AKAM » Topics » Accounting for Stock-Based Compensation

These excerpts taken from the AKAM 10-K filed Mar 1, 2010.

Accounting for Stock-Based Compensation:

We issue stock-based compensation awards including stock options, restricted stock, restricted stock units and deferred stock units. Related to such awards, we measure stock-based compensation at the grant date based

 

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on the fair value of the award, and we recognize such fair value as expense over the vesting period. We have selected the Black-Scholes option pricing model to determine the fair value of stock option awards. Determining the fair value of stock-based awards at the grant date requires judgment, including estimating the expected life of the stock awards and the volatility of the underlying common stock. Our assumptions may differ from those used in prior periods. Changes to the assumptions may have a significant impact on the fair value of stock options, which could have a material impact on our financial statements. Judgment is also required in estimating the amount of stock-based awards that are expected to be forfeited. Should our actual forfeiture rates differ significantly from our estimates, our stock-based compensation expense and results of operations could be materially impacted. In addition, for awards that vest and become exercisable only upon achievement of specified performance conditions, we make judgments and estimates each quarter about the probability that such performance conditions will be met or achieved. Changes to the estimates we make from time to time may have a significant impact on our stock-based compensation expense recorded and could materially impact our result of operations.

For stock options, restricted stock, restricted stock units and deferred stock units that contain only a service-based vesting feature, we recognize compensation cost on a straight-line basis over the awards’ vesting periods for those awards that contain only a service vesting feature. For awards with a performance condition-based vesting feature, we recognize compensation cost on a graded-vesting basis over the awards’ expected vesting periods.

Accounting for Stock-Based Compensation

The Company recognizes compensation costs for all stock-based payment awards made to employees and directors based upon the awards’ grant-date fair value. The stock-based payment awards include employee stock options, restricted stock, restricted stock units, deferred stock units and employee stock purchases related to the Company’s employee stock purchase plan.

For stock options, the Company has selected the Black-Scholes option-pricing model to determine the fair value of stock option awards. For stock options, restricted stock, restricted stock units and deferred stock units that contain only a service-based vesting feature, the Company recognizes compensation cost on a straight-line basis over the awards’ vesting periods. For awards with a performance condition-based vesting feature, the Company recognizes compensation cost on a graded-vesting basis over the awards’ expected vesting periods, commencing when achievement of the performance condition is deemed probable. In addition, for awards that vest and become exercisable only upon achievement of specified performance conditions, the Company makes judgments and estimates each quarter about the probability that such performance conditions will be met or achieved. Any changes to those estimates that the Company makes from time to time may have a significant impact on the stock-based compensation expense recorded and could materially impact the Company’s result of operations.

These excerpts taken from the AKAM 10-K filed Mar 2, 2009.

Accounting for Stock-Based Compensation:

We account for stock-based compensation in accordance with SFAS No. 123R. Under the fair value recognition provisions of SFAS No. 123R, stock-based compensation cost is measured at the grant date based on the fair value of the award and is recognized as expense over the vesting period. We have selected the Black-Scholes option pricing model to determine fair value of stock option awards. Determining the fair value of stock-based awards at the grant date requires judgment, including estimating the expected life of the stock awards and the volatility of the underlying common stock. Our assumptions may differ from those used in prior periods because of adjustments to the calculation of such assumptions based upon the guidance of SFAS No. 123R and Staff Accounting Bulletin No. 107, “Share-Based Payment.” Changes to the assumptions may have a significant impact on the fair value of stock options, which could have a material impact on our financial statements. In addition, judgment is also required in estimating the amount of stock-based awards that are expected to be forfeited. Should our actual forfeiture rates differ significantly from our estimates, our stock-based compensation expense and results of operations could be materially impacted.

For stock options, restricted stock, restricted stock units and deferred stock units, we recognize compensation cost on a straight-line basis over the awards’ vesting periods for those awards that contain only a service vesting feature. For awards with a performance condition vesting feature, we recognize compensation cost on a graded-vesting basis over the awards’ expected vesting periods.

Accounting for Stock-Based Compensation:

We
account for stock-based compensation in accordance with SFAS No. 123R. Under the fair value recognition provisions of SFAS No. 123R, stock-based compensation cost is measured at the grant date based on the fair value of the award
and is recognized as expense over the vesting period. We have selected the Black-Scholes option pricing model to determine fair value of stock option awards. Determining the fair value of stock-based awards at the grant date requires judgment,
including estimating the expected life of the stock awards and the volatility of the underlying common stock. Our assumptions may differ from those used in prior periods because of adjustments to the calculation of such assumptions based upon the
guidance of SFAS No. 123R and Staff Accounting Bulletin No. 107, “Share-Based Payment.” Changes to the assumptions may have a significant impact on the fair value of stock options, which could have a material impact on our
financial statements. In addition, judgment is also required in estimating the amount of stock-based awards that are expected to be forfeited. Should our actual forfeiture rates differ significantly from our estimates, our stock-based compensation
expense and results of operations could be materially impacted.

