Amazon.com 10-K 2008
Documents found in this filing:
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2007
For the transition period from to .
Commission File No. 000-22513
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
1200 12th Avenue South, Suite 1200
Seattle, Washington 98144-2734
(Address and telephone number, including area code, of registrants principal executive offices)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes x No ¨
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act. Yes ¨ No x
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes x No ¨
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrants knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K. x
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, or a non-accelerated filer. See definition of accelerated filer and large accelerated filer in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer x Accelerated filer ¨ Non-accelerated filer ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes ¨ No x
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
The information required by Part III of this Report, to the extent not set forth herein, is incorporated herein by reference from the registrants definitive proxy statement relating to the Annual Meeting of Shareholders to be held in 2008, which definitive proxy statement shall be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission within 120 days after the end of the fiscal year to which this Report relates.
For the Fiscal Year Ended December 31, 2007
Item 1. Business
This Annual Report on Form 10-K and the documents incorporated herein by reference contain forward-looking statements based on expectations, estimates, and projections as of the date of this filing. Actual results may differ materially from those expressed in forward-looking statements. See Item 1A of Part IRisk Factors.
Amazon.com, Inc. was incorporated in 1994 in the state of Washington and reincorporated in 1996 in the state of Delaware. Our principal corporate offices are located in Seattle, Washington. We completed our initial public offering in May 1997 and our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol AMZN.
As used herein, Amazon.com, we, our and similar terms include Amazon.com, Inc. and its subsidiaries, unless the context indicates otherwise.
Amazon.com, a Fortune 500 company, opened its virtual doors on the World Wide Web in July 1995. We offer Earths Biggest Selection and seek to be Earths most customer-centric company for three primary customer sets: consumer customers, seller customers and developer customers. In addition, we generate revenue through co-branded credit card agreements and other marketing and promotional services, such as online advertising.
We have organized our operations into two principal segments: North America and International. See Item 8 of Part II, Financial Statements and Supplementary DataNote 13Segment Information. See Item 7 of Part II, Managements Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of OperationsResults of OperationsSupplemental Information for supplemental information about our net sales.
We serve consumer customers through our retail websites, which include www.amazon.com, www.amazon.ca, www.amazon.de, www.amazon.fr, www.amazon.co.jp, www.amazon.co.uk, www.shopbop.com, www.endless.com and the Joyo Amazon websites at www.joyo.cn and www.amazon.cn. We seek to enable our consumer customers to find and discover anything they might want to buy online, and endeavor to offer the lowest possible prices. We source and sell a broad range of products worldwide across dozens of product categories, including digital media. We also design, manufacture, market and sell a wireless e-reading device, the Amazon Kindle. Our customer-facing businesses relentlessly focus on customer experience by offering a wide selection of merchandise, low prices, and convenience.
We endeavor to provide the widest possible selection for customers worldwide, while continuing to focus on in-stock inventory availability. We have designed our websites to enable millions of unique products to be sold by us and by third parties across dozens of product categories, such as:
We endeavor to offer our customers the lowest prices possible through low everyday product pricing and free shipping offers. We also strive to improve our operating efficiencies so that we can continue to lower prices for our customers. We enable sellers to offer their products on our sites, in many instances alongside our product selection, and to set their own retail prices.
Our software engineers, computer scientists, merchandisers, and management team focus on continuous innovation to enhance convenience. We work to earn repeat purchases by providing easy-to-use functionality, fast and reliable fulfillment, timely customer service, feature-rich and authoritative content, and a trusted transaction environment. Key features of our websites include editorial and customer reviews; manufacturer product information; gift guides; Web pages tailored to individual preferences, such as recommendations and notifications; 1-Click technology; secure payment systems; digital content; searching; browsing; and the ability to view selected interior pages and citations, and search the entire contents of many of the books we offer with our Search Inside the Book feature. Our community of online customers also creates feature-rich content, including product reviews, online recommendation lists, wish lists, image uploads, video reviews, buying guides, customer discussions, and wedding and baby registries.
We endeavor to fulfill customer orders quickly and accurately, and to provide intuitive self-service features that assist our customers when they have questions. We communicate our fulfillment promise in several ways, such as presenting up-to-date inventory availability information, delivery date estimates, and options for expedited delivery, as well as delivery shipment notifications. Customers can use the Your Account website features to track order and shipment status, review estimated delivery dates, cancel items not yet shipped, change delivery instructions and payment options, combine orders, edit gift options, and return items. Additionally, when customers have questions, we provide an email address and phone number to contact customer service directly and an intuitive click-to-call feature on our help pages so customers can quickly and conveniently speak with a customer service representative.
We fulfill customer orders in a number of ways, including through the U.S. and international fulfillment centers and warehouses that we operate; through fulfillment centers operated under co-sourcing arrangements, including our fulfillment center supporting www.amazon.co.jp; through outsourced fulfillment providers, including our fulfillment providers supporting www.amazon.ca; and through fulfillment arrangements with other sellers. We operate customer service centers globally, which are supplemented by several co-sourcing customer service arrangements with third parties. See Item 2 of Part I, Properties, for additional information about fulfillment centers and customer service locations.
Marketing and Promotion
Our marketing strategy is designed to increase customer traffic to our websites, drive awareness of products and services we offer, promote repeat purchases, develop incremental product and service revenue opportunities, and strengthen and broaden the Amazon.com brand name. We believe our most effective marketing efforts result from our focus on continuously improving the customer experience, which drives word-of-mouth promotion and repeat customer visits. We also deliver personalized Web pages and services and employ a variety of media, business development activities, and promotional methods. We employ various means of advertising, which consist primarily of online advertising, including through our Associates program, sponsored search, portal advertising, e-mail campaigns, and other initiatives. Our Associates program directs customers to our websites by enabling independent websites to make millions of products available to their audiences with fulfillment performed by us or third parties. We pay commissions to participants in our Associates program for click-through customer referrals and customer referrals resulting in product sales, subject to the terms of the specific commission agreement.
We offer everyday free shipping options worldwide. We also offer Amazon Prime, a membership program in which members receive free or discounted express shipping, in the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany and Japan. Although marketing expenses do not include the costs of our free shipping or promotional offers, we view such offers as effective marketing tools.
Through Amazon Services, we offer programs that enable seller customers to sell their products on our websites and fulfill orders through us, allow consumer customers to shop for products owned by sellers using our features and technologies, and allow individual customers to complete transactions that include multiple sellers in a single checkout process. We are not the seller of record in these transactions, but instead earn fixed fees, sales commissions, per-unit activity fees, or some combination thereof.
Our seller programs serve individuals, small businesses, and large branded businesses, enabling them to offer their new and used products for sale on our websites alongside our products and products made available by other sellers. We also offer fulfillment-related services to sellers through Fulfillment by Amazon.
In addition, Amazon Enterprise Solutions offers sellers e-commerce expertise, proven technology, and operational infrastructure to enable e-commerce businesses operating under their own brand name and website address (e.g. www.target.com).
We serve developer customers through Amazon Web Services, which provides access to technology infrastructure that developers can use to enable virtually any type of business.
These services include:
Our market segments are rapidly evolving and intensely competitive. Our current and potential competitors include: (1) physical-world retailers, publishers, vendors, distributors, manufacturers and producers of our products; (2) other online e-commerce and mobile e-commerce sites, including sites that sell or distribute digital content; (3) a number of indirect competitors, including media companies, Web portals, comparison shopping websites, and Web search engines, either directly or in collaboration with other retailers; (4) companies that
provide e-commerce services, including website development; fulfillment and customer service; (5) companies that provide infrastructure web services or other information storage or computing services or products; and (6) companies that design, manufacture, market or sell digital media devices. We believe that the principal competitive factors in our retail market segments include selection, price, availability, convenience, information, discovery, brand recognition, personalized services, accessibility, customer service, reliability, speed of fulfillment, ease of use, and ability to adapt to changing conditions, as well as our customers overall experience and trust in transactions with us and facilitated by us on behalf of sellers. For our seller and web services, additional competitive factors include the quality of our services and tools, the speed and reliability of our services and our ability to build technology infrastructure while remaining competitive with our services from a cost perspective. Many of our current potential competitors have greater resources, longer histories, more customers, and greater brand recognition. They may secure better terms from vendors, adopt more aggressive pricing and devote more resources to technology, fulfillment, and marketing. Other companies also may enter into business combinations or alliances that strengthen their competitive positions.
We regard our trademarks, service marks, copyrights, patents, domain names, trade dress, trade secrets, proprietary technologies, and similar intellectual property as critical to our success, and we rely on trademark, copyright and patent law, trade-secret protection, and confidentiality and/or license agreements with our employees, customers, partners, and others to protect our proprietary rights. We have registered a number of domain names and been issued a number of trademarks, service marks, patents, and copyrights by U.S. and foreign governmental authorities. We also have applied for the registration of other trademarks, service marks, domain names, and copyrights in the U.S. and internationally, and we have filed U.S. and international patent applications covering certain of our proprietary technology. We have licensed in the past, and expect that we may license in the future, certain of our proprietary rights, such as trademarks, patents, technologies or copyrighted materials, to third parties.
Our business is affected by seasonality, which historically has resulted in higher sales volume during our fourth quarter, which ends December 31.
We employed approximately 17,000 full-time and part-time employees at December 31, 2007. However, employment levels fluctuate due to seasonal factors affecting our business. Additionally, we utilize independent contractors and temporary personnel to supplement our workforce, particularly on a seasonal basis. Our employees are not represented by a labor union and we consider our employee relations to be good. Competition for qualified personnel in our industry is intense, particularly for software engineers, computer scientists, and other technical staff. We believe that our future success will depend in part on our continued ability to attract, hire, and retain qualified personnel.
Our investor relations website is www.amazon.com/ir. We make available on this website under Financial Documents, free of charge, our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to those reports as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file or furnish such materials to the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). We also make available on this website under the heading Corporate Governance our Code of Business Conduct and Ethics.
Executive Officers and Directors
The following tables set forth certain information regarding our Executive Officers and Directors as of February 8, 2008:
Jeffrey P. Bezos. Mr. Bezos has been Chairman of the Board of Amazon.com since founding it in 1994 and Chief Executive Officer since May 1996. Mr. Bezos served as President of the Company from founding until June 1999 and again from October 2000 to the present.
Jeffrey M. Blackburn. Mr. Blackburn has served as Senior Vice President, Business Development, since April 2006. From June 2004 to April 2006, he was Vice President, Business Development, from July 2003 to June 2004, he was Vice President, European Customer Service and from November 2002 to July 2003, Mr. Blackburn was Vice President, Operations Integration.
