report on Form 20-F contains “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933 (the “Securities Act”), as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (the “Exchange Act”), as amended. Although these forward-looking statements, which may include statements regarding our future results of operations, financial condition, or business prospects, are based on our own information and information from other sources we believe to be reliable, you should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements, which apply only as of the date of this annual report. The words “anticipate,” “believe,” “expect,” “intend,” “seek,” “plan,” “estimate” and similar expressions, as they relate to us, are intended to identify a number of these forward-looking statements. Our actual results of operations, financial condition or business prospects may differ materially from those expressed or implied in these forward-looking statements for a variety of reasons, including, among other things and not limited to:
We publish our financial statements in New Taiwan dollars (“NT dollars”), the lawful currency of the Republic of China (“ROC”). This annual report contains translations of NT dollar amounts, Renminbi (“RMB”) amounts, Japanese Yen (“JPY” or “YEN”) amounts and Euro (“EUR”) amounts, into United States dollars (“U.S. dollars”), at specific rates solely for the convenience of the reader. For convenience only and unless otherwise noted, all translations between NT dollars and U.S. dollars, between RMB and U.S. dollars, between JPY and U.S. dollars and between EUR and U.S. dollars in this annual report were made at a rate of NT$31.95 to US$1.00, RMB6.83 to US$1.00, JPY93.08 to US$1.00, and EUR0.70 to US$1.00, respectively, the noon buying rate in The City of New York for cable transfers in NT dollars per U.S. dollar, RMB per U.S. dollar, JPY per U.S. dollar and EUR per U.S. dollar as certified for customs purposes by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York on December 31, 2009. No representation is made that the NT dollar, RMB, JPY, EUR or U.S. dollar amounts referred to herein could have been or could be converted into U.S. dollars, RMB, JPY, EUR or NT dollars, as the case may be, at any particular rate or at all. On May 7, 2010, the noon buying rates were NT$31.77 to US$1.00, RMB6.83 to US$1.00, JPY91.67 to US$1.00, and EUR0.79 to US$1.00, respectively. Any discrepancies in any table between totals and sums of the amounts listed are due to rounding.
All references in this annual report to “Taiwan” or the “ROC” are to the island of Taiwan and other areas under the effective control of the Republic of China, and all references to the “ROC government” are references to the government of the Republic of China. All references to “our company,” “we,” “us” and “our” in the annual report are to AU Optronics Corp. and its consolidated subsidiaries, unless the context suggests otherwise. All references in this annual report to “subsidiary” are to companies owned directly or indirectly by AU Optronics Corp., unless the context suggests otherwise. All references in this annual report to the “PRC” or “China” are to the People’s Republic of China, excluding Taiwan and the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau.
All references in this annual report to “large-size panels” are to panels ten inches and above in diagonal length. All references to “small- to medium-size panels” refer to panels which are under ten inches in diagonal length.
The selected consolidated statement of operations data for the years ended December 31, 2007, 2008 and 2009 and selected consolidated balance sheet data as of December 31, 2008 and 2009 set forth below have been derived from our audited consolidated financial statements included herein. The selected consolidated balance sheet data as of December 31, 2005, 2006 and 2007 and selected consolidated statement of operations data for the years ended December 31, 2005 and 2006 have been derived from our audited consolidated financial statements that have not been included herein. The selected financial data set forth below should be read in conjunction with “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects” and our consolidated financial statements and the accompanying notes included elsewhere in this annual report.
Our consolidated financial statements are prepared and presented in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the ROC (“ROC GAAP”).
On October 1, 2006, we merged with Quanta Display Inc. (“QDI”), a company incorporated in the ROC, that manufactures and assembles TFT-LCD panels. Under the terms of the merger agreement, we offered one share of our common stock for every 3.5 shares of outstanding QDI common stock and we assumed substantially all of the assets, liabilities and personnel of QDI. Under both ROC GAAP and accounting principles generally accepted in the United States (“US GAAP”), the merger with QDI has been accounted for under the purchase method of accounting. Our financial statements, under both ROC GAAP and US GAAP, referenced herein for periods or as of dates prior to October 1, 2006, do not include the financial data of QDI.
For information relating to the nature and effect of significant differences between ROC GAAP and US GAAP as they relate to us, see note 28 to our consolidated financial statements.
The table below sets forth certain financial data under ROC GAAP for the periods and as of the dates indicated.
The table below sets forth certain financial data under US GAAP for the periods and as of the dates indicated.
Fluctuations in the exchange rate between NT dollars and U.S. dollars will affect the U.S. dollar equivalent of the NT dollar price of our shares on the Taiwan Stock Exchange and, as a result, will likely affect the market price of the ADSs. These fluctuations will also affect the U.S. dollar conversion by the depositary of cash dividends paid in NT dollars on, and the NT dollar proceeds received by the depositary from any sale of, our shares represented by ADSs.
The following table sets forth, for the periods indicated, information concerning the number of NT dollars for which one U.S. dollar could be exchanged based on the noon buying rate for cable transfers in NT dollars as certified for customs purposes by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
Risks Relating to Our Financial Condition, Business and Industry
The recent global economic and financial crisis and the resulting slowdown in the global economy could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.
The recent global economic and financial crisis and the resulting slowdown in the global economy that have been affecting global business, banking and financial sectors have also been affecting the TFT-LCD market. The recent turmoil in global markets has resulted in sharp declines in electronic products sales from which we generate our income. There could be a number of side effects from such turmoil on our business, including significant decreases in orders from our customers, insolvency of key suppliers resulting in raw material constraints and product delays, inability of customers to obtain credit to finance purchases of our products and/or customer insolvencies and counterparty failures negatively impacting our operations. If the global economic downturn continues or if any similar financial crisis or economic downturn occurs in the future, our business, results of operations and financial condition may be materially and adversely affected.
Our industry is cyclical, with recurring periods of capacity increases. As a result, price fluctuations in response to supply and demand imbalances could harm our results of operations.
The TFT-LCD industry in general is characterized by cyclical market conditions. The industry has been subject to significant and rapid downturns as a result of an imbalance between excess supply and a slowdown in demand, resulting in sharp declines in average selling prices.
For example, average selling prices of our large-size panels decreased by 10.9% in the first quarter of 2007 from the fourth quarter of 2006 and then increased in the last three quarters of 2007 by 31.1% from the first quarter of 2007. Average selling prices of our large-size panels decreased throughout 2008 by 46.6% from the fourth quarter of 2007. On a year-to-year basis, average selling prices decreased by 24.9% in 2009 compared to 2008, decreased by 13.6% in 2008 compared to 2007.
Capacity expansion currently being undertaken or anticipated in the TFT-LCD industry may lead to excess capacity. For example, it is expected that as additional capacity provided by eighth and future generation fabs becomes available, the TFT-LCD industry may face excess capacity. We cannot assure you that any continuing or further decrease in average selling prices or future downturns resulting from excess capacity or other factors affecting the industry will not be severe or that any such continuation, decrease or downturn would not seriously harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our ability to maintain or increase our revenues will primarily depend upon our ability to maintain market share, increase unit sales of existing products, and introduce and sell new products that offset the anticipated fluctuation and long-term declines in the average selling prices of our existing products. We cannot assure you that we will be able to maintain or expand market share, increase unit sales, and introduce and sell new products, to the extent necessary to compensate for market oversupply.
We may experience declines in the average selling prices of our display panels irrespective of cyclical fluctuations in the industry.
The average selling prices of our display panels have declined in general and are expected to continually decline with time irrespective of industry-wide cyclical fluctuations as a result of, among other factors, technology advancements and cost reductions. Although we may be able to take advantage of the higher selling prices typically associated with new products and technologies when they are first introduced into the market, such prices decline over time and in certain cases, very rapidly, as a result of market competition. If we are unable to effectively anticipate and counter the price erosion that accompanies our products, or if the average selling prices of our display panels decrease faster than the rate at which we are able to reduce our manufacturing costs, our profit margins will be adversely affected and our results of operations and financial condition may be materially and adversely affected.
Our results of operations have fluctuated in the past. If we are unable to achieve profitability in 2010 or beyond, the value of the ADSs and our shares may be adversely affected.
Our results of operations have fluctuated in the past. In 2007, our net sales increased by 63.8% to NT$480.2 billion and our net income increased to NT$56.5 billion compared to 2006. Primarily as a result of the recent global disruption in financial markets and adverse economic conditions and the decrease in average selling prices for our products, our net sales decreased by 11.7% to NT$423.9 billion in 2008 compared to 2007 and further decreased by 15.2% to NT$359.3 billion in 2009 compared to 2008. Our net income decreased by 61.7% to NT$21.6 billion in 2008 compared to 2007; however we incurred a net loss of NT$27.2 billion in 2009. We cannot assure you that we will be profitable in 2010 or beyond. In addition, we expect that average selling prices for many of our existing products will continue to decline over the long term. If we are unable to reduce our costs of manufacturing our products to offset expected declines in average selling prices and maintain a high capacity utilization rate, our gross margin will decline, which could seriously harm our business and reduce the value of our equity securities. If we are unable to achieve profitability in 2010 or beyond, the value of the ADSs and our shares may be adversely affected.
Our future net sales, gross profit and operating income may vary significantly due to a combination of factors, including, but not limited to:
Our results of operations fluctuate from quarter to quarter, which makes it difficult to predict our future performance.
Our results of operations have varied significantly in the past and may fluctuate significantly from quarter to quarter in the future due to a number of factors, many of which are beyond our control. Our business and operations may be adversely affected by the following factors, among others:
Due to the factors noted above and other risks discussed in this section, many of which are beyond our control, you should not rely on quarter-to-quarter comparisons to predict our future performance. Unfavorable changes in any of the above factors may seriously harm our business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, our results of operations may be below the expectations of public market analysts and investors in some future periods, which may result in a decline in the price of the ADSs or shares.
Our results of operations may be adversely affected if we cannot introduce new products on a timely basis or if our new products do not gain market acceptance.
