Agilent Technologies 10-K 2009
Documents found in this filing:
Commission File Number: 001-15405
Agilent Technologies, Inc.
Address of principal executive offices: 5301 Stevens Creek Blvd., Santa Clara, California 95051
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes ý No o
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes o No ý
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ý No o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate website, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files). Yes ý No o
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K (§229.405 of this chapter) is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant's knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K. o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer" and "smaller reporting company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes o No ý
The aggregate market value of the registrant's common equity held by non-affiliates as of April 30, 2009, was approximately $5.753 billion. Shares of stock held by officers, directors and 5 percent or more stockholders have been excluded in that such persons may be deemed to be affiliates. This determination of affiliate status is not necessarily a conclusive determination for other purposes.
As of November 30, 2009, there were 348,831,278 outstanding shares of common stock, par value $0.01 per share.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
This report contains forward-looking statements including, without limitation, statements regarding trends, seasonality, cyclicality and growth in the markets we sell into, our strategic direction, our future effective tax rate and tax valuation allowance, earnings from our foreign subsidiaries, remediation activities, new product and service introductions, changes to our manufacturing processes, the use of contract manufacturers, the impact of local government regulations on our ability to pay vendors or conduct operations, our liquidity position, our ability to generate cash from operations, growth in our businesses, our investments, the potential impact of adopting new accounting pronouncements, our financial results, our purchase commitments, our contributions to our pension plans, the selection of discount rates and recognition of any gains or losses for our benefit plans, our cost-control activities, savings and headcount reduction recognized from our restructuring programs, the closing of the proposed Varian transaction, our stock repurchase program, our transition to lower-cost regions, and the existence, length or timing of an economic recovery that involve risks and uncertainties. Our actual results could differ materially from the results contemplated by these forward-looking statements due to various factors, including those discussed in Item 1A and elsewhere in this Form 10-K.
Agilent Technologies, Inc. ("we", "Agilent" or the "company"), incorporated in Delaware in May 1999, is the world's premier measurement company providing core bio-analytical and electronic measurement solutions to the communications, electronics, life sciences and chemical analysis industries.
For the fiscal year ended October 31, 2009, we have three business segments comprised of the electronic measurement business, the bio-analytical measurement business and the semiconductor and board test business. Our electronic measurement business focuses on the communications and electronics industries. Our bio-analytical measurement business focuses on the life sciences industry and in the environmental, chemical, food and petrochemical industries. Our semiconductor and board test business provides standard and customized measurement instruments and systems which enable customers to develop and test state-of-the-art semiconductors, test and inspect printed circuit boards, perform functional testing, and measure position and distance information to the sub-nanometer level. In addition to our three businesses, we conduct centralized research through Agilent Technologies Laboratories ("Agilent Labs"). Each of our businesses, including Agilent Labs, is supported by our global infrastructure organization, which provides shared services in the areas of finance, information technology, legal, workplace services and human resources.
We sell our products primarily through direct sales, but we also utilize distributors, resellers, manufacturer's representatives, telesales and electronic commerce. Of our total net revenue of $4.48 billion for the fiscal year ended October 31, 2009, we generated 33 percent in the U.S. and 67 percent outside the U.S. As of October 31, 2009, we employed approximately 16,800 people worldwide. Our primary research and development and manufacturing sites are in California, Colorado, Delaware and Washington in the U.S. and in China, Germany, India, Japan, Malaysia, Singapore and the United Kingdom.
Beginning in the first fiscal quarter of 2010, we will form three new operating segments from our existing businesses. The bio-analytical measurement segment will be separated into two operating segments life sciences and chemical analysis. The electronic measurement segment will recombine
electronic measurement and semiconductor and board test, which were reported separately in 2009. Following this reorganization, Agilent will have three businesses life sciences, chemical analysis and electronic measurement each of which will comprise a reportable segment. More details on these changes are included under the heading of 2010 Segment Reporting Changes within Management's Discussion and Analysis. The business description in this Item 1 reflects the three segment structure as of and for the year ended October 31, 2009.
The net revenue, income from operations and assets by business segment, as they were structured, as of and for the fiscal year ended October 31, 2009 and for each of the past three years are shown in Note 21, "Segment Information", to our consolidated financial statements, which we incorporate by reference herein.
Electronic Measurement Business
Our electronic measurement business provides standard and customized electronic measurement instruments and systems monitoring, management and optimization tools for communications networks and services, software design tools and related services that are used in the design, development, manufacture, installation, deployment and operation of electronics equipment and communications networks and services. Related services include start-up assistance, instrument productivity and application services and instrument calibration and repair. We also offer customization, consulting and optimization services throughout the customer's product lifecycle.
Our electronic measurement business employed approximately 8,800 people as of October 31, 2009. Our electronic measurement business generated $2.3 billion in revenue in fiscal 2009, $3.2 billion in revenue in fiscal 2008, and $3.1 billion in revenue in fiscal 2007.
Our electronic measurement products serve the following markets:
We market our communications test products and services to network equipment manufacturers ("NEMs"), handset manufacturers, and communications service providers. NEMs manufacture and sell products to facilitate the transmission of voice, data and video traffic. The NEMs' customers are the distributors of end-user subscriber devices, including wireless personal communication devices and set-top boxes, as well as communications service providers that deploy and operate the networks and services. To meet their customers' demands, NEMs require test and measurement instruments, systems and solutions for the development, production and installation of each network technology.
Communications service providers require reliable network equipment that enables new service offerings and allows their networks to operate at ever-increasing capacities. To achieve this, communications service providers require a range of sophisticated test instruments and systems to monitor and evaluate network performance and to identify any sources of communications failure.
Handset manufacturers require test and measurement products for the design, development, manufacture and repair of mobile handsets. These mobile handsets are used for voice, data and video delivery to individuals who connect wirelessly to the service provider's network. The handset manufacturers' primary customers are large and small service providers. The handset manufacturers require test and measurement products that enable technology development in conformance with the latest communications standards.
The communications test market accounted for approximately 39 percent of revenue from our electronic measurement business in 2009.
We market our general purpose test products and services to the electronics industry and other industries with significant electronic content such as the aerospace and defense, computer and semiconductor industries. These electronics and electronics-dependent industries design, develop and manufacture a wide range of products, including those produced in high volumes, such as computers, computer peripherals, electronic components, consumer electronics, enterprise servers, storage networks and communications devices, and automotive electronics. The components, printed circuit assemblies and functional devices for these products may be designed, developed and manufactured by electronic components companies, by original equipment manufacturers or by contract manufacturers.
We address the biology, life sciences and material science markets by providing microscopy and nanoindentation. Current technology platforms include the atomic force microscope and nano indenters.
For the development and timely commercialization of new technologies, manufacturers require state-of-the-art test instruments, systems and design software in order to design products for efficient and cost-effective manufacturing and to validate product performance in a variety of configurations and environments.
Customers use our general purpose test solutions in developing and manufacturing a wide variety of electronic components and systems. These customers' test requirements include testing the electrical parameters of digital, radio frequency, and microwave frequency components and assemblies; testing multiple parameters of the printed circuit boards used in almost every electronic device; testing of the final product; and testing of systems containing multiple electronic instruments. For nanotechnology applications, customers use our products to study biological samples at the cellular and molecular level including imaging of DNA and proteins, and to study and research polymers, electrochemistry, and thin films.
The general purpose test market accounted for approximately 61 percent of revenue from our electronic measurement business in 2009.
We divide our electronic measurement products into communications test products and general purpose test products.
We sell communications test products and services for a wide range of communications networks and systems including wireless communications and microwave networks, voice, broadband, data, and fiber optic networks. In addition, we provide assistance with installation and maintenance of our products and network assurance systems to enable network operators to maximize network utilization, uptime and quality of service.
Our wireless communications and microwave network products include radio frequency and microwave test instruments and electronic design automation software tools. These products are required for the design and production of wireless network products, communications links, cellular
handsets and base stations, as well as satellite and aerospace defense systems. Test products include Electronic Design Automation ("EDA") software, vector and signal analyzers, signal generators, vector network analyzers, and one box testers.
Our distributed network analyzer product line offers a wide range of capabilities to monitor and troubleshoot wireless networks, high-speed local area networks, wide area networks and asynchronous transfer mode networks carrying multiservice traffic.
Our suite of fiber optic test products measure and analyze a wide variety of critical optical and electrical parameters in fiber optic networks and their components. Components which can be tested with Agilent solutions include source lasers, optical amplifiers, filters and other passive components. Test products include optical component analyzers, optical power meters, and optical spectrum analyzers.
Our installation and maintenance assistance facilitates the installation, commission and activation of networks and services. We have a breadth of products for troubleshooting and maintaining optical, wireless, wireline and large-company networks.
Our network assurance products assist network operators in managing the capacity performance and quality of network service and customer experience for broadband, data, wireless and converged next-generation networks and services.
We sell the following types of products into the general purpose test market: general purpose instruments, modular instruments and test software, digital test design products, high frequency electronic design tools, and electronics manufacturing test equipment.
General purpose instruments are used principally by engineers in research and development laboratories, manufacturing, and calibration and service, for measuring voltage, current, frequency, signal pulse width, modulation and other complex electronics measurements. Our general purpose products include spectrum analyzers, network analyzers, signal generators, logic analyzers, digitizing oscilloscopes, voltmeters, multimeters, frequency counters, bench and system power supplies, function generators and waveform synthesizers.
Modular instruments and test software are used by the designers and manufacturers of electronic devices as the building blocks of systems that can be configured for a wide variety of test applications, and changed as needed by a combination of modular hardware and software components. Examples include test systems for aviation systems maintenance and multi-function university labs.
Our digital test products are used by research and development engineers across a broad range of industries to validate the function and performance of their digital product and system designs. These designs include a wide range of products from simple digital control circuits to complex high speed systems such as computer servers and the latest generation gaming consoles. The test products offered include high-performance oscilloscopes, logic and serial protocol analyzers, logic-signal sources and data generators.
Our high-frequency electronic design automation software tools are used by radio frequency integrated circuit design engineers to model, simulate and analyze communications product designs at the circuit and system levels. Agilent's products in this area are well-established software platforms within the wireless and the aerospace and defense design industries. Our customers are also applying
this technology more frequently to model signal integrity problems in digital design applications as digital speeds continue to increase.
Our atomic force microscopes ("AFM") are high-resolution imaging devices that can resolve features as small as an atomic lattice. An AFM allows researchers to observe and manipulate molecular and atomic level features. Our expanding portfolio of AFM products provides customers with reliable, easy-to-use tools for a wide range of nanotechnology applications, including semiconductor, data storage, polymers, materials science and life science studies.
Agilent's electronic measurement customers include contract manufacturers of electronic products, handset manufacturers and network equipment manufacturers who design, develop, manufacture and install network equipment, and service providers who implement, maintain and manage communication networks and services. Our customers use our products to conduct research and development, manufacture, install and maintain radio frequency, microwave frequency, digital, and optical products and systems and conduct nanotechnology research. Many of our customers purchase solutions across several of our major product lines for their different business units.
We had approximately 17,000 customers for electronic measurement products in fiscal 2009 and no single customer represented greater than 3 percent of net revenue of the electronic measurement business.
The orders and revenues from many of the electronic measurement markets and product categories are seasonal, traditionally marked by lower business levels in the first quarter of the fiscal year and higher volumes in the fourth quarter of the fiscal year. This seasonality is particularly evident in products that we sell into the aerospace and defense industry, as well as those linked to consumer spending, which includes some of our communications test equipment. The seasonal impact of our business is tempered by the diversity of our electronic measurement products and customers, which span multiple industries.
We have a focused sales strategy, using a direct sales force, resellers, manufacturer's representatives and distributors to meet our customers' needs. Our direct sales force is focused on identifying customer needs and recommending solutions involving the effective use and deployment of our equipment, services, systems and capabilities. Some members of our direct sales force focus on global accounts, providing uniform services on a worldwide basis. Others focus on our more complex products such as our communications network assurance systems, where customers require intensive strategic consultation. Our sales force also engages with the contract manufacturer market by collaborating with original equipment manufacturers to specify our test equipment for contract manufacturer test applications, as well as marketing to contract manufacturers directly.
Our direct sales force consists of field engineers and systems engineers who have in-depth knowledge of the customers' business and technology needs. Our systems engineers provide a combination of consulting, systems integration and application and software engineering services and are instrumental in all stages of the sale, implementation and support of our complex systems and solutions.
To complement our direct sales force we have agreements with many channel partners around the world. These partners, including resellers, manufacturer's representatives, and distributors, serve Agilent's customers across a number of product lines and provide the same level of service and support
expected from our direct channel. Lower volume transactions can also be served by our tele-sales and electronic commerce channels.
Our products typically come with standard warranties, and extended warranties are available at additional cost.
We concentrate our electronic measurement manufacturing efforts primarily on final assembly and test of our products. To maximize our productivity and our ability to respond to market conditions, we use contract manufacturers for the production of printed circuit boards, sheet metal fabrication, metal die-casting, plastic molding and standard electronic components. We also manufacture proprietary devices and assemblies in our own fabrication facilities for competitive advantage. We have manufacturing facilities in Arizona, California, Colorado and Washington in the U.S. Outside of the U.S., we have manufacturing facilities in China, Germany, Japan, Malaysia and Switzerland.
We generally only manufacture products when we have received firm orders for delivery and do not generally hold large stocks of finished inventory.
The market for electronic measurement equipment is highly competitive. Our electronic measurement business competes with a number of significant competitors in all our major product categories and across our targeted industries. In the communications test market our primary competitors are Aeroflex Incorporated, Anritsu Corporation, Ansoft Corporation (a subsidiary of Ansys Corporation), Applied Wave Research, Inc., EXFO Electro-Optical Engineering, Inc., JDS Uniphase, Rohde & Schwartz GmbH & Co. KG, Spirent plc and Tektronix, Inc. (a subsidiary of Danaher Corporation). In the general purpose test market, we compete against companies such as Fluke Corporation (a subsidiary of Danaher Corporation), Hysitron, Inc., Keithley Instruments, Inc., LeCroy Corporation, National Instruments Corporation, Photon Dynamics, Inc., SII NanoTechnology Inc., Tektronix, Inc. (a subsidiary of Danaher Corporation), Veeco Instruments Inc. and Wintest Corp.
Our electronic measurement business offers a wide range of products, and these products compete primarily on the basis of product quality and functionality, as well as performance and reliability.
Bio-Analytical Measurement Business
Our bio-analytical measurement business provides application-focused solutions that include instruments, software, consumables and services that enable customers to identify, quantify and analyze the physical and biological properties of substances and products. Our key product categories include: liquid chromatography, gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, microarrays, inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy, microfluidics, electrophoresis, laboratory automation and robotics, Polymerase Chain Reaction ("PCR") instrumentation, software and informatics, and related bioreagents, consumables and services.
We employed approximately 5,100 people as of October 31, 2009 in our bio-analytical measurement business. This business generated revenue of $2.1 billion in fiscal 2009, $2.2 billion in fiscal 2008 and $1.9 billion in fiscal 2007.
Primarily, our bio-analytical measurement business serves the following markets:
Our life science markets accounted for approximately 47 percent of revenue from our bio-analytical measurement business in 2009. Within the life sciences, we focus on the following two primary market categories:
The Pharma, Biotech, CRO & CMO Market. This market consists of "for-profit" companies who participate across the pharmaceutical value chain in the areas of therapeutic research, discovery & development, clinical trials, and manufacturing and quality assurance and quality control. One sub-segment of this market is core and emerging pharmaceutical companies, or "Pharma". A second sub-segment includes biotechnology companies, or "biotech", contract research organizations, or "CROs", and contract manufacturing organizations, or "CMOs". Biotech and, to a somewhat lesser extent, CROs and CMOs typically participate in specific points in the Pharma industry value chain.
The Academic and Government Market. This market consists primarily of "not-for-profit" organizations and includes academic institutions, large government institutes and privately funded organizations. The academic and government market plays an influential role in technology adoption and therapeutic developments for Pharma and molecular diagnostics companies. After decades of investment in basic biomedical research, the focus has widened to include translational research multidisciplinary scientific efforts directed at "accelerating therapy development". Notable are efforts by the National Institute of Health, the National Cancer Institute, the European Organisation for Research and the Treatment of Cancer (EORTC), the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), the Genomics Institute of Singapore (GIS), the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, and the National Translational Cancer Research Network (NTRAC). In addition, large donations by private foundations are also fueling growth in this key market segment.
Our chemical analysis markets accounted for approximately 53 percent of revenue from the bio-analytical measurement business in 2009. Within chemical analysis, we focus primarily on the following areas: petrochemical and chemical, environmental, forensics and homeland security, and bioagriculture and food safety.
The Petrochemical and Chemical Market. The natural gas and petroleum refining markets use our products to measure and control the quality of their finished products and to verify the environmental safety of their operations. Petroleum refiners use our measurement solutions to analyze crude oil composition, perform raw material analysis, verify and improve refining processes and ensure the overall quality of gasoline, fuels, lubricants and other products. Solutions based on gas chromatography, liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry products are also used in the development, manufacturing and quality control of fine chemicals. Our gas chromatographs are also used to monitor consistent quality in the delivery of natural gas.
The Environmental Market. Our gas chromatography, liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry solutions are used by the environmental market for applications such as laboratory and field analysis of chemical pollutants in air, water, soil and solid waste. Environmental industry customers include all levels of government, the industrial and manufacturing sectors, engineering and consulting companies, commercial testing laboratories and colleges and universities.
The Forensics and Homeland Security Market. Our liquid chromatography, gas chromatography, mass spectrometry and electrophoresis solutions are used by health and forensics laboratories in the U.S. and abroad, particularly in the analysis of evidence associated with crime or with the detection and identification of biological and chemical warfare agents. This instrumentation is either used in static or mobile laboratories. Customers include local, state, federal, and international law enforcement agencies and health laboratories.
The Bioagriculture and Food Safety Market. Food safety industries apply the same general technologies for chemical analysis as the pharmaceutical and environmental markets, including gas and liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. For example, our mass spectrometer portfolio, including triple quad liquid chromatography mass spectrometers, is used to analyze contaminants and residual pesticides in food. There is a significant food safety market involved in analyzing food for pathogen contamination, accurate verification of species type and evidence of genetically modified content. This testing is primarily done via PCR amplification of nucleic acid followed by electrophoresis, real time fluorescent or microarray detection. Additionally, bioagriculture industries seek to improve crops and foods by conducting research on these organisms, as well as testing for genetically modified content, using microarray and microfluidics solutions.