Sebastian J. Gunningham. Mr. Gunningham has served as Senior Vice President, Seller Services, since joining Amazon.com in March 2007. Prior to joining Amazon.com, Mr. Gunningham was President of First Data Utilities from August 2006 to February 2007, following First Datas acquisition of Peace Software, Inc., where he was Chief Executive Officer from February 2004 to August 2006 and President and Chief Operating Officer from April 2002 to March 2003. From March 2003 to February 2004, he served as Vice President of Enterprise Sales at Apple, Inc.
Andrew R. Jassy. Mr. Jassy has served as Senior Vice President, Web Services, since April 2006. From January 2005 to April 2006, he was Vice President, Web Services, from August 2003 to January 2005, he was Vice President, Associates and Web Services, and, from November 2002 to August 2003, he was Vice President and Technical Assistant.
Steven Kessel. Mr. Kessel has served as Senior Vice President, Worldwide Digital Media, since April 2006. From April 2004 to April 2006, he was Vice President, Digital and, from July 2002 to April 2004, he was Vice President, U.S. Books, Music, Video and DVD.
Marc A. Onetto. Mr. Onetto has served as Senior Vice President, Worldwide Operations, since joining Amazon.com in December 2006. Prior to joining Amazon.com, Mr. Onetto was Executive Vice President, Worldwide Operations, at Solectron Corporation, an electronics manufacturing and technology company, from June 2003 to June 2006, and, prior to Solectron, he held various positions at GE, including Vice President, European Operations, GE Europe, from September 2002 to June 2003.
Diego Piacentini. Mr. Piacentini has served as Senior Vice President, International Retail, since January 2007. From November 2001 until December 2006, Mr. Piacentini served as Senior Vice President, Worldwide Retail and Marketing.
Shelley L. Reynolds. Ms. Reynolds has served as Vice President, Worldwide Controller, and Principal Accounting Officer since April 2007. From February 2006 to April 2007, she was Vice President, Finance and Controller. Prior to joining Amazon.com, Ms. Reynolds was a partner at Deloitte & Touche LLP since 1998.
Thomas J. Szkutak. Mr. Szkutak has served as Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer since joining Amazon.com in October 2002.
H. Brian Valentine. Mr. Valentine has served as Senior Vice President, Ecommerce Platform, since joining Amazon.com in September 2006. Prior to joining Amazon.com, Mr. Valentine held various positions with Microsoft Corporation, including Senior Vice President, Windows Core Operating System Division, from January 2004 to September 2006 and Senior Vice President, Windows, from December 1999 to January 2004.
Jeffrey A. Wilke. Mr. Wilke has served as Senior Vice President, North America Retail, since January 2007. From January 2002 until December 2006, he was Senior Vice President, Worldwide Operations.
L. Michelle Wilson. Ms. Wilson has served as Senior Vice President, General Counsel, and Secretary since June 2003. From March 2001 until June 2003, she was Senior Vice President, Human Resources, General Counsel, and Secretary.
Board of Directors
Item 1A. Risk Factors
Please carefully consider the following risk factors. If any of the following risks occur, our business, financial condition, operating results, and cash flows could be materially adversely affected. In addition, these risks are not the only ones we face.
We Face Intense Competition
Our market segments are rapidly evolving and intensely competitive, and we have many competitors in different industries, including retail, e-commerce services, digital and web services. Many of our current and potential competitors have greater resources, longer histories, more customers, and greater brand recognition. They may secure better terms from vendors, adopt more aggressive pricing and devote more resources to technology, fulfillment, and marketing.
Competition may intensify as our competitors enter into business combinations or alliances and established companies in other market segments expand into our market segments. In addition, new and enhanced technologies, including search, web services, and digital, may increase our competition. The Internet facilitates competitive entry and comparison shopping and renders e-commerce inherently more competitive than other retail. Increased competition may reduce our sales and profits.
Our Expansion Places a Significant Strain on our Management, Operational, Financial and Other Resources
We are rapidly and significantly expanding our global operations, including increasing our product and service offerings and scaling our infrastructure to support our retail and services businesses. This expansion increases the complexity of our business and places significant strain on our management, personnel, operations, systems, technical performance, financial resources, and internal financial control and reporting functions. We may not be able to manage growth effectively, which could damage our reputation, limit our growth and negatively affect our operating results.
Our Expansion into New Products, Services, Technologies and Geographic Regions Subjects Us to Additional Business, Legal, Financial and Competitive Risks
We may have limited or no experience in our newer market segments, and our customers may not adopt our new product or service offerings, which include seller services, digital, web services and electronic devices. These offerings may present new and difficult technology challenges, and we may be subject to claims if customers of these offerings experience service disruptions or failures or other quality issues. In addition, our gross profits in our newer activities may be lower than in our older activities, and we may not be successful enough in these newer activities to recoup our investments in them. If any of this were to occur, it could damage our reputation, limit our growth and negatively affect our operating results.
We May Experience Significant Fluctuations in Our Operating Results and Growth Rate
We may not be able to accurately forecast our growth rate. We base our expense levels and investment plans on sales estimates. A significant portion of our expenses and investments is fixed, and we may not be able to adjust our spending quickly enough if our sales are less than expected.
Our revenue growth may not be sustainable, and our percentage growth rates may decrease. Our revenue and operating profit growth depends on the continued growth of demand for the products and services offered by us or our sellers, and our business is affected by general economic and business conditions worldwide. A softening of demand, whether caused by changes in customer preferences or a weakening of the U.S. or global economies, may result in decreased revenue or growth.
Our net sales and operating results will also fluctuate for many other reasons, including due to risks described elsewhere in this section and the following:
We May Not Be Successful in Our Efforts to Expand into International Market Segments
Our international activities are significant to our revenues and profits, and we plan to further expand internationally. We have relatively little experience operating in these or future market segments and may not benefit from any first-to-market advantages or otherwise succeed. It is costly to establish, develop and maintain international operations and websites and promote our brand internationally. Our international operations may not be profitable on a sustained basis.
In addition to risks described elsewhere in this section, our international sales and operations are subject to a number of risks, including:
As the international e-commerce channel grows, competition will intensify. Local companies may have a substantial competitive advantage because of their greater understanding of, and focus on, the local customer, as well as their more established local brand names. We may not be able to hire, train, retain, and manage required personnel, which may limit our international growth.
In 2004, we acquired Joyo.com Limited, which is organized under the laws of the British Virgin Islands and through a Peoples Republic of China (PRC) entity, provides technology and services for the Joyo Amazon websites at www.joyo.cn and www.amazon.cn. The PRC regulates Joyo Amazons business through regulations and license requirements restricting (i) foreign investment in the Internet, retail and delivery sectors, (ii) Internet content and (iii) the sale of media products. In order to meet local ownership and regulatory licensing requirements, Joyo Amazons business is operated by PRC companies owned by nominee shareholders who are PRC nationals. Although we believe Joyo Amazons structure complies with existing PRC laws, it involves unique risks. There are substantial uncertainties regarding the interpretation of PRC laws and regulations, and it is possible that the PRC government will ultimately take a view contrary to ours. If Joyo Amazon (including its subsidiary and affiliates) were found to be in violation of any existing or future PRC laws or regulations or if interpretations of those laws and regulations were to change, the business could be subject to fines and other financial penalties, have its licenses revoked or be forced to shut down entirely. In addition, if Joyo Amazon were unable to enforce its contractual relationships with respect to management and control of its business, it might be unable to continue to operate the business.
If We Do Not Successfully Optimize and Operate Our Fulfillment Centers, Our Business Could Be Harmed
If we do not successfully operate our fulfillment centers, it could significantly limit our ability to meet customer demand. Because it is difficult to predict demand, we may not manage our facilities in an optimal way, which may result in excess or insufficient inventory or warehousing, fulfillment, and distribution capacity. A failure to optimize inventory will increase our net shipping cost by requiring long-zone or partial shipments. Orders from several of our websites are fulfilled primarily from a single location, and we have only a limited ability to reroute orders to third parties for drop-shipping. We and our co-sourcers may be unable to adequately staff our fulfillment and customer service centers. As we continue to add fulfillment and warehouse capability or add new businesses with different fulfillment requirements, our fulfillment network becomes increasingly complex and operating it becomes more challenging. If the other businesses on whose behalf we perform inventory fulfillment services deliver product to our fulfillment centers in excess of forecasts, we may be unable to secure sufficient storage space and may be unable to optimize our fulfillment centers. There can be no assurance that we will be able to operate our network effectively.
We rely on a limited number of shipping companies to deliver inventory to us and completed orders to our customers. If we are not able to negotiate acceptable terms with these companies or they experience performance problems or other difficulties, it could negatively impact our operating results and customer experience. In addition, our ability to receive inbound inventory efficiently and ship completed orders to customers also may be negatively affected by inclement weather, fire, flood, power loss, earthquakes, labor disputes, acts of war or terrorism, acts of God and similar factors.
Third parties either drop-ship or otherwise fulfill an increasing portion of our customers orders, and we are increasingly reliant on the reliability, quality and future procurement of their services. Under some of our
commercial agreements, we maintain the inventory of other companies, thereby increasing the complexity of tracking inventory and operating our fulfillment centers. Our failure to properly handle such inventory or the inability of these other companies to accurately forecast product demand would result in unexpected costs and other harm to our business and reputation.
The Seasonality of Our Business Places Increased Strain on Our Operations
We expect a disproportionate amount of our net sales to occur during our fourth quarter. If we do not stock or restock popular products in sufficient amounts such that we fail to meet customer demand, it could significantly affect our revenue and our future growth. If we overstock products, we may be required to take significant inventory markdowns or write-offs, which could reduce gross profits. We may experience an increase in our net shipping cost due to complimentary upgrades, split-shipments, and additional long-zone shipments necessary to ensure timely delivery for the holiday season. If too many customers access our websites within a short period of time due to increased holiday demand, we may experience system interruptions that make our websites unavailable or prevent us from efficiently fulfilling orders, which may reduce the volume of goods we sell and the attractiveness of our products and services. In addition, we may be unable to adequately staff our fulfillment and customer service centers during these peak periods and delivery and other fulfillment companies and customer service co-sourcers may be unable to meet the seasonal demand. We also face risks described elsewhere in this Item 1A relating to fulfillment center optimization and inventory.
We generally have payment terms with our vendors that extend beyond the amount of time necessary to collect proceeds from our customers. As a result of holiday sales, at December 31 of each year, our cash, cash equivalents, and marketable securities balances typically reach their highest level (other than as a result of cash flows provided by or used in investing and financing activities). This operating cycle results in a corresponding increase in accounts payable at December 31. Our accounts payable balance generally declines during the first three months of the year, resulting in a corresponding decline in our cash, cash equivalents, and marketable securities balances.