Early product development by itself does not guarantee the success of a new product. Success also depends on other factors such as product acceptance by the market. For example, although TFT-LCD technology was initially introduced commercially in the early 1990s, its application to the consumer electronics sector began to gain wide market acceptance only in the last few years. New products are developed in anticipation of future demand. Our delay in the development of commercially successful products with anticipated technological advancement may adversely affect our business. We cannot assure you that the launch of any new product will be successful, or that we will be able to produce sufficient quantities of these products to meet market demand.
We plan to continue to expand our operations to meet the needs of high-growth applications in computer products, consumer electronics, LCD television and other markets as demand increases. Because these products, such as mobile phones, digital photo frames, digital still cameras, portable navigation display, portable DVD players and LCD televisions, are expected to be marketed to a diversified group of end-users with demands for different specifications, functions and prices, we have developed different marketing strategies to promote our panels for these products. We cannot assure you that our strategies to expand our market share for these panels will be successful. If we fail to successfully market panels for these products, our results of operations will be adversely affected.
Our net sales and results of operations depend on continuing demand for televisions, notebook computers, desktop monitors and other products with TFT-LCD panels. Our sales may not grow at the rate we expect if there is a downturn in the demand for, or a further decrease in the average selling prices of, panels for these products.
Currently, our total sales are derived principally from customers using our products in televisions, notebook computers, desktop monitors and other products with display devices. In particular, a substantial percentage of our sales is increasingly derived from our panels for LCD televisions, which accounted for 41.8%, 44.4% and 46.3% of our net sales in 2007, 2008 and 2009, respectively. A substantial portion of our sales is also derived from our panels used in desktop monitors, which accounted for 27.8%, 22.0% and 19.0% of our net sales in 2007, 2008 and 2009, respectively, and our panels used in notebook computers accounted for 18.5%, 19.1% and 16.8% of our total net sales in 2007, 2008 and 2009, respectively. We will continue to be dependent on the growth of the television and personal computer industries for a substantial portion of our net sales, and any downturn in these industries would result in reduced demand for our products, reduced net sales, lower average selling prices and/or reduced margins and our business prospects and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.
If we are unable to achieve high capacity utilization rates, our results of operations will be adversely affected.
High capacity utilization rates allow us to allocate fixed costs over a greater number of panels produced. Increases or decreases in capacity utilization rates can significantly impact our gross margins. Accordingly, our ability to maintain or improve our gross margins will continue to depend, in part, on achieving high capacity utilization rates. In turn, our ability to achieve high capacity utilization rates will depend on the ramp-up progress of our advanced production facilities and our ability to efficiently and effectively allocate production capacity among our product lines, as well as the demand for our products and our ability to offer products that meet our customers’ requirements at competitive prices.
Although we achieved high capacity utilization rates in certain quarters in 2007, 2008 and 2009, our results of operations in the past have been adversely affected by low capacity utilization rates. For example, in the fourth quarter of 2008 and the first quarter of 2009, we had adjusted our utilization rates to as low as approximately 55% and 65%, respectively, in order to offset the impact of excess inventory that was accumulating in the market. We cannot assure you that we will be able to achieve high capacity utilization rates in 2010 or beyond. If we are unable to efficiently ramp-up our advanced production facilities or demand for our products does not meet our expectations, our capacity utilization rates will decrease, our gross margins will suffer and our results of operations will be materially and adversely affected.
We may experience losses on inventories.
Frequent new product introductions in the computer and consumer electronics industries can result in a decline in the average selling prices of our panels and the obsolescence of our existing TFT-LCD panel inventory. This can result in a decrease in the stated value of our TFT-LCD panel inventory, which we value at the lower of cost or net realizable value.
We manage our inventory based on our customers’ and our own forecasts. Although we regularly make adjustments based on market conditions, we typically deliver our goods to our customers one month after a firm order is placed. While we maintain open channels of communication with our major customers to avoid unexpected decreases in firm orders or subsequent changes to placed orders, and try to minimize our inventory levels, such actions by our customers may have a material adverse effect on our inventory management.
We depend on a small number of customers for a substantial portion of our net sales, and a loss of any one of these customers, or a significant decrease in orders from any of these customers, would result in the loss of a significant portion of our net sales.
We depend on a small number of customers for a substantial portion of our business. In 2007, 2008 and 2009, our five largest customers accounted for 32.1%, 39.4% and 37.3%, respectively, of our net sales. In addition, certain customers individually accounted for more than 10% of our net sales in the last three years. For example, Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. (“Samsung”) accounted for 12.7%, 14.8% and 16.9% of our net sales in 2007, 2008 and 2009, respectively.
As some of our major customers are brand companies which also provide original equipment manufacturing services for other brand companies, such as Samsung, our panels shipped to these customers include both panels ordered for their own account as well as panels ordered by or on behalf of their brand company customers.
In recent years, our largest customers have varied due to changes in our product mix. We expect that we will continue to depend on a relatively small number of customers for a significant portion of our net sales and may continue to experience fluctuations in the distribution of our sales among our largest customers as we periodically adjust our product mix. Our ability to maintain close and satisfactory relationships with our customers is important to the ongoing success and profitability of our business. If any of our significant customers reduces, delays or cancels its orders, or the financial condition of our key customers deteriorate, our business could be seriously harmed. Similarly, a failure to manufacture sufficient quantities of panels to meet the demands of these customers may cause us to lose customers, which may adversely affect the profitability of our business as a result.
If we are found to have violated antitrust and competition laws, we may be subject to severe fines or penalties that would have a material adverse effect on our business and operations.
We and certain of our subsidiaries, along with various competitors in the TFT-LCD industry, are under investigation for alleged violation of antitrust and competition laws. Specifically, since December 2006, we and certain of our overseas subsidiaries have become involved in antitrust investigations by the United States Department of Justice (“U.S. DOJ”), the Commission of the European Communities Directorate-General for Competition (“DG COMP”), the Canada Competition Bureau, the Taiwan Fair Trade Commission, the Korea Fair Trade Commission and the Japan Fair Trade Commission, concerning the allegations of price fixing by manufacturers of TFT-LCD panels. In January 2009, the Taiwan Fair Trade Commission visited our office in Taiwan and requested certain information from us as part of its investigations into the TFT-LCD industry. In November 2009, the Taiwan Fair Trade Commission notified us of the termination of its investigation. The Japan Fair Trade Commission and the Korean Fair Trade Commission also requested certain information from us as part of their respective investigations in 2007 and 2009, respectively. In 2009, the DG COMP issued a “Statement of Objections” to a number of LCD manufacturers, including us, alleging anti-competitive activities. We received DG COMP’s Statement of Objections in May 2009 and submitted our reply in July 2009. We and certain LCD manufacturers attended the hearing held by the DG COMP regarding its investigation in September 2009. The result of DG COMP’s investigation is still pending. We intend to continue to cooperate with these investigations as warranted as part of our ongoing defense of these matters.
We, certain of our subsidiaries, and certain of our respective current or former officers and/or employees may be indicted in the United States for possible violations of antitrust and/or competition laws. If we and certain of our subsidiaries are found to have violated antitrust and/or competition laws, we and our subsidiaries will likely have to pay a fine or penalty. It is also possible that certain of our current or former officers and/or employees may be held criminally liable and subject to imprisonment or fines or both. We and our subsidiaries may also agree to pay a fine or penalty as part of any plea bargain or settlement. To our knowledge, certain of our competitors that pled guilty and entered into plea bargain agreements with the U.S. DOJ have agreed to pay fines ranging from US$35 million to US$400 million. While we do not know all the facts and circumstances that led each of these competitors to enter into these pleas, we are aware of the outcome of those plea bargain agreements which may or may not be the amounts which we and our subsidiaries may agree to pay and/or which the U.S. DOJ may agree to accept as part of any plea bargain and/or settlement.
The ultimate outcome of the pending antitrust investigations cannot be predicted with certainty. Any penalties, fines or settlements made in connection with these investigations and/or lawsuits may have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operation and future prospects.
Moreover, there are also over 100 civil lawsuits filed against us and/or our subsidiaries in the United States and several civil lawsuits in Canada alleging, among other things, antitrust violations. The putative antitrust class actions filed in the United States have been consolidated for discovery in the United Stated District Court for the Northern District of California. In the amended consolidated complaints, the plaintiffs are seeking, among other things, unspecified monetary damages and an enjoinment from the alleged antitrust conspiracy. The class actions are in the discovery phase. The court has recently issued an order certifying two types of classes that may proceed against us and other TFT-LCD companies, including direct and indirect purchasers.
In addition, in the fourth quarter of 2009, AT&T Corp and its affiliates (collectively, “AT&T”), Motorola Inc. (“Motorola”) and Nokia Corporation (“Nokia”), respectively filed civil lawsuits against a number of LCD manufacturers including us, claiming among other things, unspecified monetary damages and an enjoinment from the alleged antitrust conspiracy. These lawsuits are still in the early stages.
We have made provisions for certain potential litigation losses and others, as may be applicable, and we will adjust the amounts from time to time as we deem appropriate. See note 25(e) to our consolidated financial statements.
We intend to defend these lawsuits vigorously and we have retained legal counsel to represent us. At this stage, the final outcome of these matters is uncertain, and the amount of possible loss, if any, is currently not estimable. We are reviewing the merits of these civil lawsuits on an ongoing basis. Any penalties, fines or settlements made in connection with these lawsuits may have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operation and future prospects.
Our customers generally do not place purchase orders far in advance, which makes it difficult for us to predict our future revenues and allocate capacity efficiently and in a timely manner.
Our customers generally provide rolling forecasts four to six months in advance of, and do not place firm purchase orders until one month before, the expected shipment date. In addition, due to the cyclical nature of the TFT-LCD industry, our customers’ purchase orders have varied significantly from period to period. As a result, we do not typically operate with any significant backlog. The lack of significant backlog makes it difficult for us to forecast our revenues in future periods. Moreover, we incur expenses and adjust inventory levels of raw materials and components based in part on customers’ forecast, and we may be unable to allocate production capacity in a timely manner to compensate for shortfalls in sales. We expect that, in the future, our sales in any quarter will continue to be substantially dependent upon purchase orders received in that quarter. The inability to adjust production costs, to obtain necessary raw materials and components or to allocate production capacity quickly to respond to the demand for our products may affect our ability to maximize results of operations, which may result in a negative impact on the value of your investment in the ADSs or our shares.