Bio-Analytical Measurement Products
A key factor in all of our bio-analytical measurement target markets is the need for new products that increase customer productivity and provide high quality data that enable decision-making by our customers. Our key product segments include:
A liquid chromatograph ("LC") or a high performance liquid chromatograph ("HPLC") is used to separate molecules of a liquid mixture to determine the quantity and identity of the molecules present. Used when sample vaporization is not an option, LC also separates and detects compounds to determine molecular identity and quantity. Our LC instruments are modular in construction and can be configured to form instruments that perform specific analyses. Agilent's HPLC system, the Agilent 1100 Series, has sold over 60,000 systems since its introduction, and in 2006 was replaced by its successor, the advanced 1200 Series Rapid Resolution Liquid Chromatography ("RRLC") System. The 1200 Series is highly flexible, known for its unique capability to switch between ultra high-performance liquid chromatography ("UHPLC") capability of RRLC mode and conventional HPLC mode. As a leader in liquid chromatography, we continue to expand our application space with new HPLC columns and ongoing product enhancements. In fiscal 2009 we introduced the 1290 Infinity Liquid Chromatography System, designed to deliver significantly greater power, speed and sensitivity for enhanced performance in the UHPLC market. Our leading edge innovation, HPLC-Chip, is fully commercialized and expanding demand for nano LC solutions across many markets. In fiscal 2009 we introduced a new HPLC-Chip that dramatically simplifies the analysis of phosphopeptides in proteomics research. The Phosphochip is used with Agilent HPLC-Chip/MS instrumentation to identify post-translational modifications ("PTMs") as part of regulating biological pathways.
Agilent is the world's leading provider of gas chromatographs, both laboratory and portable models. A gas chromatograph ("GC") is used to separate any gas, liquid or solid that can be vaporized and then detect the molecules present to determine their identity and quantity. We continue to expand the application space for our GCs with the development of new separation columns and product enhancements. Over the last three years, Agilent has introduced updated and advanced models of all of its major gas chromatography platforms, including the launch of the 7890A Gas Chromatograph which
replaced the 6890A, the world's most popular Gas Chromatograph. Our advances in GC Capillary Flow Technology provide an effective alternative to more costly and problematic cryogenic solutions in GC X GC applications, and solve practical data quality and throughput problems for customers. Our acquisition of RVM Scientific in fiscal 2008 added rapid, direct heating/cooling systems for GC that greatly reduces GC and GC/MS analytical cycle times, addressing customers' demand for greater productivity, lower power consumption and a reduced footprint. In fiscal 2009 we introduced the 7693A Series Automatic Liquid Sampler ("ALS"), offering substantial gains in throughput, flexibility, sample-preparation automation and serviceability for the current and previous benchtop model GCs.
A mass spectrometer ("MS") identifies and quantifies chemicals based on a chemical's molecular mass and ion characteristic patterns of fragment masses that result when a molecule is broken apart. Mass spectrometry is an important tool in analyzing proteins and other biological entities that undergo transformations because it enables the understanding and characterization of their many different states. MS systems are typically used in combination with gas or liquid chromatographs. Agilent's MS portfolio includes instruments built around five main configurations single quadrupole, triple quadrupole, ion trap, time-of-flight ("TOF") and quadrupole time-of-flight. We significantly expanded our mass spectrometry portfolio over the past three years with a focus on reliability, sensitivity and ease of use. In fiscal 2009 we introduced the 6540 Ultra- High-Definition ("UHD") Accurate-Mass Quadrupole Time-of-Flight ("Q-TOF"), the 6430 triple quadrupole, and the 6230 Accurate-Mass time-of-flight liquid chromatograph/mass spectrometer ("LC/MS") systems. These new platforms serve new and growing markets for Agilent.
Agilent is a leading worldwide provider of inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy ("ICP-MS") solutions. ICP-MS is an analytical technique used for trace elemental determinations with applications in a number of different fields including drinking water, wastewater, food and life sciences. Agilent's Octopole Reaction System ("ORS") removes interfering species using only inert helium gas, which vastly improves speed and accuracy. A growing trend in the world of elemental analysis has revolved around the speciation of certain metals such as chromium and arsenic. One of the primary techniques to achieve this is to use an ICP-MS in combination with an HPLC. In fiscal 2009 we introduced the 7700 Series ICP-MS trace element analyzer designed for greater performance and ease-of-use, which occupies the smallest amount of bench space of any ICP-MS instrument.
Agilent is a leading worldwide provider of microarray-based, genomics research solutions. Our end-to-end solution includes reagents for sample preparation and microarray processing; hardware for sample QC and high-throughput microarray scanning; 60-mer oligo microarrays on industry-standard 1" × 3" glass slides for gene expression; comparative genomic hybridization ("CGH")/Copy Number variation ("CNV") analysis, microRNA, methylation, splice variants, and chromatin immunoprecipitation applications; custom microarray design services; and GeneSpring software products for data analysis. Agilent is also a leading provider of target enrichment systems for next-generation sequencing platforms.
The acquisition of Velocity11 during fiscal 2008 enabled us to offer a more comprehensive suite of workflow solutions to our life science customers with the addition of automated liquid handling and robotics that range from standalone instrumentation to bench-top automation solutions to large, multi-armed robotic systems. These solutions strengthened our offering of automated sample-preparation
solutions across a broad range of applications. In fiscal 2009 we continued with our focus on automating laboratory processes by introducing the new Direct Drive Robot and VWorks Automation Control Software. The Direct Drive Robot advances high-throughput screening for drug-discovery research and can also be used in genomics applications, including DNA extraction and PCR sample preparation.
Electrophoresis is used in many scientific and applied disciplines, such as food identification or protein quality control, to separate, quantify, enrich and purify biomolecules which differ in their electrical charge or polarity. Agilent is a world leading supplier of innovative electrophoretic separation solutions. The 2100 Bioanalyzer analyzes biomolecules or cells in microfluidic networks of channels and wells etched into glass chips. The 3100 OFFGEL Fractionator resolves proteins or peptides by isoelectric point with liquid-phase recovery. In fiscal 2009 we introduced the 7100 Capillary Electrophoresis system, which seamlessly integrates with Agilent's MS systems, and is the most sensitive CE system on the market.
The acquisition of Stratagene Corporation during fiscal 2007 provided an expansion of our Life Science tools offering with the addition of tools and instrumentation for implementing PCR. PCR is used by scientists studying genetics to amplify or replicate a small amount of DNA to enable further analysis of the genes. Our portfolio of PCR instrumentation, reagents and kits, coupled with our other products such as microarrays and target enrichment systems for next-generation sequencing, provides a broad set of workflow solutions to customers in the genomics marketplace.
We provide software for instrument control, data acquisition, data analysis, laboratory content and business process management, and informatics. Our software facilitates the regulatory-compliant use of instruments in pharmaceutical quality assurance/quality control environments. With the acquisition of Stratagene Corporation we expanded our bioinformatics portfolio further through a relationship with Strand Genomics. We also augmented our data system capabilities through the 2007 acquisition of Kalabie, a provider of an electronic laboratory notebook (ELN) product.
Bioreagents are the primary tools used by scientists in the Life Science market to interrogate cells, genes and proteins. These bioreagent products are used to conduct a variety of experiments necessary to understand both the form and function of biological entities. The acquisition of Stratagene Corporation provided an expansion of our Life Science tools offering with the addition of a portfolio of reagent products for Nucleic Acid Amplification (PCR) and quantitative real-time PCR (QPCR), Cloning, Mutagenesis, Cell Biology and other key life science applications. These reagent tools enable us to create a broad set of complete workflow solutions to meet customer needs across our Life Science markets.
We also offer a broad range of consumable products, which support our LC, GC, ICP-MS, and MS technology platforms. These consumable products include sample preparation products, self manufactured GC and LC columns, chemical standards, instrument replacement parts, and consumable supplies to meet our customers' analysis needs. All of our products are designed to Agilent's specifications to improve and maximize the performance of our instruments.
We offer a wide range of startup, operational, educational and compliance support services for our measurement and data handling systems. Our support services include maintenance, troubleshooting, repair and training for all of our chemical and bioinstrumentation analysis hardware and software products. Special service bundles have also been designed to meet the specific application needs of various industries.
We have roughly 23,000 customers, and during fiscal 2009, no single customer represented greater than 3 percent of the net revenue of the business. The bio-analytical measurement business is susceptible to seasonality in its orders and revenues primarily based on U.S. government and large pharmaceutical company budgets. The result is that our first and fourth fiscal quarters tend to deliver the strongest profits for this group. However, general economic trends, new product introductions and competition might overshadow this trend in any given year.
Our sales and support delivery channels are aligned by key markets. We market products to our customers through direct sales, electronic commerce, resellers, manufacturers' representatives and distributors. Additionally, we are optimizing our worldwide distribution capabilities to address high-growth opportunities such as the environmental, food safety and biopharmaceutical markets in the Asia-Pacific region.
We use direct sales to market our solutions to all of our pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical accounts, large- and medium-sized chemical customers and environmental accounts. Sales agents supplement direct sales by providing broader geographic coverage and coverage of smaller accounts. Our active reseller program augments our ability to provide more complete solutions to our customers. We sell our consumable products through distributors, telesales and electronic commerce.
We deliver our support services to customers in a variety of ways, including on-site assistance with repair or exchange of returned products, telephone support and self-diagnostic services provided over the Internet. We also offer special industry-focused service bundles that are designed to meet the specific needs of hydrocarbon processing, environmental, pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical customers to keep instruments fully operational and compliant with the respective industry requirements. Our products typically come with standard warranties, and extended warranties are available for additional cost.
Our manufacturing supports our diverse product range and customer-centric focus. We assemble highly configurable products to individual customer orders and make standard products to stock. We employ advanced manufacturing techniques and supply chain management systems to reduce costs and manufacturing cycle times. We selectively use third parties to provide some supply chain processes for manufacturing, warehousing and logistics. We have manufacturing facilities in California, Colorado, Texas and Delaware in the U.S. Outside of the U.S., we have manufacturing facilities in China, Germany, Scotland and Japan. We utilize just-in-time manufacturing and so typically do not maintain a high level of inventory.
The markets for analytical instruments in which we compete are characterized by evolving industry standards and intense competition. Our principal competitors in the life sciences arena include: Affymetrix, Inc., Illumina, Inc., GEHealthcare, Life Technologies Corp., Thermo Fisher
Scientific Inc. and Waters Corp. Our principal competitors in the chemical analysis arena include: Life Technologies Corp., Perkin Elmer Corp., Shimadzu Corporation, Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc. and Varian, Inc. Agilent competes on the basis of product performance, reliability, support quality, applications expertise, global channel coverage and price.
The analysis products and related consumables marketed by our chemical analysis business are subject to regulation in the U.S. by the Environmental Protection Agency ("EPA") under the Toxic Substances Control Act and by government agencies in other countries under similar laws. The Toxic Substances Control Act regulations govern, among other things, the testing, manufacture, processing and distribution of chemicals, the testing of regulated chemicals for their effects on human health and safety and import and export of chemicals. The Toxic Substances Control Act prohibits persons from manufacturing any chemical in the U.S. that has not been reviewed by EPA for its effect on health and safety, and placed on an EPA inventory of chemical substances. Therefore, we must continually adapt our chemical analysis products to changing regulations. If we fail to comply with the notification, record-keeping and other requirements in the manufacture or distribution of our products, the EPA can obtain an order from a court that would prohibit the further distribution or marketing of a product that does not comply or we could face fines, civil penalties or criminal prosecution.
Semiconductor and Board Test Business
Our semiconductor and board test business provides standard and customized measurement instruments and systems which enable customers to develop and test state of the art semiconductors, test and inspect printed circuit boards, perform functional testing, and measure position and distance information to the sub-nanometer level.
We employed approximately 700 people in our semiconductor and board test business as of October 31, 2009. Our semiconductor and board test business generated $0.2 billion in revenue in fiscal 2009, $0.4 billion in revenue in fiscal 2008 and $0.5 billion in revenue in fiscal 2007.
Our semiconductor and board test business primarily serves the following markets:
The semiconductor development and test market consists of companies that design, test and manufacture semiconductor devices. Key market segments are semiconductor design companies, semiconductor foundry manufacturers, universities and research companies. Key sub-segments are integrated devices, memory devices and nanotechnology/microelectro-mechanical systems. Customers use our semiconductor parametric solutions to test the electrical parameters of wafers used in the semiconductor business. Our equipment is used to confirm specifications, improve yields and analyze new material properties. The instrumentation used consists of parametric test systems, parametric analyzers and source measure units.
This market consists of companies designing and selling lithography systems to the semiconductor and flat panel display manufacturers. The lithography business requires precise positioning for the shrinking semiconductor manufacturing dimensions. Our laser interferometer and nano positioning systems provide precise position or distance information. The Agilent solution is integrated into large lithography systems manufactured and sold by original equipment manufacturers ("OEMs").
Our semiconductor and board test products are used by electronic manufacturing services ("EMS") companies, contract manufacturers and OEMs that design, test, manufacture, distribute and service printed circuit board products. Printed circuit boards are used in all electronic products with the largest end-user markets being mobile phones, computers/PCs and telecommunications. Our test instruments, systems and software design tools are used to design products for efficient and cost-effective manufacturing, validate product performance in a variety of configurations and environments and to test an electronic device as it if were in use in its final environment.
We are one of the leading suppliers of parametric test instruments and systems which combine hardware technology and customizable system software and are used primarily to examine semiconductor wafers during the semiconductor manufacturing process. The 4070-series and 4080-series are parametric test system families used in manufacturing environments. The B1500-series achieves device characterization in a design and test environment.
The Agilent 3070 In-Circuit Test ("ICT") system is one of the world's best selling board test systems. The ICT system helps identify quality defects, such as faulty or incorrect parts, that affect electrical performance. This allows early repair of such defects. Agilent recently announced the Medalist i1000 ICT system focused on providing a lower cost test system.
Agilent provides precision optical systems that form the basis for our laser interferometry solutions. These systems provide very precise position or distance information for dimensional measurements or motion control. The Agilent solution includes laser heads, optical receivers, sensors and system electronics. Most systems are unique configurations based on customer requirements. Agilent also provides custom design work.
We market our semiconductor and board test products to semiconductor design and manufacturing companies, research labs and universities, nanotechnology labs, contract manufacturers, original equipment manufacturers, semiconductor lithography original equipment manufacturers and machine tool calibrator OEMs.
We had approximately 1,000 customers for semiconductor and board test products in fiscal 2009. One customer accounted for more than 10 percent of net semiconductor and board test segment revenue but less than 10 percent of consolidated Agilent revenue. The top three customers collectively accounted for more than 20 percent of net revenue of the semiconductor and board test business. The loss of any one of such customers could have a material adverse effect on the semiconductor and board test segment.
The orders and revenues from the semiconductor and board test markets are seasonal, traditionally marked by lower business levels in the first quarter of the fiscal year, increasing volumes in the second and third quarters of the fiscal year, and fourth quarter volumes somewhere between the second and third quarters.
We have a focused sales strategy with a specialized direct sales force, resellers and manufacturer's representatives. Our direct sales force is predominantly dedicated to semiconductor and board test product line sales only. They focus on identifying the needs of our largest customers. Resellers and manufacturer's representatives assist with integrated solutions and geographical coverage, respectively. The semiconductor and board test solutions require integration of equipment, application services, software and after-sale service contracts.
The sales team works closely with original equipment manufacturers and their semiconductor foundry or contract manufacturing partner. The original equipment manufacturer often specifies the test equipment requirements, however the semiconductor foundry or contract manufacturer will purchase the equipment from Agilent or our channel partner.
We concentrate our semiconductor and board test manufacturing efforts primarily on final assembly and test of our products. To maximize our productivity and our ability to respond to market conditions, we use contract manufacturers for the production of printed circuit boards, sheet metal fabrication, metal die-casting, plastic molding and standard electronic components. We also manufacture proprietary devices and assemblies in our own fabrication facilities for competitive advantage. We have manufacturing facilities in California in the U.S. Outside of the U.S., we have manufacturing facilities in Japan and Malaysia.
We generally only manufacture products when we have received firm orders for delivery and do not generally hold large stocks of finished inventory.
Our semiconductor and board test business competes with a number of significant competitors in our major product categories and across our targeted industries. Our primary competitors are Keithley Instruments, Inc., Orbotech Ltd., Teradyne, Inc., TRI Test Research Inc., and Zygo Corporation.
Our semiconductor and board test business products compete primarily on the basis of product quality and functionality, as well as performance and reliability.
Agilent Technologies Research Laboratories
Agilent Research Laboratories is our central research organization based in Santa Clara, California, with satellite offices in Beijing, China; Leuven, Belgium; and South Queensferry, Scotland. The Research Laboratories create competitive advantage through high-impact technology, driving market leadership and growth in Agilent's core businesses and expanding Agilent's measurement footprint into adjacent markets. At the cross-roads of the organization, the Research Labs are able to identify and enable synergies across Agilent's businesses to create competitive differentiation and compelling customer value.
The technical staff have advanced degrees that cover a wide range of scientific and engineering fields, including biology, chemistry, computer science, distributed measurement, electrical engineering, image processing, materials science, mathematics, nano/microfabrication, microfluidics, software, informatics, optics, physics, physiology and signal processing.
Global Infrastructure Organization
We provide support to our businesses through our global infrastructure organization. This support includes services in the areas of finance, legal, workplace services, human resources and information technology. These organizations are generally headquartered in Santa Clara, California, with services provided worldwide. As of the end of October 2009, our global infrastructure organization employed approximately 2,200 people worldwide, which includes the Agilent Labs researchers described above.
The following discussions of Research and Development, Backlog, Intellectual Property, Materials, Environmental, International Operations and Acquisition and Disposal of Material Assets include information common to each of our businesses.
Research and Development
Research and development ("R&D") expenditures were $642 million in 2009, $704 million in 2008 and $685 million in 2007, the vast majority of which was company-sponsored. We anticipate that we will continue to have significant R&D expenditures in order to maintain our competitive position with a continuing flow of innovative, high-quality products and services.