Our Business Could Suffer if We Are Unsuccessful in Making, Integrating, and Maintaining Commercial Agreements, Strategic Alliances, and Other Business Relationships
We provide e-commerce services to other businesses, such as through our marketplace programs, Amazon Enterprise Solutions, Website by Amazon and Fulfillment by Amazon program initiatives, as well as other commercial agreements, strategic alliances and business relationships. Under these agreements, we provide technology, fulfillment and other services, as well as enable sellers to offer products or services through our websites and power their websites. These arrangements are complex and require substantial personnel and resource commitments by us, which may limit the agreements we are able to enter into and our ability to integrate and deliver services under them. If we fail to implement, maintain, and develop the components of these commercial relationships, which may include fulfillment, customer service, inventory management, tax collection, payment processing, licensing of third-party software, hardware, and content, and engaging third parties to perform hosting and other services, these initiatives may not be viable. The amount of compensation we receive under certain of these agreements is partially dependent on the volume of the other companys sales. Therefore, if the other companys offering is not successful, the compensation we receive may be lower than expected or the agreement may be terminated. Moreover, we may not be able to enter into additional commercial relationships and strategic alliances on favorable terms. We also may be subject to claims from businesses to which we provide these services if we are unsuccessful in implementing, maintaining or developing these services.
As our commercial agreements terminate, we may be unable to renew or replace these agreements on comparable terms, or at all. Some of our agreements involve high margin services, such as marketing and promotional agreements, and as they expire they may be replaced, if at all, by agreements involving lower margin services. We may in the future enter into amendments on less favorable terms or encounter parties that have difficulty meeting their contractual obligations to us, which could adversely affect our operating results.
Our present and future e-commerce services agreements, other commercial agreements, and strategic alliances create additional risks such as:
Our Business Could Suffer if We Are Unsuccessful in Making, Integrating, and Maintaining Acquisitions and Investments
We have acquired and invested in a number of companies, and we may acquire or invest in or enter into joint ventures with additional companies. These transactions create risks such as:
Finally, as a result of future acquisitions or mergers, we might need to issue additional equity securities, spend our cash, or incur debt, contingent liabilities, or amortization expenses related to intangible assets, any of which could reduce our profitability and harm our business.
We Have Foreign Exchange Risk
The results of operations of, and certain of our intercompany balances associated with, our international websites are exposed to foreign exchange rate fluctuations. Upon translation, operating results may differ materially from expectations, and we may record significant gains or losses on the remeasurement of intercompany balances. As we have expanded our international operations, our exposure to exchange rate fluctuations has increased.
In addition, our 6.875% Premium Adjustable Convertible Securities due 2010 (6.875% PEACS) are denominated in Euros and increases in the Euro relative to the U.S. Dollar increase the U.S. Dollar amount we owe as interest and principal on the 6.875% PEACS. We also hold cash equivalents and/or marketable securities primarily in Euros, British Pounds, and Japanese Yen. If the U.S. Dollar strengthens compared to these currencies, cash equivalents and marketable securities balances, when translated, may be materially less than expected and vice versa.
The Loss of Key Senior Management Personnel Could Negatively Affect Our Business
We depend on our senior management and other key personnel, particularly Jeffrey P. Bezos, our President, CEO, and Chairman. We do not have key person life insurance policies. The loss of any of our executive officers or other key employees could harm our business.
System Interruption and the Lack of Integration and Redundancy in Our Systems May Affect Our Sales
Customer access to our websites and the speed with which a customer navigates and makes purchases on our websites affect our net sales, operating results and the attractiveness of our products and services. We experience occasional system interruptions and delays that make our websites unavailable or slow to respond and prevent us from efficiently fulfilling orders or providing services to third parties, which may reduce our net sales and the attractiveness of our products and services. If we are unable to continually add software and hardware, effectively upgrade our systems and network infrastructure and take other steps to improve the efficiency of our systems, it could cause system interruptions or delays and adversely affect our operating results.
Our computer and communications systems and operations could be damaged or interrupted by fire, flood, power loss, telecommunications failure, earthquakes, acts of war or terrorism, acts of God, computer viruses, physical or electronic break-ins, and similar events or disruptions. Any of these events could cause system interruption, delays, and loss of critical data, and could prevent us from accepting and fulfilling customer orders and providing services, which would make our product and service offerings less attractive. Our systems are not fully redundant and our disaster recovery planning may not be sufficient. In addition, we may have inadequate insurance coverage to compensate us for any related losses. Any of these events could damage our reputation and be expensive to remedy.
We Have Significant Indebtedness
We have significant debt and may incur substantial additional debt in the future. A significant portion of our future cash flow from operating activities may be dedicated to the payment of interest and the repayment of principal on our indebtedness. There is no guarantee that we will be able to meet our debt service obligations. If we are unable to generate sufficient cash flow or obtain funds for required payments, or if we fail to comply with our debt covenants, we will be in default. In addition, we may not be able to refinance our debt on terms acceptable to us, or at all. Our indebtedness could limit our ability to obtain additional financing for working capital, capital expenditures, debt service requirements, acquisitions or other purposes in the future, as needed; to plan for, or react to, changes in technology and in our business and competition; and to react in the event of an economic downturn.
We Face Significant Inventory Risk
In addition to risks described elsewhere in this Item 1A relating to fulfillment center and inventory optimization by us and third parties, we are exposed to significant inventory risks that may adversely effect our operating results as a result of seasonality, new product launches, rapid changes in product cycles, changes in consumer tastes with respect to our products and other factors. We must accurately predict these trends and avoid overstocking or under-stocking products we manufacture and/or sell. Demand for products, however, can change significantly between the time inventory or components are ordered and the date of sale. In addition, when we begin selling or manufacturing a new product, it may be difficult to establish vendor relationships, determine appropriate product or component selection, and accurately forecast demand. The acquisition of certain types of inventory or components may require significant lead-time and prepayment and they may not be returnable. We carry a broad selection and significant inventory levels of certain products, such as consumer electronics, and we may be unable to sell products in sufficient quantities or during the relevant selling seasons. Any one of the inventory risk factors set forth above may adversely affect our operating results.
We May Not Be Able to Adequately Protect Our Intellectual Property Rights or May Be Accused of Infringing Intellectual Property Rights of Third Parties
We regard our trademarks, service marks, copyrights, patents, trade dress, trade secrets, proprietary technology, and similar intellectual property as critical to our success, and we rely on trademark, copyright, and patent law, trade secret protection, and confidentiality and/or license agreements with our employees, customers, and others to protect our proprietary rights. Effective intellectual property protection may not be available in every country in which our products and services are made available. We also may not be able to acquire or maintain appropriate domain names in all countries in which we do business. Furthermore, regulations governing domain names may not protect our trademarks and similar proprietary rights. We may be unable to prevent third parties from acquiring domain names that are similar to, infringe upon, or diminish the value of our trademarks and other proprietary rights.
We may not be able to discover or determine the extent of any unauthorized use of our proprietary rights. Third parties that license our proprietary rights also may take actions that diminish the value of our proprietary rights or reputation. The protection of our intellectual property may require the expenditure of significant financial and managerial resources. Moreover, the steps we take to protect our intellectual property may not adequately protect our rights or prevent third parties from infringing or misappropriating our proprietary rights. We also cannot be certain that others will not independently develop or otherwise acquire equivalent or superior technology or other intellectual property rights.
Other parties also may claim that we infringe their proprietary rights. We have been subject to, and expect to continue to be subject to, claims and legal proceedings regarding alleged infringement by us of the intellectual property rights of third parties. The ready availability of damages, royalties and the potential for injunctive relief has increased the costs associated with the litigation and settlement of patent infringement claims, especially those asserted by third parties whose sole or primary business is to assert such claims. Such claims, whether or not meritorious, may result in the expenditure of significant financial and managerial resources, injunctions against us or the payment of damages. We may need to obtain licenses from third parties who allege that we have infringed their rights, but such licenses may not be available on terms acceptable to us or at all. In addition, we may not be able to obtain or utilize on terms that are favorable to us, or at all, licenses or other rights with respect to intellectual property we do not own in providing e-commerce services to other businesses and individuals under commercial agreements.
Our digital content offerings depend in part on effective digital rights management technology to control access to digital content. If the digital rights management technology that we use is compromised or otherwise malfunctions, we could be subject to claims, and content providers may be unwilling to include their content in our service.
We Have a Rapidly Evolving Business Model and Our Stock Price Is Highly Volatile
We have a rapidly evolving business model. The trading price of our common stock fluctuates significantly in response to, among other risks, the risks described elsewhere in this Item 1A, as well as:
Volatility in our stock price could adversely affect our business and financing opportunities and force us to increase our cash compensation to employees or grant larger stock awards than we have historically, which could hurt our operating results or reduce the percentage ownership of our existing stockholders, or both.
Government Regulation of the Internet and E-commerce Is Evolving and Unfavorable Changes Could Harm Our Business
We are subject to general business regulations and laws, as well as regulations and laws specifically governing the Internet and e-commerce. Existing and future laws and regulations may impede the growth of the Internet or online services. These regulations and laws may cover taxation, privacy, data protection, pricing, content, copyrights, distribution, mobile communications, electronic contracts and other communications, consumer protection, the provision of online payment services, unencumbered Internet access to our services, the design and operation of websites, and the characteristics and quality of products and services. It is not clear how existing laws governing issues such as property ownership, libel, and personal privacy apply to the Internet and e-commerce. Jurisdictions may regulate consumer-to-consumer online businesses, including certain aspects of our seller programs. Unfavorable regulations and laws could diminish the demand for our products and services and increase our cost of doing business.
Taxation Risks Could Subject Us to Liability for Past Sales and Cause Our Future Sales to Decrease
We do not collect sales or other taxes on shipments of most of our goods into most states in the U.S. Under some of our commercial agreements, the other company is the seller of record, and we are obligated to collect sales tax in accordance with that companys instructions. We may enter into additional agreements requiring similar tax collection obligations. Our fulfillment center and customer service center networks, and any future expansion of them, along with other aspects of our evolving business, may result in additional sales and other tax obligations. We collect consumption tax (including value added tax, goods and services tax, and provincial sales tax) as applicable on goods and services sold by us that are ordered on our international sites. One or more states or foreign countries may seek to impose sales or other tax collection obligations on out-of-jurisdiction e-commerce companies. A successful assertion by one or more states or foreign countries that we should collect sales or other taxes on the sale of merchandise or services could result in substantial tax liabilities for past sales, decrease our ability to compete with traditional retailers, and otherwise harm our business.