Our future competitiveness and growth prospects could be adversely affected if we are unable to successfully expand our capacity in our second 7.5-generation fab orcomplete the construction and installation of our second 8.5- generation fab as scheduled.>
We commenced construction of our second 7.5-generation fab in the third quarter of 2006 and it began commercial production in the second quarter of 2009. As of April 30, 2010, our second 7.5-generation fab had an input capacity of approximately 25,000 substrates per month. If market demand increases in the future, we may decide to expand to its maximum input capacity of approximately 60,000 substrates per month.
We also commenced construction of our second 8.5-generation fab in the second quarter of 2009 and we expect to start equipment move-in by the end of 2010. Our second 8.5-generation fab is designed to process substrates of 2,200 mm x 2,500 mm which can produce large-size panels with high efficiency and with capabilities of cutting, for example, eight 46-inch panels, six 55-inch panels or three 65-inch panels in wide format. The location of our second 8.5-generation fab is in the Seven Star Farm of Central Taiwan Science Park in the ROC (“Seven Star Farm”). In July 2006, the Environmental Protection Agency of the ROC Executive Yuan issued its opinion (“EPA Opinion”) on an environmental impact assessment report submitted by the Central Taiwan Science Park Development Office relating to the development of Seven Star Farm (“Environmental Impact Assessment Report”), which among other things, required a wider scope of environmental impact assessment and additional environmental control measures for projects constructed on Seven Star Farm compared to the scope and measures proposed in the Environmental Impact Assessment Report. The EPA Opinion was disputed and finally appealed to Taiwan Supreme Administrative Court. On January 21, 2010, the Taiwan Supreme Administrative Court dismissed the case. Notwithstanding the dismissal, the Central Taiwan Science Park Development Office may still be required to make additional environmental assessment for the construction of Seven Star Farm. We have been approved to commence construction of our second 8.5-generation fab on Seven Star Farm and as of December 31, 2009, the development cost we incurred for our second 8.5-generation fab was approximately NT$9 billion. We cannot assure you that further queries or challenges presented by the EPA will not adversely affect our construction and we cannot assure you that we would be able to complete construction and installation of our second 8.5-generation fab as scheduled. We may also incur additional expenses in connection with dealing with queries or challenges by the EPA, which may adversely affect our business and results of operations.
In addition, the successful expansion of our second 7.5-generation fab or completion of our second 8.5-generation fab is dependent upon a number of other factors, including timely delivery of equipment and machinery and the hiring and training of new skilled personnel. Although we believe that we have the internal capabilities and know-how to expand our second 7.5-generation fab and install and operate our second 8.5-generation fab, no assurances can be given that we will be successful. We cannot assure you that we will be able to obtain from third parties, if necessary, the technology, intellectual property or know-how that may be required for our second 7.5-generation fab or second 8.5-generation fab on acceptable terms. In addition, delays in the delivery of equipment and machinery as a result of increased demand for such equipment and machinery or the delivery of equipment and machinery that do not meet our specifications could delay the establishment or expansion of these fabs.
If we face unforeseen disruptions in the construction, installation, expansion and/or manufacturing processes with respect to our second 7.5-generation fab or our second 8.5-generation fab, we may not be able to realize the potential gains from the manufacturing of panels and may face disruptions in capturing the growth opportunities associated with the expected expansion of the market for LCD TV panels.
If capital resources required for our expansion plans are not available, we may be unable to successfully implement our business strategy.
Historically, we have been able to finance our capital expenditures through cash flow from our operating activities and financing activities, including the issuance of equity securities, long-term borrowings and the issuance of convertible and other debt securities. Our ability to expand our production facilities and establish next generation fabs will continue to largely depend on our ability to obtain sufficient cash flow from operations as well as external funding. In April 2010, our Board of Directors resolved to issue up to US$800 million in principal amount of unsecured global convertible bonds for the purpose to purchasing machinery and equipment overseas in line with the growth of our business. In addition, we expect to make capital expenditures in connection with the expansion of our business and production capacity, including investments in 2010 in connection with the installation of our second 8.5-generation fab. If market demand increases in the future, we may also decide to expand the input capacity of our second 7.5-generation fab to approximately 60,000 substrates per month. These capital expenditures will be made well in advance of any additional sales to be generated from these expenditures. Our results of operations may be adversely affected if we do not have the capital resources to complete our expansion plans or if our actual expenditures exceed planned expenditures for any number of reasons, including changes in:
We cannot assure you that our planned issuance of unsecured global convertible bonds will be successful and we cannot assure you that required additional financing will be available to us on satisfactory terms, if at all. If adequate funds are not available on satisfactory terms at appropriate times, we may have to curtail our expansion plans, which could result in a loss of customers, adversely affect our ability to implement successfully our business strategy and limit the growth of our business.
We operate in a highly competitive environment, and we may not be able to sustain our current market position if we fail to compete successfully.
The markets for our products are highly competitive. We experience pressure on our prices and profit margins, due largely to additional and growing industry capacity from competitors in Taiwan, Korea, Japan and the PRC. The ability to manufacture on a large scale with greater cost efficiencies is a competitive advantage in our industry. Some of our competitors have expanded through mergers and acquisitions. For example, in March 2010, Chimei Innolux Corp. was established as a result of the merger of three Taiwan-based LCD panel makers: Innolux Display Corp., Chi Mei Optoelectronics and TPO Display Corp. The merged entity has overtaken our position as Taiwan’s largest and the world’s third largest LCD panel maker in terms of revenue. Some of our competitors have greater access to capital and substantially greater production, research and development, intellectual property, marketing and other resources than we do. Some of our competitors have announced their plans to develop, and have already invested substantial resources in, eighth or higher generation capacity. Our competitors may be able to introduce products manufactured using such capacity in advance of our schedule. In addition, some of our larger competitors have more extensive intellectual property portfolios than ours, which they may use to their advantage when negotiating cross-licensing agreements for technologies. As a result, these companies may be able to compete more aggressively over a longer period of time than we can.
The principal elements of competition in the TFT-LCD industry include:
Our ability to compete successfully in the TFT-LCD industry also depends on factors beyond our control, including industry and general political and economic conditions as well as currency fluctuations.
If brand companies do not continue to outsource the manufacturing of their products to original equipment manufacturing service providers with production operations in Taiwan, the PRC, Eastern Europe and Mexico, our sales and results of operations could be adversely affected.
In recent years, brand companies have increasingly outsourced the manufacturing of their products to original equipment manufacturing service providers in Taiwan, or such providers with part or all of their production operations in the PRC, Eastern Europe and Mexico. We believe that we have benefited from this outsourcing trend in large part due to our production locations in Taiwan, the PRC and Eastern Europe, which has allowed us to better coordinate our production and services with our customers’ requirements, especially in the areas of delivery time and product design support. We cannot assure you that this outsourcing trend will continue. If brand companies do not continue to outsource the manufacturing of their products to original equipment manufacturing service providers with their production operations in Taiwan, the PRC, Eastern Europe and Mexico, our sales and results of operations could be adversely affected.
If we are unable to manage our growth effectively, our business could be adversely affected.
We have experienced, and expect to continue to experience, growth in the scope and complexity of our operations and in the number of our employees. For example, we are currently devoting significant resources to the installation of our second 8.5-generation fab and the expansion of our second 7.5-generation fab. This growth may strain our existing managerial, financial and other resources. In order to manage our growth, we must continue to implement additional operating and financial controls and hire and train additional personnel for these functions. We cannot assure you that we will be able to do so in the future, and our failure to do so could jeopardize our expansion plans and seriously harm our operations.
We may encounter difficulties expanding into new businesses or industries, which may adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.
We may encounter difficulties and face risks in connection with our expansion into the new businesses or industries. For example, we entered the green energy business at the end of 2008 and formed our Solar Photovoltaic Business Unit in October 2009. We also obtained a controlling interest in M. Setek Co., Ltd. (“M. Setek”), a major polysilicon and solar wafer manufacturer in Japan through equity investments in 2009. We cannot assure you that our expansion into the green energy business will be successful as we have little experience in this industry. In addition, we expect to further expand our investment in the green energy business in the future and we may need to devote significant additional resources. We cannot assure you that we may be able to generate sufficient profits to justify the costs of expanding into new businesses or industries. If any new business in which we invest or which we intend to develop does not progress as planned, our results of operations and financial condition may be adversely affected.
We may undertake mergers, acquisitions or investments to expand our business that may pose risks to our business and dilute the ownership of our existing shareholders, and we may not realize the anticipated benefits of these mergers, acquisitions or investments.
As part of our growth and product diversification strategy, we may continue to evaluate opportunities to acquire or invest in other businesses, intellectual property or technologies and expand the breadth of markets we can address or enhance our technical capabilities. For example, in March 2010, our Board of Directors and that of TPV Technology Limited approved to establish a joint venture involved in TFT-LCD module production in Gorzow, Poland. In April 2010, we entered into a definitive agreement with Toshiba Mobile Display Co., Ltd. (“Toshiba”) to purchase 100% of the shares of AFPD Pte., Ltd., a Singapore-incorporated subsidiary of Toshiba and a manufacturer of LCD panels. In April 2010, our Board of Directors and that of TCL King Electrical Appliances (Huizhou) Co., Ltd., approved to establish a joint venture involved in TFT-LCD TV panel and module production in Huizhou city, Guangdong Province, the PRC. In April 2010, our Board of Directors and that of Haier Group approved to establish a joint venture involved in TFT-LCD TV panel module production in Qingdao city, Shandong Province, the PRC.
Mergers, acquisitions or investments that we have entered in, and may enter into in the future entail a number of risks that could materially and adversely affect our business, operating and financial results, including, among others:
• problems integrating the acquired operations, technologies or products into our existing business and products;
• diversion of management’s time and attention from our core business;
• conflicts with joint venture partners;
• adverse effects on our existing business relationships with customers;
• need for financial resources above our planned investment levels;
• failures in recognizing anticipated synergies;
• difficulties in retaining business relationships with suppliers and customers of the acquired company;
• risks associated with entering markets in which we lack experience;
• potential loss of key employees of the acquired company; and
• potential write-offs of acquired assets.