For stock options, restricted stock, restricted stock units and deferred
stock units, we recognize compensation cost on a straight-line basis over the awards’ vesting periods for those awards that contain only a service vesting feature. For awards with a performance condition vesting feature, we recognize
compensation cost on a graded-vesting basis over the awards’ expected vesting periods.

Accounting for Stock-Based Compensation

The Company accounts for stock-based compensation in accordance with Statement of Financial Accounting Standard (“SFAS”) No. 123R, “Share-Based Payment” (“SFAS No. 123R”). SFAS No. 123R requires recognizing compensation costs for all share-based payment awards made to employees and directors based upon the awards’ grant-date fair value. The standard covers employee stock options, restricted stock, restricted stock units, deferred stock units and employee stock purchases related to the Company’s employee stock purchase plan. The Company adopted SFAS No. 123R as of January 1, 2006 using the modified prospective transition method.

Under the modified prospective transition method, SFAS No. 123R applies to new equity awards and to equity awards modified, repurchased or canceled after the adoption date of January 1, 2006. Additionally, compensation costs for the portion of awards granted prior to the adoption date for which the requisite service was not rendered as of the adoption date are recognized as the requisite service is rendered. Compensation costs for that portion of awards are based on the grant-date fair value of those awards as calculated in the prior period pro forma disclosures under SFAS No. 123, “Accounting for Stock-Based Compensation” (“SFAS No. 123”). Changes to the grant-date fair value of equity awards granted before the effective date are precluded. The compensation cost for those earlier awards is attributed to periods beginning on or after the adoption date using the attribution method that was used under SFAS No. 123, which was the straight-line method. The Company estimates an expected forfeiture rate, which is factored into the determination of the Company’s quarterly expense. Deferred compensation related to those earlier awards was eliminated against additional paid-in capital in fiscal 2006. SFAS No. 123R also changes the reporting of tax-related amounts within the statement of cash flows. The excess amount of windfall tax benefits resulting from stock-based compensation is reported as financing inflows.

For stock options, the Company has selected the Black-Scholes option-pricing model to determine the fair value of stock option awards. For stock options, restricted stock, restricted stock units and deferred stock units,

 

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AKAMAI TECHNOLOGIES, INC.

NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS—(Continued)

 

the Company recognizes compensation cost on a straight-line basis over the awards’ vesting periods for those awards that contain only a service vesting feature. For awards with a performance condition vesting feature, the Company recognizes compensation cost on a graded-vesting basis over the awards’ expected vesting periods, commencing when achievement of the performance condition is deemed probable.

These excerpts taken from the AKAM 10-K filed Feb 29, 2008.

Accounting for Stock-Based Compensation

On January 1, 2006, the Company adopted Statement of Financial Accounting Standard (“SFAS”) No. 123R, “Share-Based Payment” (“SFAS No. 123R”). SFAS No. 123R requires recognizing compensation costs for all share-based payment awards made to employees and directors based upon the awards’ grant date fair value. The standard covers employee stock options, restricted stock, restricted stock units, deferred stock units and employee stock purchases related to the Company’s employee stock purchase plan. Previously, the Company elected to account for these share-based payment awards under Accounting Principles Board Opinion No. 25, “Accounting for Stock Issued to Employees” (“APB No. 25”) and elected to only disclose the impact of expensing the fair value of stock options in the notes to its financial statements. The Company adopted SFAS No. 123R using the modified prospective transition method, which does not result in the restatement of results of prior periods. Accordingly, the results of operations for 2006 and subsequent periods are not comparable to the Company’s historical results of operations prior to 2006.

Under the modified prospective transition method, SFAS No. 123R applies to new equity awards and to equity awards modified, repurchased or canceled after the adoption date of January 1, 2006. Additionally, compensation costs for the portion of awards granted prior to the adoption date for which the requisite service was not rendered as of the adoption date are recognized as the requisite service is rendered. Compensation costs for that portion of awards are based on the grant-date fair value of those awards as calculated in the prior period pro forma disclosures under SFAS No. 123, “Accounting for Stock-Based Compensation” (“SFAS No. 123”). Changes to the grant-date fair value of equity awards granted before the effective date are precluded. The compensation cost for those earlier awards is attributed to periods beginning on or after the adoption date using the attribution method that was used under SFAS No. 123, which was the straight-line method. The Company estimates an expected forfeiture rate which is factored into the determination of the Company’s quarterly expense. Deferred compensation related to those earlier awards was eliminated against additional paid-in capital in fiscal 2006. SFAS No. 123R also changes the reporting of tax-related amounts within the statement of cash flows. The excess amount of windfall tax benefits resulting from stock-based compensation is reported as financing inflows.