Currently, U.S. Supreme Court decisions restrict the imposition of obligations to collect state and local sales and use taxes with respect to sales made over the Internet. However, a number of states, as well as the U.S. Congress, have been considering initiatives that could limit or supersede the Supreme Courts position regarding sales and use taxes on Internet sales. If any of these initiatives were successful, we could be required to collect sales and use taxes in additional states. The imposition by state and local governments of various taxes upon Internet commerce could create administrative burdens for us, put us at a competitive disadvantage if they do not impose similar obligations on all of our online competitors and decrease our future sales.
We Could be Subject to Additional Income Tax Liabilities
We are subject to income taxes in the United States and numerous foreign jurisdictions. Significant judgment is required in evaluating our worldwide provision for income taxes. During the ordinary course of business, there are many transactions for which the ultimate tax determination is uncertain. For example, our effective tax rates could be adversely affected by earnings being lower than anticipated in countries where we have lower statutory rates and higher than anticipated in countries where we have higher statutory rates, by changes in the valuation of our deferred tax assets and liabilities, or by changes in the relevant tax, accounting and other laws, regulations, principles and interpretations. We are subject to audit in various jurisdictions, and
such jurisdictions may assess additional income tax against us. Although we believe our tax estimates are reasonable, the final determination of tax audits and any related litigation could be materially different from our historical income tax provisions and accruals. The results of an audit or litigation could have a material effect on our operating results or cash flows in the period or periods for which that determination is made.
Our Vendor Relationships Subject Us to a Number of Risks
We have significant vendors that are important to our sourcing, manufacturing and any related ongoing servicing of merchandise and content. We do not have long-term arrangements with most of our vendors to guarantee availability of merchandise, content, components or services, particular payment terms, or the extension of credit limits. If our current vendors were to stop selling merchandise, content, components or services to us on acceptable terms, we may be unable to procure from other vendors in a timely and efficient manner and on acceptable terms, or at all.
We May Be Subject to Product Liability Claims if People or Property Are Harmed by the Products We Sell
Some of the products we sell or manufacture may expose us to product liability claims relating to personal injury, death, or property damage, and may require product recalls or other actions. Certain third parties also sell products using our e-commerce platform that may increase our exposure to product liability claims, such as if these sellers do not have sufficient protection from such claims. Although we maintain liability insurance, we cannot be certain that our coverage will be adequate for liabilities actually incurred or that insurance will continue to be available to us on economically reasonable terms, or at all. In addition, some of our agreements with our vendors and sellers do not indemnify us from product liability.
We Are Subject to Payments-Related Risks
We accept payments using a variety of methods, including credit card, debit card, credit accounts (including promotional financing), gift certificates, direct debit from a customers bank account, physical bank check and payment upon delivery. As we offer new payment options to our customers, we may be subject to additional regulations, compliance requirements, and fraud. For certain payment methods, including credit and debit cards, we pay interchange and other fees, which may increase over time and raise our operating costs and lower our profit margins. We rely on third parties to provide payment processing services, including the processing of credit cards, debit cards, electronic checks, and promotional financing, and it could disrupt our business if these companies become unwilling or unable to provide these services to us. We are also subject to payment card association operating rules, certification requirements and rules governing electronic funds transfers, which could change or be reinterpreted to make it difficult or impossible for us to comply. If we fail to comply with these rules or requirements, we may be subject to fines and higher transaction fees and lose our ability to accept credit and debit card payments from our customers, process electronic funds transfers, or facilitate other types of online payments, and our business and operating results could be adversely affected. We also offer co-branded credit card programs that represent a significant component of our services revenue and generate high margins. If one or more of these agreements are terminated and we are unable to replace them on similar terms, or at all, it could adversely affect our operating results.
In addition, we qualify as a money services business in certain jurisdictions because we enable customers to keep account balances with us and transfer money to third parties, and because we provide services to third parties to facilitate payments on their behalf. In these jurisdictions, we may be subject to requirements for licensing, regulatory inspection, bonding, the handling of transferred funds and consumer disclosures. We are also subject to or voluntarily comply with a number of other laws and regulations relating to money laundering, international money transfers, privacy and information security and electronic fund transfers. If we were found to be in violation of applicable laws or regulations, we could be subject to civil and criminal penalties or forced to cease our payments services business.
We Could Be Liable for Breaches of Security on Our Websites
Although we have developed systems and processes that are designed to protect consumer information and prevent fraudulent payment transactions and other security breaches, failure to prevent or mitigate such fraud or breaches may adversely affect our operating results.
We Could Be Liable for Fraudulent or Unlawful Activities of Sellers
The law relating to the liability of providers of online payment services is currently unsettled. In addition, governmental agencies could require changes in the way this business is conducted. Under our seller programs, we may be unable to prevent sellers from collecting payments, fraudulently or otherwise, when buyers never receive the products they ordered or when the products received are materially different from the sellers descriptions. Under our A2Z Guarantee, we reimburse buyers for payments up to certain limits in these situations, and as our marketplace seller sales grow, the cost of this program will increase and could negatively affect our operating results. We also may be unable to prevent sellers on our sites or through Amazon Enterprise Solutions, and certain other programs, from selling unlawful goods, from selling goods in an unlawful manner, or violating the proprietary rights of others, and could face civil or criminal liability for unlawful activities by our sellers.
Item 2. Properties
We do not own any real estate. As of December 31, 2007, we operated the following facilities:
We lease our corporate headquarters in Seattle, Washington. We also lease additional corporate office, fulfillment and warehouse operations, customer service, and other facilities throughout the United States, principally in Arizona, California, Delaware, Florida, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Michigan, Nevada, New Hampshire, North Dakota, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Texas, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, and Wisconsin. Outside of the United States, we also lease corporate office, fulfillment and warehouse operations, customer service, and other facilities, principally in China, France, Germany, India, Ireland, Japan, Luxembourg, and the United Kingdom.
We believe our properties are suitable and adequate for our present needs, and we periodically evaluate whether additional facilities are necessary.
Item 3. Legal Proceedings
See Item 8 of Part II, Financial Statements and Supplementary DataNote 6Commitments and ContingenciesLegal Proceedings.
Item 4. Submission of Matters to a Vote of Security Holders
No matters were submitted for a vote of our shareholders during the fourth quarter of 2007.
Item 5. Market for the Registrants Common Stock, Related Shareholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Our common stock is traded on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol AMZN. The following table sets forth the high and low closing prices for our common stock for the periods indicated, as reported by the Nasdaq Global Select Market.
As of February 1, 2008, there were 3,587 shareholders of record of our common stock, although there are a much larger number of beneficial owners.
We have never declared or paid cash dividends on our common stock. See Item 7 of Part II, Managements Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of OperationsLiquidity and Capital Resources.
Recent Sales of Unregistered Securities
Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Item 6. Selected Consolidated Financial Data
The following selected consolidated financial data should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and the notes thereto in Item 8 of Part II, Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, and the information contained in Item 7 of Part II, Managements Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations. Historical results are not necessarily indicative of future results.
Item 7. Managements Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
This Annual Report on Form 10-K includes forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. All statements other than statements of historical fact, including statements regarding guidance, industry prospects or future results of operations or financial position, made in this Annual Report on Form 10-K are forward-looking. We use words such as anticipates, believes, expects, future, intends, and similar expressions to identify forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements reflect managements current expectations and are inherently uncertain. Actual results could differ materially for a variety of reasons, including, among others, fluctuations in foreign exchange rates, changes in global economic conditions and consumer spending, world events, the rate of growth of the Internet and online commerce, the amount that Amazon.com invests in new business opportunities and the timing of those investments, the mix of products sold to customers, the mix of net sales derived from products as compared with services, the extent to which we owe income taxes, competition, management of growth, potential fluctuations in operating results, international growth and expansion, outcomes of legal proceedings and claims, fulfillment center optimization, risks of inventory management, seasonality, the degree to which the Company enters into, maintains, and develops commercial agreements, acquisitions, and strategic transactions, payments risks, and risks of fulfillment throughput and productivity. These risks and uncertainties, as well as other risks and uncertainties that could cause our actual results to differ significantly from managements expectations, are described in greater detail in Item 1A of Part I, Risk Factors, which, along with the previous discussion, describes some, but not all, of the factors that could cause actual results to differ significantly from managements expectations.
Our primary source of revenue is the sale of a wide range of products and services to customers. The products offered on our customer-facing websites primarily include merchandise and content we have purchased for resale from vendors and products offered by marketplace sellers. Generally, we recognize gross revenue from items we sell from our inventory and recognize our net share of revenue of items sold by other sellers. We also offer services such as Amazon Web Services, Amazon Enterprise Solutions, co-branded credit cards, fulfillment, and miscellaneous marketing and promotional offers.
Our financial focus is on long-term, sustainable growth in free cash flow1 per share. Free cash flow is driven primarily by increasing operating income and efficiently managing working capital and capital expenditures. Increases in operating income primarily result from increases in sales through our websites and efficiently managing our operating costs, offset by investments we make in longer-term strategic initiatives, which generally require us to hire additional software engineers, computer scientists, and merchandisers. To increase product sales, we focus on improving all aspects of the customer experience, including lowering prices, improving availability, offering faster delivery times, increasing selection, increasing product categories, expanding product information, improving ease of use, and earning customer trust. We generally focus on growing gross profit and operating profit dollars rather than maximizing margin percentages.
We also seek to efficiently manage shareholder dilution while maintaining the flexibility to issue shares for strategic purposes, such as financings and aligning employee compensation with shareholders interests. We utilize restricted stock units as our primary vehicle for equity compensation because we believe they align the interests of our shareholders and employees. In managing shareholder dilution, we include all stock awards outstanding, without regard to estimated forfeitures, consisting of vested and unvested awards and in-the-money
and out-of-the-money stock options. Total shares outstanding plus outstanding stock awards were 435 million and 436 million at December 31, 2007 and 2006. These amounts exclude 14 million shares issuable upon conversion of our long-term debt. In 2007, we repurchased 6 million shares of our common stock under a repurchase program authorized by our Board of Directors.
We seek to reduce our variable costs per unit and work to leverage our fixed costs. Our variable costs include product and content costs, payment processing and related transaction costs, picking, packaging, and preparing orders for shipment, transportation, customer service support, and most aspects of our marketing costs. Our fixed costs include the costs necessary to run our technology infrastructure, build, enhance, and add features to our websites and build and optimize our fulfillment centers. Variable costs generally change directly with sales volume, while fixed costs generally increase depending on the timing of capacity needs, geographic expansion, category expansion, and other factors. To decrease our variable costs on a per unit basis and enable us to lower prices for customers, we seek to increase our direct to publisher and manufacturer sourcing, maximize discounts available to us from suppliers and reduce defects in our processes. To minimize growth in fixed costs, we seek to improve process efficiencies and maintain a lean culture.
Because of our model we are able to turn our inventory quickly and have a cash-generating operating cycle2. On average, our high inventory velocity means we generally collect from our customers before our payments to suppliers come due. Inventory turnover3 was 13, 13, and 14 for 2007, 2006, and 2005. Inventory turnover has declined slightly over the last several years, primarily due to category expansion and changes in product mix, and our continuing focus on in-stock inventory availability. We expect some variability in inventory turnover over time since it is affected by several factors, including our product mix, the mix of sales by us and by other sellers, our continuing focus on in-stock inventory availability, our investment in new geographies and product lines, and the extent to which we choose to utilize outsource fulfillment providers. Accounts payable days4 were 57, 53, and 54 for 2007, 2006 and 2005. We expect some variability in accounts payable days over time since they are affected by several factors, including the mix of product sales, the mix of sales by other sellers, the mix of suppliers, seasonality, and changes in payment terms over time, including the effect of balancing pricing and timing of payment terms with suppliers.
Our spending in technology and content will increase as we add computer scientists, software engineers, and employees involved in category expansion, editorial content, buying, merchandising selection, and systems support. We will continue to invest in several areas of technology and content, including seller platforms, web services, digital initiatives, and expansion of new and existing product categories, as well as in technology infrastructure to enhance the customer experience, improve our process efficiencies and support our infrastructure web services. We believe that advances in technology, specifically the speed and reduced cost of processing power, the improved customer experience of the Internet outside of the workplace through lower-cost broadband service to the home, and the advances of wireless connectivity, will continue to improve the customer experience on the Internet and increase its ubiquity in peoples lives. Amazon Web Services provides technology services that give developers access to technology infrastructure that they can use to enable virtually any type of business. Our challenge will be to continue to build and deploy innovative and efficient software that will best take advantage of continued advances in technology.
Our financial reporting currency is the U.S. Dollar and changes in exchange rates significantly affect our reported results and consolidated trends. For example, if the U.S. Dollar weakens year-over-year relative to currencies in our international locations, our consolidated net sales, gross profit, and operating expenses will be
higher than if currencies had remained constant. Likewise, if the U.S. Dollar strengthens year-over-year relative to currencies in our international locations, our consolidated net sales, gross profit, and operating expenses will be lower than if currencies had remained constant. We believe that our increasing diversification beyond the U.S. economy through our growing international businesses benefits our shareholders over the long term. We also believe it is important to evaluate our operating results and growth rates before and after the effect of currency changes.
In addition, the remeasurement of our 6.875% PEACS and intercompany balances can result in significant gains and charges associated with the effect of movements in currency exchange rates. Currency volatilities may continue, which may significantly impact (either positively or negatively) our reported results and consolidated trends and comparisons.
For additional information about each line item summarized above, refer to Item 8 of Part II, Financial Statements and Supplementary DataNote 1Description of Business and Accounting Policies.
Critical Accounting Judgments
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles of the United States (GAAP) requires estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, revenues and expenses, and related disclosures of contingent assets and liabilities in the consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes. The SEC has defined a companys critical accounting policies as the ones that are most important to the portrayal of the companys financial condition and results of operations, and which require the company to make its most difficult and subjective judgments, often as a result of the need to make estimates of matters that are inherently uncertain. Based on this definition, we have identified the critical accounting policies and judgments addressed below. We also have other key accounting policies, which involve the use of estimates, judgments, and assumptions that are significant to understanding our results. For additional information, see Item 8 of Part II, Financial Statements and Supplementary DataNote 1Description of Business and Accounting Policies. Although we believe that our estimates, assumptions, and judgments are reasonable, they are based upon information presently available. Actual results may differ significantly from these estimates under different assumptions, judgments, or conditions.
We recognize revenue from product sales or services rendered when the following four revenue recognition criteria are met: persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists, delivery has occurred or services have been rendered, the selling price is fixed or determinable, and collectibility is reasonably assured. Additionally, revenue arrangements with multiple deliverables are divided into separate units of accounting if the deliverables in the arrangement meet the following criteria: the delivered item has value to the customer on a standalone basis; there is objective and reliable evidence of the fair value of undelivered items; and delivery of any undelivered item is probable.
We evaluate the criteria of Emerging Issues Task Force (EITF) Issue No. 99-19, Reporting Revenue Gross as a Principal Versus Net as an Agent, in determining whether it is appropriate to record the gross amount of product sales and related costs or the net amount earned as commissions. Generally, when we are the primary party obligated in a transaction, are subject to inventory risk, have latitude in establishing prices and selecting suppliers, or have several but not all of these indicators, revenue is recorded gross. If we are not primarily obligated and amounts earned are determined using a percentage, a fixed-payment schedule, or a combination of the two, we generally record the net amounts as commissions earned.
Product sales and shipping revenues, net of promotional discounts, rebates, and return allowances, are recorded when the products are shipped and title passes to customers. Retail items sold to customers are made pursuant to sales contracts that generally provide for transfer of both title and risk of loss upon our delivery to the
carrier. Return allowances, which reduce product revenue by our best estimate of expected product returns, are estimated using historical experience. Revenue from product sales and services rendered is recorded net of sales taxes. Amounts paid in advance for subscription services, including amounts received for Amazon Prime and other membership programs, are deferred and recognized as revenue over the subscription term. For our products with multiple elements, where a standalone value for each element cannot be established, we recognize the revenue and related cost over the estimated economic life of the product.
We periodically provide incentive offers to our customers to encourage purchases. Such offers include current discount offers, such as percentage discounts off current purchases, inducement offers, such as offers for future discounts subject to a minimum current purchase, and other similar offers. Current discount offers, when accepted by our customers, are treated as a reduction to the purchase price of the related transaction, while inducement offers, when accepted by our customers, are treated as a reduction to purchase price based on estimated future redemption rates. Redemption rates are estimated using our historical experience for similar inducement offers. Current discount offers and inducement offers are classified as an offsetting amount in Net sales.
Commissions and per-unit fees received from sellers and similar amounts earned through Amazon Enterprise Solutions are recognized when the item is sold by the seller and our collectibility is reasonably assured. When we are responsible for fulfillment-related services, commissions are recognized when risk of loss and title transfer to the customer. We record an allowance for estimated refunds on such commissions using historical experience.
Inventories, consisting of products available for sale, are accounted for using the first-in first-out (FIFO) method, and are valued at the lower of cost or market value. This valuation requires us to make judgments, based on currently-available information, about the likely method of disposition, such as through sales to individual customers, returns to product vendors, or liquidations, and expected recoverable values of each disposition category. Based on this evaluation, we adjust the carrying amount of our inventories to lower of cost or market value.
We provide fulfillment-related services in connection with certain of our agreements. In those arrangements, as well as other product sales by other sellers, the seller maintains ownership of the related products. As such, these amounts are not included in our consolidated balance sheets.
Internal-Use Software and Website Development
Included in fixed assets is the capitalized cost of internal-use software and website development, including software used to upgrade and enhance our websites and processes supporting our business. As required by Statement of Position (SOP) 98-1, Accounting for the Costs of Computer Software Developed or Obtained for Internal Use, we capitalize costs incurred during the application development stage of internal-use software and amortize these costs over the estimated useful life of two years. Costs incurred related to design or maintenance of internal-use software are expensed as incurred.
Currency Effect on Intercompany Balances
Gains and losses arising from intercompany foreign currency transactions are included in net income.
We measure compensation cost for stock awards at fair value and recognize compensation over the service period for awards expected to vest. The fair value of restricted stock and restricted stock units is determined
based on the number of shares granted and the quoted price of our common stock. Since we primarily issue restricted stock units to our employees, the complexity of valuation issues for stock compensation is greatly reduced. The estimation of stock awards that will ultimately vest requires judgment, and to the extent actual results or updated estimates differ from our current estimates, such amounts will be recorded as a cumulative adjustment in the period estimates are revised. We consider many factors when estimating expected forfeitures, including types of awards, employee class, and historical experience. Actual results and future estimates may differ substantially from our current estimates.
We utilize the accelerated method, rather than a straight-line method, for recognizing compensation expense. Under this method, over 50% of the compensation cost would be expensed in the first year of a four year vesting term. The accelerated method also adds a level of complexity in estimating forfeitures. If forfeited early in the life of an award, the forfeited amount is much greater under an accelerated method than under a straight-line method.
We are subject to income taxes in both the U.S. and numerous foreign jurisdictions. Significant judgment is required in evaluating our tax positions and determining our provision for income taxes. During the ordinary course of business, there are many transactions and calculations for which the ultimate tax determination is uncertain. We establish reserves for tax-related uncertainties based on estimates of whether, and the extent to which, additional taxes will be due. These reserves for tax contingencies are established when we believe that certain positions might be challenged despite our belief that our tax return positions are fully supportable. We adjust these reserves in light of changing facts and circumstances, such as the outcome of tax audit. The provision for income taxes includes the impact of reserve provisions and changes to reserves that are considered appropriate.
Deferred income tax balances reflect the effects of temporary differences between the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities and their tax bases and are stated at enacted tax rates expected to be in effect when taxes are actually paid or recovered. The majority of our gross deferred tax assets relate to net operating loss carryforwards that related to differences in stock-based compensation between the financial statements and our tax returns.
Statement of Financial Accounting Standards (SFAS) No. 109, Accounting for Income Taxes, requires that deferred tax assets be evaluated for future realization and reduced by a valuation allowance to the extent we believe a portion will not be realized. We consider many factors when assessing the likelihood of future realization of our deferred tax assets, including our recent cumulative earnings experience and expectations of future taxable income by taxing jurisdiction, the carry-forward periods available to us for tax reporting purposes, and other relevant factors. In accordance with the provisions of SFAS No. 109, we allocate our valuation allowance to current and long-term deferred tax assets on a pro-rata basis.
If we determine that additional portions of our deferred tax assets are realizable the majority of the benefit will come from the assets associated with the stock-based compensation that was not recognized in the financial statements but was claimed on the tax return. Since this compensation did not originally run through our consolidated statements of operations, the benefit generated will be recorded to stockholders equity.
Effective January 1, 2007, we adopted the provisions of FASB Interpretation (FIN) No. 48, Accounting for Uncertainty in Income Taxesan interpretation of FASB Statement No. 109. FIN 48 contains a two-step approach to recognizing and measuring uncertain tax positions accounted for in accordance with SFAS No. 109. The first step is to evaluate the tax position for recognition by determining if the weight of available evidence indicates it is more likely than not that the position will be sustained on audit, including resolution of related appeals or litigation processes, if any. The second step is to measure the tax benefit as the largest amount which is more than 50% likely of being realized upon ultimate settlement. We consider many factors when evaluating and estimating our tax positions and tax benefits, which may require periodic adjustments and which may not accurately anticipate actual outcomes.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
In September 2006, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) issued SFAS No. 157, Fair Value Measurements, which defines fair value, establishes a framework for measuring fair value in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles and expands disclosures about fair value measurements. SFAS No. 157 is effective for fiscal years beginning after November 15, 2007, and interim periods within those fiscal years. We do not expect the adoption of SFAS No. 157 to have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements. The FASB may delay a portion of this standard.
In February 2007, the FASB issued SFAS No. 159, The Fair Value Option for Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities. SFAS No. 159 permits companies to choose to measure many financial instruments and certain other items at fair value. SFAS No. 159 is effective for financial statements issued for fiscal years beginning after November 15, 2007. We do not expect the adoption of SFAS No. 159 to have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements.
In December 2007, the FASB issued SFAS No. 141 (R), Business Combinations, and SFAS No. 160, Noncontrolling Interests in Consolidated Financial Statements. SFAS No. 141 (R) requires an acquirer to measure the identifiable assets acquired, the liabilities assumed and any noncontrolling interest in the acquiree at their fair values on the acquisition date, with goodwill being the excess value over the net identifiable assets acquired. SFAS No. 160 clarifies that a noncontrolling interest in a subsidiary should be reported as equity in the consolidated financial statements. The calculation of earnings per share will continue to be based on income amounts attributable to the parent. SFAS No. 141 (R) and SFAS No. 160 are effective for financial statements issued for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2008. Early adoption is prohibited. We have not yet determined the effect on our consolidated financial statements, if any, upon adoption of SFAS No. 141 (R) or SFAS No. 160.
Liquidity and Capital Resources
Cash flow information is as follows:
Free cash flow, a non-GAAP financial measure, was $1.18 billion for 2007, compared to $486 million and $529 million for 2006 and 2005. See Results of OperationsNon-GAAP Financial Measures below for a reconciliation of free cash flow to cash provided by operating activities. The increase in free cash flow in 2007 primarily resulted from the increased growth rate of our revenue and gross profit relative to operating expenses. The decrease in free cash flow in 2006 was primarily driven by our increased expenditure in technology and content and excess tax benefits from stock-based compensation deductions now classified as financing cash flows. Free cash flow for 2005 included the effect of our payment of a $40 million patent litigation settlement. Operating cash flows and free cash flows can be volatile and are sensitive to many factors, including changes in working capital, and the timing and magnitude of capital expenditures. Working capital at any specific point in time is subject to many variables, including seasonality, inventory management and category expansion, the timing of cash receipts and payments, vendor payment terms, and fluctuations in foreign exchange rates.
Our principal sources of liquidity are cash flows generated from operations and our cash, cash equivalents, and marketable securities balances, which, at fair value, were $3.1 billion, $2.0 billion, and $2.0 billion at December 31, 2007, 2006 and 2005. Amounts held in foreign currencies were $1.2 billion, $623 million, and
$905 million at December 31, 2007, 2006, and 2005 and were primarily Euros, British Pounds, and Japanese Yen.
Cash provided by operating activities was $1.4 billion, $702 million, and $733 million in 2007, 2006, and 2005. Our operating cash flows result primarily from cash received from our customers, from sellers, and from non-retail activities such as our co-branded credit card agreements, Amazon Enterprise Solutions, and miscellaneous marketing and promotional agreements, offset by cash payments we make for products and services, employee compensation (less amounts capitalized pursuant to SOP 98-1 that are reflected as cash used in investing activities), payment processing and related transaction costs, operating leases, and interest payments on our long-term debt obligations. Cash received from customers, sellers, developers, and other activities generally corresponds to our net sales. Because our customers primarily use credit cards to buy from us, our receivables from customers settle quickly.
Cash provided by (used in) investing activities corresponds with purchases, sales, and maturities of marketable securities, cash outlays for acquisitions and intellectual property rights, and purchases of fixed assets, including internal-use software and website development costs. Cash provided by (used in) investing activities was $42 million, $(333) million, and $(778) million in 2007, 2006, and 2005, with the variability caused primarily by purchases, maturities, and sales of marketable securities. Capital expenditures were $224 million, $216 million and $204 million in 2007, 2006 and 2005, with the sequential increases primarily reflecting additional investments in technology infrastructure, fulfillment-related assets and the development of new features and product offerings on our websites. Capital expenditures included $108 million, $108 million and $79 million for internal-use software and website development during 2007, 2006 and 2005. Stock-based compensation capitalized for internal-use software and website development costs does not affect cash flows. We made payments for the acquisition of certain companies and intellectual property rights, resulting in cash payments, net of acquired cash, of $75 million, $32 million, and $24 million in 2007, 2006 and 2005 attributable to cash provided by investing activities.
Cash provided by (used in) financing activities was $50 million, $(400) million, and $(193) million in 2007, 2006, and 2005. Cash outflows from financing activities result from repurchases of common stock, repayments of long-term debt, and payments on capital lease obligations. We repurchased 6 million shares of common stock for $248 million in 2007, and 8 million shares of common stock for $252 million in 2006, under a $500 million repurchase program authorized by our Board of Directors in 2006. Repayments on long-term debt and payments on capital lease obligations were $74 million, $383 million, and $270 million in 2007, 2006, and 2005. Repayments on long-term debt include 250 million and 200 million of our 6.875% PEACS for $300 million and $265 million in 2006 and 2005. See Item 8 of Part II, Financial Statements and Supplementary DataNote 4Long-Term Debt. Cash inflows from financing activities primarily result from proceeds from tax benefits relating to excess stock-based compensation deductions and exercises of employee stock options. SFAS No. 123(R), Accounting for Stock Based Compensation, requires tax benefits relating to excess stock-based compensation deductions be presented as financing cash flows. Cash inflows from tax benefits related to stock-based compensation deductions were $257 million, $102 million and $7 million in 2007, 2006, and 2005. Cash inflows from proceeds from exercise of employee stock options were $91 million, $35 million, and $59 million in 2007, 2006, and 2005. We expect cash proceeds from exercises of stock options will decline over time as we continue issuing restricted stock units as our primary vehicle for stock-based awards.
In 2007, 2006 and 2005 we recorded net tax provisions of $184 million, $187 million, and $95 million. A majority of this provision is non-cash. We have current tax benefits and net operating losses relating to excess stock-based compensation deductions that are being utilized to reduce our U.S. taxable income. As such, cash taxes paid were $24 million, $15 million, and $12 million for 2007, 2006, and 2005. We endeavor to optimize our global taxes on a cash basis, rather than on a financial reporting basis.
In February 2008, our Board of Directors authorized a debt repurchase program, replacing our previous debt repurchase authorization in its entirety, pursuant to which we may from time to time repurchase (through open
market repurchases or private transactions), redeem, or otherwise retire up to all of our outstanding 4.75% Convertible Subordinated Notes due 2009 (4.75% Convertible Subordinated Notes) and 6.875% PEACS. The outstanding principal of our 4.75% Convertible Subordinated Notes as of this authorization was $899 million, and the outstanding principal amount of our 6.875% PEACS was 240 million. In August 2006, our Board of Directors authorized a 24-month program to repurchase up to $500 million of our common stock, pursuant to which we repurchased $252 million and $248 million of our common stock in 2006 and 2007, respectively. In April 2007, our Board authorized a new 24-month program to repurchase up to $500 million of our common stock, which was replaced in February 2008 by a 24-month program to repurchase up to $1 billion of our common stock.
Since our 6.875% PEACS, which are due in 2010, are denominated in Euros, our U.S. Dollar equivalent interest payments and principal obligations fluctuate with the Euro to U.S. Dollar exchange rate. As a result, any fluctuations in the exchange rate will have an effect on our interest expense and, to the extent we make principal payments, the amount of U.S. Dollar equivalents necessary for principal settlement. Additionally, since our interest payable on our 6.875% PEACS is due in Euros, the balance of interest payable is subject to gains or losses on currency movements until the date of the interest payment. Gains or losses on the remeasurement of our Euro-denominated interest payable are classified as Other income (expense), net on our consolidated statements of operations.
On average, our high inventory velocity means we collect from our customers before our payments to suppliers come due. Inventory turnover was 13, 13, and 14 for 2007, 2006, and 2005. Inventory turnover has declined slightly over the last several years, primarily due to category expansion and changes in product mix, and our continuing focus on in-stock inventory availability, which enables faster delivery of products to our customers. We expect some variability in inventory turnover over time as it is affected by several factors, including our product mix, the mix of sales by us and by other sellers, our continuing focus on in-stock inventory availability, our investment in new geographies and product lines, and the extent to which we choose to utilize outsource fulfillment providers.
The following summarizes our principal contractual commitments as of December 31, 2007:
In January 2008 we closed or entered into agreements, subject to regulatory approvals and other conditions, to acquire or invest in certain companies. These acquisitions and investments result in aggregate cash payments of approximately $400 million, net of cash acquired.
We are required to pledge or otherwise restrict a portion of our cash and marketable securities as collateral for standby letters of credit, guarantees, debt, and real estate leases. We classify cash and marketable securities with use restrictions of twelve months or longer as non-current Other assets on our consolidated balance sheets. The balance of pledged securities at December 31, 2007 consisted of $14 million in Cash and cash equivalents and Marketable securities, and $197 million in Other assets. The amount required to be pledged for certain real estate lease agreements changes over the life of our leases based on our credit rating and changes in our market capitalization (common shares outstanding multiplied by the closing price of our common stock). Information about collateral required to be pledged under these agreements is as follows:
We believe that current cash, cash equivalents, and marketable securities balances will be sufficient to meet our anticipated operating cash needs for at least the next 12 months. However, any projections of future cash needs and cash flows are subject to substantial uncertainty. See Item 1A of Part I, Risk Factors. We continually evaluate opportunities to sell additional equity or debt securities, obtain credit facilities, repurchase common stock, pay dividends, or repurchase, refinance, or otherwise restructure our long-term debt for strategic reasons or to further strengthen our financial position. The sale of additional equity or convertible debt securities would likely be dilutive to our shareholders. In addition, we will, from time to time, consider the acquisition of, or investment in, complementary businesses, products, services, and technologies, which might affect our liquidity requirements or cause us to issue additional equity or debt securities. There can be no assurance that additional lines-of-credit or financing instruments will be available in amounts or on terms acceptable to us, if at all.
Results of Operations
We have organized our operations into two principal segments: North America and International. We present our segment information along the same lines that our chief executive reviews our operating results in assessing performance and allocating resources.
Net Sales and Gross Profit
Net sales information is as follows:
Revenue increased 39% in 2007, reflecting revenue growth in both our North America and International segments. Additionally, changes in currency exchange rates positively affected net sales by $399 million for 2007. For a discussion of the effect on revenue growth of exchange rates, see Effect of Exchange Rates below.
The North America revenue growth rate was 38% in 2007. This revenue growth primarily reflects increased unit sales driven largely by our continued efforts to reduce prices for our customers, including from our free shipping offers and Amazon Prime, a larger base of sales in faster growing categories such as electronics and other general merchandise, increased in-stock inventory availability, and increased selection of product offerings.
The International revenue growth rate was 39% in 2007. This revenue growth reflects increased unit sales driven largely by our continued efforts to reduce prices for our customers, including from our free shipping offers, a larger base of sales in faster growing categories such as electronics and other general merchandise, increased in-stock inventory availability, and increased selection of product offerings. Additionally, changes in currency exchange rates positively affected International net sales by $390 million in 2007.
We expect that, over time, our International segment will represent 50% or more of our consolidated net sales. Additionally, as we continue to offer increased selection, lower prices, and additional product lines within our electronics and other general merchandise category, we expect to see the relative mix of sales from this category increase. See Supplemental Information below.
Gross profit information is as follows:
The increase in gross profit in absolute terms during 2007, compared to 2006 and 2005, corresponds with increases in sales, offset by lower prices for customers including from free shipping offers and Amazon Prime. Generally, our gross margins fluctuate based on several factors, including our product, service, and geographic mix of sales; sales volumes by marketplace sellers; changes in vendor pricing, including the extent to which we receive discounts and allowances; lowering prices for customers, including from competitive pricing decisions; improvements in product sourcing and inventory management; and the extent to which our customers accept our free shipping and Amazon Prime offers. Such free shipping and Amazon Prime offers reduce shipping revenue and reduce our gross margins on retail sales. We view our shipping offers as an effective worldwide marketing tool and intend to continue offering them indefinitely.
Sales of products by marketplace sellers on our websites represented 28% of unit sales in 2007, 2006, and 2005. Since revenues from these sales are recorded as a net amount, they generally result in lower revenues but higher gross margin per unit. Since we focus on profit dollars rather than margins, we are largely neutral on whether an item is sold by us or by another seller .
Gross profit growth is also affected by changes in exchange ratessee Effect of Exchange Rates below.
North America segment gross margins in 2007 decreased by 90 basis points compared to 2006 resulting primarily from our efforts to continue reducing prices for our customers, including from our free shipping offers and Amazon Prime, and a larger percent of overall sales in lower margin categories such as electronics.
North America segment gross margins in 2006 decreased by 92 basis points compared to 2005 resulting primarily from changes in our revenue mix, as revenue in our retail business grew faster than revenue from marketplace sellers. In addition, sales from electronics and other general merchandise grew faster than sales from media and we continued our efforts to reduce prices for our customers, including from our free shipping offers and Amazon Prime.
International segment gross margins in 2007 increased by 38 basis points compared to 2006 resulting primarily from increases in sales of products by marketplace sellers, offset partially by our efforts to continue reducing prices for our customers, including from our free shipping offers and Amazon Prime, and a larger percent of overall sales in lower margin categories such as electronics.
International segment gross margins in 2006 decreased by 120 basis points compared to 2005 resulting primarily from changes in our revenue mix as sales from electronics and other general merchandise grew faster than sales from media.
Supplemental information about shipping results is as follows:
We believe that offering low prices to our customers is fundamental to our future success. One way we offer lower prices is through free-shipping offers that result in a net cost to us in delivering products, as well as through membership in Amazon Prime. To the extent our customers accept and use our free shipping offers at an increasing rate, including memberships in Amazon Prime, our net cost of shipping will increase. We seek to partially mitigate the costs of lowering prices over time through achieving higher sales volumes, negotiating better terms with our suppliers, and achieving better operating efficiencies.
Supplemental information about our net sales is as follows:
Information about operating expenses with and without stock-based compensation is as follows (in millions):
Operating expenses without stock-based compensation are non-GAAP financial measures. See Non-GAAP Financial Measures and Item 8 of Part I, Financial Statements and Supplementary DataNote 1Description of Business and Accounting PoliciesStock-Based Compensation.
The increase in fulfillment costs in absolute dollars during 2007 in comparison with the prior years relates to variable costs corresponding with sales volume and inventory levels; our mix of product sales; payment processing and related transaction costs, including mix of payment methods and costs from our guarantee for certain marketplace seller transactions; and costs from expanding fulfillment capacity.
Fulfillment costs as a percentage of net sales may vary due to several factors, such as payment processing and related transaction costs, including those from our guarantee for certain seller transactions, our level of productivity and accuracy, changes in volume, size, and weight of units received and fulfilled, the extent we utilize fulfillment services provided by third parties, and our ability to affect customer service contacts per unit by implementing improvements in our operations and enhancements to our customer self-service features. Additionally, because payment processing costs associated with seller transactions are based on the gross purchase price of underlying transactions, and payment processing and related transaction costs are higher as a percentage of revenue versus our retail sales, our sales by our sellers have higher fulfillment costs as a percent of net sales.
We expanded our fulfillment capacity in 2007, 2006, and 2005 through gains in efficiencies and increases in leased warehouse space. This expansion is designed to accommodate greater selection and in-stock inventory levels and meet anticipated shipment volumes from sales of our own products as well as sales by third parties for which we provide the fulfillment.
We direct customers to our websites primarily through a number of targeted online marketing channels, such as our Associates program, sponsored search, portal advertising, e-mail campaigns, and other initiatives.
Our marketing expenses are largely variable, based on growth in sales and changes in rates. To the extent there is increased or decreased competition for these traffic sources, or to the extent our mix of these channels shifts, we would expect to see a corresponding change in our marketing expense or its effect.
Marketing costs increased in absolute dollars in 2007 compared to 2006 and 2005, due to increased spending in variable online marketing channels, such as our Associates program, sponsored search, and other variable marketing initiatives.
While costs associated with free shipping are not included in marketing expense, we view free shipping offers and Amazon Prime as effective worldwide marketing tools, and intend to continue offering them indefinitely.
Technology and Content
We continue to invest in several areas of technology and content including seller platforms, web services, and digital initiatives, as well as expansion of new and existing product categories. We are also investing in technology infrastructure so that we can continue to enhance the customer experience, improve our process efficiency and support our infrastructure web services. See Overview above for a discussion of how management views advances in technology and the importance of innovation. The growth rate of our technology and content spending decreased in 2007 compared to the prior year. We intend to continue investing in areas of technology and content as we continue to add employees to our staff and add technology infrastructure.
For the years ended 2007, 2006, and 2005, we capitalized $129 million, $123 million, and $90 million of costs associated with internal-use software and website development. Amortization of previously capitalized amounts was $116 million, $86 million, and $50 million for 2007, 2006, and 2005.
A significant majority of our technology costs are incurred in the U.S. and most of them are allocated to our North America segment.
General and Administrative
The increase in spending in general and administrative in 2007 compared to 2006 and 2005 is primarily due to increases in payroll and related expenses, and professional fees.
As of January 1, 2005, we adopted SFAS No. 123(R), which requires measurement of compensation cost for all stock-based awards at fair value on date of grant and recognition of compensation over the service period for awards expected to vest. The fair value of restricted stock and restricted stock units is determined based on the number of shares granted and the quoted price of our common stock. Such value is recognized as expense over the service period, net of estimated forfeitures, using the accelerated method. The estimation of stock awards that will ultimately vest requires judgment, and to the extent actual results or updated estimates differ from our current estimates, such amounts will be recorded as a cumulative adjustment in the period estimates are revised. We consider many factors when estimating expected forfeitures, including types of awards, employee class, and historical experience. Actual results and future estimates may differ substantially from our current estimates.
The adoption of SFAS No. 123(R) resulted in a cumulative benefit from accounting change of $26 million in 2005, which reflects the net cumulative impact of estimating future forfeitures in the determination of period expense, rather than recording forfeitures when they occur as previously permitted.
Stock-based compensation was $185 million, $101 million and $87 million during 2007, 2006, and 2005. The increase in stock-based compensation is primarily attributable to an increase in total stock compensation value granted to our employees.
Other Operating Expense, Net
Other operating expense, net, was $9 million and $10 million during 2007 and 2006, primarily attributable to amortization of other intangibles. Other operating expense, net, was $47 million in 2005, primarily attributable to our settlement of a patent lawsuit for $40 million, as well as amortization of other intangibles of $5 million.
Income from Operations
Income from operations was $655 million, $389 million, and $432 million during 2007, 2006, and 2005. The increase in 2007 from 2006 is primarily a result of the increased growth rate of our revenue and gross profit relative to operating expenses. The decrease in 2006 from 2005 is primarily a result of an increase in spending for technology and content.
Interest Expense and Income
The primary component of our net interest expense is the interest we incur on our long-term debt instruments, including a $899 million principal balance of our 4.75% Convertible Subordinated Notes and a 240 million ($350 million based on the exchange rate at December 31, 2007) principal balance of our 6.875% PEACS at December 31, 2007. Interest expense was $77 million, $78 million, and $92 million in 2007, 2006, and 2005, with declines primarily relating to principal repayments of $300 million and $265 million in 2006 and 2005.
Our total long-term indebtedness was $1.3 billion at both December 31, 2007 and 2006. See Item 8 of Part II, Financial Statements and Supplementary DataNote 4Long-Term Debt.
Our interest income was $90 million, $59 million, and $44 million during 2007, 2006, and 2005. We generally invest our excess cash in investment grade short- to intermediate-term fixed income securities and AAA-rated money market mutual funds. Our interest income corresponds with the average balance of invested funds and the prevailing rates we are earning on them, which vary depending on the geographies and currencies in which they are invested.
Other Income (Expense), Net
Other income (expense), net, was $(1) million, $(4) million, and $2 million, in 2007, 2006 and 2005, and consisted primarily of gains and losses on sales of marketable securities, foreign-currency transaction gains and losses, and other miscellaneous losses.
Foreign-currency transaction gains and losses primarily relate to the interest payable on our 6.875% PEACS, as well as foreign-currency gains and losses on cross-currency investments. Since interest payments on our 6.875% PEACS are settled in Euros, the balance of interest payable is subject to gains or losses resulting from changes in exchange rates between the U.S. Dollar and Euro between reporting dates and payment.
Remeasurements and Other
Remeasurements and other consisted of the following:
We recorded a provision for income taxes of $184 million, $187 million, and $95 million, in 2007, 2006 and 2005. The effective tax rate in 2007 was lower than the 35% U.S. federal statutory rate primarily due to earnings of our subsidiaries outside of the U.S. in jurisdictions where our effective tax rate is lower than in the U.S. The effective tax rate in 2006 was higher than the 35% U.S. federal statutory rate resulting from establishment of our European headquarters in Luxembourg, which we expect will benefit our effective tax rate over time. Associated with the establishment of our European headquarters, we transferred certain of our operating assets in 2005 and 2006 from the U.S. to international locations. These transfers resulted in taxable income and exposure to additional taxable income assertions by taxing jurisdictions.
Included in the 2005 provision and reducing the impact of the international restructure is a tax benefit of $90 million, resulting from certain of our deferred tax assets becoming more likely than not realizable. This tax benefit represented $0.22 and $0.21 of basic and diluted earnings per share.
We expect our effective tax rate in 2008 to be approximately 30%. However, our effective tax rate is subject to significant variation due to several factors, including from accurately predicting our taxable income, the taxable jurisdictions to which it relates, and business acquisitions and investments. We have current tax benefits and net operating losses relating to excess stock-based compensation deductions that are being utilized to reduce our U.S. taxable income. As such, we expect a majority of our net tax provision to be non-cash.
Effect of Exchange Rates
The effect on our consolidated statements of operations from changes in exchange rates versus the U.S. Dollar is as follows (in millions, except per share data):
Non-GAAP Financial Measures
Regulation G, Conditions for Use of Non-GAAP Financial Measures, and other SEC regulations define and prescribe the conditions for use of certain non-GAAP financial information. Our measure of Free cash flow meets the definition of a non-GAAP financial measure. Free cash flow is used in addition to and in conjunction with results presented in accordance with GAAP and free cash flow should not be relied upon to the exclusion of GAAP financial measures. Free cash flow reflects an additional way of viewing our liquidity that, when viewed with our GAAP results, provides a more complete understanding of factors and trends affecting our cash flows. Management strongly encourages shareholders to review our financial statements and publicly-filed reports in their entirety and not to rely on any single financial measure.
Free cash flow, which we reconcile to Net cash provided by operating activities, is cash flow from operations reduced by Purchases of fixed assets, including internal-use software and website development. We use free cash flow, and ratios based on it, to conduct and evaluate our business because, although it is similar to cash flow from operations, we believe it is a more conservative measure of cash flows since purchases of fixed assets are a necessary component of ongoing operations. In limited circumstances in which proceeds from sales of fixed assets exceed purchases, free cash flow would exceed cash flow from operations. However, since we do not anticipate being a net seller of fixed assets, we expect free cash flow to be less than operating cash flows.
Free cash flow has limitations due to the fact that it does not represent the residual cash flow available for discretionary expenditures. For example, free cash flow does not incorporate payments made on capital lease obligations or cash payments for business acquisitions. Therefore, we believe it is important to view free cash flow as a complement to our entire consolidated statements of cash flows.
The following is a reconciliation of free cash flow to the most comparable GAAP measure, Net cash provided by operating activities for 2007, 2006, and 2005 (in millions):
In addition, we provide operating expenses with and without stock-based compensation. We provide this information to show the impact of stock-based compensation, which is non-cash and excluded from our internal operating plans and measurement of financial performance (although we consider the dilutive impact to our shareholders when awarding stock-based compensation and value such awards accordingly). In addition, unlike other centrally-incurred operating costs, stock-based compensation is not allocated to segment results and therefore excluding it from operating expense is consistent with our segment presentation in our footnotes to the consolidated financial statements.
Operating expenses without stock-based compensation have limitations due to the fact that they do not include all expenses primarily related to our workforce. More specifically, if we did not pay out a portion of our compensation in
the form of stock-based compensation, our cash salary expense included in the Fulfillment, Technology and content, Marketing, and General and administrative line items would be higher. We compensate for this limitation by providing supplemental information about outstanding stock-based awards in the footnotes to our financial statements. Stock-based compensation programs are an important element of our compensation structure and all forms of stock-based awards are valued and included as appropriate in results of operations.
The Company provided guidance on January 30, 2008 in its earnings release furnished on Form 8-K as follows:
First Quarter 2008 Guidance
Full Year 2008 Expectations
These projections are subject to substantial uncertainty. See Item 1A of Part I, Risk Factors.
Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosure About Market Risk
We are exposed to market risk for the effect of interest rate changes, foreign currency fluctuations, and changes in the market values of our investments.
Information relating to quantitative and qualitative disclosure about market risk is set forth below and in Item 7 of Part II, Managements Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of OperationsLiquidity and Capital Resources.
Interest Rate Risk
Our exposure to market risk for changes in interest rates relates primarily to our investment portfolio and our long-term debt. All of our cash equivalent and marketable fixed income securities are designated as available-for-sale and, accordingly, are presented at fair value on our balance sheets. We generally invest our excess cash in investment grade short- to intermediate-term fixed income securities and AAA-rated money market mutual funds. Fixed rate securities may have their fair market value adversely affected due to a rise in interest rates, and we may suffer losses in principal if forced to sell securities that have declined in market value due to changes in interest rates.
The following table provides information about our cash equivalent and marketable fixed income securities, including principal cash flows by expected maturity and the related weighted average interest rates at December 31, 2007 (in millions, except percentages):
At December 31, 2007, we had long-term debt of $1.3 billion primarily associated with our 4.75% Convertible Subordinated Notes and 6.875% PEACS, which are due in 2009 and 2010. The fair value of our long-term debt will fluctuate with movements of interest rates, increasing in periods of declining rates of interest and declining in periods of increasing rates of interest.
Based upon quoted market prices, the fair value of the 4.75% Convertible Subordinated Notes was $1.1 billion at December 31, 2007 (outstanding principal of $899 million) and $883 million (outstanding principal of $900 million) at December 31, 2006. The fair value of the 6.875% PEACS was $358 million at December 31, 2007 (outstanding principal of 240 million), and $320 million at December 31, 2006 (outstanding principal of 240 million).
Foreign Exchange Risk
During 2007, net sales from our International segment accounted for 45% of our consolidated revenues. Net sales and related expenses generated from our international websites, as well as those relating to www.amazon.ca (which is included in our North America segment), are denominated in the functional currencies of the corresponding websites and primarily include Euros, British Pounds, and Japanese Yen. The functional currency of our subsidiaries that either operate or support these websites is the same as the corresponding local currency. The results of operations of, and certain of our intercompany balances associated with, our internationally-focused websites are exposed to foreign exchange rate fluctuations. Upon consolidation, as exchange rates vary, net sales and other operating results may differ materially from expectations, and we may record significant gains or losses on the remeasurement of intercompany balances. For example, as a result of fluctuations in foreign exchange rates during 2007, International segment revenues increased $390 million in comparison with the prior year.
We have foreign exchange risk related to foreign-denominated cash, cash equivalents, and marketable securities (foreign funds). Based on the balance of foreign funds at December 31, 2007 of $1.2 billion, an assumed 5%, 10%, and 20% negative currency movement would result in fair value declines of $60 million, $120 million, and $240 million. All investments are classified as available for sale, as defined by SFAS No. 115, Accounting for Certain Investments in Debt and Equity Securities. Fluctuations in fair value are recorded in Accumulated other comprehensive income (loss), a separate component of stockholders equity.
We have foreign exchange risk related to our intercompany balances denominated in foreign currency. Based on the net intercompany balances at December 31, 2007 of $250 million, an assumed 5%, 10%, and 20% strengthening of the U.S. Dollar in relation to these foreign currencies would result in losses of $15 million, $25 million, and $50 million, recorded to Remeasurements and other.
We have foreign exchange risk related to our 6.875% PEACS, which have an outstanding principal balance at December 31, 2007 of 240 million ($350 million, based on the exchange rate as of December 31, 2007). Due to fluctuations in the Euro/U.S. Dollar exchange ratio, which we cannot predict, our remaining principal debt obligation under the 6.875% PEACS since issuance in February 2000 has increased by $114 million as of December 31, 2007. Based on the outstanding 6.875% PEACS principal balance, an assumed 5%, 10%, and 20% weakening of the U.S. Dollar in relation to the Euro would result in additional losses of approximately $20 million, $35 million, and $70 million, recorded to Remeasurements and other. Additionally, we have not hedged our interest payments under our 6.875% PEACS to protect against exchange rate fluctuations. Assuming the U.S. Dollar weakens against the Euro by 5%, 10%, and 20% in 2007, we would incur $1 million, $2 million, and $5 million additional annual interest expense due solely to fluctuations in foreign exchange.
See Effect of Exchange Rates for additional information on the effect on reported results of changes in exchange rates.
As of December 31, 2007, our recorded basis in equity securities (including both publicly-traded and private companies) was $29 million, including $12 million classified as Marketable securities, and $17 million classified as Other assets. We regularly review the carrying value of our investments and identify and record losses when events and circumstances indicate that declines in the fair value of such assets below our accounting basis are other-than-temporary. The fair values of our investments are subject to significant fluctuations due to volatility of the stock market in general, company-specific circumstances, and changes in general economic conditions. Based on the fair value of the publicly-traded equity securities we held at December 31, 2007 of $55 million (recorded basis of $12 million), an assumed 15%, 30%, and 50% adverse change to market prices of these securities would result in a corresponding decline in total fair value of approximately $10 million, $15 million, and $25 million.
Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
INDEX TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
The Board of Directors and Stockholders
We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Amazon.com, Inc. as of December 31, 2007 and 2006, and the related consolidated statements of operations, stockholders equity, and cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2007. Our audits also included the financial statement schedule listed in the Index at Item 15(a)(2). These financial statements and schedule are the responsibility of the Companys management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on these financial statements and schedule based on our audits.
We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States). Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement. An audit includes examining, on a test basis, evidence supporting the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. An audit also includes assessing the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall financial statement presentation. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.
In our opinion, the financial statements referred to above present fairly, in all material respects, the consolidated financial position of Amazon.com, Inc. at December 31, 2007 and 2006, and the consolidated results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2007, in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles. Also, in our opinion, the related financial statement schedule, when considered in relation to the basic financial statements taken as a whole, presents fairly in all material respects the information set forth therein.
As discussed in Note 1 to the consolidated financial statements, the Company adopted FASB Interpretation No. 48 Accounting for Uncertainty in Income Taxes, effective January 1, 2007.
We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States), the effectiveness of Amazon.com, Inc.s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2007, based on criteria established in Internal ControlIntegrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission and our report dated February 8, 2008 expressed an unqualified opinion thereon.
/S/ ERNST & YOUNG LLP
February 8, 2008
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
See accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS
(in millions, except per share data)
See accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements.
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(in millions, except per share data)
See accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF STOCKHOLDERS EQUITY