Our failure to address these risks successfully may have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations. Any such acquisition or investment will likely require a significant amount of capital investment, which would decrease the amount of cash available for working capital or capital expenditures. In addition, if we use our equity securities to pay for acquisitions, the value of your ADSs and the underlying ordinary shares may be diluted. If we borrow funds to finance acquisitions, such debt instruments may contain restrictive covenants that can, among other things, restrict us from distributing dividends.
The loss of any key management personnel or the undue distraction of any such personnel may disrupt our business.
Our success depends on the continued services of key senior management, including our Chairman, Chief Executive Officer and President. We do not carry key person life insurance on any of our senior management personnel. If we lose the services of key senior management personnel, we may not be able to find suitable replacements or integrate replacement personnel in a timely manner or at all, which would seriously harm our business. In addition, our continuing growth will, to a large extent, depend on the attention of key management personnel to our daily affairs. For example, we expect that Mr. Kuen-Yao (K.Y.) Lee’s time will be divided among serving as Chairman of our company, Chairman of Qisda and Chairman of BenQ Corporation. If Mr. Lee is not able to devote enough time to our company, our operations may be adversely affected.
In May 2007, Mr. Lee was indicted by the Taoyuan District Prosecutors’ Office for alleged insider trading of Qisda stock and other related charges. In August 2009, the Taoyuan court acquitted Mr. Lee of all charges. The case was appealed by the prosecutor to the superior court in September 2009. See “Item 8.A.7. Litigation.” While we are not a party to these proceedings, adverse publicity surrounding this case could have an adverse impact on our company. If an adverse judgment is rendered against Mr. Lee, and he resigns or is otherwise no longer able to serve in his capacity as Chairman of our company, our operations may be materially and adversely affected.
If we are not able to attract and retain skilled technical personnel, including research and development and other personnel, our operations and expansion plans would be adversely affected.
Our success depends on our ability to attract and retain skilled employees, particularly engineering and technical personnel in the research and development and manufacturing processing areas. We have also established a professional on-the-job training program for employees. Without a sufficient number of skilled employees, our operations and production quality would suffer. Competition for qualified technical personnel and operators in Taiwan is intense and the replacement of skilled employees is difficult. We may encounter this problem in the future, as we require increased numbers of skilled employees for our expansion. If we are unable to attract and retain our technical personnel and other employees, this may adversely affect our business, and our operating efficiency may deteriorate.
Potential conflicts of interest with our affiliates may cause us to lose opportunities to expand and improve our operations.
We face potential conflicts of interest with our affiliates, such as Qisda and its subsidiaries, including BenQ Corporation. Qisda is our largest shareholder, owning directly and indirectly 7.56% of our outstanding shares as of April 20, 2010 and is also one of our major customers. Qisda and its subsidiaries accounted for 5.7%, 4.6% and 3.4% of our net sales in 2007, 2008 and 2009, respectively. Qisda and its subsidiaries’ substantial interest in our company may lead to conflicts of interest affecting our sales decisions or allocations. In addition, as of April 30, 2010, two of our nine directors are representatives of Qisda, and Mr. Kuen-Yao (K.Y.) Lee, our Chairman, and Mr. Hui Hsiung, our director, are also the Chairman and President of Qisda, respectively. Mr. Kuen-Yao (K.Y.) Lee, our Chairman also serves as Chairman of BenQ Corporation, a subsidiary of Qisda. As a result, conflicts of interest between their duties to Qisda and/or its subsidiaries and us may arise. We cannot assure you that when conflicts of interest arise with respect to representatives of Qisda and/or its subsidiaries, the conflicts of interest will be resolved in our favor. These conflicts may result in lost corporate opportunities, including opportunities that are never brought to our attention, or actions that may prevent us from taking advantage of opportunities to expand and improve our operations.
We need to comply with certain financial and other covenants under the terms of our debt instruments, the failure to comply with which would put us in default under those instruments.
Our long-term loans and facilities contain financial and other covenants and the failure to comply with the covenants could trigger a requirement for early payment. The financial covenants primarily include current ratios, indebtedness ratios, interest coverage ratios and minimum equity requirements. A default under one debt instrument may also trigger cross-defaults under our other debt instruments. In addition, such covenants restrict our ability to raise future debt financing. In 2009, our subsidiary M. Setek breached certain financial covenants under its loan agreements. See “Item 5.B. Liquidity and Capital Resources.” If we breach our financial or other covenants, our financial condition will be adversely affected to the extent we are not able to cure such breaches or repay the relevant debt.
If we fail to maintain an effective system of internal controls, we may not be able to accurately report our financial results or prevent fraud.
The United States Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”), as required by Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, adopted rules requiring every public company to include a management report on such company’s internal controls over financial reporting in its annual report, which contains management’s assessment of the effectiveness of the company’s internal controls over financial reporting. In addition, an independent registered public accounting firm must report on the effectiveness of the company’s internal controls over financial reporting. Our management may conclude that our internal controls over our financial reporting are not effective. Moreover, even if our management concludes that our internal controls over financial reporting are effective, our independent registered public accounting firm may conclude that our internal controls over financial reporting are not effective. Furthermore, during the course of the evaluation, documentation and attestation, we may identify deficiencies that we may not be able to remedy in a timely manner. If we fail to achieve and maintain the adequacy of our internal controls, we may not be able to conclude that we have effective internal controls, on an ongoing basis, over financial reporting in accordance with the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002. Moreover, effective internal controls are necessary for us to produce reliable financial reports and are important to help prevent fraud. As a result, our failure to achieve and maintain effective internal controls over financial reporting could result in the loss of investor confidence in the reliability of our financial statements, which in turn could harm our business and negatively impact the trading price of our ADSs. Furthermore, we have incurred considerable costs and used significant management time and other resources in an effort to comply with Section 404 and other requirements of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002.
Our planned international expansion poses additional risks and could fail, which could cost us valuable resources and adversely affect our results of operations.
To meet our clients’ requirements, we are currently expanding our operations internationally, which may lead to operations across many countries. For example, we have established LCD module assembly operations in Europe and TV set assembly operations in China and Europe in order to provide more immediate services to our European and Chinese customers. We intend to run our operations in compliance with local regulations, such as tax, civil, environmental and other laws in conjunction with our business activities in each country where we may have presence or operations. However, there are inherent legal, financial and operational risks involved in having international operations and we cannot assure you that we will be able to successfully develop and expand our international operations or that we will be able to overcome the significant obstacles and risks of expanding our overseas operations.
Risks Relating to Manufacturing
Our manufacturing processes are highly complex, costly and potentially vulnerable to disruptions that can significantly increase our production costs and delay product shipments to our customers.
Our manufacturing processes are highly complex, require advanced and costly equipment and are periodically modified to improve manufacturing yields and production efficiency. We face the risk of production difficulties from time to time that could cause delivery delays and reduced production yields. These production difficulties include capacity constraints, construction delays, difficulties in upgrading or expanding existing facilities, difficulties in changing our manufacturing technology and delays in the delivery or relocation of specialized equipment. We may encounter these difficulties in connection with the adoption of new manufacturing process technologies. We cannot assure you that we will be able to expand our second 7.5-generation fab and install our second 8.5-generation fab without equipment delays or difficulties, or that we will not encounter manufacturing difficulties in the future.
If we are unable to obtain raw materials and components in suitable quantity and quality from our suppliers, our production schedules would be delayed and we may lose substantial customers.
Raw materials and component costs represent a substantial portion of our cost of goods sold. We must obtain sufficient quantities of high quality raw materials and components at acceptable prices and in a timely manner. We source most of our raw materials and components, including critical materials like color filters, driver-integrated
circuits, cold cathode fluorescent lamps (“CCFL”), polarizer and glass substrates and light emitting diodes (“LED”), from a limited group of suppliers, both foreign and domestic. For example, in both the second half of 2007 and 2009, we experienced constraints in the supply of glass substrates due to an industry-wide decline in supply and demand outgrowing supply significantly. Our operations would be adversely affected if we could not obtain raw materials and components in sufficient quantity and quality at acceptable prices. We may also experience difficulties in sourcing adequate supplies for our operations if there is a ramp-up of production capacity by TFT-LCD manufacturers, including our company, without a corresponding increase in the supply of raw materials and components. The impact of any shortage in raw materials and components will be magnified as we establish new fabs and continue to increase our production capacity.
Although approximately 58.0% of our raw materials and components was sourced locally in Taiwan in 2009, we depend on supplies of certain principal raw materials and components mainly from suppliers in Japan and Korea. We cannot assure you that we will be able to obtain sufficient quantities of raw materials and components and other supplies of an acceptable quality in the future. Our inability to obtain high-quality raw materials and components in a timely and cost-effective manner may cause us to delay our production and delivery schedules, which may result in the loss of our customers and revenues.
If we are unable to obtain equipment and services from our suppliers, we may be forced to delay our expansion plans.
We have purchased, and expect to purchase, a substantial portion of our equipment from foreign suppliers for our capacity expansion projects and new generation fabs. These foreign suppliers also provide assembly, testing and/or maintenance services for our purchased equipment. From time to time, increased demand for new equipment may cause lead times to extend beyond those normally required by equipment vendors. For example, in the past, increased demand for equipment caused some equipment suppliers to satisfy only partially our equipment orders in the normal time frame. The unavailability of equipment, delays in the delivery of equipment or the delivery of equipment that does not meet our specifications could delay implementation of our expansion plans and impair our ability to meet customer orders. Furthermore, if our equipment vendors are unable to provide assembly, testing and/or maintenance services in a timely manner or at all, our expansion plan may be adversely affected. We may have to use assembly, testing and/or maintenance service providers with which we have no established relationship, which could expose us to potentially unfavorable pricing, unsatisfactory quality or insufficient capacity allocation. As a result of these risks, we may be unable to implement our expansion plans on schedule or in line with customer expectations and our business may be materially and adversely affected.
If we are unable to manufacture successfully our products within the acceptable range of quality, our results of operations will be adversely affected.