On October 31, 2009, our unfilled orders for the electronic measurement business were approximately $630 million, as compared to approximately $610 million at October 31, 2008. On October 31, 2009, our unfilled orders for the bio-analytical measurement business were approximately $380 million, as compared to approximately $360 million at October 31, 2008. Within our semiconductor and board test business our unfilled orders were approximately $40 million on October 31, 2009 as compared to approximately $60 million at October 31, 2008. We expect that a large majority of the unfilled orders for all three businesses will be delivered to customers within six months. On average, our unfilled orders represent approximately two months' worth of revenues. In light of this experience, backlog on any particular date, while indicative of short-term revenue performance, is not necessarily a reliable indicator of medium or long-term revenue performance.
We generate patent and other intellectual property rights covering significant inventions and other innovations in order to create a competitive advantage. While we believe that our licenses, patents and other intellectual property rights have value, in general no single license, patent or other intellectual property right is in itself material. In addition, our intellectual property rights may be challenged, invalidated or circumvented or may otherwise not provide significant competitive advantage.
Our manufacturing operations employ a wide variety of semiconductors, electromechanical components and assemblies and raw materials such as plastic resins and sheet metal. Our electronic measurement, bio-analytical measurement and semiconductor and board test businesses all purchase materials from thousands of suppliers on a global basis. Some of the parts that require custom design work are not readily available from alternate suppliers due to their unique design or the length of time necessary for design work. Our long-term relationships with suppliers allow us to proactively manage technology road maps and product discontinuance plans and monitor their financial health. Even so, some suppliers may still extend their lead times, limit supplies, increase prices or cease to produce necessary parts for our products. If these are unique components, we may not be able to find a
substitute quickly or at all. To address the potential disruption in our supply chain, we use a number of techniques, including qualifying multiple sources of supply and redesign of products for alternative components. In addition, while we generally attempt to keep our inventory at minimal levels, we do purchase incremental inventory as circumstances warrant to protect the supply chain.
Our R&D, manufacturing and distribution operations involve the use of hazardous substances and are regulated under international, federal, state and local laws governing health and safety and the environment. We apply strict standards for protection of the environment and occupational health and safety to sites inside and outside the U.S., even if not subject to regulation imposed by foreign governments. We believe that our properties and operations at our facilities comply in all material respects with applicable environmental laws and occupational health and safety laws. However, the risk of environmental liabilities cannot be completely eliminated and there can be no assurance that the application of environmental and health and safety laws to Agilent will not require us to incur significant expenditures. We are also regulated under a number of international, federal, state, and local laws regarding recycling, product packaging and product content requirements. The environmental, product content/disposal, and recycling laws are gradually becoming more stringent and may cause us to incur significant expenditures in the future.
Some of our operations are located on properties that are known to have subsurface contamination undergoing remediation by our former parent company, Hewlett-Packard Company ("HP"). As part of the initial separation agreement from HP in 1999, HP agreed to retain the liability for the contamination, perform the required remediation and indemnify us with respect to claims arising out of the contamination. The determination of the existence and cost of remediation of additional contamination caused by us, if any, could involve costly and time-consuming negotiations and litigation. While we expect that HP will meet its remediation and indemnification obligations in this regard, there can be no guarantee that it will do so. Under our agreement with HP, HP will have access to these properties to perform the remediation. HP has agreed to minimize interference with on-site operations at those properties during the course of the remediation, but there can be no guarantee that our operations will not be interrupted or that we will not be required to incur unreimbursed costs associated with the remediation. The remediation could also harm on-site operations and the future use and negatively affect the value and future use of the properties. Several of the sites under the initial separation agreement from HP have been sold.
In addition, some of these properties are undergoing remediation by HP under an order of an agency of the state in which the property is located. Although HP has agreed to indemnify us with respect to such subsurface contamination, it is possible that one or more of the governmental agencies will require us to be named on any of these orders. The naming of Agilent will not affect HP's obligation to indemnify us with regard to these matters.
We are liable and are indemnifying HP for any contamination found at all facilities transferred to us by HP excluding the properties undergoing remediation. In addition, we are obligated to indemnify HP for liability associated with past non-compliance with environmental laws regulating ongoing operations, if any, at all properties transferred to us by HP, as well as at sold or discontinued businesses that are related to our businesses. While we are not aware of any material liabilities associated with such indemnified matters, there is no guarantee that such contamination or regulatory non-compliance does not exist, and will not expose us to material liability in the future.
We are being indemnified by HP with respect to all environmental liabilities for which HP accrued a reserve, and we are not aware of any material environmental liabilities assumed by us which are not subject to the indemnity.
We maintain a comprehensive Environmental Site Liability insurance policy which may cover certain clean-up costs or legal claims related to environmental contamination. This policy covers specified active, inactive and divested locations.
Our net revenue originating outside the U.S., as a percentage of our total net revenue, was approximately 67 percent in fiscal 2009, 68 percent in fiscal 2008 and 66 percent in fiscal 2007, the majority of which was from customers other than foreign governments. Annual revenues derived from China were approximately 13 percent in fiscal 2009, 11 percent in fiscal 2008 and 10 percent in fiscal 2007. Approximately 11 percent of our revenue in fiscal 2009 and 12 percent in fiscal 2008 and fiscal 2007 was derived from Japan. Revenues from external customers are generally attributed to countries based upon the location of the Agilent sales representative.
Long-lived assets located outside of the U.S., as a percentage of our total long-lived assets, was approximately 51 percent in fiscal year 2009, 48 percent in fiscal year 2008 and 55 percent in fiscal year 2007. Approximately 16, 14 and 16 percent of our long-lived assets were located in Japan in fiscal years 2009, 2008 and 2007, respectively.
Most of our sales in international markets are made by foreign sales subsidiaries. In countries with low sales volumes, sales are made through various representatives and distributors. However, we also sell into international markets directly from the U.S.
Our international business is subject to risks customarily encountered in foreign operations, including interruption to transportation flows for delivery of parts to us and finished goods to our customers, changes in a specific country's or region's political or economic conditions, trade protection measures, import or export licensing requirements, consequences from changes in tax laws and regulatory requirements, difficulty in staffing and managing widespread operations, differing labor regulations, differing protection of intellectual property and geopolitical turmoil, including terrorism and war. We are also exposed to foreign currency exchange rate risk inherent in our sales commitments, anticipated sales and expenses, and assets and liabilities denominated in currencies other than the local functional currency, and may also become subject to interest rate risk inherent in any debt we incur, or investment portfolios we hold. There may be an increased risk of political unrest in regions where we have significant manufacturing operations such as Southeast Asia. However, we believe that our international diversification provides stability to our worldwide operations and reduces the impact on us of adverse economic changes in any single country. Financial information about our international operations is contained in Note 21, "Segment Information", to our consolidated financial statements.
Acquisition and Disposal of Material Assets
On July 26, 2009, Agilent, Varian, Inc. ("Varian"), and Cobalt Acquisition Corp., a direct, wholly-owned subsidiary of Agilent, entered into an Agreement and Plan of Merger (the "Merger Agreement"). Pursuant to the terms of the Merger Agreement, Varian would become a wholly-owned subsidiary of Agilent. Varian is a leading worldwide supplier of scientific instrumentation and associated consumables for life science and applied market applications. The estimated $1.5 billion total purchase price of Varian includes $52 cash per share of Varian's common stock, the cashing out of in the money stock options (after acceleration) and assumed debt. The transaction has been approved by
shareholders of Varian and is expected to be completed after achieving customary closing conditions and regulatory approvals. We may finance the purchase price of Varian using a portion of the proceeds from our September 2009 offering of senior notes and other existing cash.
Executive Officers of the Registrant
The names of our current executive officers and their ages, titles and biographies appear below:
Adrian T. Dillon, 55, has served as our Executive Vice President, Finance and Administration, Chief Financial Officer since March 2005. Mr. Dillon served as our Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer from December 2001 to March 2005. Prior to joining Agilent, Mr. Dillon served as Executive Vice President and Chief Financial and Planning Officer of Eaton Corporation from April 1997 to December 2001. Mr. Dillon held various management positions at Eaton Corporation from 1979 to 1997. Mr. Dillon is a member of the Board of Directors of Williams-Sonoma, Inc., where he is Chairman of the Audit and Finance Committee. Mr. Dillon was also a member of the Board of Directors of Verigy Ltd. from March 2006 to July 2007 and served as Chairman from June 2006 to July 2007.
Jean M. Halloran, 57, has served as our Senior Vice President, Human Resources since August 1999. From 1997 to 1999, Ms. Halloran served as Director of Corporate Education and Development for Hewlett-Packard. Prior to assuming this position, from 1993 to 1997, Ms. Halloran acted as human resources manager for Hewlett-Packard's Measurement Systems Organization. Ms. Halloran joined Hewlett-Packard in 1980 in the Medical Products Group, where she held a variety of positions in human resources, manufacturing and strategic planning.
Didier Hirsch, 58, has served as our Vice President, Corporate Controllership and Tax since November 2006 and as our Chief Accounting Officer since November 2007. From April 2003 to October 2006, Mr. Hirsch served as Vice President and Controller. Prior to assuming this position, Mr. Hirsch served as Vice President and Treasurer from September 1999 to April 2003. Mr. Hirsch had joined Hewlett-Packard Company in 1989 as Director of Finance and Administration of Hewlett-Packard France. In 1993, he became Director of Finance and Administration of Hewlett-Packard Asia Pacific, and in 1996 Director of Finance and Administration of Hewlett-Packard Europe, Middle East, and Africa.
Marie Oh Huber, 48, has served as Senior Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary since September 2009 and serves as an officer or director for a variety of Agilent subsidiaries. Ms. Huber served as our Vice President, Deputy General Counsel and Assistant Secretary from June 2007 to September 2009, as our Vice President, Assistant General Counsel and Assistant Secretary from July 2002 to June 2007 and as our Assistant General Counsel and Assistant Secretary from May 1999 to July 2002. Ms. Huber served as an attorney and counsel for Hewlett-Packard Company from 1990 to May 1999. She is also a director of American Leadership Forum Silicon Valley.
Michael R. McMullen, 48, has served as Senior Vice President, Agilent and President, Chemical Analysis Group since September 2009. From January 2002 to September 2009, he served as our Vice President and General Manager of the Chemical Analysis Solutions Unit of the Life Sciences and Chemical Analysis Group. Prior to assuming this position, from March 1999 to December 2001, Mr. McMullen served as Country Manager for Agilent's China, Japan and Korea Life Sciences and Chemical Analysis Group. Prior to this position, Mr. McMullen served as our Controller for the Hewlett-Packard Company and Yokogawa Electric Joint Venture from July 1996 to March 1999.
Ronald S. Nersesian, 50, has served as Senior Vice President, Agilent and President, Electronic Measurement Group since March 2009. From February 2005 to February 2009, Mr. Nersesian served as
our Vice President and General Manager of the Wireless Business Unit of the Electronics Measurement Group and from May 2002 to February 2005, as our Vice President and General Manager of the Design Validation Division. Prior to joining Agilent, Mr. Nersesian served in management positions with LeCroy Corporation from 1996 to 2002, including Senior Vice President and General Manager of the Digital Storage Oscilloscope Business.
Nicolas H. Roelofs, 51, has served as Senior Vice President, Agilent and President, Life Sciences Group since September 2009. From June 2006 to September 2009 he served as our Vice President and General Manager of the Life Sciences Solutions Unit of the Life Sciences and Chemical Analysis Group. Prior to joining Agilent, Mr. Roelofs served as Group Operations Officer of the Life Sciences Group of Bio-Rad Laboratories from January 2005 to May 2006. Prior to that, Mr. Roelofs served as Chief Operating Officer of Stratagene Corporation from September 2001 to December 2004.
William P. Sullivan, 59, has served as Agilent's President, Chief Executive Officer and a Director since March 2005. Before being named as Agilent's Chief Executive Officer, Mr. Sullivan served as Executive Vice President and Chief Operating Officer from March 2002 to March 2005. In that capacity, he shared the responsibilities of the president's office with Agilent's former President and Chief Executive Officer, Edward W. Barnholt. Mr. Sullivan also had overall responsibility for Agilent's Electronic Products and Solutions Group, the company's largest business group. Prior to assuming that position, Mr. Sullivan served as our Senior Vice President, Semiconductor Products Group, from August 1999 to March 2002. Before that, Mr. Sullivan held various management positions at Hewlett-Packard Company. Mr. Sullivan serves on the Board of the Children's Discovery Museum in San Jose, California, as well as on the Board of Directors of URS Corporation and Avnet, Inc.
We are subject to the informational requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (the "Exchange Act"). Therefore, we file periodic reports, proxy statements and other information with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the "SEC"). Such reports, proxy statements and other information may be read and copied by visiting the Public Reference Room of the SEC at 100 F Street N.E., Washington, D.C. 20549. You may obtain information on the operation of the Public Reference Room by calling the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330. In addition, the SEC maintains an Internet site (http://www.sec.gov) that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information regarding issuers that file electronically.
You can access financial and other information at our Investor Relations website. The address is www.investor.agilent.com. We make available, free of charge, copies of our annual report on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act as soon as reasonably practicable after filing such material electronically or otherwise furnishing it to the SEC.
Our Amended and Restated Corporate Governance Standards, the charters of our Audit and Finance Committee, our Compensation Committee, our Executive Committee and our Nominating/Corporate Governance Committee, as well as our Standards of Business Conduct (including code of ethics provisions that apply to our principal executive officer, principal financial officer, principal accounting officer and senior financial officers) are available on our website at www.investor.agilent.com under "Corporate Governance". These items are also available in print to any stockholder in the United States and Canada who requests them by calling (877) 942-4200. This information is also available by writing to the company at the address on the cover of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Risks, Uncertainties and Other Factors That May Affect Future Results
Continued depressed general economic conditions and uncertainties in the global credit and equity markets may adversely affect our operating results and financial condition.
Our business is sensitive to changes in general economic conditions, both inside and outside the U.S. Worldwide financial markets have experienced extreme disruption in the past year, including, among other things, extreme volatility in security prices, severely diminished liquidity and credit availability, rating downgrades and declining valuations of investments. These disruptions are likely to have an ongoing adverse effect on the world economy. We are unable to predict how long the economic downturn will last. A continuing economic downturn and continuing financial market disruptions may adversely impact our business resulting in:
Our operating results and financial condition could be harmed if the markets into which we sell our products decline or do not grow as anticipated.
Visibility into our markets is limited. Our quarterly sales and operating results are highly dependent on the volume and timing of orders received during the fiscal quarter, which are difficult to forecast. In addition, our revenues and earnings forecasts for future fiscal quarters are often based on the expected seasonality or cyclicality of our markets. However, the markets we serve do not always experience the seasonality or cyclicality that we expect. Any decline in our customers' markets or in general economic conditions, including declines related to the current market disruptions described above, would likely result in a reduction in demand for our products and services. For example, we experienced weakness in almost all sectors during the year due to declines in market activity caused largely by the continued global economic downturn. The broader semiconductor market is one of the drivers for our electronic measurement business, and therefore, a decrease in the semiconductor market could harm our electronic measurement business. Also, if our customers' markets decline, we may not be able to collect on outstanding amounts due to us. Such declines could harm our consolidated financial position, results of operations, cash flows and stock price, and could limit our ability to sustain profitability. Also, in such an environment, pricing pressures could intensify. Since a significant portion of our operating expenses is relatively fixed in nature due to sales, research and development and manufacturing costs, if we were unable to respond quickly enough these pricing pressures could further reduce our gross margins.
The actions that we are taking to reduce costs could have long-term adverse effects on our business.
Since December 2008, we have announced and implemented significant restructuring activities in our global infrastructure organization and our semiconductor and board test segment and electronic measurement segment. This restructuring program and regular ongoing evaluations of our cost
structure, could have the effect of reducing our talent pool and available resources and, consequently, could have long-term effects on our business by decreasing or slowing improvements in our products, affecting our ability to respond to customers, limiting our ability to increase production quickly if and when the demand for our products increases, and limiting our ability to hire and retain key personnel. These circumstances could harm our consolidated financial position, results of operations, cash flows, and stock price, and could limit our ability to sustain profitability.
If we do not introduce successful new products and services in a timely manner, our products and services will become obsolete, and our operating results will suffer.
We generally sell our products in industries that are characterized by rapid technological changes, frequent new product and service introductions and changing industry standards. In addition, many of the markets in which we operate are seasonal and cyclical. Without the timely introduction of new products, services and enhancements, our products and services will become technologically obsolete over time, in which case our revenue and operating results would suffer. The success of our new products and services will depend on several factors, including our ability to:
Dependence on contract manufacturing and outsourcing other portions of our supply chain may adversely affect our ability to bring products to market and damage our reputation. Dependence on outsourced information technology and other administrative functions may impair our ability to operate effectively.
As part of our efforts to streamline operations and to cut costs, we have been outsourcing aspects of our manufacturing processes and other functions and will continue to evaluate additional outsourcing. If our contract manufacturers or other outsourcers fail to perform their obligations in a timely manner or at satisfactory quality levels, our ability to bring products to market and our reputation could suffer. For example, during a market upturn, our contract manufacturers may be unable to meet our demand requirements, which may preclude us from fulfilling our customers' orders on a timely basis. The ability of these manufacturers to perform is largely outside of our control. In addition, we outsource significant portions of our information technology ("IT") function and other administrative functions. Since IT is critical to our operations, any failure to perform on the part of the IT providers could impair our ability to operate effectively. In addition to the risks outlined above, problems with manufacturing or IT outsourcing could result in lower revenues, unexecuted efficiencies, and impact our results of operations and our stock price. Much of our outsourcing takes place in developing countries and, as a result, may be subject to geopolitical uncertainty.
Failure to adjust our purchases due to changing market conditions or failure to estimate our customers' demand could adversely affect our income.
Our income could be harmed if we are unable to adjust our purchases to market fluctuations, including those caused by the seasonal or cyclical nature of the markets in which we operate. The sale of our products and services are dependent, to a large degree, on customers whose industries are subject to seasonal or cyclical trends in the demand for their products. For example, the consumer electronics market is particularly volatile, making demand difficult to anticipate. During a market upturn, we may not be able to purchase sufficient supplies or components to meet increasing product demand, which could materially affect our results. In addition, some of the parts that require custom design are not readily available from alternate suppliers due to their unique design or the length of time necessary for design work. Should a supplier cease manufacturing such a component, we would be forced to reengineer our product. In addition to discontinuing parts, suppliers may also extend lead times, limit supplies or increase prices due to capacity constraints or other factors. In order to secure components for the production of products, we may continue to enter into non-cancelable purchase commitments with vendors, or at times make advance payments to suppliers, which could impact our ability to adjust our inventory to declining market demands. Prior commitments of this type have resulted in an excess of parts when demand for our communications and electronics products has decreased. If demand for our products is less than we expect, we may experience additional excess and obsolete inventories and be forced to incur additional charges.