For stock options, the Company has selected the Black-Scholes option-pricing model to determine the fair value of stock option awards. For stock options, restricted stock, restricted stock units and deferred stock units, the Company recognizes compensation cost on a straight-line basis over the awards’ vesting periods for those awards that contain only a service vesting feature. For awards with a performance condition vesting feature, the Company recognizes compensation cost on a graded-vesting basis over the awards’ expected vesting periods.

Accounting for Stock-Based Compensation

STYLE="margin-top:6px;margin-bottom:0px; text-indent:4%">On January 1, 2006, the Company adopted Statement of Financial Accounting Standard (“SFAS”) No. 123R, “Share-Based Payment”
(“SFAS No. 123R”). SFAS No. 123R requires recognizing compensation costs for all share-based payment awards made to employees and directors based upon the awards’ grant date fair value. The standard covers employee stock
options, restricted stock, restricted stock units, deferred stock units and employee stock purchases related to the Company’s employee stock purchase plan. Previously, the Company elected to account for these share-based payment awards under
Accounting Principles Board Opinion No. 25, “Accounting for Stock Issued to Employees” (“APB No. 25”) and elected to only disclose the impact of expensing the fair value of stock options in the notes to its financial
statements. The Company adopted SFAS No. 123R using the modified prospective transition method, which does not result in the restatement of results of prior periods. Accordingly, the results of operations for 2006 and subsequent periods
are not comparable to the Company’s historical results of operations prior to 2006.

Under the modified prospective transition method,
SFAS No. 123R applies to new equity awards and to equity awards modified, repurchased or canceled after the adoption date of January 1, 2006. Additionally, compensation costs for the portion of awards granted prior to the adoption
date for which the requisite service was not rendered as of the adoption date are recognized as the requisite service is rendered. Compensation costs for that portion of awards are based on the grant-date fair value of those awards as calculated in
the prior period pro forma disclosures under SFAS No. 123, “Accounting for Stock-Based Compensation” (“SFAS No. 123”). Changes to the grant-date fair value of equity awards granted before the effective date
are precluded. The compensation cost for those earlier awards is attributed to periods beginning on or after the adoption date using the attribution method that was used under SFAS No. 123, which was the straight-line method. The Company
estimates an expected forfeiture rate which is factored into the determination of the Company’s quarterly expense. Deferred compensation related to those earlier awards was eliminated against additional paid-in capital in fiscal 2006.
SFAS No. 123R also changes the reporting of tax-related amounts within the statement of cash flows. The excess amount of windfall tax benefits resulting from stock-based compensation is reported as financing inflows.

STYLE="margin-top:12px;margin-bottom:0px; text-indent:4%">For stock options, the Company has selected the Black-Scholes option-pricing model to determine the fair value of stock option awards. For stock options,
restricted stock, restricted stock units and deferred stock units, the Company recognizes compensation cost on a straight-line basis over the awards’ vesting periods for those awards that contain only a service vesting feature. For awards with
a performance condition vesting feature, the Company recognizes compensation cost on a graded-vesting basis over the awards’ expected vesting periods.

SIZE="2">Research and Development Costs

Research and development costs consist primarily of payroll and related personnel
costs for the design, development, deployment, testing, operation and enhancement of the Company’s services and network. Costs incurred in the development of the Company’s services are expensed as incurred, except certain software
development costs eligible for capitalization. Costs incurred during the application development stage of internal-use software projects, such as those used in the Company’s network operations, are capitalized in accordance with SOP 98-1,
“Accounting for the Costs of Computer Software Developed or Obtained for Internal Use.” Capitalized costs include external consulting fees and payroll and payroll-related costs for employees in the Company’s development and
information technology groups who are directly associated with, and who devote time to, the Company’s internal-use software projects during the application development stage. Capitalization begins when the planning stage is complete and the
Company commits resources to the software project. Capitalization ceases when the software has been tested and is ready for its intended use. Amortization of

 


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AKAMAI TECHNOLOGIES, INC.

ALIGN="center">NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS—(Continued)

 



the asset commences when the software is complete and placed in service. The Company amortizes completed internal-use software to cost of revenues over an
estimated life of two years. Costs incurred during the planning, training and post-implementation stages of the software development life-cycle are expensed as incurred. Costs related to upgrades and enhancements of existing internal-use software
that increase the functionality of the software are also capitalized.