TFT-LCD manufacturing processes are complex and involve a number of precise steps. Defective production can result from a number of factors, including but not limited to:
From time to time, we have experienced, and may in the future experience, lower than anticipated production yields as a result of the above factors, particularly in connection with the expansion of our capacity or change in our manufacturing processes. We remediate our customers mainly through repairing or replacing the defective products or refunding the purchase price relating to defective products if they are within the warranty period. In addition, our production yield on new products will be lower than average as we develop the necessary expertise and experience to produce those products. If we fail to maintain high-production yields and high quality production standards, our reputation may suffer and our customers may cancel their orders or return our panels for rework, which will adversely affect our results of operations.
If we violate environmental regulations, we may be subject to fines or restrictions that could cause our operations to be delayed or interrupted and our business to suffer.
Our operations can expose us to the risk of environmental claims which could result in damages awarded or fines imposed against us. We must comply with regulations relating to storage, handling, generation, treatment, emission, release, discharge and disposal of certain materials and wastes resulting from our manufacturing processes. We incurred small fines in 2009 for failure to meet certain effluent standards in Taiwan. We also incurred small fines in 2007 and 2008 for failure to meet certain effluent standards and air pollution control regulations.
Future changes to existing environmental regulations or unknown contamination of our sites, including contamination by prior owners and operators of our sites, may give rise to additional compliance costs or potential exposure to liability for environmental claims that may seriously affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Risks Relating to Our Technologies and Intellectual Property
If we cannot successfully introduce, develop or acquire advanced technologies, our profitability may suffer.
Technology and industry standards in the TFT-LCD industry evolve quickly, resulting in steep price declines in the advanced stages of a product’s life cycle. To remain competitive, we must continually develop or acquire advanced manufacturing process technologies and build next generation fabs to lower production costs and enable the timely release of new products. In addition, we expect to utilize other display technologies, such as low temperature poly-silicon (“LTPS”) technologies to develop new products. Our ability to manufacture products by utilizing more advanced manufacturing process technologies to increase production efficiency will be critical to our sustained competitiveness. We plan to make investments in connection with the expansion of our second 7.5-generation fab and installation of our second 8.5-generation fab. However, we cannot assure you that we will be successful in completing our expansion plans or in the development of other future technologies for our fabs, or that we will be able to complete them without material delays or at the expected costs. If we fail to do so, our results of operations and financial condition may be materially and adversely affected. We also cannot assure you that there will be no material delays in connection with our efforts to develop new technology and manufacture more technologically advanced products. If we fail to develop or make advancements in product technologies or manufacturing process technologies on a timely basis, we may become less competitive.
Other flat panel display technologies or alternative display technologies could render our products uncompetitive.
We currently manufacture products primarily using TFT-LCD technology, which is currently one of the most commonly used flat panel display technologies. We may face competition from flat panel display manufacturers utilizing alternative flat panel technologies, including plasma discharge panel (“PDP”) and organic light emitting device (“OLED”) technologies. Currently, PDP technology is primarily used to produce panels larger than 50-inches for use in television, as compared to the TFT-LCD technology which is primarily used to produce panels less than 50-inches for use in monitors, notebooks and LCD television. However, as the demand for LCD televisions with panel sizes as large as that of televisions using PDP technology continues to grow, competition between these two technologies is expected to increase in the large-size television market. We also face competition in the large-size television market from alternative display technologies, particularly those utilizing projection technology, such as front digital mirror device projector, digital light processing projector, LCD projector and liquid crystal on silicon projector technologies. These alternative forms of display technology may be competitive in terms of performance-to-price ratio. If alternative display technologies gain a larger market share in the market for large-size television, our business prospects may be adversely affected.
Another commercially available flat panel technology is OLED. OLED technology is currently primarily used, and is beginning to compete with TFT-LCD technology, in small- to medium-size applications, such as mobile phones, digital still cameras and small-size televisions. Future development of OLED technology may also allow it to compete with TFT-LCD technology in larger applications such as monitors, notebooks and LCD television and render our products uncompetitive.
Field emission display (“FED”) technology has also become commercially available. FED technology is currently primarily used in, and will compete with, medium- to large- sized applications, such as monitors. FED technology may also potentially be used in high-end applications, such as monitors for medical facilities and broadcasting equipments. In January 2010, we acquired FED technology from Field Emission Technologies Inc. (“FET”) and FET Japan, Inc. However, we cannot assure you that we will be able to develop commercialized FED products successfully and in a timely manner.
In addition, there are other alternative flat panel technologies currently either in the research and development stage or in the initial commercial promotion stage, such as inorganic electroluminescent (“IEL”) and surface-conduction electron-emitter (“SED”) display technologies. If the various alternative flat panel technologies currently commercially available, or in the research and development stage are developed to have better performance-to-price ratios, or they begin mass production, such technologies may compete with TFT-LCD technology and render our products uncompetitive.
Advancement and changes in alternative flat panel technologies are dependent on manufacturing economics and consumer demand. In 2008, we restarted our research and development efforts in OLED technology to ensure that we remain competitive with other manufacturers that utilize OLED technology. However, even though we seek to remain competitive through research and development of flat panel technologies, we may invest in research and development in certain technologies that do not come to fruition.
If we lose the support of our technology partners or the legal rights to use our licensed manufacturing process or product technologies, our business may suffer.
Enhancing our manufacturing process and product technologies is critical to our ability to provide high quality products to our customers at competitive prices. We intend to continue to advance our manufacturing process and product technologies through internal research and development and licensing from other companies. We currently have licensing arrangements with Fujitsu Limited, Sharp Corporation (“Sharp”), Samsung, Semiconductor Energy Laboratory Co., Ltd., Hitachi Displays Ltd. (“Hitachi”), IPS Alpha Technology, Ltd. and other companies for product and manufacturing process technologies related to the production of certain products including certain TFT-LCD panels. Our licensing arrangements with Sharp and Samsung will expire by the end of 2010. If we are unable to renew our technology licensing arrangements with some or all of these companies on mutually beneficial economic terms, we may lose the legal right to use certain of the processes and designs which we may have employed to manufacture our products. Similarly, if we cannot license or otherwise acquire or develop new manufacturing process and product technologies that are critical to the development of our business or products, we may lose important customers because we are unable to continue providing our customers with products based on advanced manufacturing process and product technologies.
We have entered into patent and intellectual property license or cross license agreements that require periodic royalty payments. In the future, we may need to obtain additional patent licenses or renew existing license agreements. We cannot assure you that these license agreements can be obtained or renewed on acceptable terms. If these license agreements are not obtained or renewed on acceptable terms, our business and future results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.
Disputes over intellectual property rights could be costly and deprive us of the technology to stay competitive.
As technology is an integral part of our manufacturing process and product, we have, in the past, received communications alleging that our products or processes infringe product or manufacturing process technology rights held by others, and expect to continue to receive such communications. We are currently involved in intellectual property disputes with several companies. See “Item 8.A.7. Litigation.” There is no means of knowing all of the patent applications that have been filed in the United States or elsewhere and whether, if the applications are granted, such patents would have a material adverse effect on our business. If any third party were to make valid intellectual property infringement claims against our customers or us, we may be required to:
If our products or manufacturing processes are found to infringe third-party rights, we may be subject to significant liabilities and be required to change our manufacturing processes or products. This could restrict us from making, using, selling or exporting some of our products, which could in turn materially and adversely affect our business and financial condition. In addition, any litigation, whether to enforce our patents or other intellectual property rights or to defend ourselves against claims that we have infringed the intellectual property rights of others, could materially and adversely affect our results of operations because of the management attention required and legal costs incurred.
Our ability to compete will be harmed if we are unable to adequately protect our intellectual property.
We believe that the protection of our intellectual property rights is, and will continue to be, important to the success of our business. We rely primarily on a combination of patent, trademark, trade secret and copyright law and contractual restrictions to protect our intellectual property. These afford only limited protection. Despite our efforts to protect our proprietary rights, unauthorized parties may attempt to obtain, copy or use information that we regard as proprietary, such as product design and manufacturing process expertise. Although we have patent applications pending, our pending patent applications and any future applications may not result in issued patents or may not be sufficiently broad to protect our proprietary technologies. Moreover, policing any unauthorized use of our products is difficult and costly, and we cannot be certain that the measures we have implemented will prevent misappropriation or unauthorized use of our technologies, particularly in foreign jurisdictions where the laws may not protect our proprietary rights as fully as the laws of the United States. Others may independently develop substantially equivalent intellectual property or otherwise gain access to our trade secrets or intellectual property. Our failure to effectively protect our intellectual property could harm our business.
Our rapid introduction of new technologies and products may increase the likelihood that third parties will assert claims that our products infringe upon their proprietary rights.
Although we take and will continue to take steps to ensure that our new products do not infringe upon third-party rights, the rapid technological changes that characterize our industry require that we quickly implement new processes and components with respect to our products. Often with respect to recently developed processes and components, a degree of uncertainty exists as to who may rightfully claim ownership rights in such processes and components. Uncertainty of this type increases the risk that claims alleging that such components or processes infringe upon third party rights may be brought against us. If our products or manufacturing processes are found to infringe upon third party rights, we may be subject to significant liabilities and be required to change our manufacturing processes or be prohibited from manufacturing certain products, which could have a material adverse effect on our operations and financial condition.
We rely upon trade secrets and other unpatented proprietary know-how to maintain our competitive position in the TFT-LCD industry and any loss of our rights to, or unauthorized disclosure of, our trade secrets or other unpatented proprietary know-how could adversely affect our business.