Because we cannot immediately adapt our production capacity and related cost structures to rapidly changing market conditions, when demand does not meet our expectations, our manufacturing capacity will likely exceed our production requirements. If, during a general market upturn or an upturn in one of our segments, we cannot increase our manufacturing capacity to meet product demand, we will not be able to fulfill orders in a timely manner. This inability could materially and adversely limit our ability to improve our results. By contrast, if during an economic downturn we had excess manufacturing capacity, then our fixed costs associated with excess manufacturing capacity would adversely affect our income.
Economic, political and other risks associated with international sales and operations could adversely affect our results of operations.
Because we sell our products worldwide, our business is subject to risks associated with doing business internationally. We anticipate that revenue from international operations will continue to represent a majority of our total revenue. In addition, many of our employees, contract manufacturers, suppliers, job functions and manufacturing facilities are increasingly located outside the U.S. Accordingly, our future results could be harmed by a variety of factors, including:
We centralized most of our accounting processes to two locations: India and Malaysia. These processes include general accounting, cost accounting, accounts payable and accounts receivables functions. If conditions change in those countries, it may adversely affect operations, including impairing our ability to pay our suppliers and collect our receivables. Our results of operations, as well as our liquidity, may be adversely affected and possible delays may occur in reporting financial results.
In addition, although the majority of our products are priced and paid for in U.S. dollars, a significant amount of certain types of expenses, such as payroll, utilities, tax, and marketing expenses, are paid in local currencies. Our hedging programs reduce, but do not always entirely eliminate, within any given twelve month period, the impact of currency exchange rate movements, and therefore fluctuations in exchange rates, including those caused by currency controls, could impact our business operating results and financial condition by resulting in lower revenue or increased expenses. However, for expenses beyond that twelve month period, our hedging strategy does not mitigate our exposure. In addition, our currency hedging programs involve third party financial institutions as counterparties. These financial institutions, generally, have experienced and continue to experience significant adverse effects on their business from the current decline in general economic conditions and uncertainties in the global credit and equity markets. The weakening or failure of financial institution counterparties may adversely affect our hedging programs and our financial condition through, among other things, a reduction in available counterparties, increasingly unfavorable terms, and the failure of the counterparties to perform under hedging contracts.
Our future success depends partly on the continued service of our key research, engineering, sales, marketing, manufacturing, executive and administrative personnel. If we fail to retain and hire a sufficient number of these personnel, we will not be able to maintain or expand our business. The markets in which we operate are very dynamic, and our businesses continue to respond with reorganizations, workforce reductions and site closures. We believe our pay levels are very competitive within the regions that we operate. However, there is also intense competition for certain highly technical specialties in geographic areas where we continue to recruit, and it may become more difficult to retain our key employees, especially in light of our ongoing restructuring efforts.
The impact of consolidation of competitors in the electronic measurement and life sciences markets is difficult to predict and may harm our business.
The electronic measurement and life sciences industries are intensely competitive and have been subject to increasing consolidation. For instance, in September 2009, Danaher Corporation announced an agreement to acquire the Life Sciences Instrumentation Businesses from MDS Inc. and Life Technologies Corp. Consolidation in the electronic measurement and life sciences industries could result in existing competitors increasing their market share through business combinations, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. We may not be able to compete successfully in an increasingly consolidated industry and cannot predict with certainty how industry consolidation will affect our competitors or us.
Our acquisitions, strategic alliances, joint ventures and divestitures may result in financial results that are different than expected.
In the normal course of business, we frequently engage in discussions with third parties relating to possible acquisitions, strategic alliances, joint ventures and divestitures, and generally expect to complete several transactions per year. For example, in fiscal 2009, we completed a number of acquisitions and divestitures. In addition, in July 2009, we agreed to acquire Varian, Inc. The closing of the Varian acquisition is subject to certain closing conditions, including, but not limited to, the receipt of antitrust approvals in both the U.S. and the European Union. As a result of such transactions, our financial results may differ from our own or the investment community's expectations in a given fiscal quarter, or over the long term. Such transactions often have post-closing arrangements including but not limited to post-closing adjustments, transition services, escrows or indemnifications, the financial results of which can be difficult to predict. In addition, acquisitions, including the Varian acquisition, and strategic alliances may require us to integrate a different company culture, management team and business infrastructure. We may have difficulty developing, manufacturing and marketing the products of a newly acquired company in a way that enhances the performance of our combined businesses or product lines to realize the value from expected synergies. Depending on the size and complexity of an acquisition, our successful integration of the entity depends on a variety of factors, including:
In addition, effective internal controls are necessary for us to provide reliable and accurate financial reports and to effectively prevent fraud. The integration of acquired businesses is likely to result in our systems and controls becoming increasingly complex and more difficult to manage. We devote significant resources and time to comply with the internal control over financial reporting requirements of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002. However, we cannot be certain that these measures will ensure that we design, implement and maintain adequate control over our financial processes and reporting in the future, especially in the context of acquisitions of other businesses. Any difficulties in the assimilation of acquired businesses into our control system could harm our operating results or cause us to fail to meet our financial reporting obligations. Inferior internal controls could also cause investors to lose confidence in our reported financial information, which could have a negative effect on the trading price of our stock and our access to capital.
A successful divestiture depends on various factors, including our ability to:
In addition, if customers of the divested business do not receive the same level of service from the new owners, this may adversely affect our other businesses to the extent that these customers also purchase other Agilent products. All of these efforts require varying levels of management resources, which may divert our attention from other business operations. Further, if market conditions or other
factors lead us to change our strategic direction, we may not realize the expected value from such transactions. If we do not realize the expected benefits or synergies of such transactions, our consolidated financial position, results of operations, cash flows and stock price could be negatively impacted.
If we do not achieve the contemplated benefits of our pending acquisition of Varian, Inc., our business and financial condition may be materially impaired.
We may not achieve the desired benefits from our pending acquisition of Varian. In addition, the consummation of the Varian acquisition is subject to certain closing conditions, including, but not limited to, the receipt of antitrust approvals in both the U.S. and the European Union. While we intend to consummate the Varian acquisition as soon as practicable after such approvals are obtained, there can be no assurance that we will obtain such approvals or satisfy the other conditions to consummation of the Varian acquisition when expected or at all, which could, among other things, delay or prevent us from completing the acquisition or restrict our ability to realize the expected financial and strategic goals of the transaction.
The acquisition involves the integration of Varian with the rest of our company. If we cannot successfully integrate Varian's operations, we may experience material negative consequences to our business, financial condition or results of operations. The integration of two businesses that have previously operated separately will be a costly and time-consuming process that will involve a number of risks, including, but not limited to:
Even if we are able to successfully integrate the operations of Varian, we may not be able to realize the cost savings, synergies and growth that we anticipate from the acquisition in the time frame that we currently expect, and the costs of achieving these benefits may be higher than what we currently expect, because of a number of risks, including, but not limited to:
As a result of these risks, the Varian acquisition may not contribute to our earnings as expected, we may not achieve expected cost synergies or our return on invested capital targets when expected, or at all, and we may not achieve the other anticipated strategic and financial benefits of this transaction.
Environmental contamination from past operations could subject us to unreimbursed costs and could harm on-site operations and the future use and value of the properties involved and environmental contamination caused by ongoing operations could subject us to substantial liabilities in the future.
Some of our properties are undergoing remediation by the Hewlett-Packard Company ("HP") for subsurface contaminations that were known at the time of our separation from HP. HP has agreed to retain the liability for this subsurface contamination, perform the required remediation and indemnify us with respect to claims arising out of that contamination. HP will have access to our properties to perform remediation. While HP has agreed to minimize interference with on-site operations at those properties, remediation activities and subsurface contamination may require us to incur unreimbursed costs and could harm on-site operations and the future use and value of the properties. We cannot be sure that HP will continue to fulfill its indemnification or remediation obligations. In addition, the determination of the existence and cost of any additional contamination caused by us could involve costly and time-consuming negotiations and litigation.
We have agreed to indemnify HP for any liability associated with contamination from past operations at all other properties transferred from HP to us, other than those properties currently undergoing remediation by HP. While we are not aware of any material liabilities associated with any potential subsurface contamination at any of those properties, subsurface contamination may exist, and we may be exposed to material liability as a result of the existence of that contamination.
Our current and historical manufacturing processes involve, or have involved, the use of substances regulated under various international, federal, state and local laws governing the environment. As a result, we may become subject to liabilities for environmental contamination, and these liabilities may be substantial. While we have divested substantially all of our semiconductor related businesses to Avago and Verigy and regardless of indemnification arrangements with those parties, we may still become subject to liabilities for historical environmental contamination related to those businesses. Although our policy is to apply strict standards for environmental protection at our sites inside and outside the U.S., even if the sites outside the U.S. are not subject to regulations imposed by foreign governments, we may not be aware of all conditions that could subject us to liability.
Our customers and we are subject to various governmental regulations, compliance with which may cause us to incur significant expenses, and if we fail to maintain satisfactory compliance with certain regulations, we may be forced to recall products and cease their manufacture and distribution, and we could be subject to civil or criminal penalties.
Our businesses are subject to various significant international, federal, state and local regulations, including but not limited to health and safety, packaging, product content, labor and import/export regulations. These regulations are complex, change frequently and have tended to become more stringent over time. We may be required to incur significant expenses to comply with these regulations or to remedy violations of these regulations. Any failure by us to comply with applicable government regulations could also result in cessation of our operations or portions of our operations, product recalls or impositions of fines and restrictions on our ability to carry on or expand our operations. In addition, because many of our products are regulated or sold into regulated industries, we must comply with additional regulations in marketing our products.
Our products and operations are also often subject to the rules of industrial standards bodies, like the International Standards Organization, as well as regulation by other agencies such as the U.S. Federal Communications Commission. We also must comply with work safety rules. If we fail to adequately address any of these regulations, our businesses could be harmed.
Some of our chemical analysis products are used in conjunction with chemicals whose manufacture, processing, distribution and notification requirements are regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency under the Toxic Substances Control Act, and by regulatory bodies in other countries with laws similar to the Toxic Substances Control Act. We must conform the manufacture, processing, distribution of and notification about these chemicals to these laws and adapt to regulatory requirements in all countries as these requirements change. If we fail to comply with these requirements in the manufacture or distribution of our products, then we could be made to pay civil penalties, face criminal prosecution and, in some cases, be prohibited from distributing our products in commerce until the products or component substances are brought into compliance.
We are subject to laws and regulations, and failure to address or comply with these laws and regulations could harm our business by leading to a reduction in revenue associated with certain customers.
We have agreements relating to the sale of our products to government entities and, as a result, we are subject to various statutes and regulations that apply to companies doing business with the government. The laws governing government contracts differ from the laws governing private contracts. For example, many government contracts contain pricing terms and conditions that are not applicable to private contracts. We are also subject to investigation for compliance with the regulations governing government contracts. A failure to comply with these regulations might result in suspension of these contracts, or administrative penalties.
A number of our products from our bio-analytical measurement business are subject to regulation by the United States Food and Drug Administration ("FDA") and certain similar foreign regulatory agencies. If we or any of our suppliers or distributors fail to comply with FDA and other applicable regulatory requirements or are perceived to potentially have failed to comply, we may face, among other things, adverse publicity affecting both us and our customers, investigations or notices of non-compliance, fines, injunctions, and civil penalties; partial suspensions or total shutdown of production facilities or the imposition of operating restrictions; increased difficulty in obtaining required FDA clearances or approvals; seizures or recalls of our products or those of our customers; or the inability to sell our products.
Third parties may claim that we are infringing their intellectual property and we could suffer significant litigation or licensing expenses or be prevented from selling products or services.
From time to time, third parties may claim that one or more of our products or services infringe their intellectual property rights. We analyze and take action in response to such claims on a case by case basis. Any dispute or litigation regarding patents or other intellectual property could be costly and time-consuming due to the complexity of our technology and the uncertainty of intellectual property litigation and could divert our management and key personnel from our business operations. A claim of intellectual property infringement could force us to enter into a costly or restrictive license agreement, which might not be available under acceptable terms or at all, could require us to redesign our products, which would be costly and time-consuming, and/or could subject us to significant damages or to an injunction against development and sale of certain of our products or services. Our intellectual property portfolio may not be useful in asserting a counterclaim, or negotiating a license, in response to a claim of intellectual property infringement. In certain of our businesses we rely on third party intellectual property licenses and we cannot ensure that these licenses will be available to us in the future on favorable terms or at all.
Third parties may infringe our intellectual property and we may suffer competitive injury or expend significant resources enforcing our rights.
Our success depends in large part on our proprietary technology. We rely on various intellectual property rights, including patents, copyrights, trademarks and trade secrets, as well as confidentiality provisions and licensing arrangements, to establish our proprietary rights. If we do not enforce our intellectual property rights successfully our competitive position may suffer which could harm our operating results.
Our pending patent applications, and our pending copyright and trademark registration applications, may not be allowed or competitors may challenge the validity or scope of our patents, copyrights or trademarks. In addition, our patents, copyrights, trademarks and other intellectual property rights may not provide us a significant competitive advantage.
We may need to spend significant resources monitoring our intellectual property rights and we may or may not be able to detect infringement by third parties. Our competitive position may be harmed if we cannot detect infringement and enforce our intellectual property rights quickly or at all. In some circumstances, we may choose to not pursue enforcement because an infringer has a dominant intellectual property position or for other business reasons. In addition, competitors might avoid infringement by designing around our intellectual property rights or by developing non-infringing competing technologies. Intellectual property rights and our ability to enforce them may be unavailable or limited in some countries which could make it easier for competitors to capture market share and could result in lost revenues. Furthermore, some of our intellectual property is licensed to others which allow them to compete with us using that intellectual property.
We are subject to ongoing tax examinations of our tax returns by the Internal Revenue Service and other tax authorities. An adverse outcome of any such audit or examination by the IRS or other tax authority could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition and liquidity.
We are subject to ongoing tax examinations of our tax returns by the U.S. Internal Revenue Service and other tax authorities in various jurisdictions. We regularly assess the likelihood of adverse outcomes resulting from ongoing tax examinations to determine the adequacy of our provision for income taxes. These assessments can require considerable estimates and judgments. Intercompany
transactions associated with the sale of inventory, services, intellectual property and cost share arrangements are complex and affect our tax liabilities. The calculation of our tax liabilities involves dealing with uncertainties in the application of complex tax laws and regulations in a multitude of jurisdictions. There can be no assurance that the outcomes from ongoing tax examinations will not have an adverse effect on our operating results and financial condition. A difference in the ultimate resolution of tax uncertainties from what is currently estimated could have an adverse effect on our operating results and financial condition.
Adverse conditions in the global banking industry and credit markets may adversely impact the value of our cash investments or impair our liquidity.
At the end of our fourth quarter in fiscal 2009, we had cash and cash equivalents of approximately $2.5 billion invested or held in a mix of money market funds, time deposit accounts and bank demand deposit accounts. The recent disruptions in the financial markets have, in some cases, resulted in an inability to access assets such as money market funds that traditionally have been viewed as highly liquid. Any failure of our counterparty financial institutions or funds in which we have invested may adversely impact our cash and cash equivalent positions and, in turn, our results and financial condition. As of October 31, 2009, we also had $1.6 billion of restricted cash which is invested in a portfolio of highly rated, short term commercial paper. This restricted cash is invested in a diverse portfolio of commercial paper rated A-1+/P-1 with maturities of less than 100 days, in each case, at the time of purchase; however, a failure of the issuer of any such commercial paper may result in an adverse impact on the portfolio.
We have outstanding debt and may incur other debt in the future, which could adversely affect our financial condition, liquidity and results of operations.
We currently have outstanding an aggregate principal amount of $1,350 million in senior unsecured notes. We also are a party to a five-year senior unsecured revolving credit facility under which we may borrow up to $330 million. We may borrow additional amounts in the future and use the proceeds from any future borrowing for general corporate purposes, other future acquisitions, expansion of our business or repurchases of our outstanding shares of common stock. We may enter into additional financing arrangements in order to satisfy our $1.5 billion repurchase obligation of Agilent Technologies World Trade, which is scheduled to come due in January 2011.
Our incurrence of this debt, and increases in our aggregate levels of debt, may adversely affect our operating results and financial condition by, among other things:
Our current revolving credit facility imposes restrictions on us, including restrictions on our ability to create liens on our assets and the ability of our subsidiaries to incur indebtedness, and requires us to maintain compliance with specified financial ratios. Our ability to comply with these ratios may be affected by events beyond our control. In addition, the indenture governing our senior notes contains covenants that may adversely affect our ability to incur certain liens or engage in certain types of sale and leaseback transactions. If we breach any of the covenants and do not obtain a waiver from the lenders, then, subject to applicable cure periods, our outstanding indebtedness could be declared immediately due and payable.
Our results of operations, financial condition and liquidity could be adversely affected if our long-term leasehold counterparty becomes insolvent and the credit support on the leasehold transaction fails.
In February 2001, we sold a parcel of surplus land in San Jose, California for $287 million in cash. In August 2001, we completed a like-kind exchange by acquiring a long-term leasehold interest in several municipal properties in southern California for a total value of $289 million. In 2002, we received $237 million in non-refundable prepaid rent related to the leasehold interests described above. We contracted with a third party to provide credit protection for certain aspects of the transaction, including a future bankruptcy of the municipality. The current third party insurer is a subsidiary of American International Group Inc. ("AIG") which has recently experienced a credit rating downgrade by Moody's and Standard & Poor's and has been the recipient of U.S federal government sponsored loans. If the municipality was to become insolvent and the credit support on the transaction was to fail, our results of operations, financial condition and liquidity could be adversely affected.
We have substantial cash requirements in the United States while a majority of our cash is generated outside of the United States. The failure to maintain a level of cash sufficient to address our cash requirements in the United States could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.