Concentrations of Credit Risk and Fair Value of Financial Instruments

The amounts reflected in the consolidated balance sheets for cash and cash equivalents, accounts receivable and accounts payable
approximate their fair value due to their short-term maturities. The fair value and the carrying amount of the Company’s 1% convertible senior notes were $227.5 million and $199.9 million, respectively, as of December 31,
2007. The fair value is based upon the trading price of the debt. The Company maintains the majority of its cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities balances principally with domestic financial institutions that the Company believes to be of
high credit standing. The Company believes that, as of December 31, 2007, its concentration of credit risk related to cash equivalents and marketable securities was not significant. (See Note 21 for further discussion of subsequent events
related to certain investments held by the Company). Concentrations of credit risk with respect to accounts receivable are primarily limited to certain customers to which the Company makes substantial sales. The Company’s customer base consists
of a large number of geographically dispersed customers diversified across several industries. To reduce risk, the Company routinely assesses the financial strength of its customers. Based on such assessments, the Company believes that its accounts
receivable credit risk exposure is limited. For the years ended December 31, 2007, 2006 and 2005, no customer accounted for more than 10% of total revenues. As of December 31, 2007 and 2006, no customer had an account receivable balance
greater than 10% of total accounts receivable. The Company believes that, as of December 31, 2007, its concentration of credit risk related to accounts receivable was not significant.

STYLE="margin-top:18px;margin-bottom:0px">Taxes

The Company’s provision for income
taxes is comprised of a current and a deferred portion. The current income tax provision is calculated as the estimated taxes payable or refundable on tax returns for the current year. The deferred income tax provision is calculated for the
estimated future tax effects attributable to temporary differences and carryforwards using expected tax rates in effect in the years during which the differences are expected to reverse or the carryforwards are expected to be realized.


The Company currently has significant deferred tax assets consisting of net operating loss (“NOL”) carryforwards, tax credit carryforwards
and deductible temporary differences. Management periodically weighs the positive and negative evidence to determine if it is more likely than not that some or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized. During 2005, management determined
it was more likely than not that substantially all of the deferred tax assets would be realized, and, accordingly released substantially all of its valuation allowance. This decision was based on the Company’s cumulative history of earnings
before taxes for financial reporting purposes over a 12-quarter period and on the projections of expected future taxable income at that time.

SIZE="2">In November 2005, the FASB issued FASB Staff Position SFAS 123R-3, “Transition Election to Accounting for the Tax Effect of Share-Based Payment Awards.” The Company elected to adopt the modified prospective transition method
for calculating the tax effects of stock-based compensation pursuant to SFAS No. 123R. Under the modified prospective transition method, no adjustment is made to the deferred tax balances associated with stock-based payments that continue
to be classified as equity awards. Additionally, the Company elected to use the “long-form method,” as provided in paragraph 81 of SFAS No. 123R to determine the pool of windfall tax benefits upon adoption of SFAS 123R. The long-form
method required the Company to

 


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AKAMAI TECHNOLOGIES, INC.

ALIGN="center">NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS—(Continued)

 



analyze the book and tax compensation for each award separately as if it had been issued following the recognition provisions of SFAS No. 123, subject to
adjustments for NOL carryforwards.

The Company has recorded certain tax reserves to address potential exposures involving its income tax
and sales and use tax positions. These potential tax liabilities result from the varying application of statutes, rules, regulations and interpretations by different taxing jurisdictions. The Company’s estimate of the value of its tax reserves
contains assumptions based on past experiences and judgments about the interpretation of statutes, rules and regulations by taxing jurisdictions. It is possible that the costs of the ultimate tax liability or benefit from these matters may be
materially more or less than the amount that the Company estimated.

In June 2006, the FASB issued FASB Interpretation No. 48,
“Accounting for Uncertainty in Income Taxes, an Interpretation of FASB Statement No. 109” (“FIN 48”). FIN 48 clarifies the accounting for uncertainty in income taxes recognized in an enterprise’s financial statements in
accordance with FASB Statement No. 109, “Accounting for Income Taxes.” FIN 48 prescribes a two-step process to determine the amount of tax benefit to be recognized. First, the tax position must be evaluated to determine the likelihood
that it will be sustained upon external examination. If the tax position is deemed more-likely-than-not to be sustained, the tax position is then assessed to determine the amount of benefit to recognize in the financial statements. The amount of the
benefit that may be recognized is the largest amount that has a greater than 50 percent likelihood of being realized upon ultimate settlement. The Company adopted the provisions of FIN 48 on January 1, 2007. As of the date of adoption, the
Company had unrecognized tax benefits of $2.1 million, including accrued interest and penalties, and did not record any cumulative effect adjustment to retained earnings as a result of adopting FIN 48. As of December 31, 2007, the Company had
unrecognized tax benefits of $4.0 million, including accrued interest and penalties (see Note 18).