We rely upon trade secrets, unpatented proprietary know-how and information, as well as continuing technological innovation in our business. The information we rely upon includes price forecasts, core technology and key customer information. Our current standard employment agreement with our employees contains a confidentiality provision which generally provides that all inventions, ideas, discoveries, improvements and copyrightable material made or conceived by the individual arising out of the employment relationship and all confidential information developed or made known to the individual during the term of the relationship is our
exclusive property. We cannot assure the enforceability of these types of agreements, or that they will not be breached. We also cannot be certain that we will have adequate remedies for any breach. The disclosure of our trade secrets or other know-how as a result of such a breach could adversely affect our business. Also, our competitors may come to know about or determine our trade secrets and other proprietary information through a variety of methods. Disputes may arise concerning the ownership of intellectual property or the applicability or enforceability of the relevant agreements, and there can be no assurance that any such disputes would be resolved in our favor. Furthermore, others may acquire or independently develop similar technology, or if patents are not issued with respect to products arising from research, we may not be able to maintain information pertinent to such research as proprietary technology or trade secrets and that could have an adverse effect on our competitive position within the TFT-LCD industry.
Political, Geographical and Economic Risks
Due to the location of our operations in Taiwan, the PRC, Japan and Eastern Europe, we and many of our customers and suppliers are vulnerable to natural disasters and other events outside of our control, which may seriously disrupt our operations.
Most of our existing manufacturing operations, and the operations of many of our customers and suppliers, are located in Taiwan, which is vulnerable to natural disasters. In 2009, approximately 42.8% of our net sales was derived from Taiwan-based customers. In addition, our module-assembly operations in the PRC, Japan and Eastern Europe, and the operations of many of our customers and suppliers in these areas, may also be vulnerable to natural disasters. As a result of this geographic concentration, disruption of operations at our fabs or the facilities of our customers and suppliers for any reason, including work stoppages, power outages, water supply shortages, fire, typhoons, earthquakes or other natural disasters, could cause delays in production and shipments of our products. Any delays or disruptions could result in our customers seeking to source our products from other manufacturers. Shortages or suspension of power supplies have occasionally occurred, and have disrupted our operations. The occurrence of a power outage in the future could seriously hurt our business.
Our manufacturing processes require a substantial amount of water. Although currently approximately 82% of the water used in our production process is recycled, our production operations may be seriously disrupted by water shortages. For instance, the Hsinchu area, where one of our principal manufacturing sites is located, experienced a drought in 2002. In response to the drought in 2002, the ROC authorities implemented water-rationing measures and began sourcing water from alternative sources, and therefore we did not encounter any water shortage. However, we may encounter droughts in the Hsinchu, Taoyuan or Taichung areas in the future, where most of our current or future manufacturing sites are located. If another drought were to occur and we or the authorities were unable to source water from alternative sources in sufficient quantity, we may be required to shut down temporarily or substantially reduce the operations of these fabs, which would seriously affect our operations. In addition, even if we were able to source water from alternative sources, our reliance on supplemental water supplies would increase our operating costs. Furthermore, the disruption of operations at our customers’ facilities could lead to reduced demand for our products. The occurrence of any of these events in the future could adversely affect our business.
We have made investments in, and are exploring the possibility of expanding our businesses and operations to, or making additional investments in, the PRC, which may expose us to additional political, regulatory, economic and foreign investment risks.
We have expanded our module assembly operations to the PRC and increased the registered capital of various PRC operating subsidiaries through cash injection. Depending on our business needs, we may further expand or adjust our business operations in the PRC in the future. Our businesses and operations and our future expansion or investment plans in the PRC are significantly affected by political and economic condition, regulatory control and general legal developments in the PRC and other foreign investment risks. The PRC economy differs from the economies of most developed countries in many respects, including the structure, level of government involvement, level of development, foreign exchange control and allocation of resources. The PRC economy has been transitioning from a planned economy to a more market-oriented economy and is growing rapidly. For the past two decades, the PRC government has implemented economic reform measures emphasizing utilization of market forces in the development of the PRC economy and also adjusted its macroeconomic control policies from time to time. These policies have led and may continue to lead to changes in market conditions. For example, as a result of the
global financial crisis, the PRC government announced a RMB4 trillion economic stimulus package in 2009 which included some measures favorable to our business, such as subsidies for purchases of televisions in rural areas in China. Although we believe these reforms will have a positive effect on our overall operations in the PRC, we cannot predict whether changes in the PRC’s political, economic and social conditions, laws, regulations and policies will have any adverse effect on our current or future operations in the PRC. In addition, the interpretation of PRC laws and regulations involves uncertainties. We cannot assure you that changes in such laws and regulations, or in their interpretation and enforcement, will not have a material adverse effect on our businesses and operations in the PRC.
The current restrictions imposed by the ROC government on investments in certain related businesses may limit our ability to compete with other TFT-LCD manufacturers that are permitted to establish TFT-LCD production operations in the PRC.
Many of our customers and competitors have expanded their businesses and operations to the PRC. In order to take advantage of the fast growth of China’s market, the lower production costs in China and to establish a presence in this market, we established a module-assembly facility in Suzhou, Jiangsu Province of the PRC, which began operations in July 2002. We also established a second module-assembly facility in Xiamen, Fujian Province, the PRC, which commenced operations in September 2007 and through our merger with QDI, acquired a module-assembly facility in Songjiang district, Shanghai, the PRC. Module-assembly involves connecting components to the cell panel. From time to time, we explore the possibility of investing in other businesses or operations in the PRC as and when we are legally permitted to do so. For example, in August 2009, we established BVCH Optronics (Sichuan) Corp. in the PRC, a 51% owned joint venture company with Sichuan Changhong Electric Co., Ltd. BVCH Optronics (Sichuan) Corp. is mainly engaged in the assembly of TFT-LCD modules. In March 2010, we established a wholly-owned subsidiary, AUO Energy (Suzhou) Corp., which is mainly engaged in the design, manufacturing, and sale of solar modules. In March 2010, we established a wholly-owned subsidiary, Darwin Precision (ChengDu) Corporation, which is mainly engaged in the manufacture and assembly of backlight modules and related components. In addition, in April 2010, our Board of Directors and that of TCL King Electrical Appliances (Huizhou) Co., Ltd., approved to establish a joint venture involved in TFT-LCD TV panel and module production in Huizhou city, Guangdong Province, the PRC. In April 2010, our Board of Directors and that of Haier Group approved to establish a joint venture involved in TFT-LCD TV panel module production in Qingdao city, Shandong Province, the PRC.
Currently, ROC laws and regulations permit investment in module-assembly operations in the PRC, but strict restrictions still remain in certain aspects. In February 2010, the Investment Commission of Ministry of Economic Affairs (“MOEAIC”) loosened certain restrictions, which has provided the possibility for TFT-LCD manufacturers in the ROC, including us, to expand into certain areas of the PRC. We submitted an application in March 2010 to the MOEAIC to establish a 7.5-generation TFT-LCD front-end manufacturing fab in the PRC. We cannot assure you that our application for the 7.5-generation TFT-LCD front-end manufacturing fab or any future applications to the MOEAIC to make further investments in the PRC will be successful and timely obtained. We also do not know when and whether the remaining restrictions under ROC laws and regulations governing investment in the PRC will be amended or repealed and we cannot assure you that any such amendments to those regulations will permit us to invest in operations in the PRC. Restrictions under ROC laws on our ability to make investments in the PRC may materially and adversely affect our business prospects.
We may not be able to obtain all licenses, approvals or permits necessary for our current and future operations.
Our current and future operations in the ROC, the PRC, Europe and other regions require a number of regulatory licenses, approvals and permits. We cannot assure you that we will be able to obtain licenses, approvals or permits necessary for our operations in the PRC, Europe and other regions, or that upon the expiration of our existing licenses, approvals or permits, we will be able to successfully renew them. In addition, if the relevant authorities enact new regulations, we cannot assure you that we will be able to successfully meet such requirements. If we fail to obtain or renew the necessary regulatory licenses, approvals or permits, we may have to cease construction or operation of the relevant projects, be subject to fines, or face other penalties, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Disruptions in Taiwan’s political environment could seriously harm our business and the market price of our shares and ADSs.
Most of our assets and operations are located in Taiwan and approximately 42.8% of our net sales is derived from customers in Taiwan in 2009. Accordingly, our business and financial condition may be affected by changes in local governmental policies and political and social instability.
Taiwan has a unique international political status. The PRC government asserts sovereignty over mainland China and Taiwan, and does not recognize the legitimacy of the government of the ROC. The PRC government has indicated that it may use military force to gain control over Taiwan if Taiwan declares independence or Taiwan refuses to accept the PRC’s stated “One China” policy. In addition, on March 14, 2005, the National Peoples’ Congress of the PRC passed what is widely referred to as the “anti-secession” law, a law authorizing the PRC military to respond to efforts by Taiwan to seek formal independence. An increase in tensions between the ROC and the PRC and the possibility of instability and uncertainty could adversely affect the prices of our ADSs and our shares. It is unclear what effects any of the events described above may have on relations with the PRC. Relations between Taiwan and the PRC and other factors affecting Taiwan’s political environment could affect our business.
If economic conditions in Taiwan deteriorate, our current business and future growth would be materially and adversely affected.
In recent years, the currencies of many East Asian countries, including Taiwan, have experienced considerable volatility. The Central Bank of the Republic of China has from time to time intervened in the foreign exchange market to minimize the fluctuation of the U.S. dollar/NT dollar exchange rate and to prevent significant decline in the value of the NT dollar. NT dollars have depreciated against U.S. dollars from US$1.00 = NT$27.52 on January 2, 1997 to US$1.00 = NT$31.77 on May 7, 2010, based on the noon buying rates published by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
Our business, financial condition and results of operations may be affected by changes in ROC government policies, taxation, inflation and interest rates in Taiwan, as well as general economic conditions in Taiwan. In addition, the banking and financial sectors in Taiwan have been seriously harmed by the general economic downturn in Asia and Taiwan in recent years, in particular, the recent global financial crisis and the resulting global economic downturn, which has resulted in a volatile property market, and an increase in the number of companies filing for corporate reorganization and bankruptcy protection. As a result, financial institutions are more cautious in providing credit to businesses in Taiwan. We cannot assure you that we will continue to have access to credit at commercially reasonable rates of interest or at all.
The market value of our ADSs may fluctuate due to the volatility of the ROC securities market.