Although cash generated in the United States covers normal operating requirements and debt service requirements, a substantial amount of additional cash is required for special purposes such as the Varian acquisition, the satisfaction of our $1.5 billion repurchase obligation of World Trade scheduled to come due in January 2011, the repurchases of our stock and acquisitions of other third parties. Our business operating results, financial condition, and strategic initiatives could be adversely impacted if we were unable to address our U.S. cash requirements through (1) the efficient and timely repatriations of overseas cash or (2) other sources of cash obtained at an acceptable cost.
If we suffer a loss to our factories, facilities or distribution system due to catastrophe, our operations could be seriously harmed.
Our factories, facilities and distribution system are subject to catastrophic loss due to fire, flood, terrorism or other natural or man-made disasters. In particular, several of our facilities could be subject to a catastrophic loss caused by earthquake due to their locations. Our production facilities, headquarters and Agilent Technologies Laboratories in California, and our production facilities in Washington and Japan, are all located in areas with above-average seismic activity. If any of these facilities were to experience a catastrophic loss, it could disrupt our operations, delay production, shipments and revenue and result in large expenses to repair or replace the facility. In addition, since we have consolidated our manufacturing facilities, we are more likely to experience an interruption to our operations in the event of a catastrophe in any one location. Although we carry insurance for property damage and business interruption, we do not carry insurance or financial reserves for interruptions or potential losses arising from earthquakes or terrorism. Also, our third party insurance coverage will vary from time to time in both type and amount depending on availability, cost and our decisions with respect to risk retention. Economic conditions and uncertainties in global markets may adversely affect the cost and other terms upon which we are able to obtain third party insurance. If our third party insurance coverage is adversely affected, or to the extent we have elected to self-insure, we may be at a greater risk that our operations will be harmed by a catastrophic loss.
Our corporate headquarters and Agilent Technologies Laboratories are located in Santa Clara, California. In total, we have 13 primary sites. Of these primary sites, 4 are located in the U.S. and the remaining 9 are located in Malaysia, China, Japan, Singapore, India, Germany and the United Kingdom. Many of our primary functions are conducted at multi-building campuses.
As of October 31, 2009, we owned or leased a total of approximately 10.7 million square feet of space worldwide. Of that, we owned approximately 7.5 million square feet and leased the remaining 3.2 million square feet. Our sales and support facilities occupied a total of approximately 1.3 million square feet. Our manufacturing plants, R&D facilities and warehouse and administrative facilities occupied approximately 9.4 million square feet. Information about each of our businesses appears below:
Electronic Measurement and Semiconductor and Board Test. Our electronic measurement and semiconductor and board test businesses collectively have manufacturing and R&D facilities in China, Germany, Japan, Malaysia, Singapore, India, the United Kingdom and the U.S. Additionally, we have marketing centers in Germany, Hong Kong, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the U.S., and sales offices throughout the world.
Bio-Analytical Measurement. Our bio-analytical measurement business has manufacturing and R&D facilities in China, Germany, Japan and the U.S. Additionally, we have marketing centers in Germany, Japan, Singapore and the U.S., and sales offices throughout the world.
In November 2001, a securities class action, Kassin v. Agilent Technologies, Inc., et al., Civil Action No. 01-CV-10639, was filed in United States District Court for the Southern District of New York (the "Court") against certain investment bank underwriters for our initial public offering ("IPO"), Agilent and various of our officers and directors at the time of the IPO. In 2003, the Court granted Agilent's motion to dismiss the claims against Agilent based on Section 10 of the Securities Exchange Act, but denied Agilent's motion to dismiss the claims based on Section 11 of the Securities Act. On June 14, 2004, papers formalizing a settlement among the plaintiffs, Agilent and more than 200 other issuer defendants and insurers were presented to the Court. Under the proposed settlement, plaintiffs' claims against Agilent and its directors and officers would be released, in exchange for a contingent payment (which, if made, would be paid by Agilent's insurer) and an assignment of certain potential claims. However, class certification of plaintiffs' underlying action against the underwriter defendants was a condition of the settlement. On December 5, 2006, the Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit reversed the Court's order certifying such a class in several "test cases" that had been selected by the underwriter defendants and plaintiffs. On January 5, 2007, plaintiffs filed a petition for rehearing to the full bench of the Second Circuit. On April 6, 2007, the Second Circuit issued an order denying rehearing but noted that plaintiffs are free to "seek certification of a more modest class." On June 25, 2007, the Court entered an order terminating the proposed settlement between plaintiffs and the issuer defendants based on a stipulation among the parties. Plaintiffs have amended their allegations and filed amended complaints in six "test cases" (none of which involve Agilent). Defendants in these cases have moved to dismiss the amended complaints. On March 26, 2008, the Court denied the defendants' motion to dismiss. The parties have again reached a global settlement of the litigation and filed a motion for preliminary approval of the settlement on April 2, 2009. Under the settlement, the insurers would pay the full amount of settlement share allocated to Agilent, and Agilent would bear no financial liability. Agilent, as well as the officer and director defendants who were previously dismissed from the action pursuant to tolling agreements, would receive complete dismissals from the case. On June 9, 2009, the Court entered an order granting preliminary approval of the settlement. Certain objectors are seeking to appeal. It is uncertain whether the settlement will receive final Court approval.
On August 5, 2009, a putative class action was filed in California Superior Court, County of Santa Clara, entitled Feivel Gottlieb Plan Administrator Feivel Gottlieb Defined Benefit Pension Plan DTD 01-01-04 v. Garry W. Rogerson, et al., No. 1-09-CV-149132. The action was allegedly brought on
behalf of a class of shareholders of Varian, Inc. ("Varian") against Varian, its board of directors, Agilent and Cobalt Acquisition Corp. ("Cobalt"), a wholly owned subsidiary of Agilent, in connection with the proposed acquisition of Varian. A similar action, entitled Stuart Kreisberg v. Garry W. Rogerson, et al., No. 1-09-CV-149383, was filed in the same court on August 7, 2009. The actions were subsequently consolidated under the caption In re Varian, Inc. Shareholder Litigation, Lead Case No. 1-09-CV-149132, and a consolidated amended complaint was filed on August 14, 2009. The consolidated amended complaint is also filed on behalf of an alleged class of Varian shareholders against Varian, its directors, Agilent and Cobalt. The consolidated amended complaint alleges that Varian's directors breached their fiduciary duties in connection with the proposed acquisition and asserts, among other things, that the price and other terms are unfair, that Varian's directors have engaged in self-dealing, and that the disclosures in Varian's August 7, 2009 proxy filing are inadequate. Agilent and Cobalt are alleged to have aided and abetted the Varian directors' purported breaches of fiduciary duties. Plaintiffs seek injunctive and other relief, including attorneys' fees and costs. On August 19, 2009, another substantially similar putative class action, entitled Hawaii Laborers Pension Fund v. Varian, Inc., et al., No. 1-09-CV-150234, was filed in the same court against Varian, its directors, and Agilent. Like the consolidated amended complaint, it asserts claims on behalf of a class of Varian shareholders, alleges that Varian's directors breached their fiduciary duties in connection with the proposed acquisition by, inter alia, failing to value Varian properly, agreeing to improper deal terms, engaging in self-dealing and making misleading disclosures, alleges that Agilent aided and abetted those purported breaches of fiduciary duties, and seeks injunctive and other relief (including attorneys' fees and costs). On September 25, 2009, the parties signed a memorandum of understanding to settle the class actions. The settlement provides, among other things, that: (i) Varian would make certain agreed-upon disclosures designed to supplement those contained in its definitive proxy statement filed on August 20, 2009; (ii) the litigation will be dismissed with prejudice as to all defendants; (iii) defendants believe the claims are without merit and continue to deny liability, but agree to settle in order to avoid the potential cost and distraction of continued litigation and to eliminate any risk of any delay to the acquisition; and (iv) plaintiffs' counsel may seek fees and costs of up to $625,000, subject to court approval. There is to be no payment of money to the alleged class members. The settlement is subject to execution and delivery of a stipulation of settlement and other definitive documentation, confirmatory discovery, the closing of the acquisition, notice to stockholders, and court approval.
We are involved in lawsuits, claims, investigations and proceedings, including, but not limited to, patent, commercial and environmental matters, which arise in the ordinary course of business. There are no matters pending that we expect to be material in relation to our business, consolidated financial condition, results of operations or cash flows.
During the fourth quarter of fiscal 2009, there were no matters submitted to a vote of securities holders, through the solicitation of proxies or otherwise.
Our common stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange with the ticker symbol "A". For the 2008 and 2009 fiscal years, the high and low sale prices per quarter as reported in the consolidated transaction reporting system for the New York Stock Exchange are as follows:
As of December 1, 2009, there were 43,761 common stockholders of record.
We have not paid any cash dividends to date, and we currently intend to retain any future income to fund the development and growth of our business and fund stock repurchases from time to time. Our management and Board of Directors continually evaluate our capitalization strategy.
The table below summarizes information about the company's purchases, based on trade date; of its equity securities registered pursuant to Section 12 of the Exchange Act during the quarterly period ended October 31, 2009. The total number of shares of common stock purchased by the company under the share-repurchase plan during the year ended October 31, 2009 is 9,073,450.
SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA
The following discussion should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and notes thereto included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. This report contains forward-looking statements including, without limitation, statements regarding trends, seasonality, cyclicality and growth in, and drivers of, the markets we sell into, our strategic direction, our future effective tax rate and tax valuation allowance, earnings from our foreign subsidiaries, remediation activities, new product and service introductions, the ability of our products to meet market needs, changes to our manufacturing processes, the use of contract manufacturers, the impact of local government regulations on our ability to pay vendors or conduct operations, our liquidity position, our ability to generate cash from operations, growth in our businesses, our investments, the potential impact of adopting new accounting pronouncements, our financial results, our purchase commitments, our contributions to our pension plans, the selection of discount rates and recognition of any gains or losses for our benefit plans, our cost-control activities, savings and headcount reduction recognized from our restructuring programs, the closing of the proposed Varian transaction, our stock repurchase program, our transition to lower-cost regions, the existence, length or timing of an economic recovery that involve risks and uncertainties. Our actual results could differ materially from the results contemplated by these forward-looking statements due to various factors, including those discussed in Item 1A and elsewhere in this Form 10-K.
Revisions to Financial Statement Presentation. We have revised our consolidated balance sheet as of October 31, 2008 to correct an error in the classification of deferred tax assets and liabilities. This revision does not impact the consolidated statement of operations or the consolidated statement of cash flows for any period. During the April 30, 2009 quarter-end process, we noted that the October 31, 2008 U.S. deferred tax valuation allowances and certain deferred tax assets/ deferred tax liabilities were misclassified on the balance sheet as a result of improperly applying the jurisdictional netting rules. We have therefore revised our balance sheet as of October 31, 2008 by decreasing other long-term liabilities by $435 million and decreasing other long-term assets by $404 million, decreasing other current assets by $26 million and increasing other accrued liabilities by $5 million.
FASB Accounting Standards Codification. In June 2009, the Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") introduced the "FASB Accounting Standards Codification" and the Hierarchy of Generally Accepted Accounting Principles", ("The Codification or ASC"). The Codification, which was launched on July 1, 2009, became the single source of authoritative nongovernmental U.S. GAAP, superseding existing literature issued by FASB, American Institute of Certified Public Accountants, Emerging Issues Task Force and other related literature. The Codification eliminates the GAAP hierarchy and establishes one level of authoritative guidance for GAAP. All other literature is considered non-authoritative. The Codification is effective for financial statements issued for interim and annual periods ending after September 15, 2009. We have adopted the Codification in the quarter ending October 31, 2009 and provided the appropriate references to the Codification, where appropriate. There has been no change to our financial statements due to the implementation of the Codification.
Overview and Executive Summary
Agilent is the world's premier measurement company, providing core electronic and bio-analytical measurement solutions to the communications, electronics, life sciences and chemical analysis industries.
In the first fiscal quarter of 2009, we formed a new operating segment from our existing businesses: the semiconductor and board test segment. The new segment covers semiconductor equipment and services sold to semiconductor manufacturing and printed circuit board assembly customers. In addition, in the first quarter of 2009, we moved microscopy measurement from the bio-analytical measurement segment to the electronic measurement segment. All historical segment numbers have been recast to conform to this reporting structure in our financial statements.
The Agilent business is comprised of the electronic measurement business, the bio-analytical measurement business and the semiconductor and board test business. Our fiscal year end is October 31. Unless otherwise stated, all years and dates refer to our fiscal year.
Agilent's net revenue in 2009 was $4,481 million, a decrease of 22 percent when compared to 2008. Foreign currency movements accounted for 2 percentage points of revenue decline in 2009 compared to 2008. Bio-analytical measurement revenues decreased 6 percent in 2009 compared to last year with foreign currency movements accounting for 4 percentage points of revenue decline. Within bio-analytical measurement, life sciences revenues declined 5 percent in 2009 compared to 2008 with declines in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology markets and a modest increase in demand within the academic and government research markets. Also within bio-analytical measurement, chemical analysis revenues declined 7 percent compared to 2008 with the food safety market showing strength throughout the year, but other markets down compared to last year. Electronic measurement revenues decreased 30 percent in 2009 when compared to 2008. Within electronic measurement, revenues in general purpose test decreased 23 percent when compared to last year with aerospace and defense markets declining moderately and semiconductor related markets remaining depressed. Also within electronic measurement, communications test markets were particularly weak and fell 39 percent in 2009 compared to 2008. Our semiconductor and board test business continued to experience depressed market conditions in 2009 and revenue declined 54 percent compared to 2008. Agilent's total net revenue in 2008 increased 7 percent in comparison to 2007. Foreign currency movements accounted for 3 percentage points of revenue growth in 2008 when compared to 2007 and a further 1 percentage point increase in revenue was attributable to acquisitions in 2008 when compared to 2007.
Net loss was $31 million in 2009 and net income of $693 million in 2008 and $638 million in 2007. In 2009, 2008 and 2007 we generated operating cash flows of $408 million, $756 million and $969 million, respectively. As of October 31, 2009 and 2008 we had cash and cash equivalents balances of $2,479 million and $1,405 million, respectively.
We announced restructuring activities in December 2008, February 2009 and March 2009 in response to the deterioration of economic conditions. The restructuring activities were combined under a single restructuring plan (the "FY 2009 Plan") and are part of a series of actions taken by Agilent in response to the current economic situation. In connection with the combined restructuring plan, we expect to record in aggregate approximately $315 million in pre-tax restructuring and other charges related to business and infrastructure cost reduction. Total restructuring and other special charges of $267 million have been incurred in the year ended October 31, 2009 with respect to these actions. A significant portion of these charges has resulted and will continue to result in cash expenditures. When completed, these actions together are expected to result in future annual operating savings of approximately $525 million and workforce reductions of approximately 3,800 regular positions. We completed the majority of these activities related to the FY 2009 Plan by October 31, 2009 with the remainder expected to be completed by the end of the second quarter of fiscal 2010. As of October 31, 2009 approximately 600 employees within electronic measurment are pending termination under the FY 2009 Plan.
On July 26, 2009, Agilent, Varian, Inc. ("Varian"), and Cobalt Acquisition Corp., a direct, wholly-owned subsidiary of Agilent, entered into an Agreement and Plan of Merger (the "Merger Agreement"). Pursuant to the terms of the Merger Agreement, Varian would become a wholly-owned subsidiary of Agilent. Varian is a leading worldwide supplier of scientific instrumentation and associated consumables for life science and applied market applications. The estimated $1.5 billion total purchase price of Varian includes $52 cash per share of Varian's common stock, the cashing out of in the money stock options (after acceleration) and assumed debt. The transaction has been approved by shareholders of Varian and is expected to be completed after achieving customary closing conditions and regulatory approvals. We may finance the purchase price of Varian using a portion of the proceeds from our September 2009 offering of senior notes and other existing cash.
On October 30, 2009 we completed the sale of our Data Networks Product Line ("DNPL") to Ixia (Nasdaq: XXIA) for $44 million in cash. DNPL comprises the N2X family of products for next-generation internet protocol ("IP") performance testing. Ixia is a leading provider of converged IP performance test systems and service verification platforms for wireless and wired infrastructures. We recorded the gain on this divestiture in other income (expense), net in the consolidated statement of operations.
Looking forward, we have seen signs that our businesses may have reached the bottom of the economic downturn. We remain committed to delivering performance consistent with Agilent's operating model. We have announced that starting in the first quarter of 2010, Agilent will report in the following three segments: electronic measurement, chemical analysis and life sciences. The electronic measurement segment will recombine electronic measurement and semiconductor and board test, which were reported separately in 2009 (see "2010 Segment Reporting Changes").
Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the U.S. requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in our consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes. Management bases its estimates on historical experience and various other assumptions believed to be reasonable. Although these estimates are based on management's best knowledge of current events and actions that may impact the company in the future, actual results may be different from the estimates. Our critical accounting policies are those that affect our financial statements materially and involve difficult, subjective or complex judgments by management. Those policies are revenue recognition, inventory valuation, investment impairments, share-based compensation, retirement and post-retirement plan assumptions, goodwill and purchased intangible assets, restructuring and asset impairment charges and accounting for income taxes.
Revenue recognition. We enter into agreements to sell products (hardware or software), services, and other arrangements (multiple element arrangements) that include combinations of products and services. Revenue from product sales, net of trade discounts and allowances, is recognized provided that persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists, delivery has occurred, the price is fixed or determinable, and collectibility is reasonably assured. Delivery is considered to have occurred when title and risk of loss have transferred to the customer. Revenue is reduced for estimated product returns, when appropriate. For sales that include customer-specified acceptance criteria, revenue is recognized after the acceptance criteria have been met. For products that include installation, if the installation meets the criteria to be considered a separate element, product revenue is recognized upon delivery, and recognition of installation revenue occurs when the installation is complete. Otherwise, neither the product nor the installation revenue is recognized until the installation is complete. Revenue from services is deferred and recognized over the contractual period
or as services are rendered and accepted by the customer. When arrangements include multiple elements, we use verifiable objective evidence of fair value or vendor-specific objective evidence of fair value for software to allocate revenue to the elements and recognize revenue when the criteria for revenue recognition have been met for each element. The amount of product revenue recognized is affected by our judgments as to whether an arrangement includes multiple elements and if so, whether fair value exists for those elements. Changes to the elements in an arrangement and the ability to establish fair value for those elements could affect the timing of the revenue recognition.
Inventory valuation. We assess the valuation of our inventory on a quarterly basis and periodically write down the value for estimated excess and obsolete inventory based upon estimates about future demand and actual usage. Such estimates are difficult to make under most economic conditions. The excess balance determined by this analysis becomes the basis for our excess inventory charge. Our excess inventory review process includes analysis of sales forecasts, managing product rollovers and working with manufacturing to maximize recovery of excess inventory. If actual market conditions are less favorable than those projected by management, additional write-downs may be required. If actual market conditions are more favorable than anticipated, inventory previously written down may be sold to customers, resulting in lower cost of sales and higher income from operations than expected in that period.
Investment impairments. We recognize an impairment charge when the decline in the fair value of our equity and debt securities and our cost-method investments below their cost basis are judged to be other-than-temporary. Significant judgment is used to identify events or circumstances that would likely have a significant adverse effect on the future use of the investment. We consider various factors in determining whether an impairment is other-than-temporary, including the severity and duration of the impairment, forecasted recovery, the financial condition and near-term prospects of the investee, and our ability and intent to hold the investment for a period of time sufficient to allow for any anticipated recovery in market value.
Share-based compensation. We account for share-based awards in accordance with the authoritative guidance. Under the authoritative guidance, share-based compensation expense is primarily based on estimated grant date fair value which generally uses the Black-Scholes option pricing model and is recognized on a straight-line basis. Our estimate of share-based compensation expense requires a number of complex and subjective assumptions including our stock price volatility, employee exercise patterns (expected life of the options), future forfeitures and related tax effects. We consider the historical option exercise behavior of our employees in estimating the expected life of our options granted, which we believe is representative of future behavior. In 2008 and 2007 we used implied volatility of Agilent's publicly traded, similar priced stock options to estimate the expected stock price volatility assumption for employee stock option awards. In 2009, we moved to historical volatility of Agilent's stock options over the most recent historical period equivalent to the expected life. In reaching this conclusion, we have considered many factors including the extent to which our options are currently traded and our ability to find traded options in the current market with similar terms and prices to the options we are valuing. A 10 percent increase in our estimated volatility from 36 percent to 46 percent for our most recent employee stock option grant would generally increase the value of an award and the associated compensation cost by approximately 23 percent if no other factors were changed.
In the first quarter of 2009, we revised our estimate of the expected life of our employee stock options from 4.6 years to 4.4 years. In revising this estimate, we considered the historical option exercise behavior of our employees. In the first quarter of 2009, we granted the majority of our employee stock options to executive employees and the review of our data indicated that our executive
employees, on average, exercise their options at 4.4 years. See Note 3, "Share-Based Compensation," to the consolidated financial statements for more information.
The assumptions used in calculating the fair value of share-based awards represent our best estimates, but these estimates involve inherent uncertainties and the application of management judgment. Although we believe the assumptions and estimates we have made are reasonable and appropriate, changes in assumptions could materially impact our reported financial results.
Retirement and post-retirement benefit plan assumptions. Retirement and post-retirement benefit plan costs are a significant cost of doing business. They represent obligations that will ultimately be settled sometime in the future and therefore are subject to estimation. Pension accounting is intended to reflect the recognition of future benefit costs over the employees' average expected future service to Agilent based on the terms of the plans and investment and funding decisions. To estimate the impact of these future payments and our decisions concerning funding of these obligations, we are required to make assumptions using actuarial concepts within the framework of accounting principles generally accepted in the U.S. Two critical assumptions are the discount rate and the expected long-term return on plan assets. Other important assumptions include the health care cost trend rate, expected future salary increases, expected future increases to benefit payments, expected retirement dates, employee turnover, retiree mortality rates, and portfolio composition. We evaluate these assumptions at least annually.
The discount rate is used to determine the present value of future benefit payments at the measurement date October 31 for both U.S. and non-U.S. plans. The U.S. discount rates were determined by matching the expected plan benefit payments against an industry discount curve. The discount rate decreased significantly over the prior year from 8.5 percent to 5.25 percent due to lower bond yields. The discount rate for non-U.S. plans was generally based on published rates for high quality corporate bonds and either remained unchanged or decreased. Lower discount rates increase present values and subsequent year pension expense; higher discount rates decrease present values and subsequent year pension expense.
The expected long-term return on plan assets is estimated using current and expected asset allocations as well as historical and expected returns. Plan assets are valued at fair value. A one percent change in the estimated long-term return on plan assets for 2009 would result in a $5 million impact on U.S. pension expense and a $15 million impact on non-U.S. pension expense.
The net periodic pension and post-retirement benefit costs recorded in operations excluding curtailments and settlements were $103 million in 2009, $15 million in 2008, and $57 million in 2007.
Goodwill and purchased intangible assets. Agilent reviews goodwill for impairment annually during our fourth fiscal quarter and whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate the carrying value may not be recoverable. As defined in the authoritative guidance, a reporting unit is an operating segment, or one level below an operating segment. We have aggregated components of an operating segment that have similar economic characteristics into our reporting units. We have three reporting units for goodwill impairment testing purposes: electronic measurement, bio-analytical measurement, and semiconductor and board test. We test goodwill for possible impairment by first determining the fair value of the related reporting unit and comparing this value to the recorded net assets of the reporting unit, including goodwill.
The process of evaluating the potential impairment of goodwill is highly subjective and requires significant judgment, as our businesses operate in a number of markets and geographical regions. We determine the fair value of our reporting units based on an income approach, whereby we calculate the
fair value of each reporting unit based on the present value of estimated future cash flows, which are formed by evaluating historical trends, current budgets, operating plans and industry data. We evaluate the reasonableness of the fair value calculations of our reporting units by reconciling the total of the fair values of all of our reporting units to our total market capitalization, taking into account an appropriate control premium. We then compare the carrying value of our reporting units to the fair value calculations based on the income approach. Estimates of the future cash flows associated with the businesses are critical to these assessments. The assumptions used in the fair value calculation change from year to year and include revenue growth rates, operating margins, risk adjusted discount rates and future economic and market conditions. Changes in these assumptions based on changed economic conditions or business strategies could result in material impairment charges in future periods.
The circumstances that could trigger a goodwill impairment could include, but are not limited to, the following items to the extent that management believes the occurrence of one or more would make it more likely than not that we would fail step 1 of the goodwill impairment test: significant adverse change in legal factors or in the business climate, an adverse action or assessment by a regulator, unanticipated competition, a loss of key personnel, a more-likely-than-not expectation that a reporting unit or a significant portion of a reporting unit will be sold or otherwise disposed of, a portion of a reporting unit's goodwill has been included in the carrying amounts of a business that will be disposed or if our market capitalization is below our net book value.
We have considered the negative effects of the current downturn in the business environment in evaluating whether we should perform interim goodwill impairment testing. Due to the significant business downturn in the semiconductor and board test reporting unit, we performed step 1 of the goodwill impairment test during the first quarter of 2009 and determined that there was no impairment at that time. The results of our test for goodwill impairment, as of September 30, 2009, showed that the estimated fair values of our electronic measurement, bio-analytical measurement, and semiconductor and board test reporting units exceeded their carrying values by approximately $3.0 billion, $5.5 billion, and $0.2 billion, respectively. A 1 percent increase in the discount rate lowered the fair value by approximately 14 percent. There was no impairment of goodwill during the year ended October 31, 2009. We continue to assess the overall environment to determine if we would trigger and fail step 1 of the goodwill impairment test.
We continually monitor events and changes in circumstances that could indicate carrying amounts of long-lived assets, including purchased intangible assets, may not be recoverable. When such events or changes in circumstances occur, we assess the recoverability of long-lived assets by determining whether the carrying value of such assets will be recovered through undiscounted expected future cash flows. If the total of the undiscounted future cash flows is less than the carrying amount of those assets, we recognize an impairment loss based on the excess of the carrying amount over the fair value of the assets. We performed an impairment analysis of purchased intangible assets in 2009 and recorded $16 million of impairment charges primarily related to divested businesses.
Restructuring and asset impairment charges. The four main components of our restructuring plans are related to workforce reductions, the consolidation of excess facilities, asset impairments and special charges related to inventory. Workforce reduction charges are accrued when it is determined that a liability has been incurred, which is generally after individuals have been notified of their termination dates and expected severance payments. Plans to consolidate excess facilities result in charges for lease termination fees and future commitments to pay lease charges, net of estimated future sublease income. We recognize charges for consolidation of excess facilities generally when we have vacated the premises. These estimates were derived using the authoritative accounting guidance. We have also assessed the recoverability of our long-lived assets, by determining
whether the carrying value of such assets will be recovered through undiscounted future cash flows. Asset impairments primarily consist of property, plant and equipment and are based on an estimate of the amounts and timing of future cash flows related to the expected future remaining use and ultimate sale or disposal of buildings and equipment net of costs to sell. The charges related to inventory include estimated future inventory disposal payments that we are contractually obliged to make to our suppliers and reserves taken against inventory on hand. If the amounts and timing of cash flows from restructuring activities are significantly different from what we have estimated, the actual amount of restructuring and asset impairment charges could be materially different, either higher or lower, than those we have recorded.
Accounting for income taxes. We must make certain estimates and judgments in determining income tax expense for financial statement purposes. These estimates and judgments occur in the calculation of tax credits, benefits and deductions, and in the calculation of certain tax assets and liabilities, which arise from differences in the timing of recognition of revenue and expense for tax and financial statement purposes, as well as interest and penalties related to uncertain tax positions. Significant changes to these estimates may result in an increase or decrease to our tax provision in a subsequent period.
Significant management judgment is also required in determining whether deferred tax assets will be realized in full or in part. When it is more likely than not that all or some portion of specific deferred tax assets such as net operating losses or foreign tax credit carryforwards will not be realized, a valuation allowance must be established for the amount of the deferred tax assets that cannot be realized. We consider all available positive and negative evidence on a jurisdiction-by-jurisdiction basis when assessing whether it is more likely than not that deferred tax assets are recoverable. We consider evidence such as our past operating results, the existence of cumulative losses in recent years and our forecast of future taxable income. At October 31, 2009, we provided partial valuation allowances for our U.S. deferred tax assets and full or partial valuation allowances on certain foreign deferred tax assets. We intend to maintain partial or full valuation allowances until sufficient positive evidence exists to support reversal of a valuation allowance in a given taxing jurisdiction.
We have not provided for all U.S. federal income and foreign withholding taxes on the undistributed earnings of some of our foreign subsidiaries because we intend to reinvest such earnings indefinitely. Should we decide to remit this income to the U.S. in a future period, our provision for income taxes may increase materially in that period.
The calculation of our tax liabilities involves dealing with uncertainties in the application of complex tax law and regulations in a multitude of jurisdictions. Although the guidance on the accounting for uncertainty in income taxes prescribes the use of a recognition and measurement model, the determination of whether an uncertain tax position has met those thresholds will continue to require significant judgment by management. If the ultimate resolution of tax uncertainties is different from what is currently estimated, a material impact on income tax expense could result.
Adoption of New Pronouncements
See Note 2, "New Accounting Pronouncements," to the consolidated financial statements for a description of new accounting pronouncements.
Restructuring Costs, Asset Impairments and Other Charges
In December 2008, we announced the FY 2009 Plan. Initially, we expected to reduce our annual operating expenses by reducing approximately 500 positions of the global workforce of regular employees. In February 2009, we announced we had expanded the FY 2009 Plan to include actions to
exit the inspection businesses in our semiconductor and board test segment and to restructure our global infrastructure organization. In March 2009, we announced that the FY 2009 Plan had been expanded further to restructure our electronic measurement and semiconductor and board test segments in response to the continuing deterioration of economic conditions. Under the FY 2009 Plan, we expect to record in aggregate approximately $315 million in pre-tax restructuring and other charges related to business and infrastructure cost reduction. We expect that a significant proportion of these charges will result in cash expenditures. When completed, these actions together are expected to result in annual operating savings of approximately $525 million and workforce reductions of approximately 3,800 regular positions.
Total restructuring and other special charges of $267 million have been incurred in the year ended October 31, 2009 with respect to these actions. Of the $267 million, $27 million related to asset impairments and $20 million related to special charges for excess inventory as a result of exiting the inspection businesses in our semiconductor and board test segment and other excess inventory charges incurred as part of our restructuring of the electronic measurement businesses. We completed the majority of these activities related to the FY 2009 Plan by October 31, 2009 with the remainder expected to be completed by the end of the second quarter of fiscal 2010. As of October 31, 2009 approximately 600 employees within electronic measurement are pending termination under the FY 2009 Plan. As a result of these actions, the average future working lifetime of the employees remaining in our retirement and post retirement benefit plans decreased and accordingly, we recorded a $16 million net curtailment gain in the year ended October 31, 2009.
Our revenues, costs and expenses, and monetary assets and liabilities are exposed to changes in foreign currency exchange rates as a result of our global operating and financing activities. We hedge revenues, expenses and balance sheet exposures that are not denominated in the functional currencies of our subsidiaries on a short term and anticipated basis. We do experience some fluctuations within individual lines of the consolidated statement of operations and balance sheet because our hedging program is not designed to offset the currency movements in each category of revenues, expenses, monetary assets and liabilities. Our hedging program is designed to hedge currency movements on a relatively short-term basis (rolling twelve month period). Therefore, we are exposed to currency fluctuations over the longer term.
Results from Operations
Orders and Net Revenue
Agilent orders decreased 22 percent in 2009 compared to 2008. Our bio-analytical measurement business experienced weak market activity and recorded an order decrease of 8 percent in 2009 compared to last year. Electronic measurement orders were down compared to 2008 by 28 percent with order weakness most pronounced in communications test.
Net revenue in 2009 was $4,481 million, a 22 percent decrease over the $5,774 million net revenue recorded in 2008. Foreign currency movements accounted for 2 percentage points of revenue decline in 2009 compared to 2008. Net revenue from services declined 6 percent in 2009 versus a 26 percent decline in product revenues. Revenue decreased in both bio-analytical measurement and electronic measurement when compared to 2008, but there were signs that there was a recovery in a number of end markets towards the end of 2009. Net revenue in 2008 was $5,774 million, a 7 percent increase over the $5,420 million net revenue recorded in 2007. Foreign currency movements accounted for 3 percentage points of revenue growth in 2008 when compared to 2007 and a further 1 percentage point increase in revenue was attributable to acquisitions in 2008 when compared to 2007.
Services and other revenue include revenue generated from servicing our installed base of products, warranty extensions and consulting. Services and other revenue decreased 6 percent in 2009 as compared to 2008. We saw relative strength in aftermarket services, including service contract activity which contributed to the relative stability in service revenue. Services and other revenue increased 6 percent in 2008 compared to 2007.
Bio-analytical measurement revenues decreased 6 percent in 2009 when compared to 2008 with decreases in both life sciences and chemical analysis businesses of 5 percent and 7 percent, respectively. Within life sciences, we saw modest growth in revenue in the academic and government markets, but weakness in pharmaceutical and biotechnology markets. Within chemical analysis, all markets recorded revenue decreases in 2009 when compared to 2008 with the exception of food safety which reported strong results driven by analysis of contaminated foods and worldwide regulatory efforts.
Electronic measurement revenues decreased 30 percent in 2009 when compared to 2008 with sustained weakness in general purpose and communication test down 23 percent and 39 percent, respectively. Within general purpose test, the aerospace and defense market showed signs of recovery toward the end of 2009, but other markets remained difficult and demand declined over the year. Communication test revenues were depressed throughout the year across all markets when compared to 2008.
The semiconductor and board test business reported a decline in revenues of 54 percent in 2009 when compared to 2008 as markets declined markedly.
On October 31, 2009, our unfilled orders for the electronic measurement business were approximately $630 million, as compared to approximately $610 million at October 31, 2008. On
October 31, 2009, our unfilled orders for the bio-analytical measurement business were approximately $380 million, as compared to approximately $360 million at October 31, 2008. Within our semiconductor and board test business our unfilled orders were approximately $40 million on October 31, 2009 as compared to approximately $60 million at October 31, 2008. We expect that a large majority of the unfilled orders for all three businesses will be delivered to customers within six months. On average, our unfilled orders represent approximately two months' worth of revenues. In light of this experience, backlog on any particular date, while indicative of short-term revenue performance, is not necessarily a reliable indicator of medium or long-term revenue performance.
Costs and Expenses
In 2009, total gross margin decreased 4 percentage points in comparison to 2008. The majority of the decrease in gross margins was related to the drop in volume of revenues. Operating margins in 2009 decreased 13 percentage points as compared to 2008.
In January 2009, we implemented wage reductions across the company in response to deteriorating economic conditions. Those payroll reductions resulted in cash savings of approximately $70 million in 2009 and were fully restored to all employees effective November 1, 2009.
Research and development expenditures have decreased 9 percent in 2009 compared to 2008. A net decrease in expenses after incurring restructuring costs was attributable to lower variable pay and wage reductions.
Selling, general and administrative expenses decreased 6 percent during the year. The net decrease in expenses after incurring restructuring costs was due to the expense controls we have implemented, and in particular, lower variable pay, wage reductions and reduced commissions.
Gross inventory charges were $54 million in 2009, $24 million in 2008 and $21 million in 2007. Sales of previously written down inventory were $8 million in 2009, $6 million in 2008 and $5 million in 2007.
Our research and development efforts focus on potential new products and product improvements covering a wide variety of technologies, none of which is individually significant to our operations. We conduct five types of research and development: basic research, which contributes to the fundamental understanding of areas critical to our future; foundation technologies, which enables fundamental advances across all businesses; communications, which creates technologies to enable pervasive access to information; life sciences, which enables next-generation pharmaceuticals and improved patient outcomes; and measurement, which provides critical advances in test and measurement electronics and systems. Our research seeks to improve on various technical
competencies in electronics such as compound semiconductor devices, digital imaging systems and microfabrication technologies; software, systems and solutions such as applied mathematics, knowledge management and measurement science; life sciences such as computational biology, molecular diagnostics and high-throughput measurements; and photonics, such as precision automation technology, optical switching and high-speed optical links. In each of these research fields, we conduct research that is focused on specific product development for release in the short-term as well as other research that is intended to be the foundation for future products over a longer time-horizon. Some of our product development research is designed to improve on the more than 20,000 products already in production, other research is on major new product releases, and yet other focused on developing new product segments for the future. Due to the breadth of research and development projects across all of our businesses, there are a number of drivers of this expense.
Net loss in 2009 was $31 million. Net income in 2008 and 2007 was $693 million and $638 million, respectively.
At October 31, 2009, our headcount was approximately 16,800 compared to 19,600 in 2008 and 19,400 in 2007.
Provision for Income Taxes
For 2009, the annual effective tax rate was 543 percent on operations. The 543 percent operations tax rate reflects that our structure has a fixed component of tax and that on reduced profitability unusual tax rate results. The tax rate also includes tax on earnings in jurisdictions that have low effective tax rates. In addition, net tax benefits totaling $67 million relating primarily to the lapses of statutes of limitations and tax settlements in foreign jurisdictions are incorporated in the rate. Without considering interest and penalties, the rate reflects taxes in all jurisdictions except the U.S. and foreign jurisdictions in which income tax expense or benefit continues to be offset by adjustments to valuation allowances. We intend to maintain partial or full valuation allowances in these jurisdictions until sufficient positive evidence exists to support the reversal of the valuation allowances.
For 2008, the annual effective tax rate was 15 percent on operations. The 15 percent operations tax rate includes a beneficial release of a portion of the U.S. federal and state valuation allowances which results in U.S. tax expense of nearly zero. It also includes tax on earnings in other jurisdictions that have low effective tax rates. Without considering interest and penalties, the provision for taxes was recorded for income generated in jurisdictions other than the Netherlands, Puerto Rico, Switzerland, the U.S., and the U.K. where we have recorded valuation allowances.
For 2007, the annual effective tax rate was 4.8 percent on operations. The 4.8 percent operations tax rate reflects taxes at an effective tax rate of zero in the U.S. (due to a release of a significant portion of the valuation allowance) and at low effective tax rates in other jurisdictions. The low operations tax rate includes a benefit of $31 million related to valuation allowance adjustments based on changes in other comprehensive income items, portions of which are attributable to increases in currency translation adjustments and to increases in the value of certain stock investments. In addition, the tax rate includes benefits totaling $73 million related to the resolution of primarily non-U.S. tax issues associated with the 2000 spin-off of Agilent from Hewlett-Packard.
Agilent enjoys tax holidays in several different jurisdictions, most significantly in Singapore, Malaysia and Switzerland. The tax holidays provide lower rates of taxation on certain classes of income and require various thresholds of investments and employment or specific types of income in those jurisdictions. As a result of the incentives, the impact of the tax holidays decreased income taxes by $14 million, $112 million and $190 million in 2009, 2008 and 2007, respectively. The benefit of the tax holidays on net income per share (diluted) was approximately $0.04, $0.30 and $0.47 in 2009, 2008 and 2007, respectively.
During 2003, we established valuation allowances for the deferred tax assets of the U.S. and certain entities in foreign jurisdictions. The valuation allowances require an assessment of both positive and negative evidence when determining whether it is more likely than not that deferred tax assets are recoverable. Such assessment is required on a jurisdiction by jurisdiction basis. During 2007, we concluded that it is more likely than not that a significant portion of our U.S. federal deferred tax assets would be realized and reversed a portion of the valuation allowance. During 2008, we maintained a partial U.S. federal valuation allowance and concluded that a significant portion of our U.S. state deferred tax assets would be realized and reversed a portion of the valuation allowance. In 2008, the valuation allowance increased substantially as a result of changes to other comprehensive income-related taxes for pensions, certain mark to market investments, currency translation adjustments and an increase in the amount of foreign tax credits. During 2009, we continued to maintain the partial valuation allowances for U.S. federal and state deferred tax assets. In 2009, the valuation allowance increased over the prior year reflecting an offset of an increase in the gross deferred tax liability for other comprehensive income and the increases of the gross deferred tax assets for losses incurred and other operating timing items. The valuation allowance increases are primarily associated with the U.S. and U.K. We intend to maintain partial or full valuation allowances until sufficient positive evidence exists to support reversal of a valuation allowance in a given taxing jurisdiction. Cumulative losses incurred by certain entities in foreign jurisdictions in recent years represent sufficient negative evidence to require maintaining full valuation allowances.
In accordance with the guidance on the accounting for uncertainty in income taxes, for all U.S. and other tax jurisdictions, we recognize potential liabilities for anticipated tax audit issues based on our estimate of whether, and the extent to which, additional taxes and interest will be due. If our estimate of income tax liabilities proves to be less than the ultimate assessment, a further charge to expense would be required. If events occur and the payment of these amounts ultimately proves to be unnecessary, the reversal of the liabilities would result in tax benefits being recognized in the period when we determine the liabilities are no longer necessary. We include interest and penalties related to unrecognized tax benefits within the provision for income taxes on the consolidated statements of operations.
Our U.S. federal income tax returns for 2000 through 2007 have been or are under audit by the Internal Revenue Service ("IRS"). In August 2007, we received a Revenue Agent's Report ("RAR") for 2000 through 2002. The RAR proposed many adjustments to taxable income. One adjustment, however, which deals with the use of Agilent's brand name by our foreign affiliates accounts for the majority of the proposed adjustments. In August of 2009, this brand name issue was resolved with no adjustments made to Agilent's taxable income. We continue to meet with the Appeals Office of the IRS in order to resolve the remaining issues associated with the RAR's proposed adjustments. We are uncertain as to how and when these issues will be finally resolved. It may take several years. We believe that any required adjustments however will be more than offset by applying available net operating losses from the years under audit and undisputed tax credits. Based on current information, we believe that the ultimate disposition of these matters is unlikely to have a material adverse effect on our consolidated financial position, results of operations or liquidity.
Global Infrastructure Organization
Our global infrastructure organization ("GIO") remains a key component of our operating model. GIO, which includes IT, Workplace Services, HR, Legal and Finance, has reduced expense levels this year while delivering infrastructure support to business operations. In response to deteriorating economic conditions earlier this year, we announced a GIO restructuring program in February 2009. The results of this program brought GIO workforce to a more appropriate size and structure for the current economic realities of our business. All of the actions associated with the restructuring of our GIO have now been taken and are complete.
Our global infrastructure costs decreased by 12 percent year-over-year compared to 2008. GIO passes these costs on to our businesses based on their usage of the services provided. GIO has scaled down its staffing over several years, reducing the number of employees in our workforce that provide support services such as finance, IT and workplace services and moved many of our global shared services operations sites to lower cost regions or external service providers. The global infrastructure organization ended 2009 with approximately 2,200 employees, a decline of 250 employees from one year ago and a decline of 300 employees from two years ago.
Agilent is a measurement company providing core bio-analytical and electronic measurement solutions to the communications, electronics, life sciences and chemical analysis industries.
In the first fiscal quarter of 2009, we formed a new operating segment from our existing businesses: the semiconductor and board test segment. The segment covers semiconductor equipment and services sold to semiconductor manufacturing and printer circuit board assembly customers. In addition, in the first quarter of 2009, we moved microscopy measurement from the bio-analytical measurement segment to the electronic measurement segment. All historical segment numbers have been recast to conform to this reporting structure in our financial statements.
Our electronic measurement business provides standard and customized electronic measurement instruments and systems monitoring, management and optimization tools for communications networks and services, software design tools and related services that are used in the design, development, manufacture, installation, deployment and operation of electronics equipment, communications networks and services, and microscopy products. Related services include start-up assistance, instrument productivity and application services and instrument calibration and repair. We also offer customization, consulting and optimization services throughout the customer's product lifecycle.
Electronic measurement orders declined 28 percent in 2009, down from 1 percent growth in 2008. Foreign currency movements accounted for 1 percentage point of the decline in 2009. In our general purpose test business, weakness in the manufacturing market prevailed through the year, while the computers and semiconductor market was similarly depressed. Aerospace and defense demand was strong relative to other markets and performance was stable on the year. In our communications test business, all end markets declined significantly; however, toward the end of 2009 year-over-year rates of decline have slowed or flattened. On a geographic basis, 2009 orders declined 21 percent in the Americas, 30 percent in Europe, 32 percent in Asia and 38 percent in Japan. Orders in 2008 grew 1 percent compared to 2007 as growth in Europe and Asia was offset by declines in the Americas and Japan.
Electronic measurement revenues declined 30 percent in 2009 compared to a 4 percent growth in 2008 due to weakness across both general purpose and communications test markets. Foreign currency movements accounted for 1 percentage point of the decline in 2009. Regionally, revenues from the Americas declined 28 percent, while Europe, Japan and Other Asia declined 31 percent, 38 percent and 29 percent respectively from one year ago. Revenues from services declined only 7 percent in 2009 versus a 34 percent decline in product revenues. Upfront service and support contracts provide stability in services revenues performance relative to product revenues. Revenue in 2008 grew 4 percent compared to 2007 as strength in the communications test market was offset by a slight decline in general purpose test.
General purpose test revenues of $1,369 million, representing approximately 61 percent of electronic measurement revenues, declined 23 percent in 2009 compared to 2008. Within general purpose test, all market segments declined with relative strength in aerospace and defense offset by steeper declines in computer and semiconductor and other general purpose test business. Government demand in aerospace and defense was stable, particularly in homeland security-related applications for surveillance and intelligence. Weakness persisted in the computer and semiconductor measurement markets due to continued capital spending contraction in both R&D and manufacturing applications. Other general purpose test markets were weak with particular softness in electronic manufacturing and automotive markets. Quarterly year-on-year rates of decline in general purpose end markets have slowed in the second half of the year, but revenue remained down significantly from 2008.
Communications test revenues of $888 million, representing approximately 39 percent of electronic measurement revenues, declined 39 percent compared to the same period last year. All communications test end markets experienced double-digit declines compared to 2008. The wireless R&D market, as well as the electronic design automation market, performed better than other submarkets as R&D investment continues for high-speed applications, as well as pre-conformance and interoperability test solutions, particularly for long-term evolution (an emerging wireless standard). Investment in next-generation technology in China increased in the second half of the year. Wireless manufacturing markets declined significantly versus a peak in the second half of 2008 as handset market capacity expansion is limited primarily to smart phones. Capital spending remains limited in the other communications test submarkets. Network equipment manufacturing ("NEM") business declined due to the continued consolidation in the network operator and service provider markets. NEM business remains soft with the majority of investment focused only on critical R&D spending for new technologies, which led to declines in the Broadband R&D and manufacturing market versus a strong 2009 year-over-year compare.
Looking forward, while some indications of stabilization and improvement in our electronics measurement markets exist, we expect any recovery to be gradual in the near-term due to on-going market uncertainty.
The following table shows the electronic measurement business's margins, expenses and income from operations for 2009 versus 2008 and 2008 versus 2007.
Gross margins for products and services declined 4 percentage points year-over-year in 2009 due primarily to the significant decline in revenue volume. Volume-adjusted gross margins compared to 2008 improved as expense reductions from restructuring, lower variable pay, wage reductions, lower general and direct infrastructure costs were offset by the unfavorable impact of higher pension expenses and E&O (excess and obsolescence) inventory charges. Gross margins for products and services improved 1 percentage point year-over-year in 2008 as the favorable impact of foreign currency movement and lower overhead costs were nearly offset by changes in product mix and pricing pressure.
Research and development expenses in 2009 declined $68 million, or 15 percent, compared to 2008. This decline was driven by lower variable pay, wage reductions, savings from restructuring, lower general infrastructure costs and the favorable year-over-year impact of currency movements, which were offset by higher pension benefit expenses. Research and development expenses in 2008 declined $3 million, or 1 percent, compared to 2007. This decline was driven largely by operational spending reductions that more than offset the unfavorable year-over-year impact of currency movements.
Selling, general and administrative expenses in 2009 decreased $171 million, or 18 percent, compared to 2008. Year-over-year reductions in selling, general and administrative expenses were similar to R&D and were driven by lower variable pay, wage reductions, savings from restructuring, lower general infrastructure costs, reduced commissions and the favorable year-over-year impact of currency movements, which were offset by higher pension benefit expenses. Selling, general and administrative expenses in 2008 increased $13 million, or 1 percent, compared to 2007. This increase was due primarily to the unfavorable impact of foreign currency movement.
Operating margins declined by 12 percentage points in 2009 compared to 2008 due to lower revenue volume that was partially offset by structural and operational expense reductions. Operating margins increased by 3 percentage points in 2008 compared to 2007 due to higher revenue volume and structural expense reductions.
Income from operations declined by $412 million in 2009 compared to 2008 on a revenue decrease of $971 million, a 42 percent year-over-year operating margin decremental as structural and operational expense reductions offset the unfavorable impact of lower revenue. Income from operations increased by $111 million in 2008 compared to 2007 on a revenue increase of $137 million,
an 81 percent year-over-year operating margin incremental due to structural expense reductions that more than offset the unfavorable impact of foreign currency movement.
Our bio-analytical measurement business provides application-focused solutions that include instruments, software, consumables, and services that enable customers to identify, quantify and analyze the physical and biological properties of substances and products. Our key product categories include: microarrays, microfluidics, electrophoresis, gas chromatography, liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry, software and informatics, laboratory automation and robotics, spectroscopy, and related consumables, reagents and services.
Order and revenue results for 2009 in bio-analytical measurement were impacted by the significant downturn in the global economy, although the business was able to sustain growth in key markets, including food safety, academic and government.
Bio-analytical measurement orders in 2009 declined 8 percent when compared to 2008. We had mixed results across geographies with Americas down 11 percent, Europe down 19 percent and Asia and Japan both up 11 percent when compared to 2008. Foreign currency movements in 2009 accounted for 3 percentage points of the decline in orders when compared to 2008. In our chemical analysis business, we continue to see strength in China and food safety markets. In life sciences, we saw sustained demand from academic and government markets, partially offsetting a slowdown in pharmaceutical and biotechnology markets. In 2008, orders grew 20 percent when compared to 2007. The Stratagene and Velocity11 acquisitions contributed 5 percentage points of the order growth in 2008, when compared to 2007.
Bio-analytical measurement revenues in 2009 declined 6 percent compared to 2008 with declines in both life sciences and chemical analysis end markets. Foreign currency movements in 2009 accounted for 4 percentage points of the revenue decline when compared to 2008. Geographically, revenues were down 9 percent in the Americas, 15 percent in Europe, and up 9 percent in Asia in 2009 compared to 2008. Net revenue from services declined only 2 percent in 2009 versus a 7 percent decline in product revenues. In services, expansion in Asia and relative strength in aftermarket services, including service contract activity, contributed to the stability. In 2008, bio-analytical revenues grew 17 percent compared to 2007, with strength across most end markets in chemical analysis and life science, favorable impact from foreign currency movements, and growth from the Stratagene and Velocity11 acquisitions.
Chemical analysis revenue, representing approximately 53 percent of the bio-analytical measurement segment, declined 7 percent to $1,094 million in 2009 compared to 2008. Chemical analysis saw declines in petrochemical, environmental, forensics, while the food safety market had
robust growth in 2009. Macro-economic conditions worldwide led to reduced capital investments in both instrument replacements and upgrades. Food testing posted strong revenue growth in 2009. Growth in this sector was driven by recent food safety issues in the U.S. causing updated regulations in China, Malaysia and India and by overall increases made to regulatory standards worldwide.
Life science revenue, representing approximately 47 percent of the bio-analytical measurement segment, declined 5 percent to $969 million in 2009 compared to 2008. In 2009, we experienced year-over-year declines in the pharmaceutical and biotech markets but modest year-over-year growth in the academic and government markets. We continue to see academic research moving toward the use of high-end mass spectrometry instrumentation to answer complex biological questions and enhance research on proteins, peptides, and small molecules. The market continues to partner and collaborate between not-for-profit organizations and big pharmaceutical and biotech companies. In Asia Pacific, governments are investing in the modernization of their healthcare systems and in improving the quality of pharmaceuticals they produce.
Looking forward, we expect modest growth in our major markets. Our chemical analysis market growth is expected to be driven by investments in food safety on a global basis and in environmental testing in China, India and selected Eastern European countries. Our liquid chromatography/mass spectroscopy ("LC/MS") and gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy ("GC/MS") systems are well positioned to address these market needs. In life sciences, our differentiated product portfolio provides customers an expanded range of technology offerings along the life sciences workflow. Workflow solutions can span from sample delivery and preparation through sample measurement to data analysis and management. In addition, our ongoing expansion of the LC/MS portfolio, augmented with focused R&D programs will enable Agilent to address the proteomics and metabolomics market needs.
The following table shows the bio-analytical measurement business's margins, expenses and income from operations for 2009 versus 2008, and 2008 versus 2007.
Gross margins were relatively flat in 2009 compared to 2008, as lower volume and higher discounts, were offset by lower variable pay, wage reductions, lower global infrastructure costs and favorable currency movements. Gross margins were also flat in 2008 compared to 2007 as improvements in product mix and overhead costs were offset by the impact of unfavorable foreign currency movements and competitive pressures.
Research and development expenses declined 4 percent in 2009 compared to 2008. The decline was also driven by lower variable pay, wage reductions, lower global infrastructure costs and favorable foreign currency movements. Research and development expenses grew 22 percent in 2008, compared
to 2007. The Stratagene and Velocity11 acquisitions accounted for 13 percentage points of this growth in 2008 compared to 2007.
Selling, general and administrative expenses declined 6 percent in 2009 compared to 2008. The decline was driven by lower variable pay, wage reductions, lower global infrastructure costs and foreign currency movements. Selling, general and administrative increased 8 percent in 2008 compared to 2007. The Stratagene and Velocity11 acquisitions accounted for 8 percentage points of this growth in 2008 compared to 2007.
Operating margins were flat in 2009 compared to 2008. Wage reductions and lower variable pay helped offset lower sales volumes. Operating margins increased by 2 percentage points in 2008 compared to 2007. This was due to higher revenues and operational efficiencies offsetting the higher investments made in research and development and selling, general, and administrative to accommodate growth.
Income from operations in 2009 declined by $20 million or 5 percent compared to 2008 on a revenue decrease of $132 million, a 15 percent year-over-year operating margin decremental. Income from operations in 2008 increased by $103 million or 33 percent compared to 2007 on a revenue increase of $319 million, a 32 percent year-over-year operating margin incremental.
Semiconductor and Board Test
Our semiconductor and board test business provides standard and customized laser interferometer, parametric and manufacturing test and measurement instruments and systems monitoring, management and optimization tools that are used in the design, development, manufacture, installation, deployment and operation of semiconductor and printed circuit assembly fabrication. The laser interferometer business was formerly part of the bio-analytical measurement segment and both the parametric test and printed circuit test businesses were formerly part of the electronic measurement segment. Related services include start-up assistance, instrument productivity and application services and instrument calibration and repair. We also offer customization, consulting and optimization services throughout the customer's product lifecycle.
Semiconductor and board test orders declined 59 percent in 2009, down from a 26 percent decline in 2008. On a regional basis, 2009 orders declined 62 percent in the Americas, 54 percent in Europe, 64 percent in Japan and 56 percent in rest of Asia.
Semiconductor and board test revenues declined 54 percent in 2009, down from a 23 percent decline in 2008 as all markets and geographies weakened markedly. Capital spending was depressed in
all markets due to low capacity utilization in both electronic manufacturing and semiconductor fabrication facilities.
The electronic manufacturing market remains under significant pressure due to the global decline in demand for consumer electronics and market uncertainty. While contract manufacturers have seen capacity utilization rates increase slightly, production line expansion is minimal. The semiconductor fabrication market remains soft as global semiconductor demand continues to be down on weak demand for wireless and computing devices. In addition, semiconductor equipment supplier demand is weak as semiconductor fabrication utilization rates are improving, but still remain low. Demand for parametric test applications and solutions continue to be soft.
Looking forward, we expect near-term weakness in our semiconductor and board test business due to the current market uncertainty and volatility with gradual improvement longer term.
The following table shows the electronic measurement business's margins, expenses and income (loss) from operations for 2009 versus 2008 and 2008 versus 2007.
Gross margins for products and services declined 14 percentage points year-over-year in 2009 due primarily to the significant decline in revenue volume. Volume-adjusted gross margins in 2009 compared to 2008 improved as expense reductions from savings due to restructuring, lower variable pay, wage reductions, lower general and direct infrastructure costs were offset by the unfavorable impact of higher pension expenses and E&O (excess and obsolescence) inventory charges. Gross margins for products and services declined 5 percentage points year-over-year in 2008 due largely to the decline in revenue volume.
Research and development expenses in 2009 declined $17 million, or 34 percent, compared to 2008. This decline was driven by lower variable pay, wage reductions, savings due to restructuring, and lower general infrastructure costs, which were offset by higher pension expenses. Research and development expenses in 2008 declined $8 million, or 15 percent, compared to 2007. This decline was driven largely by structural and operational spending reductions.
Selling, general and administrative expenses in 2009 decreased $36 million, or 36 percent, compared to 2008. Year-over-year reductions in selling, general and administrative expenses were consistent with R&D and were driven by lower variable pay, wage reductions, savings due to restructuring, and lower general infrastructure costs, which were offset by higher pension expenses. Selling, general and administrative expenses in 2008 declined $20 million, or 17 percent, compared to 2007. This decrease was driven largely by structural and operational spending reductions.
Operating margins declined by 31 percentage points in 2009 compared to 2008 due to lower revenue volume that was partially offset by structural and operational expense reductions. Operating margins decreased by 8 percentage points in 2008 compared to 2007 due to lower revenue volume.
Income from operations declined by $64 million in 2009 compared to 2008 on a revenue decrease of $190 million, a 34 percent year-over-year operating margin decremental as structural and operational expense reductions partially offset the unfavorable impact of lower revenue. Income from operations declined by $45 million in 2008 compared to 2007 on a revenue decline of $102 million, a 44 percent year-over-year operating margin decremental as operational expense reductions partially offset the unfavorable impact of lower revenue.
2010 Segment Reporting Changes
In the first quarter of 2010, we will form three new operating segments from our existing businesses. The bio-analytical measurement segment will be separated into two operating segments life sciences and chemical analysis. The electronic measurement segment will recombine electronic measurement and semiconductor and board test, which were reported separately in 2009. Following this re-organization, Agilent will have three businesses life sciences, chemical analysis and electronic measurement each of which will comprise a reportable segment. The three new operating segments are determined based primarily on how the chief operating decision maker views and evaluates our operations. Operating results are regularly reviewed by the chief operating decision maker to make decisions about resources to be allocated to the segment and to assess its performance. Other factors, including technology and delivery channels, consumer-specific solutions and specialized manufacturing, are considered in determining the formation of these new operating segments.
The life sciences segment will include DNA microarrays and associated scanner, software, and reagents; microfluidics-based sample analysis systems; liquid chromatography systems, columns and components; liquid chromatography mass spectrometry systems; capillary electrophoresis systems; laboratory software and informatics systems; bio-reagents and related products; laboratory automation and robotic systems; services and support for the aforementioned products.
The chemical analysis segment will include gas chromatography systems, columns and components; gas chromatography mass spectrometry systems; inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry products; spectroscopy analyzers; software and data systems; services and support for the aforementioned products.
The electronic measurement segment will now include the semiconductor and board test segment by recombining laser interferometer, parametric test and printed circuit board manufacturing test equipment.
All historical segment numbers will be recast to conform to this new reporting structure in our financial statements, beginning with our Form 10-Q filing for the first quarter of 2010.
The following table reflects the restatement of selected financial information of our operating segments for fiscal 2009, 2008 and 2007 on the new basis:
Our cash balances are held in numerous locations throughout the world, including substantial amounts held outside of the U.S. Most of the amounts held outside of the U.S. could be repatriated to the U.S. but, under current law, would be subject to U.S. federal and state income taxes, less applicable foreign tax credits. Agilent has accrued for U.S. federal and state tax liabilities on the earnings of its foreign subsidiaries except when the earnings are considered indefinitely reinvested outside of the U.S. Repatriation could result in additional U.S. federal and state income tax payments in future years. Where local restrictions prevent an efficient intercompany transfer of funds, our intent is that cash balances would remain outside of the U.S. and we would meet U.S. liquidity needs through ongoing cash flows, external borrowings, or both. We utilize a variety of financing strategies in an effort to ensure that our worldwide cash is available in the locations in which it is needed.
Our financial position as of October 31, 2009 consisted of cash and cash equivalents of $2,479 million as compared to $1,405 million as of October 31, 2008.
Net cash provided by operating activities was $408 million in 2009 compared to $756 million provided in 2008. We paid approximately $113 million in taxes in 2009 as compared to $210 million in the same period in 2008. Higher tax payments in 2008 were primarily due to one-time taxes related to transfers of intellectual property between affiliated entities. In 2007, we generated $969 million in net cash provided by operating activities.
In 2009, accounts receivable provided cash of $193 million as compared to cash used of $44 million in 2008. Days sales outstanding were 46 days in 2009 as compared to 47 days in 2008. Accounts payable used cash of $7 million in 2009 as compared to cash used of $21 million in 2008. Cash provided by inventory was $47 million in 2009 compared to cash used of $14 million in 2008. Inventory days on-hand increased to 93 days in 2009 compared to 89 days in 2008.
We contributed $37 million and $1 million to our U.S. defined benefit plans in 2009 and 2008, respectively. We contributed $71 million and $43 million to our non-U.S. defined benefit plans in 2009
and 2008, respectively. We contributed $1 million and zero to our U.S. post-retirement benefit plans in 2009 and 2008, respectively. Our non-U.S. defined benefit plans are generally funded ratably throughout the year. Total contributions in 2009 were $109 million or 148 percent more than 2008. Our annual contributions are highly dependent on the relative performance of our assets versus our projected liabilities, among other factors. We increased our contributions to offset significant declines in asset values during 2009. We expect to contribute approximately $86 million to our U.S. and non-U.S. defined benefit plans during 2010.
Net cash used in investing activities in 2009 was $14 million compared to $399 million used in 2008. In 2007, we used $456 million of net cash in the investing activities of operations.
Investments in property, plant and equipment were $128 million in 2009 and $154 million in 2008. Proceeds from sale of property, plant and equipment were $1 million in 2009 as compared to $14 million in 2008. In 2009, we invested $2 million in acquisitions and intangible assets compared to $172 million in 2008 which was primarily related to our acquisition of Velocity11. In 2007, we invested $344 million in acquisitions and purchase of intangible assets. In 2009, we purchased $30 million of investment securities as compared to $256 million in 2008. Proceeds from the sale of such securities in 2009 were $94 million as compared to $150 million in 2008. Proceeds from divestitures were $45 million in 2009.
We may finance the purchase price of Varian using a portion of the proceeds from our September 2009 offering of senior notes and other existing cash.
Net cash provided by financing activities in 2009 was $657 million compared to cash used of $774 million used in 2008. In 2007, we used $980 million in financing activities.
In the first quarter of 2008, the Audit and Finance Committee of the Board of Directors authorized a stock repurchase program of up to $2 billion. We repurchased approximately 9 million shares for $157 million during 2009, based on settlement date, as compared to approximately 30 million shares for $1,001 million during 2008. On March 26, 2009, the company announced that it was suspending its stock repurchase program until the end of the 2009 fiscal year. On November 15, 2009, the company's 2008 stock repurchase program expired upon the termination of its two-year term. Proceeds from the issuance of common stock under employee stock plans was $71 million in 2009 compared to $211 million during 2008 and $375 million in 2007.
We currently hold $1.5 billion of long-term debt that was refinanced on November 17, 2008 and the repayment date was extended to January 27, 2011. We are currently considering a number of refinancing and other options regarding the long-term debt. On August 11, 2008 a consolidated wholly-owned subsidiary of Agilent, borrowed a Rupee equivalent of $15 million from Citibank N.A at 12.75 percent per annum interest rate for 5 years, maturing on August 9, 2013 to finance a capital project in India. The loan is classified as long- term debt in our consolidated balance sheet.
As of October 31, 2009, we had approximately $2.5 billion of unrestricted cash and $1.6 billion of restricted cash that could be used to repurchase or redeem this long-term debt. However, most of this cash is held overseas and would need to be repatriated to the U.S. in order to be used to satisfy the repurchase obligation. Repatriation could result in additional U.S. federal and state income tax payments in future years.
On May 11, 2007, we entered into a five-year credit agreement, which provides for a $300 million unsecured credit facility that will expire on May 11, 2012. The company may use amounts borrowed under the facility for general corporate purposes. On September 8, 2009, we entered into an Accession Agreement, increasing the credit facility from $300 million to $330 million. The company may use amounts borrowed under the facility for general corporate purposes. As of October 31, 2009 the company has no borrowings outstanding under the facility.
On August 17, 2009 the credit agreement was amended to provide additional financing flexibility in advance of the pending acquisition of Varian, Inc. The amendment allows for up to $1 billion of additional indebtedness, incurred during the period from August 17, 2009 through the closing of the acquisition, to be excluded from the leverage ratio covenant until the later of the first day of the month following the ninth full calendar month after the closing of the acquisition or August 1, 2010; it also temporarily reduces the basket for other secured financing we are permitted to incur from $300 million to $75 million during this period. The amendment also increases by $500 million the amount of repurchase obligations (such as those of Agilent Technologies World Trade, Inc., ("World Trade")), a consolidated wholly-owned subsidiary of Agilent, that we are permitted to incur.
On September 9, 2009, Agilent Technologies, Inc. entered into an underwriting agreement with Barclays Capital Inc., Citigroup Global Markets Inc. and Credit Suisse Securities (USA) LLC. Pursuant to the underwriting agreement, Agilent issued an aggregate principal amount of $250 million in senior notes (the "2012 notes"). The senior notes were issued at 99.91% of their principal amount. The notes will mature on September 14, 2012, and bear interest at a fixed rate of 4.45% per annum. The interest is payable semi-annually on March 14th and September 14th of each year, payments commencing on March 14, 2010. Agilent also issued an aggregate principal amount of $500 million in senior notes (the "2015 notes"). These senior notes were issued at 99.69% of their principal amount. The notes will mature on September 14, 2015, and bear interest at a fixed rate of 5.50% per annum. The interest is payable semi-annually on March 14th and September 14th of each year, payments commencing on March 14, 2010. Upon the closing of the offering of the 2012 and 2015 notes, we entered into interest rate swaps with an aggregate notional amount of $750 million. Under the interest rate swaps, we will receive fixed-rate interest payments and will make payments based on the U.S. dollar London inter-bank offered rate ("LIBOR") plus 257.6 basis points and 253 basis points with respect to the 2012 and 2015 notes, respectively. The economic effect of these swaps will be to convert the fixed-rate interest expense on the senior notes to a variable LIBOR-based interest rate.
We have contractual commitments for non-cancelable operating leases. See Note 16 "Commitments and Contingencies", to our consolidated financial statements for further information on our non-cancelable operating leases.
Our liquidity is affected by many factors, some of which are based on normal ongoing operations of our business and some of which arise from fluctuations related to global economics and markets. Our cash balances are generated and held in many locations throughout the world. Local government regulations may restrict our ability to move cash balances to meet cash needs under certain circumstances. We do not currently expect such regulations and restrictions to impact our ability to pay vendors and conduct operations throughout our global organization.
Our cash flows from operations are dependent on a number of factors, including fluctuations in our operating results, accounts receivable collections, inventory management, and the timing of tax
and other payments. As a result, the impact of contractual obligations on our liquidity and capital resources in future periods should be analyzed in conjunction with such factors.
The following table summarizes our total contractual obligations at October 31, 2009 for operations and excludes amounts recorded in our consolidated balance sheet (in millions):
Operating leases. Commitments under operating leases relate primarily to leasehold property.
Commitments to contract manufacturers and suppliers. We purchase components from a variety of suppliers and use several contract manufacturers to provide manufacturing services for our products. During the normal course of business, we issue purchase orders with estimates of our requirements several months ahead of the delivery dates. However, our agreements with these suppliers usually provide us the option to cancel, reschedule, and adjust our requirements based on our business needs prior to firm orders being placed. Typically purchase orders outstanding with delivery dates within 30 days are non-cancelable. Therefore, only approximately 40 percent of our reported purchase commitments arising from these agreements are firm, non-cancelable, and unconditional commitments. We expect to fulfill all purchase commitments for inventory within one year.
In addition to the above mentioned commitments to contract manufacturers and suppliers, we record a liability for firm, non-cancelable, and unconditional purchase commitments for quantities in excess of our future demand forecasts consistent with our policy relating to excess inventory. As of October 31, 2009, the liability for our firm, non-cancelable and unconditional purchase commitments was $4 million, compared to same amount as of October 31, 2008. These amounts are included in other accrued liabilities in our consolidated balance sheet.
Other purchase commitments. These relate primarily to contracts with professional services suppliers. Purchase commitments are typically cancelable within a 90-day period without significant penalties.
Retirement Plans. Commitments under the retirement plans relate to expected contributions to be made to our U.S. and non U.S. defined benefit plans and to our post-retirement medical plans.
We had no material off-balance sheet arrangements as of October 31, 2009 or October 31, 2008.
The following table summarizes our total contractual obligations recorded in our consolidated balance sheet pertaining to long-term debt (in millions):
We have contractual obligations for interest payments on the above debts. World Trade is obligated to make interest payments, reset quarterly, at LIBOR plus 175 basis points. For the Indian Rupee loan from Citibank, the interest rate is 12.75 percent. The interest rates for the $600 million, $250 million and $500 million senior notes are 6.5 percent, 4.45 percent and 5.5 percent, respectively. We entered into interest rate swaps for the 2012 and 2015 notes. Under the interest rate swaps for the 2012 and 2015 notes, we are obligated to make interest payments semi-annually, at LIBOR plus 257.6 basis points and 253 basis points, respectively.
As a result of adopting the amended authoritative guidance, $418 million of taxes payable are now included in other long-term liabilities as of October 31, 2009. We are unable to accurately predict when these amounts will be paid or released.
We are exposed to foreign currency exchange rate risks inherent in our sales commitments, anticipated sales, and assets and liabilities denominated in currencies other than the functional currency of our subsidiaries. We hedge future cash flows denominated in currencies other than the functional currency using sales forecasts up to twelve months in advance. Our exposure to exchange rate risks is managed on an enterprise-wide basis. This strategy utilizes derivative financial instruments, including option and forward contracts, to hedge certain foreign currency exposures with the intent of offsetting gains and losses that occur on the underlying exposures with gains and losses on the derivative contracts hedging them. We do not currently and do not intend to utilize derivative financial instruments for speculative trading purposes.
Our operations generate non-functional currency cash flows such as revenues, third party vendor payments and inter-company payments. In anticipation of these foreign currency cash flows and in view of volatility of the currency market, we enter into such foreign exchange contracts as are described above to manage our currency risk. Approximately 62 percent of our revenues in 2009, 65 percent of our revenues in 2008 and 64 percent of our revenues in 2007 were generated in U.S. dollars.
We performed a sensitivity analysis assuming a hypothetical 10 percent adverse movement in foreign exchange rates to the hedging contracts and the underlying exposures described above. As of October 31, 2009 and October 31, 2008, the analysis indicated that these hypothetical market movements would not have a material effect on our consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows.
Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM
To the Stockholders and Board of Directors of Agilent Technologies, Inc.:
In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements listed in the index appearing under Item 8 present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of Agilent Technologies, Inc. and its subsidiaries at October 31, 2009 and October 31, 2008, and the results of their operations and their cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended October 31, 2009 in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America. In addition, in our opinion, the financial statement schedule listed in the index appearing under item 15(a)(2) presents fairly, in all material respects, the information set forth therein when read in conjunction with the related consolidated financial statements. Also in our opinion, the Company maintained, in all material respects, effective internal control over financial reporting as of October 31, 2009, based on criteria established in Internal Control Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO). The Company's management is responsible for these financial statements and financial statement schedule, for maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting and for its assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting, included in Management's Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting appearing under Item 9A. Our responsibility is to express opinions on these financial statements, on the financial statement schedule, and on the Company's internal control over financial reporting based on our integrated audits. We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States). Those standards require that we plan and perform the audits to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement and whether effective internal control over financial reporting was maintained in all material respects. Our audits of the financial statements included examining, on a test basis, evidence supporting the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements, assessing the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, and evaluating the overall financial statement presentation. Our audit of internal control over financial reporting included obtaining an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, assessing the risk that a material weakness exists, and testing and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of internal control based on the assessed risk. Our audits also included performing such other procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinions.
As discussed in Note 14 to the consolidated financial statements, the Company changed the manner in which it accounts for defined benefit pension and other post-retirement plans as of October 31, 2007.
As discussed in Note 4 to the consolidated financial statements, the Company changed the manner in which it accounts for uncertain tax positions as of November 1, 2007.
A company's internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. A company's internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (i) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the company; (ii) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the company; and (iii) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the company's assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.
Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.