This excerpt taken from the AKAM 10-K filed Mar 1, 2007.
Accounting for Stock-Based Compensation
 
On January 1, 2006, the Company adopted Statement of Financial Accounting Standard (“SFAS”) No. 123R, “Share-Based Payment” (“FAS No. 123R”). The standard requires recognizing compensation costs for all share-based payment awards made to employees and directors based upon the awards’ estimated grant date fair value. The standard covers employee stock options, restricted stock, restricted stock units, deferred stock units and employee stock purchases related to the Company’s employee stock purchase plan. Additionally, the Company applied the provisions of the SEC’s Staff Accounting Bulletin No. 107 on Share-Based Payment to the Company’s adoption of FAS No. 123R. Previously, the Company elected to account for these share-based payment awards under Accounting Principles Board Opinion No. 25, “Accounting for Stock Issued to Employees” (“APB No. 25”) and elected to only disclose the impact of expensing the fair value of stock options in the notes to the financial statements.
 
The Company adopted FAS No. 123R using the modified prospective transition method which requires applying the standard as of January 1, 2006 (“the adoption date”). The modified prospective transition method does not result in the restatement of results from prior periods and, accordingly, the results of operations for 2006 and future periods will not be comparable to the Company’s historical results of operations.
 
Under the modified prospective transition method, FAS No. 123R applies to new equity awards and to equity awards modified, repurchased or canceled after the adoption date. Additionally, compensation cost for the portion of awards granted prior to the adoption date for which the requisite service has not been rendered as of the adoption date shall be recognized as the requisite service is rendered. The compensation cost for that portion of awards shall be based on the grant-date fair value of those awards as calculated in the prior period pro forma disclosures under FAS No. 123, “Accounting for Stock-Based Compensation” (“FAS No. 123”). Changes to the grant-date fair value of equity awards granted before the effective date are precluded. The compensation cost for those earlier awards


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AKAMAI TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
 
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS — (Continued)

shall be attributed to periods beginning on or after the adoption date using the attribution method that was used under FAS No. 123, which was the straight-line method. The Company estimates an expected forfeiture rate which is factored in to determine the Company’s quarterly expense. Deferred compensation which related to those earlier awards has been eliminated against additional paid-in capital. FAS No. 123R also changes the reporting of tax-related amounts within the statement of cash flows. The excess amount of windfall tax benefits resulting from stock-based compensation will be reported as financing inflows.
 
For stock options, the Company has selected the Black-Scholes option-pricing model to determine the fair value of stock option awards. For stock options, restricted stock, restricted stock units and deferred stock units, the Company recognizes compensation cost on a straight-line basis over the awards’ vesting periods for those awards that contain a service vesting feature. For awards with a performance condition vesting feature, the Company recognizes compensation cost on a straight-line basis over the awards’ expected vesting periods.
 
This excerpt taken from the AKAM 10-Q filed Nov 9, 2006.
Accounting for Stock-Based Compensation
 
Since January 1, 2006, we have accounted for stock-based compensation in accordance with SFAS No. 123(R). Historically, we recognized stock option costs pursuant to Accounting Principles Bulletin No. 25, “Accounting for Stock Issued to Employees,” and elected to disclose the impact of expensing stock options pursuant to Statement of Financial Accounting Standards No. 123, “Share-Based Payment” in the notes to our financial statements. (See Note 6 to the Financial Statements included in this quarterly report on Form 10-Q). Under the fair value recognition provisions of SFAS No. 123(R), stock-based compensation cost is measured at the grant date based on the value of the award and is recognized as expense over the vesting period. We have selected the Black-Scholes option pricing model to determine fair value of stock option awards. Determining the fair value of stock-based awards at the grant date requires judgment, including estimating the expected life of the stock awards and the volatility of the underlying common stock. Our quarterly assumptions may differ from those used in prior periods because of adjustments to the calculation of such assumptions based upon the guidance of SFAS No. 123(R) and Staff Accounting Bulletin No. 107, “Share-Based Payment.” Changes to the assumptions may have a significant impact on the fair value of stock options, which could have a material impact on our financial statements. In addition, judgment is also required in estimating the amount of stock-based awards that are expected to be forfeited. Should our actual forfeiture rates differ significantly from our estimates, our stock-based compensation expense and results of operations could be materially impacted.
 
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