The trading price of our ADSs may be affected by the trading price of our shares on the Taiwan Stock Exchange. The Taiwan Stock Exchange is smaller and more volatile than the securities markets in the United States and a number of stock exchanges in Europe. The Taiwan Stock Exchange has experienced substantial fluctuations in the prices and volumes of trading of securities, and there are currently limits on the range of daily price fluctuations on the Taiwan Stock Exchange. During the period from January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2009, the Taiwan Stock Exchange Index peaked at 8,188.1 on December 31, 2009, and reached a low of 4,242.6 on January 20, 2009. Over the same period, daily closing values of our shares ranged from NT$23.05 per share to NT$38.90 per share. On May 3, 2010, the Taiwan Stock Exchange Index closed at 7,952.2, and the closing value of our shares was NT$36.90 per share.
The Taiwan Stock Exchange is particularly volatile during times of political instability, including when relations between Taiwan and the PRC are strained. Several investment funds affiliated with the ROC government have also from time to time purchased securities from the Taiwan Stock Exchange to support the trading level of the Taiwan Stock Exchange. Moreover, the Taiwan Stock Exchange has experienced problems, including market manipulation, insider trading and settlement defaults. The recurrence of these or similar problems could have an adverse effect on the market price and liquidity of our shares and ADSs.
If the NT dollar or other currencies in which our sales, raw materials and components and capital expenditures are denominated fluctuate significantly against the U.S. dollar or the Japanese yen, our profitability may be seriously affected.
We have significant foreign currency exposure, and are affected by fluctuations in exchange rates among the U.S. dollar, the Japanese yen, the NT dollar and other currencies. Our sales, raw materials and components and capital expenditures are mainly denominated in U.S. dollars, Japanese yen and NT dollars in varying amounts. For example, in 2009, approximately 89.4% of our net sales was denominated in U.S. dollars. During the same period, approximately 11.3%, 27.7% and 60.1% of our raw materials and component costs were denominated in NT dollars, Japanese yen and U.S. dollars, respectively. In addition, in 2009, approximately 45.0%, 41.6% and 10.0% of our total capital expenditures (principally for the purchase of equipment) was denominated in NT dollars, Japanese yen and U.S. dollars, respectively. From time to time, we enter into forward foreign currency contracts to hedge our foreign currency exposure, but we cannot assure you that we will fully minimize the risk against exchange rate fluctuations and the impact on our results of operations.
Disruptions in the international trading environment may seriously decrease our international sales.
A majority of our net sales is derived from sales to customers located outside of Taiwan. In 2007, 2008 and 2009, sales to our overseas customers accounted for 63.7%, 56.4% and 57.2%, respectively, of our net sales. In addition, a significant portion of our sales to customers in Taiwan is made to original equipment manufacturing service provider customers that use our display panels in the products that they manufacture on a contract basis for brand companies worldwide. We expect sales to customers outside of Taiwan to continue to represent a significant portion of our net sales. As a result, our business will continue to be vulnerable to disruptions in the international trading environment, including those caused by adverse changes in foreign government regulations, political unrest, international economic downturns, terrorist attacks and continued military involvement in Iraq and Afghanistan. These disruptions in the international trading environment may affect the demand for our products and change the terms upon which we sell our products overseas, which could seriously decrease our international sales.
We face risks related to health epidemics and outbreaks of contagious diseases, including H1N1 influenza, H5N1 influenza and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, or SARS.
There have been reports of outbreaks of a highly pathogenic influenza caused by the H1N1 virus, as well as an influenza caused by the H5N1 virus, in certain regions of Asia and other parts of the world. An outbreak of such contagious diseases in the human population could result in a widespread health crisis that could adversely affect the economies and financial markets of many countries. Additionally, a recurrence of SARS, a highly contagious form of atypical pneumonia, similar to the occurrence in 2003 which affected the PRC, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Singapore, Vietnam and certain other countries, would also have similar adverse effects. Since most of our operations and customers and suppliers are based in Asia (mainly Taiwan), an outbreak of H1N1 influenza, H5N1 influenza, SARS or other contagious diseases in Asia or elsewhere, or the perception that such an outbreak could occur, and the measures taken by the governments of countries affected, including the ROC and the PRC, could adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations.
Risks Related to Our ADSs and Our Trading Market
The market value of our ADSs may fluctuate due to the volatility of the securities markets.
The securities markets in the United States and other countries have experienced significant price and volume fluctuations. Volatility in the price of our ADSs may be caused by factors beyond our control and may be unrelated to, or disproportionate to changes in, our results of operations. In the past, following periods of volatility in the market price of a public company’s securities, securities class action litigation has often been instituted against that company. Litigation of this kind could result in substantial costs and a diversion of our management’s attention and resources.
Restrictions on the ability to deposit shares into our ADS facility may adversely affect the liquidity and price of our ADSs.
The ability to deposit shares into our ADS facility is restricted by ROC law. A significant number of withdrawals of shares underlying our ADSs would reduce the liquidity of our ADSs by reducing the number of ADSs outstanding. As a result, the prevailing market price of our ADSs may differ from the prevailing market price of our shares on the Taiwan Stock Exchange. Under current ROC law, no person or entity, including you and us, may deposit its shares in our ADS facility without specific approval of the ROC Financial Supervisory Commission (the “FSC”), unless:
(1) we pay stock dividends on our shares;
(2) we make a free distribution of shares;
(3) ADS holders exercise preemptive rights in the event of capital increases for cash; or
(4) investors purchase our shares, directly or through the depositary, on the Taiwan Stock Exchange, and deliver our shares to the custodian for deposit into our ADS facility, or our existing shareholders deliver our shares to the custodian for deposit into our ADS facility.
With respect to (4) above, the depositary may issue ADSs against the deposit of those shares only if the total number of ADSs outstanding following the deposit will not exceed the number of ADSs previously approved by the FSC, plus any ADSs issued pursuant to the events described in the subparagraph (1), (2) and (3) above. Issuance of additional ADSs under item (4) above will be permitted to the extent that previously ADSs have been cancelled.
In addition, in the case of a deposit of our shares requested under item (4) above, the depositary will refuse to accept deposit of our shares if such deposit is not permitted under any legal, regulatory or other restrictions notified by us to the depositary from time to time, which restrictions may specify blackout periods during which deposits may not be made, minimum and maximum amounts and frequencies of deposits.
ADS holders will not have the same rights as our shareholders, which may affect the value of the ADSs.
ADS holders’ rights as to the shares represented by such holders’ ADSs are governed by the deposit agreement. ADS holders will not be able to exercise voting rights on an individual basis. If holders representing at least 51% of our ADSs outstanding at the relevant record date instruct the depositary to vote in the same manner regarding a resolution, including the election of directors, the depositary will cause all shares represented by the ADSs to be voted in that manner. If, at the relevant record date, the depositary does not receive instructions representing at least 51% of ADSs outstanding to vote in the same manner for any resolution, including the election of directors, ADS holders will be deemed to have instructed the depositary or its nominee to authorize all the shares represented by the ADS holders’ ADSs to be voted at the discretion of our Chairman or his designee, which may not be in the ADS holders’ interest. Moreover, while shareholders who own 1% or more of our outstanding shares are entitled to submit one proposal to be considered at our annual general meetings, only holders representing at least 51% or more of our ADSs outstanding at the relevant record date are entitled to submit one proposal to be considered at our annual general meetings. Hence, only one proposal may be submitted on behalf of all ADS holders.
ADS holders’ rights to participate in our rights offerings are limited, which could cause dilution to the holdings of ADS holders.
We may from time to time distribute rights to our shareholders, including rights to acquire our securities. Under the deposit agreement, the depositary will not offer ADS holders those rights unless both the distribution of the rights and the underlying securities to all our ADS holders are either registered under the Securities Act or exempt from registration under the Securities Act. Although we may be eligible to take advantage of certain exemptions under the Securities Act available to certain foreign issuers for rights offerings, we can give no assurances that we will be able to establish an exemption from registration under the Securities Act, and we are under no obligation to file a registration statement for any of these rights. Accordingly, ADS holders may be unable to participate in our rights offerings and may experience dilution with respect to their holdings.
Our equity holders may experience dilution if we issue stock bonuses and stock options to employees or sell additional equity or equity-linked securities.
Similar to other technology companies in Taiwan, from time to time we may issue bonuses to our employees in the form of shares. The issuance of these shares may have a dilutive effect on our ADSs. In 2007, 2008 and 2009, we issued 57.4 million shares, 243.7 million shares and 66.2 million shares to our employees, respectively, for their services performed in 2006, 2007 and 2008, respectively. These stock bonuses amounted to NT$573.5 million, NT$2,437.2 million and NT$2,009.8 million in 2007, 2008 and 2009, respectively. We assumed two employee stock option plans as a result of the QDI merger in 2006 and pursuant to which our full-time employees of our consolidated domestic and foreign subsidiaries are eligible to receive stock option grants. As of December 31, 2009, the exercise period was expired and no stock options were exercised. See “Item 6.B. Compensation.”
In addition, the sale of additional equity or equity-linked securities may result in additional dilution to our shareholders. In April 2010, our Board of Directors resolved to issue up to US$800 million in principal amount of unsecured global convertible bonds for the purpose to purchasing machinery and equipment overseas in line with the growth of our business. We cannot assure you that the issuance of unsecured global convertible bonds will be successful. The issuance of unsecured global convertible bonds could cause dilution to ADS holders.
Non-ROC holders of ADSs who withdraw our shares will be required to obtain a foreign investor investment identification and appoint a local custodian and agent and a tax guarantor in the ROC.
Under current ROC law, if you are a non-ROC person (other than a PRC person) and wish to withdraw and hold our shares from a depositary receipt facility, you will be required to obtain a foreign investor investment identification, or the Foreign Investor Investment I.D., issued in accordance with the ROC Regulations Governing Securities Investment by Overseas Chinese and Foreign Nationals (“the Investment Regulations”). You will also be required to appoint an eligible agent in the ROC to open a securities trading account and a Taiwan Depository & Clearing Corporation book-entry account and a bank account, to pay ROC taxes, remit funds, exercise shareholders’ rights and perform such other functions as you may designate upon such withdrawal. In addition, you will be required to appoint a custodian bank to hold the securities in safekeeping, make confirmation and settle trades and report all relevant information. Without obtaining such Foreign Investor Investment I.D. under the Investment Regulations and opening such accounts, the non-ROC withdrawing holder would be unable to hold or subsequently sell our shares withdrawn from the depositary receipt facility on the Taiwan Stock Exchange or otherwise. There can be no assurance that such withdrawing holder will be able to obtain the Foreign Investor Investment I.D. and open such accounts in a timely manner.
Non-ROC holders of ADSs (other than a PRC person) withdrawing our shares represented by ADSs are also required under current ROC law and regulations to appoint an agent in the ROC for filing tax returns and making tax payments. Such agent must meet certain qualifications set by the ROC Ministry of Finance and, upon appointment, becomes a guarantor of such withdrawing holder’s ROC tax obligations. Generally, the evidence of the appointment of such agent and the approval of such appointment by the ROC tax authorities may be required as conditions to such withdrawing holder’s repatriation of the profits. There can be no assurance that such withdrawing holder will be able to appoint and obtain approval for such agent in a timely manner.
Also, if any non-ROC person (other than a PRC person) receives more than 10% of our total issued and outstanding shares upon a single withdrawal, such non-ROC person must obtain prior approval from the MOEAIC. There can be no assurance that such withdrawing holder will be able to obtain such approval in a timely manner.
Pursuant to the Regulations Governing Securities Investment and Futures Trading in Taiwan by Mainland Area Investors (“the Mainland Investors Regulations”), only qualified domestic institutional investors (“QDIIs”) approved by the China Securities Regulatory Commission and registered with the Taiwan Stock Exchange or Taiwan Futures Exchange are permitted to withdraw and hold our shares from a depositary receipt facility. In order to hold our shares, such QDIIs are required to appoint an agent and custodian as required by the Mainland Investors Regulations. If the aggregate amount of our shares held by any QDII or shares received by any QDII upon a single withdrawal exceeds 10% of our total issued and outstanding shares, such QDII must obtain the prior approval from the MOEAIC. We cannot assure you that such approval will be granted.
The protection of the interests of our public shareholders available under our articles of incorporation and the laws governing ROC corporations is different from that applies to a U.S. corporation.
Our corporate affairs are governed by our articles of incorporation and by the laws governing ROC corporations. The rights and responsibilities of our shareholders and members of our board of directors under ROC law are different from those that apply to a U.S. corporation. Directors of ROC corporations are required to conduct business faithfully and act with the care of good administrators. However, the duty of care required of an ROC corporation’s directors may not be the same as the fiduciary duty of a director of a U.S. corporation. In addition, controlling shareholders of U.S. corporations owe fiduciary duties to minority shareholders, while controlling shareholders in ROC corporations do not. The ROC Company Law also requires that a shareholder continuously hold at least 3% of our issued and outstanding shares for at least a year in order to request that a member of our audit committee institute an action against a director on the company’s behalf. Therefore, our public shareholders may have more difficulty protecting their interests against actions of our management, members of our board of directors or controlling shareholders than they would as shareholders of a U.S. corporation.
Future sales or perceived sales of securities by us, our executive officers, directors or major shareholders may hurt the price of our ADSs.
The market price of our ADSs could decline as a result of sales of ADSs or shares or the perception that these sales could occur. As of April 20, 2010, we had an aggregate of 8,827,045,535 shares issued and outstanding, most of which were freely tradable. If we, our executive officers, directors or our shareholders, sell ADSs or shares, the market price for our shares or ADSs could decline. Future sales, or the perception of future sales, of ADSs or shares by us, our executive officers, directors or major shareholders could cause the market price of our ADSs to decline.
You may not be able to enforce a judgment of a foreign court in the ROC.
We are a company limited by shares and incorporated under the ROC Company Law. All of our directors and executive officers, and some of the experts named herein, are residents of the ROC. As a result, it may be difficult for holders of our shares or ADSs to enforce against us or them judgments obtained outside the ROC, including those predicated upon the civil liability provisions of the federal securities laws of the United States. There is doubt as to the enforceability in the ROC, either in original actions or in actions for enforcement of judgments of United States courts, of civil liabilities predicated on the United States federal securities laws.
We were incorporated as Acer Display Technology, Inc. (“Acer Display”) under the laws of the ROC as a company limited by shares in 1996. The shares of Acer Display were listed on the Taiwan Stock Exchange on September 8, 2000. On September 1, 2001, we completed a merger with Unipac pursuant to a merger agreement dated April 9, 2001, as amended by a supplemental agreement dated May 15, 2001. We changed our name to AU Optronics Corp. on May 22, 2001. Prior to the merger, Acer Display was primarily involved in the design, development, production and marketing of large-size TFT-LCD panels, and Unipac was primarily involved in the design, production and marketing of both small-size and large-size TFT-LCD panels.
On October 1, 2006, we completed our merger with QDI, a company incorporated in Taiwan that manufactures and assembles TFT-LCD panels. Under the terms of the merger agreement dated April 7, 2006, we offered one share of our common stock for every 3.5 shares of outstanding QDI common stock issuing a total of 1,479,110,029 shares. As of the effective date of the merger, we became the surviving entity and assumed substantially all of the assets, liabilities and personnel of QDI. The merger received shareholder approval of our company and QDI on June 15, 2006, and FSC approval on August 15, 2006.
The purpose of the merger was to increase our competitiveness and expand our market share. With the combined production capacity of QDI, we are positioned among the largest TFT-LCD manufacturers in the world.
Through the merger, we have achieved synergies in supply chain management and research and development, which we believe have increased our overall competitiveness. We believe we can leverage our combined buying power to achieve favorable treatment in the sourcing of key components and enhance our relationships with suppliers. In addition, the combination of our research and development capabilities has expanded our panel design expertise and our intellectual property portfolio.
We believe that another benefit of the merger is that the product lines of the two companies are complementary with each other. We have been strong in the LCD television product and computer product market and QDI has been more competitive in the notebook panel product market. Through the merger, we are able to offer a broader range of products and expand our market share.
Our principal executive offices are located at No. 1, Li-Hsin Road 2, Hsinchu Science Park, Hsinchu, Taiwan, ROC, and our telephone number is +886-3-500-8800. Our agent for service of process in the United States is Puglisi & Associates, 850 Library Avenue, Suite 204, Newark, Delaware 19711, and our agent’s telephone number is 302-738-6680.
Our ADSs have been listed on the New York Stock Exchange since May 29, 2002.
We mainly design, develop, manufacture, assemble and market flat panel displays and substantially all of our products are TFT-LCD panels. TFT-LCD is currently the most widely used flat panel display technology. Our panels are primarily used in computer products (such as notebook computers and desktop monitors) and consumer electronics products (such as mobile phones, digital photo frames, digital still cameras, portable navigation display, portable DVD players), LCD televisions and industrial displays. We expanded in the green energy business at the end of 2008 and formed our Solar Photovoltaic Business Unit in October 2009.
We sell our panels primarily to companies that design and assemble products based on their customers’ specifications, commonly known as original equipment manufacturing service providers, or brand customers. These original equipment manufacturing service providers, most of whose production operations are located in Taiwan or the PRC, use our panels in the products that they manufacture on a contract basis for brand companies worldwide. Our operations in Taiwan and the PRC allow us to better coordinate our production and services with our customers’ requirements, especially in respect of delivery time and design support. We also sell our products to some brand companies on a direct shipment basis.
We currently manufacture TFT-LCD at fabrication facilities commonly known as “fabs.” We were one of the first TFT-LCD manufacturers in Taiwan to commence commercial production at a fifth-generation fab, and we now operate four fifth-generation fabs. We believe we were the first TFT-LCD manufacturer in Taiwan to commence production at a sixth-generation and 7.5-generation fab. We are also the first TFT-LCD manufacturer in Taiwan to operate a 8.5-generation fab. New generations of TFT-LCD fabs are equipped to process increasingly larger sheets of substrates. For example, our 7.5-generation fabs are designed to process substrates with dimensions of up to 1,950 x 2,250 millimeters, and our 8.5-generation fabs are designed to process substrates with dimensions of up to 2,200 x 2,500 millimeters.
With production facilities utilizing 3.5-, fourth-, fifth-, sixth-, 7.5- and 8.5-generation technologies, we have the flexibility to produce a large number of panels of various sizes. We operate three fifth-generation fabs that commenced commercial production in March 2003, February 2004 and August 2005, respectively. We also acquired one fifth-generation fabs through our merger with QDI. We operate one sixth-generation fab that commenced commercial production in March 2005 and acquired a second sixth-generation fab through our merger with QDI. We operate two 7.5-generation fabs that commenced commercial production in June 2006 and April 2009, respectively. Our first 8.5-generation fab commenced commercial production in the first quarter of 2009. We also commenced the construction of our second 8.5-generation fab in the second quarter of 2009 and we expect to start equipment move-in by the end of 2010. Our existing operations are located at five principal manufacturing sites in Taiwan, one module assembly site in Europe, four module-assembly sites in the PRC and three manufacturing sites in Japan.
We group our business into three marketing channels: Information Technology Displays, Consumer Products Displays and Television Displays. The Information Technology Displays Business Group covers applications such as desktop and notebook computers. The Consumer Products Displays Business Group covers applications such as audio-video displays and mobile device displays. The Television Displays Business Group covers applications such as LCD television. We believe this structure allows us to better serve the needs of customers in these three markets.
We design, develop, manufacture, assemble and market a wide range of TFT-LCD panels for the following principal product categories:
In order to create synergy by leveraging our wider technology platforms currently employed by our Consumer Products Display Business Group and Television Displays Business Group, beginning in April, 2009, we have reclassified the industrial display product category into the audio-video display product category under our Consumer Products Display Business Group and Television Displays Business Group based on different panel size and applications.
We design, develop and manufacture our panels to address specific needs of the end-products in which they are used, such as thinness, light weight, resolution, color quality, brightness, low power consumption, touch panel features, fast response time and wide viewing angles. For example, it is important for notebook computer displays to be lightweight and thin, and to have low power consumption, while desktop monitors require high brightness and wider viewing angles.
The following table sets forth the shipment of our products by category for the periods indicated: