Apartment Investment and Management Company (AIV)

 
Annual Reports

  • 10-K (Feb 21, 2014)
  • 10-K (Feb 25, 2013)
  • 10-K (Feb 23, 2012)
  • 10-K (Feb 25, 2011)
  • 10-K (Feb 26, 2010)
  • 10-K (Feb 27, 2009)

 
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8-K

 
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APARTMENT INVESTMENT & MANAGEMENT CO 10-K 2010
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Table of Contents

 
UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
 
     
(Mark One)    
þ
  ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d)
OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
    For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2009
or
o
  TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d)
OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
    For the transition period from          to          
 
Commission File Number 1-13232
 
     
Maryland
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
  84-1259577
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
     
4582 South Ulster Street Parkway, Suite 1100
Denver, Colorado
(Address of principal executive offices)
  80237
(Zip Code)
 
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (303) 757-8101
Securities Registered Pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
 
     
Title of Each Class
 
Name of Each Exchange on Which Registered
 
Class A Common Stock
  New York Stock Exchange
Class G Cumulative Preferred Stock
  New York Stock Exchange
Class T Cumulative Preferred Stock
  New York Stock Exchange
Class U Cumulative Preferred Stock
  New York Stock Exchange
Class V Cumulative Preferred Stock
  New York Stock Exchange
Class Y Cumulative Preferred Stock
  New York Stock Exchange
 
Securities Registered Pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: none
 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined by Rule 405 of the Securities Act.  Yes þ     No o
 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.  Yes o     No þ
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.  Yes þ     No o
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).  Yes o     No o
 
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.  þ
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
 
             
Large accelerated filer þ
  Accelerated filer o   Non-accelerated filer o
(Do not check if a smaller reporting company)
  Smaller reporting company o
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).  Yes o     No þ
 
The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant was approximately $1.0 billion as of June 30, 2009. As of February 24, 2010, there were 117,140,672 shares of Class A Common Stock outstanding.
 
 
 
 
 
Portions of the registrant’s definitive proxy statement to be issued in conjunction with the registrant’s annual meeting of stockholders to be held April 26, 2010, are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Annual Report.
 


 

 
APARTMENT INVESTMENT AND MANAGEMENT COMPANY
 
TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
 
                 
Item
      Page
 
  1.     Business     2  
  1A.     Risk Factors     8  
  1B.     Unresolved Staff Comments     16  
  2.     Properties     16  
  3.     Legal Proceedings     17  
  4.     Submission of Matters to a Vote of Security Holders     17  
 
  5.     Market for the Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities     18  
  6.     Selected Financial Data     20  
  7.     Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations     22  
  7A.     Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk     42  
  8.     Financial Statements and Supplementary Data     43  
  9.     Changes in and Disagreements With Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure     43  
  9A.     Controls and Procedures     43  
  9B.     Other Information     46  
 
  10.     Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance     46  
  11.     Executive Compensation     46  
  12.     Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters     46  
  13.     Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence     46  
  14.     Principal Accountant Fees and Services     46  
 
  15.     Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules     47  
 EX-21.1
 EX-23.1
 EX-31.1
 EX-31.2
 EX-32.1
 EX-32.2
 EX-99.1


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The Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 provides a “safe harbor” for forward-looking statements in certain circumstances. Certain information included in this Annual Report contains or may contain information that is forward-looking within the meaning of the federal securities laws, including, without limitation, statements regarding the effect of acquisitions and redevelopments, our future financial performance, including our ability to maintain current or meet projected occupancy, rent levels and same store results, and the effect of government regulations. Actual results may differ materially from those described in these forward-looking statements and, in addition, will be affected by a variety of risks and factors, some of which are beyond our control, including, without limitation: financing risks, including the availability and cost of financing and the risk that our cash flows from operations may be insufficient to meet required payments of principal and interest; earnings may not be sufficient to maintain compliance with debt covenants; real estate risks, including fluctuations in real estate values and the general economic climate in the markets in which we operate and competition for residents in such markets; national and local economic conditions; the terms of governmental regulations that affect us and interpretations of those regulations; the competitive environment in which we operate; the timing of acquisitions and dispositions; insurance risk, including the cost of insurance; natural disasters and severe weather such as hurricanes; litigation, including costs associated with prosecuting or defending claims and any adverse outcomes; energy costs; and possible environmental liabilities, including costs, fines or penalties that may be incurred due to necessary remediation of contamination of properties presently owned or previously owned by us. In addition, our current and continuing qualification as a real estate investment trust involves the application of highly technical and complex provisions of the Internal Revenue Code and depends on our ability to meet the various requirements imposed by the Internal Revenue Code, through actual operating results, distribution levels and diversity of stock ownership. Readers should carefully review our financial statements and the notes thereto, as well as the section entitled “Risk Factors” described in Item 1A of this Annual Report and the other documents we file from time to time with the Securities and Exchange Commission.
 
PART I
 
Item 1.   Business
 
The Company
 
Apartment Investment and Management Company, or Aimco, is a Maryland corporation incorporated on January 10, 1994. We are a self-administered and self-managed real estate investment trust, or REIT, engaged in the acquisition, ownership, management and redevelopment of apartment properties. We primarily invest in the 20 largest U.S. markets, as measured by total market capitalization, which is the total market value of institutional-grade apartment properties in a particular market. We define these markets as “target markets” and they possess the following characteristics: a high concentration of population and apartment units; geographic and employment diversification; and historically strong returns with reduced volatility as part of a diversified portfolio. We are one of the largest owners and operators of apartment properties in the United States.
 
We own an equity interest in, and consolidate the majority of, the properties in our owned real estate portfolio. These properties represent the consolidated real estate holdings in our financial statements, which we refer to as consolidated properties. In addition, we have an equity interest in, but do not consolidate for financial statement purposes, certain properties that are accounted for under the equity or cost methods. These properties represent our investment in unconsolidated real estate partnerships in our financial statements, which we refer to as unconsolidated properties. Additionally, we provide property management and asset management services to certain properties, and in certain cases, we may indirectly own generally less than one percent of the operations of such


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properties through a partnership syndication or other fund. Our equity holdings and managed properties are as follows as of December 31, 2009:
 
                 
    Total Portfolio
    Properties   Units
 
Consolidated properties
    426       95,202  
Unconsolidated properties
    77       8,478  
Property management
    22       2,095  
Asset management
    345       29,879  
                 
Total
    870       135,654  
                 
 
Through our wholly-owned subsidiaries, AIMCO-GP, Inc. and AIMCO-LP Trust, we own a majority of the ownership interests in AIMCO Properties, L.P., which we refer to as the Aimco Operating Partnership. As of December 31, 2009, we held an interest of approximately 93% in the common partnership units and equivalents of the Aimco Operating Partnership. We conduct substantially all of our business and own substantially all of our assets through the Aimco Operating Partnership. Interests in the Aimco Operating Partnership that are held by limited partners other than Aimco are referred to as “OP Units.” OP Units include common OP Units, partnership preferred units, or preferred OP Units, and high performance partnership units, or High Performance Units. Generally, after a holding period of twelve months, holders of common OP Units may redeem such units for cash or, at the Aimco Operating Partnership’s option, Aimco Class A Common Stock, which we refer to as Common Stock. At December 31, 2009, we had 116,479,791 shares of our Common Stock outstanding and the Aimco Operating Partnership had 8,374,233 common OP Units and equivalents outstanding for a combined total of 124,854,024 shares of Common Stock and OP Units outstanding (excluding preferred OP Units).
 
Since our initial public offering in July 1994, we have completed numerous transactions, including purchases of properties and interests in entities that own or manage properties, expanding our portfolio of owned or managed properties from 132 properties with 29,343 apartment units to a peak of over 2,100 properties with 379,000 apartment units. As of December 31, 2009, our portfolio of owned and/or managed properties consists of 870 properties with 135,654 apartment units.
 
Except as the context otherwise requires, “we,” “our,” “us” and the “Company” refer to Aimco, the Aimco Operating Partnership and their consolidated entities, collectively. As used herein, and except where the context otherwise requires, “partnership” refers to a limited partnership or a limited liability company and “partner” refers to a limited partner in a limited partnership or a member in a limited liability company.
 
 
Our Annual Report on Form 10-K, our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, our Current Reports on Form 8-K and any amendments to any of those reports that we file with the Securities and Exchange Commission are available free of charge as soon as reasonably practicable through our website at www.aimco.com. The information contained on our website is not incorporated into this Annual Report. Our Common Stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol “AIV.” In 2009, our chief executive officer submitted his annual corporate governance listing standards certification to the New York Stock Exchange, which certification was unqualified.
 
 
We operate in two reportable segments: real estate (owning, operating and redeveloping apartments) and investment management (portfolio management and asset management, which are further discussed in the Business Overview). For further information on these segments, see Note 17 of the consolidated financial statements in Item 8, and Management’s Discussion and Analysis in Item 7.
 
Business Overview
 
Our principal financial objective is to increase long-term stockholder value, both as measured by Net Asset Value, which is the estimated fair value of our assets, net of debt, or NAV, and total shareholder return.


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We strive to meet our objectives through:
 
  •  property operations — using scale and technology to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of attracting and retaining apartment residents;
 
  •  portfolio management — allocating capital among geographic markets and apartment property types, primarily Class B and B+ quality apartments that are well located within the 20 largest U.S. markets, through sales, redevelopment and/or acquisitions;
 
  •  managing our cost and risk of capital by using leverage that is largely long-term, laddered in maturity, non-recourse and property specific; and
 
  •  reducing our general and administrative and certain other costs through outsourcing and standardization.
 
Our business is organized around two core activities: Property Operations and Investment Management. These core activities, along with our financial strategy, are described in more detail below.
 
 
Our portfolio is comprised of two business components: conventional and affordable. Our conventional operations, which provide 88% of our property net operating income and are market-rate apartments with rents paid by the resident, include 243 properties with 74,030 units. Our affordable operations provide 12% of our property net operating income and consist of 260 properties with 29,650 units, with rents that are generally paid, in whole or part, by a government agency. Affordable properties tend to have relatively more stable rents and higher occupancy due to government rent payments and thus are much less affected by market fluctuations.
 
We operate a broad range of property types, from suburban garden-style to urban high-rise properties in 44 states, the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico at a range of average monthly rental rates. On average, our portfolio rents are somewhat above the average rents in the local markets. This diversification in geography insulates us, to some degree, from inevitable downturns in any one market.
 
Our property operations currently are organized into five areas, which are further subdivided according to our target markets. To manage our nationwide portfolio more efficiently and to increase the benefits from our local management expertise, we have given direct responsibility for operations within each area to an area operations leader with regular senior management reviews. To enable the area operations leaders to focus on sales and service, as well as to improve financial control and budgeting, we have dedicated an area financial officer to support each area operations leader, and with the exception of routine maintenance, our specialized Construction Services group manages all on-site improvements, thus reducing the need for the area operations leaders to spend time on oversight of construction projects.
 
We seek to improve our oversight of property operations by: developing better systems; standardizing business goals, operational measurements and internal reporting; and enhancing financial controls over field operations. Our objectives are to focus on the areas discussed below:
 
  •  Customer Service.  Our operating culture is focused on our residents. Our goal is to provide our residents with consistent service in clean, safe and attractive communities. We evaluate our performance through a customer satisfaction tracking system. In addition, we emphasize the quality of our on-site employees through recruiting, training and retention programs, which we believe contributes to improved customer service and leads to increased occupancy rates and enhanced operational performance.
 
  •  Resident Selection and Retention.  In apartment properties, neighbors are a meaningful part of the product, together with the location of the property and the physical quality of the apartment units. Part of our property operations strategy is to focus on resident acquisition and retention — attracting and retaining credit-worthy residents who are good neighbors. We have structured goals and coaching for all of our sales personnel, a tracking system for inquiries and a standardized renewal communication program. We have standardized residential financial stability requirements and have policies and monitoring practices to maintain our resident quality.


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  •  Revenue Management.  For our conventional properties, we have a centralized revenue management system that leverages people, processes and technology to work in partnership with our area operational management teams to develop rental rate pricing. We seek to increase revenue by optimizing the balance between rental and occupancy rates. We are also focused on the automation of on-site operations, as we believe that timely and accurate collection of property performance and resident profile data will enable us to maximize revenue through better property management and leasing decisions. We have standardized policies for new and renewal pricing with timely data and analyses by floor-plan, thereby enabling us to maximize our ability to modify pricing, even in challenging sub-markets.
 
  •  Controlling Expenses.  Cost controls are accomplished by local focus at the area level and by taking advantage of economies of scale at the corporate level. As a result of the size of our portfolio and our area concentrations of properties, we have the ability to spread over a large property base the fixed costs for general and administrative expenditures and certain operating functions, such as purchasing, insurance and information technology.
 
  •  Ancillary Services.  We believe that our ownership and management of properties provide us with unique access to a customer base that allows us to provide additional services and thereby increase occupancy and rents, while also generating incremental revenue. We currently provide cable television, telephone services, appliance rental, and carport, garage and storage space rental at certain properties.
 
  •  Maintaining and Improving Property Quality.  We believe that the physical condition and amenities of our apartment properties are important factors in our ability to maintain and increase rental rates. In 2009, we spent $70.3 million (Aimco’s share), or $723 per owned apartment unit, for Capital Replacements, which represent the share of additions that are deemed to replace the consumed portion of acquired capital assets. Additionally, we spent $53.4 million (Aimco’s share), or $549 per owned apartment unit, for Capital Improvements, which are non-redevelopment capital additions that are made to enhance the value, profitability or useful life of an asset from its original purchase condition.
 
 
Investment management includes activities related to our owned portfolio of properties as well as services provided to affiliated partnerships. Investment management includes portfolio strategy, capital allocation, joint ventures, tax credit syndication, acquisitions, dispositions and other transaction activities. Within our owned portfolio, we refer to these activities as Portfolio Management, and their benefit is seen in property operating results and investment gains. For affiliated partnerships, we refer to these activities as asset management for which we are separately compensated through fees paid by third party investors.
 
 
Portfolio Management involves the ongoing allocation of investment capital to meet our geographic and product type goals. We target geographic balance in Aimco’s diversified portfolio in order to optimize risk-adjusted returns and to avoid the risk of undue concentration in any particular market. We also seek to balance the portfolio by product type, with both high quality properties in excellent locations and also high land value properties that support redevelopment activities. We intend to slightly reduce our allocation of capital to affordable properties to 10% of our NAV.
 
Our geographic allocation strategy focuses on our target markets to reduce volatility in and our dependence on particular areas of the country. We believe our target markets are deep, relatively liquid and possess desirable long-term growth characteristics. They are primarily coastal markets, and also include a number of Sun Belt cities and Chicago, Illinois. We may also invest in other markets on an opportunistic basis. We intend to upgrade the quality of our portfolio through the sale of approximately 5% to 10% of our portfolio annually, with the proceeds generally used to increase our allocation of capital to well located properties within our target markets through capital investments, redevelopment or acquisitions. We expect that increased geographic focus will also add to our investment knowledge and increase operating efficiencies based on local economies of scale.


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Our portfolio management activities include strategic portfolio and capital allocation decisions including transactions to buy, sell or modify our ownership interest in properties, including through the use of partnerships and joint ventures, and to increase our investment in existing properties through redevelopment. The purpose of these transactions is to adjust Aimco’s investments to reflect our decisions regarding target allocations to geographic markets and to investment types.
 
We believe redevelopment of certain properties in superior locations provides advantages over ground-up development, enabling us to generate rents comparable to new properties with lower financial risk, in less time and with reduced delays associated with governmental permits and authorizations. Redevelopment work also includes seeking entitlements from local governments, which enhance the value of our existing portfolio by increasing density, that is, the right to add residential units to a site. We have historically undertaken a range of redevelopment projects: from those in which a substantial number of all available units are vacated for significant renovations to the property, to those in which there is significant renovation, such as exteriors, common areas or unit improvements, typically done upon lease expirations without the need to vacate units on any wholesale or substantial basis. We have a specialized Redevelopment and Construction Services group to oversee these projects.
 
During 2009, we increased our allocation of capital to our target markets by disposing of 68 conventional properties located primarily outside of our target markets or in less desirable locations within our target markets and by investing $66.8 million in redevelopment of conventional properties. As of December 31, 2009, our conventional portfolio included 243 properties with 74,030 units in 38 markets. As of December 31, 2009, conventional properties in our target markets comprised 88% of our NAV attributable to our conventional properties. Our top five markets by net operating income contribution include the metropolitan areas of Washington, D.C.; Los Angeles, California; “Other” Florida (which is comprised of Ft. Lauderdale, Jacksonville, Orlando, Palm Beach County and Tampa); Chicago, Illinois and Boston, Massachusetts.
 
During 2009, we invested $46.0 million in redevelopment of affordable properties, funded primarily by proceeds from the sale of tax credits to institutional partners. As with conventional properties, we also seek to dispose of properties that are inconsistent with our long-term investment and operating strategies. During 2009, we sold 22 properties from our affordable portfolio. As of December 31, 2009, our affordable portfolio included 260 properties with 29,650 units.
 
 
We are focused on maintaining a safe balance sheet, including minimizing or eliminating our recourse debt and near term property debt maturities as well as minimizing our cost of capital on a risk adjusted basis. We primarily use non-recourse and amortizing property debt with laddered maturities and minimize reliance on corporate debt. The lower risk inherent in non-recourse property debt permits us to operate with higher debt leverage and a lower weighted average cost of capital. We use floating rate property and corporate debt to provide lower interest costs over time at a level that considers acceptable earnings volatility.
 
During 2009, using proceeds from asset dispositions, we repaid $310.0 million of our term loan, which matures in March 2011, leaving a remaining outstanding balance of $90.0 million at December 31, 2009. We repaid an additional $45.0 million through February 26, 2010, leaving a remaining outstanding balance of $45.0 million.
 
During 2009, we also focused on reducing refunding risk by accelerating refinancing of property loans maturing prior to 2012. At the beginning of 2009, property debt totaling $753.0 million was scheduled to mature prior to 2012. During 2009, through refinancing, repayment and property sales, we reduced these maturities by 69%, or $516.3 million, and eliminated all 2010 property debt maturities. As of December 31, 2009, five loans totaling $236.7 million were scheduled to mature in 2011. During January 2010, we extended the maturity of one of these loans for $65.0 million to 2013. We expect to refinance the remaining four loans, totaling $171.7 million ($101.2 million Aimco’s share), at their maturity.
 
As of December 31, 2009, we had a $180.0 million revolving credit facility and borrowings available of $136.2 million (after giving effect to $43.8 million outstanding for undrawn letters of credit). The revolving credit facility matures in May 2011 and has a one year extension option, subject to certain terms.


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In attracting and retaining residents to occupy our properties we compete with numerous other housing alternatives. Our properties compete directly with other rental apartments as well as condominiums and single-family homes that are available for rent or purchase in the markets in which our properties are located. Principal factors of competition include rent or price charged, attractiveness of the location and property and quality and breadth of services. The number of competitive properties relative to demand in a particular area has a material effect on our ability to lease apartment units at our properties and on the rents we charge. In certain markets there exists oversupply of single family homes and condominiums and a reduction of households, both of which affect the pricing and occupancy of our rental apartments. Additionally, we compete with other real estate investors, including other apartment REITs, pension and investment funds, partnerships and investment companies in acquiring, redeveloping and managing apartment properties. This competition affects our ability to acquire properties we want to add to our portfolio and the price that we pay in such acquisitions.
 
 
We have elected to be taxed as a REIT under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, which we refer to as the Code, commencing with our taxable year ended December 31, 1994, and intend to continue to operate in such a manner. Our current and continuing qualification as a REIT depends on our ability to meet the various requirements imposed by the Code, which relate to organizational structure, distribution levels, diversity of stock ownership and certain restrictions with regard to owned assets and categories of income. If we qualify for taxation as a REIT, we will generally not be subject to United States Federal corporate income tax on our taxable income that is currently distributed to stockholders. This treatment substantially eliminates the “double taxation” (at the corporate and stockholder levels) that generally results from an investment in a corporation.
 
Even if we qualify as a REIT, we may be subject to United States Federal income and excise taxes in various situations, such as on our undistributed income. We also will be required to pay a 100% tax on any net income on non-arm’s length transactions between us and a TRS (described below) and on any net income from sales of property that was property held for sale to customers in the ordinary course. We and our stockholders may be subject to state or local taxation in various state or local jurisdictions, including those in which we transact business or our stockholders reside. In addition, we could also be subject to the alternative minimum tax, or AMT, on our items of tax preference. The state and local tax laws may not conform to the United States Federal income tax treatment. Any taxes imposed on us reduce our operating cash flow and net income.
 
Certain of our operations or a portion thereof, including property management, asset management and risk are conducted through taxable REIT subsidiaries, each of which we refer to as a TRS. A TRS is a C-corporation that has not elected REIT status and, as such, is subject to United States Federal corporate income tax. We use TRS entities to facilitate our ability to offer certain services and activities to our residents and investment partners, as these services and activities generally cannot be offered directly by the REIT.
 
 
 
Apartment properties and their owners are subject to various laws, ordinances and regulations, including those related to real estate broker licensing and regulations relating to recreational facilities such as swimming pools, activity centers and other common areas. Changes in laws increasing the potential liability for environmental conditions existing on properties or increasing the restrictions on discharges or other conditions, as well as changes in laws affecting development, construction and safety requirements, may result in significant unanticipated expenditures, which would adversely affect our net income and cash flows from operating activities. In addition, future enactment of rent control or rent stabilization laws, such as legislation that has been considered in New York, or other laws regulating multifamily housing may reduce rental revenue or increase operating costs in particular markets.


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Various Federal, state and local laws subject property owners or operators to liability for management, and the costs of removal or remediation, of certain hazardous substances present on a property. Such laws often impose liability without regard to whether the owner or operator knew of, or was responsible for, the release or presence of the hazardous substances. In connection with the ownership, operation and management of properties, we could potentially be liable for environmental liabilities or costs associated with our properties or properties we acquire or manage in the future. These and other risks related to environmental matters are described in more detail in Item 1A, “Risk Factors.”
 
 
Our primary lines of insurance coverage are property, general liability, and workers’ compensation. We believe that our insurance coverages adequately insure our properties against the risk of loss attributable to fire, earthquake, hurricane, tornado, flood, terrorism and other perils, and adequately insure us against other risk. Our coverage includes deductibles, retentions and limits that are customary in the industry. We have established loss prevention, loss mitigation, claims handling, litigation management and loss reserving procedures to manage our exposure.
 
Employees
 
At December 31, 2009, we had approximately 3,500 employees, of which approximately 2,800 were at the property level, performing various on-site functions, with the balance managing corporate and area operations, including investment and debt transactions, legal, financial reporting, accounting, information systems, human resources and other support functions. As of December 31, 2009, unions represented 115 of our employees. We have never experienced a work stoppage and believe we maintain satisfactory relations with our employees.
 
Item 1A.   Risk Factors
 
The risk factors noted in this section and other factors noted throughout this Annual Report, describe certain risks and uncertainties that could cause our actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statement.
 
 
We are subject to the risk that our cash flow from operations will be insufficient to make required payments of principal and interest, and the risk that existing indebtedness may not be refinanced or that the terms of any refinancing will not be as favorable as the terms of existing indebtedness. If we fail to make required payments of principal and interest on secured debt, our lenders could foreclose on the properties and other collateral securing such debt, which would result in loss of income and asset value to us. As of December 31, 2009, substantially all of the properties that we owned or controlled were encumbered by debt. Our organizational documents do not limit the amount of debt that we may incur, and we have significant amounts of debt outstanding. Payments of principal and interest may leave us with insufficient cash resources to operate our properties or pay distributions required to be paid in order to maintain our qualification as a REIT.
 
Our strategy is generally to incur debt to increase the return on our equity while maintaining acceptable coverage ratios. For the year ended December 31, 2009, as calculated based on the provisions in our credit agreement, which is further discussed in Note 7 to the consolidated financial statements in Item 8, we had a ratio of earnings before interest, taxes and depreciation and amortization to debt service of 1.59:1 and a ratio of earnings to fixed charges of 1.36:1. On February 3, 2010, we and our lenders agreed to reduce the covenant ratios of earnings before interest, taxes and depreciation and amortization to debt service and earnings to fixed charges from 1.50:1 and 1.30:1, respectively, to 1.40:1 and 1.20:1, respectively. We expect to remain in compliance with these covenants.
 
At December 31, 2009, we had swap positions with two financial institutions totaling $353.1 million. The related swap agreements provide for collateral calls to maintain specified loan-to-value ratios. In the event the


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values of the real estate properties serving as collateral under these agreements decline, we may be required to provide additional collateral pursuant to the swap agreements, which would adversely affect our cash flows.
 
 
Our ability to obtain financing and the cost of such financing depends on the overall condition of the United States credit markets and, to an important extent in 2009, on the level of involvement of certain government sponsored entities, specifically, Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation, or Freddie Mac, and Federal National Mortgage Association, or Fannie Mae, in secondary credit markets. During 2009, the United States credit markets (outside of multi-family) experienced significant liquidity disruptions, which caused the spreads on debt financings to widen considerably and made obtaining financing, both non-recourse property debt and corporate borrowings, such as our term loan or revolving credit facility, more difficult.
 
Further or prolonged disruptions in the credit markets could result in Freddie Mac or Fannie Mae reducing their level of involvement in secondary credit markets which would adversely affect our ability to obtain non-recourse property debt financing. Additionally, further or prolonged disruptions in the credit markets may also affect our ability to renew our credit facility with similar commitments when it matures in May 2012 (inclusive of a one year extension option).
 
If our ability to obtain financing is adversely affected, we may be unable to satisfy scheduled maturities on existing financing through other sources of liquidity, which could result in lender foreclosure on the properties securing such debt and loss of income and asset value, each of which would adversely affect our liquidity.
 
 
As of December 31, 2009, we had approximately $654.6 million of variable-rate indebtedness outstanding and $67.0 million of variable rate preferred stock outstanding. Of the total debt subject to variable interest rates, floating rate tax-exempt bond financing was about two-thirds, or $433.9 million. Floating rate tax-exempt bond financing is benchmarked against the Securities Industry and Financial Markets Association Municipal Swap Index, or SIFMA, rate, which since 1989 has averaged 73% of the 30-day LIBOR rate. At December 31, 2009, we had approximately $440.9 million in cash and cash equivalents, restricted cash and notes receivable, the majority of which bear interest. The effect of our interest-bearing assets would partially reduce the effect of an increase in variable interest rates. If this historical relationship continues, we estimate that an increase in 30-day LIBOR of 100 basis points (73 basis points for tax-exempt interest rates) with constant credit risk spreads would result in net income being reduced by $1.1 million and income attributable to Aimco common stockholders being reduced by $1.5 million on an annual basis.
 
 
Our ability to fund necessary capital expenditures on our properties depends on, among other things, our ability to generate net operating income in excess of required debt payments. If we are unable to fund capital expenditures on our properties, we may not be able to preserve the competitiveness of our properties, which could adversely affect our net operating income.
 
Our ability to make payments to our investors depends on our ability to generate net operating income in excess of required debt payments and capital expenditure requirements. Our net operating income and liquidity may be adversely affected by events or conditions beyond our control, including:
 
  •  the general economic climate;
 
  •  an inflationary environment in which the costs to operate and maintain our properties increase at a rate greater than our ability to increase rents only upon renewal of existing leases or at the inception of new leases;
 
  •  competition from other apartment communities and other housing options;


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  •  local conditions, such as loss of jobs, unemployment rates or an increase in the supply of apartments, that might adversely affect apartment occupancy or rental rates;
 
  •  changes in governmental regulations and the related cost of compliance;
 
  •  increases in operating costs (including real estate taxes) due to inflation and other factors, which may not be offset by increased rents;
 
  •  changes in tax laws and housing laws, including the enactment of rent control laws or other laws regulating multifamily housing; and
 
  •  changes in interest rates and the availability of financing.
 
 
Some of our debt and other securities contain covenants that restrict our ability to make distributions or other payments to our investors unless certain financial tests or other criteria are satisfied. Our credit facility provides, among other things, that we may make distributions to our investors during any four consecutive fiscal quarters in an aggregate amount that does not exceed the greater of 95% of our Funds From Operations for such period, subject to certain non-cash adjustments, or such amount as may be necessary to maintain our REIT status. Our outstanding classes of preferred stock prohibit the payment of dividends on our Common Stock if we fail to pay the dividends to which the holders of the preferred stock are entitled.
 
 
Real estate investments are relatively illiquid and cannot always be sold quickly. Our freedom to sell properties is also restricted by REIT tax rules. Thus, we may not be able to change our portfolio promptly in response to changes in economic or other market conditions. Our ability to dispose of assets in the future will depend on prevailing economic and market conditions, including the cost and availability of financing. This could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition or results of operations.
 
 
Our apartment properties compete for residents with other housing alternatives, including other rental apartments, condominiums and single-family homes that are available for rent, as well as new and existing condominiums and single-family homes for sale. Competitive residential housing in a particular area could adversely affect our ability to lease apartments and to increase or maintain rental rates. The current challenges in the credit and housing markets have increased housing inventory that competes with our apartment properties.
 
 
All of our properties are owned, and all of our operations are conducted, by the Aimco Operating Partnership and our other subsidiaries. As a result, we depend on distributions and other payments from our subsidiaries in order to satisfy our financial obligations and make payments to our investors. The ability of our subsidiaries to make such distributions and other payments depends on their earnings and cash flows and may be subject to statutory or contractual limitations. As an equity investor in our subsidiaries, our right to receive assets upon their liquidation or reorganization will be effectively subordinated to the claims of their creditors. To the extent that we are recognized as a creditor of such subsidiaries, our claims may still be subordinate to any security interest in or other lien on their assets and to any of their debt or other obligations that are senior to our claims.
 
 
We intend to continue to redevelop certain of our properties. These activities are subject to the following risks:
 
  •  we may be unable to obtain, or experience delays in obtaining, necessary zoning, occupancy, or other required governmental or third party permits and authorizations, which could result in increased costs or the delay or abandonment of opportunities;


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  •  we may incur costs that exceed our original estimates due to increased material, labor or other costs, such as litigation;
 
  •  we may be unable to complete construction and lease up of a property on schedule, resulting in increased construction and financing costs and a decrease in expected rental revenues;
 
  •  occupancy rates and rents at a property may fail to meet our expectations for a number of reasons, including changes in market and economic conditions beyond our control and the development by competitors of competing communities;
 
  •  we may be unable to obtain financing with favorable terms, or at all, for the proposed development of a property, which may cause us to delay or abandon an opportunity;
 
  •  we may abandon opportunities that we have already begun to explore for a number of reasons, including changes in local market conditions or increases in construction or financing costs, and, as a result, we may fail to recover expenses already incurred in exploring those opportunities;
 
  •  we may incur liabilities to third parties during the redevelopment process, for example, in connection with resident lease terminations, or managing existing improvements on the site prior to resident lease terminations; and
 
  •  loss of a key member of a project team could adversely affect our ability to deliver redevelopment projects on time and within our budget.
 
 
We are insured for a portion of our consolidated properties’ exposure to casualty losses resulting from fire, earthquake, hurricane, tornado, flood and other perils, which insurance is subject to deductibles and self-insurance retention. We recognize casualty losses or gains based on the net book value of the affected property and the amount of and any related insurance proceeds. In many instances, the actual cost to repair or replace the property may exceed its net book value and any insurance proceeds. We also insure certain unconsolidated properties for a portion of their exposure to such losses. With respect to our consolidated properties, we recognize the uninsured portion of losses as part of casualty losses in the periods in which they are incurred. In addition, we are self-insured for a portion of our exposure to third-party claims related to our employee health insurance plans, workers’ compensation coverage and general liability exposure. With respect to our insurance obligations to unconsolidated properties and our exposure to claims of third parties, we establish reserves at levels that reflect our known and estimated losses. The ultimate cost of losses and the impact of unforeseen events may vary materially from recorded reserves, and variances may adversely affect our operating results and financial condition. We purchase insurance (or reinsurance where we insure unconsolidated properties) to reduce our exposure to losses and limit our financial losses on large individual risks. The availability and cost of insurance are determined by market conditions outside our control. No assurance can be made that we will be able to obtain and maintain insurance at the same levels and on the same terms as we do today. If we are not able to obtain or maintain insurance in amounts we consider appropriate for our business, or if the cost of obtaining such insurance increases materially, we may have to retain a larger portion of the potential loss associated with our exposures to risks.
 
 
Natural disasters and severe weather such as hurricanes may result in significant damage to our properties. The extent of our casualty losses and loss in operating income in connection with such events is a function of the severity of the event and the total amount of exposure in the affected area. When we have geographic concentration of exposures, a single catastrophe (such as an earthquake) or destructive weather event (such as a hurricane) affecting a region may have a significant negative effect on our financial condition and results of operations. We cannot accurately predict natural disasters or severe weather, or the number and type of such events that will affect us. As a result, our operating and financial results may vary significantly from one period to the next. Although we anticipate and plan for losses, there can be no assurance that our financial results will not be adversely affected by our exposure


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to losses arising from natural disasters or severe weather in the future that exceed our previous experience and assumptions.
 
 
Our success depends upon the retention of our senior management, including Terry Considine, our chief executive officer. We have a succession planning and talent development process that is designed to identify potential replacements and develop our team members to provide depth in the organization and a bench of talent on which to draw. However, there are no assurances that we would be able to find qualified replacements for the individuals who make up our senior management if their services were no longer available. The loss of services of one or more members of our senior management team could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. We do not currently maintain key-man life insurance for any of our employees.
 
 
The selective acquisition of properties is a component of our strategy. However, we may not be able to complete transactions successfully in the future. Although we seek to acquire properties when such acquisitions increase our net income, Funds From Operations or net asset value, such transactions may fail to perform in accordance with our expectations. In particular, following acquisition, the value and operational performance of a property may be diminished if obsolescence or neighborhood changes occur before we are able to redevelop or sell the property.
 
 
We have engaged in, and intend to continue to engage in, the selective acquisition of interests in partnerships controlled by us that own apartment properties. In some cases, we have acquired the general partner of a partnership and then made an offer to acquire the limited partners’ interests in the partnership. In these transactions, we may be subject to litigation based on claims that we, as the general partner, have breached our fiduciary duty to our limited partners or that the transaction violates the relevant partnership agreement or state law. Although we intend to comply with our fiduciary obligations and the relevant partnership agreements, we may incur additional costs in connection with the defense or settlement of this type of litigation. In some cases, this type of litigation may adversely affect our desire to proceed with, or our ability to complete, a particular transaction. Any litigation of this type could also have a material adverse effect on our financial condition or results of operations.
 
 
We own consolidated and unconsolidated equity interests in certain properties and manage other properties that benefit from governmental programs intended to provide housing to people with low or moderate incomes. These programs, which are usually administered by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, or HUD, or state housing finance agencies, typically provide mortgage insurance, favorable financing terms, tax-credit equity, or rental assistance payments to the property owners. As a condition of the receipt of assistance under these programs, the properties must comply with various requirements, which typically limit rents to pre-approved amounts and impose restrictions on resident incomes. Failure to comply with these requirements and restrictions may result in financial penalties or loss of benefits. We usually need to obtain the approval of HUD in order to acquire or dispose of a significant interest in or manage a HUD-assisted property. We may not always receive such approval.
 
During 2009, 2008 and 2007, for continuing operations, our rental revenues include $140.3 million, $132.3 million and $121.4 million, respectively, of subsidies from government agencies. Any loss of such benefits would adversely affect our liquidity and results of operations.


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Under the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, or ADA, all places intended to be used by the public are required to meet certain Federal requirements related to access and use by disabled persons. Likewise, the Fair Housing Amendments Act of 1988, or FHAA, requires apartment properties first occupied after March 13, 1990, to be accessible to the handicapped. These and other Federal, state and local laws may require modifications to our properties, or affect renovations of the properties. Noncompliance with these laws could result in the imposition of fines or an award of damages to private litigants and also could result in an order to correct any non-complying feature, which could result in substantial capital expenditures. Although we believe that our properties are substantially in compliance with present requirements, we may incur unanticipated expenses to comply with the ADA and the FHAA in connection with the ongoing operation or redevelopment of our properties.
 
 
Various Federal, state and local laws subject property owners or operators to liability for management, and the costs of removal or remediation, of certain hazardous substances present on a property, including lead-based paint. Such laws often impose liability without regard to whether the owner or operator knew of, or was responsible for, the release or presence of the hazardous substances. The presence of, or the failure to manage or remedy properly, hazardous substances may adversely affect occupancy at affected apartment communities and the ability to sell or finance affected properties. In addition to the costs associated with investigation and remediation actions brought by government agencies, and potential fines or penalties imposed by such agencies in connection therewith, the presence of hazardous substances on a property could result in claims by private plaintiffs for personal injury, disease, disability or other infirmities. Various laws also impose liability for the cost of removal, remediation or disposal of hazardous substances through a licensed disposal or treatment facility. Anyone who arranges for the disposal or treatment of hazardous substances is potentially liable under such laws. These laws often impose liability whether or not the person arranging for the disposal ever owned or operated the disposal facility. In connection with the ownership, operation and management of properties, we could potentially be liable for environmental liabilities or costs associated with our properties or properties we acquire or manage in the future.
 
 
We have been named as a defendant in lawsuits that have alleged personal injury and property damage as a result of the presence of mold. In addition, we are aware of lawsuits against owners and managers of multifamily properties asserting claims of personal injury and property damage caused by the presence of mold, some of which have resulted in substantial monetary judgments or settlements. We have only limited insurance coverage for property damage loss claims arising from the presence of mold and for personal injury claims related to mold exposure. We have implemented policies, procedures, third-party audits and training, and include a detailed moisture intrusion and mold assessment during acquisition due diligence. We believe these measures will prevent or eliminate mold exposure from our properties and will minimize the effects that mold may have on our residents. To date, we have not incurred any material costs or liabilities relating to claims of mold exposure or to abate mold conditions. Because the law regarding mold is unsettled and subject to change, we can make no assurance that liabilities resulting from the presence of or exposure to mold will not have a material adverse effect on our consolidated financial condition or results of operations.
 
 
If we fail to qualify as a REIT, we will not be allowed a deduction for dividends paid to our stockholders in computing our taxable income, and we will be subject to Federal income tax at regular corporate rates, including any applicable alternative minimum tax. This would substantially reduce our funds available for payment to our investors. Unless entitled to relief under certain provisions of the Code, we also would be disqualified from taxation as a REIT for the four taxable years following the year during which we ceased to qualify as a REIT. In addition, our failure to qualify as a REIT would place us in default under our primary credit facilities.


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We believe that we operate, and have always operated, in a manner that enables us to meet the requirements for qualification as a REIT for Federal income tax purposes. Our continued qualification as a REIT will depend on our satisfaction of certain asset, income, investment, organizational, distribution, stockholder ownership and other requirements on a continuing basis. Our ability to satisfy the asset tests depends upon our analysis of the fair market values of our assets, some of which are not susceptible to a precise determination, and for which we will not obtain independent appraisals. Our compliance with the REIT income and quarterly asset requirements also depends upon our ability to manage successfully the composition of our income and assets on an ongoing basis. Moreover, the proper classification of an instrument as debt or equity for Federal income tax purposes may be uncertain in some circumstances, which could affect the application of the REIT qualification requirements. Accordingly, there can be no assurance that the Internal Revenue Service, or the IRS, will not contend that our interests in subsidiaries or other issuers constitutes a violation of the REIT requirements. Moreover, future economic, market, legal, tax or other considerations may cause us to fail to qualify as a REIT, or our Board of Directors may determine to revoke our REIT status.
 
 
As a REIT, we are subject to annual distribution requirements, which generally limit the amount of cash we retain for other business purposes, including amounts to fund our growth. We generally must distribute annually at least 90% of our net REIT taxable income, excluding any net capital gain, in order for our distributed earnings not to be subject to corporate income tax. We intend to make distributions to our stockholders to comply with the requirements of the Code. However, differences in timing between the recognition of taxable income and the actual receipt of cash could require us to sell assets or borrow funds on a short-term or long-term basis to meet the 90% distribution requirement of the Code.
 
 
We have in the past distributed, and may in the future distribute, taxable dividends that are payable in cash and shares of our Common Stock. Stockholders subject to the payment of income tax receiving such dividends will be required to include the full amount of the dividend as taxable income to the extent of our current and accumulated earnings and profits for U.S. Federal income tax purposes. As a result, a U.S. stockholder may be required to pay income taxes with respect to such dividends in excess of the cash dividends received. If a U.S. stockholder sells the stock it receives as a dividend in order to pay this tax, the sales proceeds may be less than the amount included in income with respect to the dividend, depending on the market price of our stock at the time of the sale. Furthermore, with respect to non-U.S. stockholders, we may be required to withhold U.S. tax with respect to such dividends, including in respect of all or a portion of such dividend that is payable in stock. In addition, if a significant number of our stockholders determine to sell shares of our Common Stock in order to pay taxes owed on dividends, it may put downward pressure on the trading price of our Common Stock.
 
No assurance can be given that the IRS will not impose additional requirements in the future with respect to taxable cash/stock dividends, including on a retroactive basis, or assert that the requirements for such taxable cash/stock dividends have not been met.
 
 
Our charter limits ownership of our Common Stock by any single stockholder (applying certain “beneficial ownership” rules under the Federal securities laws) to 8.7% of our outstanding shares of Common Stock, or 15% in the case of certain pension trusts, registered investment companies and Mr. Considine. Our charter also limits ownership of our Common Stock and preferred stock by any single stockholder to 8.7% of the value of the outstanding Common Stock and preferred stock, or 15% in the case of certain pension trusts, registered investment companies and Mr. Considine. The charter also prohibits anyone from buying shares of our capital stock if the purchase would result in us losing our REIT status. This could happen if a transaction results in fewer than 100 persons owning all of our shares of capital stock or results in five or fewer persons (applying certain attribution


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rules of the Code) owning 50% or more of the value of all of our shares of capital stock. If anyone acquires shares in excess of the ownership limit or in violation of the ownership requirements of the Code for REITs:
 
  •  the transfer will be considered null and void;
 
  •  we will not reflect the transaction on our books;
 
  •  we may institute legal action to enjoin the transaction;
 
  •  we may demand repayment of any dividends received by the affected person on those shares;
 
  •  we may redeem the shares;
 
  •  the affected person will not have any voting rights for those shares; and
 
  •  the shares (and all voting and dividend rights of the shares) will be held in trust for the benefit of one or more charitable organizations designated by us.
 
We may purchase the shares of capital stock held in trust at a price equal to the lesser of the price paid by the transferee of the shares or the then current market price. If the trust transfers any of the shares of capital stock, the affected person will receive the lesser of the price paid for the shares or the then current market price. An individual who acquires shares of capital stock that violate the above rules bears the risk that the individual:
 
  •  may lose control over the power to dispose of such shares;
 
  •  may not recognize profit from the sale of such shares if the market price of the shares increases;
 
  •  may be required to recognize a loss from the sale of such shares if the market price decreases; and
 
  •  may be required to repay to us any distributions received from us as a result of his or her ownership of the shares.
 
 
The 8.7% ownership limit discussed above may have the effect of delaying or precluding acquisition of control of us by a third party without the consent of our Board of Directors. Our charter authorizes our Board of Directors to issue up to 510,587,500 shares of capital stock. As of December 31, 2009, 426,157,736 shares were classified as Common Stock, of which 116,479,791 were outstanding, and 84,429,764 shares were classified as preferred stock, of which 24,950,134 were outstanding. Under our charter, our Board of Directors has the authority to classify and reclassify any of our unissued shares of capital stock into shares of capital stock with such preferences, conversion or other rights, voting powers restrictions, limitations as to dividends, qualifications or terms or conditions of redemptions as our Board of Directors may determine. The authorization and issuance of a new class of capital stock could have the effect of delaying or preventing someone from taking control of us, even if a change in control were in our stockholders’ best interests.
 
The Maryland General Corporation Law may limit the ability of a third party to acquire control of us.
 
As a Maryland corporation, we are subject to various Maryland laws that may have the effect of discouraging offers to acquire us and increasing the difficulty of consummating any such offers, even if an acquisition would be in our stockholders’ best interests. The Maryland General Corporation Law, specifically the Maryland Business Combination Act, restricts mergers and other business combination transactions between us and any person who acquires, directly or indirectly, beneficial ownership of shares of our stock representing 10% or more of the voting power without our Board of Directors’ prior approval. Any such business combination transaction could not be completed until five years after the person acquired such voting power, and generally only with the approval of stockholders representing 80% of all votes entitled to be cast and 662/3% of the votes entitled to be cast, excluding the interested stockholder, or upon payment of a fair price. The Maryland General Corporation Law, specifically the Maryland Control Share Acquisition Act, provides generally that a person who acquires shares of our capital stock representing 10% or more of the voting power in electing directors will have no voting rights unless approved by a vote of two-thirds of the shares eligible to vote. Additionally, the Maryland General Corporation Law provides, among other things, that the board of directors has broad discretion in adopting stockholders’ rights plans and has


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the sole power to fix the record date, time and place for special meetings of the stockholders. To date, we have not adopted a shareholders’ rights plan. In addition, the Maryland General Corporation Law provides that corporations that:
 
  •  have at least three directors who are not officers or employees of the entity or related to an acquiring person; and
 
  •  has a class of equity securities registered under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended,
 
may elect in their charter or bylaws or by resolution of the board of directors to be subject to all or part of a special subtitle that provides that:
 
  •  the corporation will have a staggered board of directors;
 
  •  any director may be removed only for cause and by the vote of two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast in the election of directors generally, even if a lesser proportion is provided in the charter or bylaws;
 
  •  the number of directors may only be set by the board of directors, even if the procedure is contrary to the charter or bylaws;
 
  •  vacancies may only be filled by the remaining directors, even if the procedure is contrary to the charter or bylaws; and
 
  •  the secretary of the corporation may call a special meeting of stockholders at the request of stockholders only on the written request of the stockholders entitled to cast at least a majority of all the votes entitled to be cast at the meeting, even if the procedure is contrary to the charter or bylaws.
 
To date, we have not made any of the elections described above.
 
Item 1B.   Unresolved Staff Comments
 
None.
 
Item 2.   Properties
 
Our portfolio includes garden style, mid-rise and high-rise properties located in 44 states, the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico. Our geographic allocation strategy focuses on target markets which are grouped by region below. The following table sets forth information on all of our properties as of December 31, 2009 and 2008:
 
                                 
    2009   2008
    Number of
  Number
  Number of
  Number
    Properties   of Units   Properties   of Units
 
Conventional:
                               
Pacific
    37       10,274       38       10,504  
Northeast
    62       18,270       67       21,221  
Sunbelt
    77       23,546       106       31,481  
Chicago
    15       4,633       19       5,555  
                                 
Total target markets
    191       56,723       230       68,761  
Opportunistic and other markets
    52       17,307       81       25,735  
                                 
Total conventional owned and managed
    243       74,030       311       94,496  
                                 
Affordable owned and managed
    260       29,650       288       32,836  
Property management
    22       2,095       34       3,252  
Asset management
    345       29,879       359       32,223  
                                 
Total
    870       135,654       992       162,807  
                                 
 
At December 31, 2009, we owned an equity interest in and consolidated 426 properties containing 95,202 apartment units, which we refer to as “consolidated properties.” These consolidated properties contain, on average,


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223 apartment units, with the largest property containing 2,113 apartment units. These properties offer residents a range of amenities, including swimming pools, clubhouses, spas, fitness centers and tennis courts. Many of the apartment units offer features such as vaulted ceilings, fireplaces, washer and dryer hook-ups, cable television, balconies and patios. Additional information on our consolidated properties is contained in “Schedule III — Real Estate and Accumulated Depreciation” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. At December 31, 2009, we held an equity interest in and did not consolidate 77 properties containing 8,478 apartment units, which we refer to as “unconsolidated properties.” In addition, we provided property management services for 22 properties containing 2,095 apartment units, and asset management services for 345 properties containing 29,879 apartment units. In certain cases, we may indirectly own generally less than one percent of the economic interest in such properties through a partnership syndication or other fund.
 
Substantially all of our consolidated properties are encumbered by property debt. At December 31, 2009, our consolidated properties classified as held for use in our consolidated balance sheet were encumbered by aggregate property debt totaling $5,547.3 million having an aggregate weighted average interest rate of 5.50%. Such property debt was collateralized by 412 properties with a combined net book value of $6,867.8 million. Included in the 412 properties, we had a total of 31 property loans on 15 properties, with an aggregate principal balance outstanding of $366.1 million, that were each collateralized by property and cross-collateralized with certain (but not all) other property loans within this group of property loans (see Note 6 of the consolidated financial statements in Item 8 for additional information about our property debt).
 
Item 3.   Legal Proceedings
 
None.
 
Item 4.   Submission of Matters to a Vote of Security Holders
 
No matters were submitted to a vote of security holders during the fourth quarter of 2009.


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Item 5.   Market for the Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
 
Our Common Stock has been listed and traded on the NYSE under the symbol “AIV” since July 22, 1994. The following table sets forth the quarterly high and low sales prices of our Common Stock, as reported on the NYSE, and the dividends declared in the periods indicated:
 
                         
            Dividends
            Declared
Quarter Ended
  High   Low   (per share)
 
2009
                       
December 31, 2009
  $ 17.09     $ 11.80     $ 0.20  
September 30, 2009
    15.91       7.36       0.10  
June 30, 2009
    11.10       5.18       0.10  
March 31, 2009
    12.89       4.57       0.00  
2008
                       
December 31, 2008(1)
  $ 43.67     $ 7.01     $ 3.88  
September 30, 2008(1)
    42.28       29.25       3.00  
June 30, 2008
    41.24       33.33       0.60  
March 31, 2008
    41.11       29.91       0.00  
 
 
(1) During 2008, our Board of Directors declared special dividends which were paid part in cash and part in shares of Common Stock as further discussed in Note 11 to the consolidated financial statements in Item 8. Our Board of Directors declared the dividends to address taxable gains from 2008 property sales.
 
Our Board of Directors determines and declares our dividends. In making a dividend determination, the Board of Directors considers a variety of factors, including: REIT distribution requirements; current market conditions; liquidity needs and other uses of cash, such as for deleveraging and accretive investment activities. The Board of Directors may adjust the dividend amount or the frequency with which the dividend is paid based on then prevailing facts and circumstances.
 
On February 24, 2010, the closing price of our Common Stock was $16.73 per share, as reported on the NYSE, and there were 117,140,672 shares of Common Stock outstanding, held by 3,270 stockholders of record. The number of holders does not include individuals or entities who beneficially own shares but whose shares are held of record by a broker or clearing agency, but does include each such broker or clearing agency as one recordholder.
 
As a REIT, we are required to distribute annually to holders of common stock at least 90% of our “real estate investment trust taxable income,” which, as defined by the Code and United States Department of Treasury regulations, is generally equivalent to net taxable ordinary income.
 
From time to time, we may issue shares of Common Stock in exchange for common and preferred OP Units tendered to the Aimco Operating Partnership for redemption in accordance with the terms and provisions of the agreement of limited partnership of the Aimco Operating Partnership. Such shares are issued based on an exchange ratio of one share for each common OP Unit or the applicable conversion ratio for preferred OP Units. The shares are generally issued in exchange for OP Units in private transactions exempt from registration under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, pursuant to Section 4(2) thereof. During the three and twelve months ended December 31, 2009, approximately 379,400 and 518,800 shares of Common Stock were issued in exchange for common OP Units, respectively. During the three and twelve months ended December 31, 2009, no shares of Common Stock were issued in exchange for preferred OP Units.
 
Our Board of Directors has, from time to time, authorized us to repurchase shares of our outstanding capital stock. There were no repurchases of our equity securities during the year ended December 31, 2009. As of December 31, 2009, we were authorized to repurchase approximately 19.3 million additional shares. This authorization has no expiration date. These repurchases may be made from time to time in the open market or in privately negotiated transactions.


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Our Credit Agreement includes customary covenants, including a restriction on dividends and other restricted payments, but permits dividends during any four consecutive fiscal quarters in an aggregate amount of up to 95% of our Funds From Operations for such period, subject to certain non-cash adjustments, or such amount as may be necessary to maintain our REIT status.
 
 
The following graph compares cumulative total returns for our Common Stock, the Standard & Poor’s 500 Total Return Index (the “S&P 500”) and the MSCI US REIT Index. The MSCI US REIT Index is published by Morgan Stanley Capital International Inc., a provider of equity indices. The indices are weighted for all companies that fit the definitional criteria of the particular index and are calculated to exclude companies as they are acquired and add them to the index calculation as they become publicly traded companies. All companies of the definitional criteria in existence at the point in time presented are included in the index calculations. The graph assumes the investment of $100 in our Common Stock and in each index on December 31, 2004, and that all dividends paid have been reinvested. The historical information set forth below is not necessarily indicative of future performance.
 
Total Return Performance
 
(PERFORMANCE GRAPH)
 
                                                 
    For the Years Ended December 31,
Index   2004   2005   2006   2007   2008   2009
 
Aimco
    100.00       106.29       164.95       113.71       59.71       85.29  
MSCI US REIT
    100.00       112.13       152.41       126.78       78.64       101.14  
S&P 500
    100.00       104.91       121.48       128.16       80.74       102.11  
 
Source: (other than with respect to S&P 500) SNL Financial LC, Charlottesville, VA ©2010
 
The Performance Graph will not be deemed to be incorporated by reference into any filing by the Company under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, except to the extent that the Company specifically incorporates the same by reference.
 
The information required by Item 5 with respect to securities authorized for issuance under equity compensation plans is incorporated by reference in Part III, Item 12 of this Annual Report.


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Item 6.   Selected Financial Data
 
The following selected financial data is based on our audited historical financial statements. This information should be read in conjunction with such financial statements, including the notes thereto, and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” included herein or in previous filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission.
 
                                         
    For the Years Ended December 31,
    2009   2008(1)(2)   2007(2)   2006(2)   2005(2)
    (Dollar amounts in thousands, except per share data)
 
OPERATING DATA:
                                       
Total revenues
  $ 1,195,763     $ 1,243,170     $ 1,174,457     $ 1,084,552     $ 894,060  
Total operating expenses(3)
    (1,085,250 )     (1,185,071 )     (989,658 )     (909,784 )     (751,516 )
Operating income(3)
    110,513       58,099       184,799       174,768       142,544  
Loss from continuing operations(3)
    (197,037 )     (117,878 )     (46,109 )     (42,924 )     (35,098 )
Income from discontinued operations, net(4)
    152,237       744,880       171,615       329,947       160,450  
Net (loss) income
    (44,800 )     627,002       125,506       287,022       125,352  
Net income attributable to noncontrolling interests
    (19,474 )     (214,995 )     (95,595 )     (110,234 )     (54,370 )
Net income attributable to preferred stockholders
    (50,566 )     (53,708 )     (66,016 )     (81,132 )     (87,948 )
Net (loss) income attributable to Aimco common stockholders
    (114,840 )     351,314       (40,586 )     93,710       (21,223 )
Earnings (loss) per common share — basic and diluted(5):
                                       
Loss from continuing operations attributable to Aimco common stockholders
  $ (1.75 )   $ (2.10 )   $ (1.41 )   $ (1.49 )   $ (1.34 )
Net (loss) income attributable to Aimco common stockholders
  $ (1.00 )   $ 3.96     $ (0.43 )   $ 0.98     $ (0.23 )
BALANCE SHEET INFORMATION:
                                       
Real estate, net of accumulated depreciation
  $ 6,962,361     $ 7,125,637     $ 6,901,575     $ 6,436,854     $ 5,708,319  
Total assets
    7,906,468       9,441,870       10,617,681       10,292,587       10,019,160  
Total indebtedness
    5,690,310       6,069,804       5,683,884       4,969,185       4,283,278  
Total equity
    1,534,703       1,646,749       2,048,546       2,650,182       3,060,969  
OTHER INFORMATION:
                                       
Dividends declared per common share
  $ 0.40     $ 7.48     $ 4.31     $ 2.40     $ 3.00  
Total consolidated properties (end of period)
    426       514       657       703       619  
Total consolidated apartment units (end of period)
    95,202       117,719       153,758       162,432       158,548  
Total unconsolidated properties (end of period)
    77       85       94       102       264  
Total unconsolidated apartment units (end of period)
    8,478       9,613       10,878       11,791       35,269  
Units managed (end of period)(6)
    31,974       35,475       38,404       42,190       46,667  
 
 
(1) The consolidated statement of income for the year ended December 31, 2008, has been restated to reclassify impairment losses on real estate development assets within operating income. The reclassification reduced operating income by $91.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2008, and had no effect on the reported amounts of loss from continuing operations, net income, net income available to Aimco common stockholders or earnings per share. Additionally, the reclassification had no effect on the consolidated balance sheets, statements of equity or statements of cash flows. See Note 2 to the consolidated financial statements in Item 8.
 
(2) Certain reclassifications have been made to conform to the current financial statement presentation, including retroactive adjustments related to our January 1, 2009 adoption of the provisions of Financial Accounting Standards Board, or FASB, Statement of Financial Accounting Standards No. 141(R), or SFAS 141(R), FASB Statement of Financial Accounting Standards No. 160, or SFAS 160, and FASB Staff Position No. EITF 03-6-1, or FSP EITF 03-6-1 (see Note 2 to the consolidated financial statements in Item 8) and to reflect additional properties sold during 2009 or classified as held for sale as of December 31, 2009, as discontinued operations (see Note 13 to the consolidated financial statements in Item 8).
 
(3) Total operating expenses, operating income and loss from continuing operations for the year ended December 31, 2008, include a $91.1 million pre-tax provision for impairment losses on real estate development assets, which is discussed further in Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations in Item 7.


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(4) Income from discontinued operations for the years ended December 31, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006 and 2005 includes $221.8 million, $800.3 million, $117.6 million, $337.3 million and $162.7 million in gains on disposition of real estate, respectively. Income from discontinued operations for 2009, 2008 and 2007 is discussed further in Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations in Item 7.
 
(5) Weighted average common shares, common share equivalents, dilutive preferred securities and earnings per share amounts for each of the periods presented above have been adjusted for our application during the fourth quarter 2009 of a change in accounting, which requires the shares issued in our special dividends paid in 2008 and January 2009 to be treated as issued and outstanding on the dividend payment dates for basic purposes and as potential share equivalents for the periods between the ex-dividend dates and payment dates for diluted purposes, rather than treating the shares as issued and outstanding as of the beginning of the earliest period presented for both basic and diluted purposes. See Note 2 to the consolidated financial statements in Item 8 for further discussion of this accounting change.
 
(6) Units managed represents units in properties for which we provide asset management services only, although in certain cases we may indirectly own generally less than one percent of the economic interest in such properties through a partnership syndication or other fund.


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Item 7.   Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
 
 
We are a self-administered and self-managed real estate investment trust, or REIT, engaged in the acquisition, ownership, management and redevelopment of apartment properties. Our property operations are characterized by diversification of product, location and price point. We primarily invest in the 20 largest U.S. markets, as measured by total market capitalization, which is the total market value of institutional-grade apartment properties in a particular market. We define these markets as “target markets” and they possess the following characteristics: a high concentration of population and apartment units; geographic and employment diversification; and historically strong returns with reduced volatility as part of a diversified portfolio. We are one of the largest owners and operators of apartment properties in the United States. As of December 31, 2009, we owned or managed 870 apartment properties containing 135,654 units located in 44 states, the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico. Our primary sources of income and cash are rents associated with apartment leases.
 
The key financial indicators that we use in managing our business and in evaluating our financial condition and operating performance are: NAV; Funds From Operations, or FFO; Adjusted FFO, or AFFO, which is FFO less spending for Capital Replacements; same store property operating results; net operating income; Free Cash Flow, which is net operating income less spending for Capital Replacements; financial coverage ratios; and leverage as shown on our balance sheet. FFO and Capital Replacements are defined and further described in the sections captioned “Funds From Operations” and “Capital Additions” below. The key macro-economic factors and non-financial indicators that affect our financial condition and operating performance are: household formations; rates of job growth; single-family and multifamily housing starts; interest rates; and availability and cost of financing.
 
Because our operating results depend primarily on income from our properties, the supply and demand for apartments influences our operating results. Additionally, the level of expenses required to operate and maintain our properties and the pace and price at which we redevelop, acquire and dispose of our apartment properties affect our operating results. Our cost of capital is affected by the conditions in the capital and credit markets and the terms that we negotiate for our equity and debt financings.
 
During the challenging financial and economic environment in 2009, we focused on: serving and retaining residents; continually improving our portfolio; reducing leverage and financial risk; and simplifying our business model.
 
We are focused on owning and operating B/B+ quality apartments concentrated in our target markets. We intend to upgrade the quality of our portfolio through the sale of approximately 5% to 10% of our portfolio annually, with the proceeds generally used to increase our allocation of capital to well located properties within our target markets through capital investments, redevelopment or acquisitions.
 
The following discussion and analysis of the results of our operations and financial condition should be read in conjunction with the accompanying consolidated financial statements in Item 8.
 
 
Overview
 
 
We reported net loss attributable to Aimco of $64.3 million and net loss attributable to Aimco common stockholders of $114.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2009, compared to net income attributable to Aimco of $412.0 million and net income attributable to Aimco common stockholders of $351.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2008, decreases of $476.3 million and $466.1 million, respectively. These decreases were principally due to the following items, all of which are discussed in further detail below:
 
  •  a decrease in income from discontinued operations, primarily related to our sale of fewer assets in 2009 and the recognition of lower gains on sales as compared to 2008;
 
  •  a decrease in gain on dispositions of unconsolidated real estate and other, primarily due to a large gain on the sale of an interest in an unconsolidated real estate partnership in 2008;


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  •  an increase in depreciation and amortization expense, primarily related to completed redevelopments and capital additions placed in service for partial periods during 2008 or 2009; and
 
  •  a decrease in asset management and tax credit revenues, primarily due to a reduction in promote income, which is income earned in connection with the disposition of properties owned by our consolidated joint ventures.
 
The effects of these items on our operating results were partially offset by:
 
  •  a decrease in earnings allocable to noncontrolling interests, primarily due to a decrease in the noncontrolling interests’ share of the decrease in gains on sales discussed above;
 
  •  a decrease in general and administrative expenses, primarily related to reductions in personnel and related expenses from our organizational restructuring activities during 2008 and 2009; and
 
  •  impairment losses on real estate development assets in 2008, for which no similar impairments were recognized in 2009.
 
 
We reported net income attributable to Aimco of $412.0 million and net income attributable to Aimco common stockholders of $351.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2008, compared to net income attributable to Aimco of $29.9 million and net loss attributable to Aimco common stockholders of $40.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2007, increases of $382.1 million and $391.9 million, respectively. These increases were principally due to the following items, all of which are discussed in further detail below:
 
  •  an increase in income from discontinued operations, primarily related to an increase in the number of assets sold during 2008 and our recognition of higher gains on sales as compared to 2007;
 
  •  an increase in gain on dispositions of unconsolidated real estate and other, primarily due to a large gain on the sale of an interest in an unconsolidated real estate partnership in 2008;
 
  •  an increase in net operating income associated with property operations, reflecting improved operations of our same store properties and other properties; and
 
  •  an increase in asset management and tax credit revenues, primarily due to an increase in promote income, which is income earned in connection with the disposition of properties owned by our consolidated joint ventures.
 
The effects of these items on our operating results were partially offset by:
 
  •  impairment losses on real estate development assets in 2008, for which no similar impairments were recognized in 2007;
 
  •  an increase in earnings allocable to noncontrolling interests, primarily due to an increase in the noncontrolling interests’ share of the increase in gains on sales discussed above;
 
  •  an increase in depreciation and amortization expense, primarily related to completed redevelopments placed in service for partial periods during 2007 or 2008;
 
  •  restructuring costs recognized during the fourth quarter of 2008; and
 
  •  an increase in provisions for losses on notes receivable, primarily due to the impairment during 2008 of our interest in Casden Properties LLC.
 
The following paragraphs discuss these and other items affecting the results of our operations in more detail.
 
 
We have two reportable segments: real estate (owning, operating and redeveloping apartments) and investment management (portfolio management and asset management). Our chief operating decision maker uses various generally accepted industry financial measures to assess the performance and financial condition of the business,


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including: NAV; FFO; AFFO; same store property operating results; net operating income; Free Cash Flow; financial coverage ratios; and leverage as shown on our balance sheet. Our chief operating decision maker emphasizes net operating income as a key measurement of segment profit or loss. Segment net operating income is generally defined as segment revenues less direct segment operating expenses.
 
 
Our real estate segment involves the ownership and operation of properties that generate rental and other property-related income through the leasing of apartment units. Our real estate segment’s net operating income also includes income from property management services performed for unconsolidated partnerships and unrelated parties.
 
The following table summarizes our real estate segment’s net operating income for the years ended December 31, 2009, 2008 and 2007 (in thousands):
 
                         
    Year Ended December 31,  
    2009     2008     2007  
 
Real estate segment revenues:
                       
Rental and other property revenues
  $ 1,140,828     $ 1,137,995     $ 1,093,779  
Property management revenues, primarily from affiliates
    5,082       6,345       6,923  
                         
      1,145,910       1,144,340       1,100,702  
Real estate segment expenses:
                       
Property operating expenses
    521,161       526,238       503,890  
Property management expenses
    2,869       5,385       6,678  
                         
      524,030       531,623       510,568  
                         
Real estate segment net operating income
  $ 621,880     $ 612,717     $ 590,134  
                         
 
For the year ended December 31, 2009, compared to the year ended December 31, 2008, real estate segment net operating income increased $9.2 million, or 1.5%. This increase was due to an increase in real estate segment revenues of $1.6 million, or 0.1% and a decrease in real estate segment expenses of $7.6 million, or 1.4%.
 
The increase in revenues from our real estate segment during the year ended December 31, 2009, was primarily attributed to an increase of $10.0 million in revenues related to our conventional redevelopment properties based on more units in service at these properties in 2009, $7.5 million in revenues related to our affordable properties, primarily due to higher average rents partially offset by lower physical occupancy during 2009, and $2.3 million of revenues related to properties acquired during the latter half of 2008.
 
These increases were partially offset by a $14.8 million, or 2.0%, decrease in revenues from our conventional same store properties, due to a decrease of 50 basis points in average physical occupancy and lower average rent (approximately $23 per unit). Conventional same store property revenues in our target markets, which represented approximately 78% of our total conventional same store revenues, decreased by 2.7% due to decreases in average physical occupancy (80 basis points) and average rent (approximately $31 per unit). The decrease in revenues associated with these target markets were primarily attributed to revenue decreases of 4.9% in our Pacific markets, attributed to 140 basis points in lower occupancy and $73 per unit in lower rents, and 3.3% in our Sunbelt market, attributed to 40 basis points in lower occupancy and $35 per unit in lower rents. Conventional same store revenues related to our other markets decreased by 1.7%, due to 130 basis points in lower occupancy and $14 per unit in lower rents.
 
For the year ended December 31, 2009, compared to the year ended December 31, 2008, the decrease in our real estate segment expenses was primarily attributed to property management expenses. Property management expenses related to our consolidated properties, which are shown in the table above as a component of property operating expenses, decreased by $8.2 million, and property management expenses related to our unconsolidated properties decreased by $2.5 million, both due primarily to reductions in personnel and related costs resulting from our organizational restructurings. These decreases in our real estate segment expenses were partially offset by


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increases of $0.6 million related to our conventional same store properties, primarily due to increases in employee compensation, insurance, repair and maintenance, and real estate tax expenses, offset by decreases in administrative and marketing expenses, $0.6 million related to our conventional redevelopment properties, primarily due to more units placed in service, $0.5 million related to our affordable properties, primarily due to properties that were newly consolidated in 2008 and $0.8 million related to properties acquired during the latter half of 2008.
 
For the year ended December 31, 2008, compared to the year ended December 31, 2007, real estate segment net operating income increased $22.6 million, or 3.8%. This increase was due to an increase in real estate segment revenues of $43.6 million, or 4.0%, offset by an increase in real estate segment expenses of $21.1 million, or 4.1%.
 
The increase in revenues from our real estate segment during the year ended December 31, 2008, was primarily attributed to an increase of $19.8 million in revenues from our conventional same store properties, due to an increase of 80 basis points in average physical occupancy and higher average rent (approximately $18 per unit), $13.0 million in revenues related to our affordable properties, primarily due to newly consolidated properties, and $8.8 million in revenues related to our conventional redevelopment properties based on more units in service and higher rental rates.
 
For the year ended December 31, 2008, compared to the year ended December 31, 2007, the increase in expense was primarily attributed to increases of $9.3 million related to our affordable properties, primarily due to properties that were newly consolidated, $5.2 million related to our conventional redevelopment properties, primarily due to more units placed in service, $3.1 million of property management expenses related to consolidated properties, which are shown in the table above as a component of property operating expenses, and $0.2 million related to our conventional same store properties, primarily due to increases in utilities and real estate taxes, offset by decreases in employee compensation, repairs and maintenance, and turnover expenses. These increases in property expenses were in addition to an increase of $4.2 million in casualty losses during 2008, primarily related to properties damaged by Tropical Storm Fay and Hurricane Ike.
 
 
Our investment management segment includes activities and services related to our owned portfolio of properties as well as services provided to affiliated partnerships. Activities and services that fall within investment management include portfolio strategy, capital allocation, joint ventures, tax credit syndication, acquisitions, dispositions and other transaction activities. Within our owned portfolio, we refer to these activities as “Portfolio Management,” and their benefit is seen in property operating results and in investment gains. For affiliated partnerships, we refer to these activities as asset management, for which we are separately compensated through fees paid by third party investors. The expenses of this segment consist primarily of the costs of departments that perform these activities. These activities are conducted in part by our taxable subsidiaries, and the related net operating income may be subject to income taxes.
 
Asset management revenue includes certain fees that were earned in a prior period, but not recognized at that time because collectibility was not reasonably assured. Those fees may be recognized in a subsequent period upon occurrence of a transaction or a high level of the probability of occurrence of a transaction, or improvement in operations that generates sufficient cash to pay the fees.
 
The following table summarizes the net operating income from our investment management segment for the years ended December 31, 2009, 2008 and 2007 (in thousands):
 
                         
    Year Ended December 31,  
    2009     2008     2007  
 
Asset management and tax credit revenues
  $ 52,193     $ 101,225     $ 73,755  
Investment management expenses
    15,779       24,784       20,507  
                         
Investment segment net operating income
  $ 36,414     $ 76,441     $ 53,248  
                         
 
For the year ended December 31, 2009, compared to the year ended December 31, 2008, net operating income from investment management decreased $40.0 million, or 52.4%. This decrease is primarily attributable to a $42.8 million decrease in promote income, which is income earned in connection with the disposition of properties


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owned by our consolidated joint ventures, due to fewer related sales in 2009 and a $7.6 million decrease in other general partner transactional fees, partially offset by a $9.0 million decrease in investment management expenses, primarily due to reductions in personnel and related costs from our organizational restructurings and a reduction in transaction costs, and a $3.9 million increase in revenues associated with our affordable housing tax credit syndication business, including syndication fees and other revenue earned in connection with these arrangements.
 
For the year ended December 31, 2008, compared to the year ended December 31, 2007, net operating income from investment management increased $23.2 million, or 43.6%. This increase is primarily attributable to a $30.7 million increase in promote income, which is income earned in connection with the disposition of properties owned by our consolidated joint ventures, and a $9.2 million increase in other general partner transactional fees. These increases are offset by a decrease of $7.4 million in asset management fees, a decrease of $5.0 million in revenues associated with our affordable housing tax credit syndication business, including syndication fees and other revenue earned in connection with these arrangements, and an increase of $4.3 million in investment management expenses, inclusive of $3.5 million in deferred acquisition costs.
 
Other Operating Expenses (Income)
 
 
For the year ended December 31, 2009, compared to the year ended December 31, 2008, depreciation and amortization increased $51.4 million, or 13.1%. This increase primarily consists of depreciation related to properties acquired during the latter part of 2008, completed redevelopments and other capital projects recently placed in service.
 
For the year ended December 31, 2008, compared to the year ended December 31, 2007, depreciation and amortization increased $45.5 million, or 13.1%. This increase reflects depreciation of $65.3 million for newly acquired properties, completed redevelopments and other capital projects recently placed in service. This increase was partially offset by a decrease of $25.7 million in depreciation adjustments necessary to reduce the carrying amount of buildings and improvements to their estimated disposition value, or zero in the case of a planned demolition, primarily due to a property that became fully depreciated during 2007.
 
 
Real estate and other long-lived assets to be held and used are stated at cost, less accumulated depreciation and amortization, unless the carrying amount of the asset is not recoverable. If events or circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of a property may not be recoverable, we make an assessment of its recoverability by comparing the carrying amount to our estimate of the undiscounted future cash flows, excluding interest charges, of the property. If the carrying amount exceeds the estimated aggregate undiscounted future cash flows, we recognize an impairment loss to the extent the carrying amount exceeds the estimated fair value of the property.
 
For the years ended December 31, 2009 and 2007, we recognized impairment losses of $2.3 million and $1.1 million, respectively, related to properties classified as held for use as of December 31, 2009. We recognized no such impairment losses during the year ended December 31, 2008.
 
 
In connection with the preparation of our 2008 annual financial statements, we assessed the recoverability of our investment in our Lincoln Place property, located in Venice, California. Based upon the decline in land values in Southern California during 2008 and the expected timing of our redevelopment efforts, we determined that the total carrying amount of the property was no longer probable of full recovery and, accordingly, during the three months ended December 31, 2008, recognized an impairment loss of $85.4 million ($55.6 million net of tax).
 
Similarly, we assessed the recoverability of our investment in Pacific Bay Vistas (formerly Treetops), a vacant property located in San Bruno, California, and determined that the carrying amount of the property was no longer probable of full recovery and, accordingly, we recognized an impairment loss of $5.7 million for this property during the three months ended December 31, 2008.


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The impairments discussed above totaled $91.1 million and are included in provisions for impairment losses on real estate development assets in our consolidated statement of income for the year ended December 31, 2009 included in Item 8. We recognized no similar impairments on real estate development assets during the years ended December 31, 2009 or 2007.
 
 
For the year ended December 31, 2009, compared to the year ended December 31, 2008, general and administrative expenses decreased $29.6 million, or 29.8%. This decrease is primarily attributable to reductions in personnel and related expenses associated with our organizational restructurings (see Note 3 to the consolidated financial statements in Item 8), pursuant to which we eliminated approximately 400, or 36%, of our offsite positions between December 31, 2008 and December 31, 2009.
 
For the year ended December 31, 2008, compared to the year ended December 31, 2007, general and administrative expenses increased $8.5 million, or 9.4%. This increase is primarily attributable to higher personnel and related expenses of $6.1 million and an increase of $1.5 million in information technology communications costs.
 
 
Other expenses, net includes franchise taxes, risk management activities, partnership administration expenses and certain non-recurring items.
 
For the year ended December 31, 2009, compared to the year ended December 31, 2008, other expenses, net decreased by $4.7 million. The decrease is primarily attributable to a $5.4 million write-off during 2008 of certain communications hardware and capitalized costs in 2008, and a $5.3 million reduction in expenses of our self insurance activities, including a decrease in casualty losses on less than wholly owned properties from 2008 to 2009. These decreases are partially offset by an increase of $4.3 million in costs related to certain litigation matters.
 
For the year ended December 31, 2008, compared to the year ended December 31, 2007, other expenses, net increased by $3.2 million. The increase includes a $5.4 million write-off of certain communications hardware and capitalized costs during 2008 and a $1.2 million write-off of redevelopment costs associated with a change in the planned use of a property during 2008. The net unfavorable change also reflects $3.6 million of income recognized in 2007 related to the transfer of certain property rights to an unrelated party. These increases were partially offset by a $3.7 million reduction in expenses of our self insurance activities (net of costs in 2008 related to Tropical Storm Fay and Hurricane Ike) and a net decrease of $1.7 million in costs related to certain litigation matters.
 
 
For the year ended December 31, 2009, we recognized restructuring costs of $11.2 million, as compared to $22.8 million in the year ended December 31, 2008, related to our organizational restructurings, which are further discussed in Note 3 to the consolidated financial statements in Item 8. We recognized no restructuring costs during the year ended December 31, 2007.
 
 
Interest income consists primarily of interest on notes receivable from non-affiliates and unconsolidated real estate partnerships, interest on cash and restricted cash accounts, and accretion of discounts on certain notes receivable from unconsolidated real estate partnerships. Transactions that result in accretion occur infrequently and thus accretion income may vary from period to period.
 
For the year ended December 31, 2009, compared to the year ended December 31, 2008, interest income decreased $10.6 million, or 53.1%. Interest income decreased by $8.8 million due to lower interest rates on notes receivable, cash and restricted cash balances and lower average balances and by $4.1 million due to a decrease in accretion income related to our note receivable from Casden Properties LLC for which we ceased accretion following impairment of the note in 2008. These decreases were partially offset by a $2.3 million increase in


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accretion income related to other notes during the year ended December 31, 2008, resulting from a change in the timing and amount of collection.
 
For the year ended December 31, 2008, as compared to the year ended December 31, 2007, interest income decreased $23.3 million, or 53.9%. Interest income decreased by $16.0 million due to lower interest rates on notes receivable, cash and restricted cash balances and lower average balances. Interest income also decreased by $5.8 million due to an adjustment of accretion on certain discounted notes during the year ended December 31, 2008, resulting from a change in the estimated timing and amount of collection, and by $1.5 million for accretion income recognized during the year ended December 31, 2007, related to the prepayment of principal on certain discounted loans collateralized by properties in West Harlem in New York City.
 
 
During the years ended December 31, 2009, 2008 and 2007, we recognized net provisions for losses on notes receivable of $21.5 million, $17.6 million and $2.0 million, respectively. The provisions for losses on notes receivable for the years ended December 31, 2009 and 2008, primarily consist of impairments related to our investment in Casden Properties LLC, which are discussed further below.
 
As part of the March 2002 acquisition of Casden Properties, Inc., we invested $50.0 million for a 20% passive interest in Casden Properties LLC, an entity organized to acquire, re-entitle and develop land parcels in Southern California. Based upon the profit allocation agreement, we account for this investment as a note receivable and through 2008 were amortizing the discounted value of the investment to the $50.0 million previously estimated to be collectible, through January 2, 2009, the initial dissolution date of the entity. In 2009, the managing member extended the dissolution date. In connection with the preparation of our 2008 annual financial statements and as a result of a decline in land values in Southern California, we determined our recorded investment amount was not fully recoverable, and accordingly recognized an impairment loss of $16.3 million ($10.0 million net of tax) during the three months ended December 31, 2008. In connection with the preparation of our 2009 annual financial statements and as a result of continued declines in land values in Southern California, we determined our then recorded investment amount was not fully recoverable, and accordingly recognized an impairment loss of $20.7 million ($12.4 million net of tax) during the three months ended December 31, 2009.
 
In addition to the impairments related to Casden Properties LLC discussed above, we recognized provisions for losses on notes receivable totaling $0.8 million, $1.3 million and $2.0 million during the years ended December 31, 2009, 2008 and 2007, respectively.
 
 
For the years ended December 31, 2009 and December 31, 2008, interest expense, which includes the amortization of deferred financing costs, totaled $324.2 million and $324.1 million, respectively. Interest expense increased by $15.0 million due to a reduction in redevelopment activity during 2009, which resulted in a reduction in capitalized interest. In addition, interest expense increased by $1.2 million due to an increase in prepayment penalties associated with refinancing activities, from $2.8 million in 2008 to $4.0 million in 2009, and by $3.3 million related to non-recourse property loans, from $311.2 million to $314.5 million, primarily due to higher average interest rates partially offset by lower average balances during 2009. These increases in interest expense were substantially offset by decreases in corporate interest expense. Interest expense related to corporate debt, which is primarily floating rate, decreased by $19.4 million, from $34.8 million to $15.4 million, primarily due to lower average balances and interest rates during 2009.
 
For the year ended December 31, 2008, compared to the year ended December 31, 2007, interest expense increased $11.1 million, or 3.5%. Interest expense related to non-recourse property loans increased by $17.1 million, from $294.1 million to $311.2 million, primarily due to higher average balances partially offset by lower average interest rates during 2008. In addition, interest expense increased by $4.4 million, due to a decrease in capitalized interest from $29.1 million in 2007 to $24.7 million in 2008, resulting from more units in service and lower interest rates. These increases were partially offset by a decrease in interest expense related to corporate debt, which is primarily floating rate and which decreased by $10.4 million, from $45.2 million to $34.8 million, primarily due to lower average balances and interest rates during 2008.


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Equity in losses of unconsolidated real estate partnerships includes our share of net losses of our unconsolidated real estate partnerships and is primarily driven by depreciation expense in excess of the net operating income recognized by such partnerships.
 
During the years ended December 31, 2009, 2008 and 2007, we recognized equity in losses of unconsolidated real estate partnerships of $12.0 million, $4.6 million and $3.3 million, respectively. The $7.4 million increase in our equity in losses from 2008 to 2009 was primarily due to our sale in late 2008 of an interest in an unconsolidated real estate partnership that generated $3.0 million of equity in earnings during the year ended December 31, 2008, and our sale during 2009 of our interest in an unconsolidated group purchasing organization which resulted in a decrease of equity in earnings of approximately $1.2 million. The increase in equity in losses also includes additional losses recognized during 2009 related to the underlying investment properties of certain tax credit syndications we consolidated during 2009 and 2008.
 
 
Impairment losses related to unconsolidated real estate partnerships includes our share of impairment losses recognized by our unconsolidated real estate partnerships. For the year ended December 31, 2009, compared to the year ended December 31, 2008, impairment losses related to unconsolidated real estate partnerships decreased $2.3 million, and for the year ended December 31, 2008, compared to the year ended December 31, 2007, impairment losses related to unconsolidated real estate partnerships increased $2.7 million. This decrease and increase are primarily attributable to impairment losses recognized by unconsolidated partnerships on their underlying real estate properties during 2008.
 
 
Gain on dispositions of unconsolidated real estate and other includes our share of gains related to dispositions of real estate by unconsolidated real estate partnerships, gains on disposition of interests in unconsolidated real estate partnerships, gains on dispositions of land and other non-depreciable assets and costs related to asset disposal activities. Changes in the level of gains recognized from period to period reflect the changing level of disposition activity from period to period. Additionally, gains on properties sold are determined on an individual property basis or in the aggregate for a group of properties that are sold in a single transaction, and are not comparable period to period.
 
For the year ended December 31, 2009, compared to the year ended December 31, 2008, gain on dispositions of unconsolidated real estate and other decreased $77.4 million. This decrease is primarily attributable to a gain of $98.4 million on our disposition in 2008 of interests in two unconsolidated real estate partnerships. This decrease was partially offset by $18.7 million of gains on the disposition of interests in unconsolidated partnerships during 2009. Gains recognized in 2009 consist of $8.6 million related to our receipt in 2009 of additional proceeds related to our disposition during 2008 of one of the partnership interests discussed above (see Note 3 to the consolidated financials statements in Item 8), $4.0 million from the disposition of our interest in a group purchasing organization (see Note 3 to the consolidated financial statements in Item 8), and $6.1 million from our disposition in 2009 of interests in unconsolidated real estate partnerships.
 
For the year ended December 31, 2008, compared to the year ended December 31, 2007, gain on dispositions of unconsolidated real estate and other increased $75.4 million. This increase is primarily attributable to a $98.4 million net gain on the disposition of interests in two unconsolidated real estate partnerships during the year ended December 31, 2008. During 2007, we recognized a $6.0 million non-refundable option and extension fee resulting from the termination of rights under an option agreement to sell the North and Central towers of our Flamingo South Beach property, approximately $6.4 million of net gains on dispositions of land parcels and our share of gains on dispositions of properties by unconsolidated real estate partnerships in 2007, and a $10.6 million gain on debt extinguishment related to properties in the VMS partnership (see Note 3 to the consolidated financial statements in Item 8).


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Certain of our operations or a portion thereof, such as property management, asset management and risk management, are conducted through, and certain of our properties are owned by, taxable REIT subsidiaries, each of which we refer to as a TRS. A TRS is a C-corporation that has not elected REIT status and, as such, is subject to United States Federal corporate income tax. We use TRS entities to facilitate our ability to offer certain services and conduct certain activities that generally cannot be offered directly by the REIT. We also use TRS entities to hold investments in certain properties. Income taxes related to the results of continuing operations of our TRS entities are included in income tax benefit in our consolidated statements of income.
 
For the year ended December 31, 2009, compared to the year ended December 31, 2008, income tax benefit decreased by $34.5 million. This decrease was primarily attributed to $36.1 million of income tax benefit recognized in 2008 related to the impairments of our Lincoln Place property and our investment in Casden Properties LLC, both of which are owned through TRS entities, partially offset by $8.1 million of income tax benefit recognized in 2009 related to the impairment of our investment in Casden Properties LLC.
 
For the year ended December 31, 2008, compared to the year ended December 31, 2007, income tax benefit increased by $33.4 million. This increase was primarily attributed to $36.1 million of income tax benefit recognized in 2008 related to the impairments of our Lincoln Place property and our investment in Casden Properties LLC.
 
Income from Discontinued Operations, Net
 
The results of operations for properties sold during the period or designated as held for sale at the end of the period are generally required to be classified as discontinued operations for all periods presented. The components of net earnings that are classified as discontinued operations include all property-related revenues and operating expenses, depreciation expense recognized prior to the classification as held for sale, property-specific interest expense and debt extinguishment gains and losses to the extent there is secured debt on the property. In addition, any impairment losses on assets held for sale and the net gain or loss on the eventual disposal of properties held for sale are reported in discontinued operations.
 
For the years ended December 31, 2009 and 2008, income from discontinued operations totaled $152.2 million and $744.9 million, respectively. The $592.7 million decrease in income from discontinued operations was principally due to a $541.2 million decrease in gain on dispositions of real estate, net of income taxes, primarily attributable to fewer properties sold in 2009 as compared to 2008, and a $111.8 million decrease in operating income (inclusive of a $27.1 million increase in real estate impairment losses), partially offset by a $58.8 million decrease in interest expense.
 
For the years ended December 31, 2008 and 2007, income from discontinued operations totaled $744.9 million and $171.6 million, respectively. The $573.3 million increase in income from discontinued operations was principally due to a $641.7 million increase in gain on dispositions of real estate, net of income taxes, primarily attributable to more properties sold in 2008 as compared to 2007 and a $27.9 million decrease in interest expense. These increases were partially offset by a $66.1 million decrease in operating income (inclusive of a $22.0 million increase in real estate impairment losses) and a $31.6 million decrease related to a 2007 gain on debt extinguishment related to properties in the VMS partnership.
 
During the year ended December 31, 2009, we sold 89 consolidated properties for gross proceeds of $1.3 billion and net proceeds of $432.7 million, resulting in a net gain on sale of approximately $216.0 million (which is net of $5.8 million of related income taxes). During the year ended December 31, 2008, we sold 151 consolidated properties for gross proceeds of $2.4 billion and net proceeds of $1.1 billion, resulting in a net gain on sale of approximately $757.2 million (which is net of $43.1 million of related income taxes). During the year ended December 31, 2007, we sold 73 consolidated properties for gross proceeds of $480.0 million and net proceeds of $203.8 million, resulting in a net gain on sale of approximately $115.5 million (which is net of $2.1 million of related income taxes).
 
For the years ended December 31, 2009, 2008 and 2007, income from discontinued operations includes the operating results of the properties sold or classified as held for sale as of December 31, 2009.


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Changes in the level of gains recognized from period to period reflect the changing level of our disposition activity from period to period. Additionally, gains on properties sold are determined on an individual property basis or in the aggregate for a group of properties that are sold in a single transaction, and are not comparable period to period (see Note 13 of the consolidated financial statements in Item 8 for additional information on discontinued operations).
 
 
Noncontrolling interests in consolidated real estate partnerships reflects the non-Aimco partners’, or noncontrolling partners’, share of operating results of consolidated real estate partnerships. This generally includes the noncontrolling partners’ share of property management fees, interest on notes and other amounts eliminated in consolidation that we charge to such partnerships. As discussed in Note 2 to the consolidated financial statements in Item 8, we adopted the provisions of SFAS 160, which are now codified in the Financial Accounting Standards Board’s Accounting Standards Codification, or FASB ASC, Topic 810, effective January 1, 2009. Prior to our adoption of SFAS 160, we generally did not recognize a benefit for the noncontrolling interest partners’ share of partnership losses for partnerships that have deficit noncontrolling interest balances and we generally recognized a charge to our earnings for distributions paid to noncontrolling partners for partnerships that had deficit noncontrolling interest balances. Under the updated provisions of FASB ASC Topic 810, we are required to attribute losses to noncontrolling interests even if such attribution would result in a deficit noncontrolling interest balance and we are no longer required to recognize a charge to our earnings for distributions paid to noncontrolling partners for partnerships that have deficit noncontrolling interest balances.
 
For the year ended December 31, 2009, compared to the year ended December 31, 2008, net earnings attributed to noncontrolling interests in consolidated real estate partnerships decreased by $133.2 million. This decrease is primarily attributable to a reduction of $108.7 million related to the noncontrolling interests in consolidated real estate partnerships’ share of gains on dispositions of real estate, due primarily to fewer sales in 2009 as compared to 2008, $5.5 million of losses allocated to noncontrolling interests in 2009 that we would not have allocated to the noncontrolling interest partners in 2008 because to do so would have resulted in deficits in their noncontrolling interest balances, and approximately $3.8 million related to deficit distribution charges recognized as a reduction to our earnings in 2008, for which we did not recognize similar charges in 2009 based on the change in accounting discussed above. These decreases are in addition to the noncontrolling interest partners’ share of increased losses of our consolidated real estate partnerships in 2009 as compared to 2008.
 
For the year ended December 31, 2008, compared to the year ended December 31, 2007, net income attributed to noncontrolling interests in consolidated real estate partnerships increased by $63.6 million. This increase is primarily attributable to an increase of $106.5 million related to the noncontrolling interests in consolidated real estate partnerships’ share of gains on dispositions of real estate, due primarily to more sales in 2008 as compared to 2007, partially offset by increases of $42.9 million in net recoveries of deficit distributions.
 
As discussed in Note 2 to the consolidated financial statements in Item 8, during the first quarter 2010, we will adopt new accounting guidance related to accounting for variable interest entities. This change in accounting guidance may result in our consolidation of certain previously unconsolidated entities as well as our deconsolidation of certain we currently consolidate. At this time, we have not yet determined the effect this accounting change will have on our consolidated financial statements.
 
 
Noncontrolling interests in Aimco Operating Partnership consist of common OP Units, High Performance Units and preferred OP Units. We allocate the Aimco Operating Partnership’s income or loss to the holders of common OP Units and High Performance Units based on the weighted average number of common OP Units and High Performance Units outstanding during the period. Holders of the preferred OP Units participate in the Aimco Operating Partnership’s income or loss only to the extent of their preferred distributions.
 
For the year ended December 31, 2009, compared to the year ended December 31, 2008, the effect on our earnings of income or loss attributable to noncontrolling interests in the Aimco Operating Partnership changed favorably by $62.3 million. This favorable change is attributable to a decrease of $50.8 million related to the


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noncontrolling interests in the Aimco Operating Partnership’s share of income from discontinued operations (net of noncontrolling interests in consolidated real estate partnerships), due primarily to larger gains on sales in 2008 relative to 2009 and $11.5 million in deficit distribution charges recognized during 2008 due to distributions in excess of the positive balance in noncontrolling interest. These changes were also affected by a decrease in the noncontrolling interests in the Aimco Operating Partnership’s effective ownership interest from 2008 to 2009.
 
For the year ended December 31, 2008, compared to the year ended December 31, 2007, the effect on our earnings of income or loss attributable to noncontrolling interests in the Aimco Operating Partnership changed unfavorably by $55.8 million. This unfavorable change is attributable to an increase of $48.1 million related to the noncontrolling interests in the Aimco Operating Partnership’s share of income from discontinued operations (net of noncontrolling interests in consolidated real estate partnerships), due primarily to larger gains on sales in 2008 relative to 2007, $11.5 million in deficit distribution charges recognized during 2008 due to distributions in excess of the positive balance in noncontrolling interest, and a $0.5 million increase in distributions to holders of preferred OP Units. These unfavorable changes were partially offset by a $4.3 million increase in noncontrolling interests in the Aimco Operating Partnership’s share of losses from continuing operations (net of noncontrolling interests in consolidated real estate partnerships) in 2008 as compared to 2007.
 
 
We prepare our consolidated financial statements in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America, or GAAP, which requires us to make estimates and assumptions. We believe that the following critical accounting policies involve our more significant judgments and estimates used in the preparation of our consolidated financial statements.
 
 
Real estate and other long-lived assets to be held and used are stated at cost, less accumulated depreciation and amortization, unless the carrying amount of the asset is not recoverable. If events or circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of a property may not be recoverable, we make an assessment of its recoverability by comparing the carrying amount to our estimate of the undiscounted future cash flows, excluding interest charges, of the property. If the carrying amount exceeds the estimated aggregate undiscounted future cash flows, we recognize an impairment loss to the extent the carrying amount exceeds the estimated fair value of the property.
 
From time to time, we have non-revenue producing properties that we hold for future redevelopment. We assess the recoverability of the carrying amount of these redevelopment properties by comparing our estimate of undiscounted future cash flows based on the expected service potential of the redevelopment property upon completion to the carrying amount. In certain instances, we use a probability-weighted approach to determine our estimate of undiscounted future cash flows when alternative courses of action are under consideration. As discussed in Provision for Impairment Losses on Real Estate Development Assets within the preceding discussion of our Results of Operations, during 2008 we recognized impairment losses on our Lincoln Place and Pacific Bay Vistas properties of $85.4 million ($55.6 million net of tax) and $5.7 million, respectively.
 
Real estate investments are subject to varying degrees of risk. Several factors may adversely affect the economic performance and value of our real estate investments. These factors include:
 
  •  the general economic climate;
 
  •  competition from other apartment communities and other housing options;
 
  •  local conditions, such as loss of jobs or an increase in the supply of apartments, that might adversely affect apartment occupancy or rental rates;
 
  •  changes in governmental regulations and the related cost of compliance;


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  •  increases in operating costs (including real estate taxes) due to inflation and other factors, which may not be offset by increased rents;
 
  •  changes in tax laws and housing laws, including the enactment of rent control laws or other laws regulating multifamily housing; and
 
  •  changes in interest rates and the availability of financing.
 
Any adverse changes in these and other factors could cause an impairment in our long-lived assets, including real estate and investments in unconsolidated real estate partnerships. In addition to the impairments of Lincoln Place and Pacific Bay Vistas discussed above, based on periodic tests of recoverability of long-lived assets, for the years ended December 31, 2009 and 2007, we recorded net impairment losses of $2.3 million and $1.1 million, respectively, related to properties classified as held for use, and during the year ended December 31, 2008, we recorded no additional impairments related to properties held for use.
 
 
Notes receivable from unconsolidated real estate partnerships consist primarily of notes receivable from partnerships in which we are the general partner. Notes receivable from non-affiliates consist of notes receivable from unrelated third parties. The ultimate repayment of these notes is subject to a number of variables, including the performance and value of the underlying real estate and the claims of unaffiliated mortgage lenders. Our notes receivable include loans extended by us that we carry at the face amount plus accrued interest, which we refer to as “par value notes,” and loans extended by predecessors, some of whose positions we generally acquired at a discount, which we refer to as “discounted notes.”
 
We record interest income on par value notes as earned in accordance with the terms of the related loan agreements. We discontinue the accrual of interest on such notes when the notes are impaired, as discussed below, or when there is otherwise significant uncertainty as to the collection of interest. We record income on such nonaccrual loans using the cost recovery method, under which we apply cash receipts first to the recorded amount of the loan; thereafter, any additional receipts are recognized as income.
 
We recognize interest income on discounted notes receivable based upon whether the amount and timing of collections are both probable and reasonably estimable. We consider collections to be probable and reasonably estimable when the borrower has closed transactions or has entered into certain pending transactions (which include real estate sales, refinancings, foreclosures and rights offerings) that provide a reliable source of repayment. In such instances, we recognize accretion income, on a prospective basis using the effective interest method over the estimated remaining term of the loans, equal to the difference between the carrying amount of the discounted notes and the estimated collectible value. We record income on all other discounted notes using the cost recovery method. Accretion income recognized in any given period is based on our ability to complete transactions to monetize the notes receivable and the difference between the carrying value and the estimated collectible amount of the notes; therefore, accretion income varies on a period by period basis and could be lower or higher than in prior periods.
 
 
We assess the collectibility of notes receivable on a periodic basis, which assessment consists primarily of an evaluation of cash flow projections of the borrower to determine whether estimated cash flows are sufficient to repay principal and interest in accordance with the contractual terms of the note. We recognize impairments on notes receivable when it is probable that principal and interest will not be received in accordance with the contractual terms of the loan. The amount of the impairment to be recognized generally is based on the fair value of the partnership’s real estate that represents the primary source of loan repayment. In certain instances where other sources of cash flow are available to repay the loan, the impairment is measured by discounting the estimated cash flows at the loan’s original effective interest rate.
 
During the years ended December 31, 2009, 2008 and 2007 we recorded net provisions for losses on notes receivable of $21.5 million, $17.6 million and $2.0 million, respectively. As discussed in Provision for Losses on Notes Receivable within the preceding discussion of our Results of Operations, provisions for losses on notes receivable in 2009 and 2008 include impairment losses of $20.7 million ($12.4 million net of tax) and $16.3 million


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($10.0 million net of tax), respectively, on our investment in Casden Properties LLC, which we account for as a note receivable. We will continue to evaluate the collectibility of these notes, and we will adjust related allowances in the future due to changes in market conditions and other factors.
 
 
We capitalize costs, including certain indirect costs, incurred in connection with our capital additions activities, including redevelopment and construction projects, other tangible property improvements and replacements of existing property components. Included in these capitalized costs are payroll costs associated with time spent by site employees in connection with the planning, execution and control of all capital additions activities at the property level. We characterize as “indirect costs” an allocation of certain department costs, including payroll, at the area operations and corporate levels that clearly relate to capital additions activities. We capitalize interest, property taxes and insurance during periods in which redevelopment and construction projects are in progress. We charge to expense as incurred costs that do not relate to capital additions activities, including ordinary repairs, maintenance, resident turnover costs and general and administrative expenses (see Capital Additions and Related Depreciation in Note 2 to the consolidated financial statements in Item 8).
 
For the years ended December 31, 2009, 2008 and 2007, for continuing and discontinued operations, we capitalized $9.8 million, $25.7 million and $30.8 million of interest costs, respectively, and $40.0 million, $78.1 million and $78.1 million of site payroll and indirect costs, respectively. The reduction is primarily due to a reduced level of redevelopment activities.
 
Funds From Operations
 
FFO is a non-GAAP financial measure that we believe, when considered with the financial statements determined in accordance with GAAP, is helpful to investors in understanding our performance because it captures features particular to real estate performance by recognizing that real estate generally appreciates over time or maintains residual value to a much greater extent than do other depreciable assets such as machinery, computers or other personal property. The Board of Governors of the National Association of Real Estate Investment Trusts, or NAREIT, defines FFO as net income (loss), computed in accordance with GAAP, excluding gains from sales of depreciable property, plus depreciation and amortization, and after adjustments for unconsolidated partnerships and joint ventures. Adjustments for unconsolidated partnerships and joint ventures are calculated to reflect FFO on the same basis. We compute FFO for all periods presented in accordance with the guidance set forth by NAREIT’s April 1, 2002, White Paper, which we refer to as the White Paper. We calculate FFO attributable to Aimco common stockholders (diluted) by subtracting redemption or repurchase related preferred stock issuance costs and dividends on preferred stock and adding back dividends/distributions on dilutive preferred securities and premiums or discounts on preferred stock redemptions or repurchases. FFO should not be considered an alternative to net income or net cash flows from operating activities, as determined in accordance with GAAP, as an indication of our performance or as a measure of liquidity. FFO is not necessarily indicative of cash available to fund future cash needs. In addition, although FFO is a measure used for comparability in assessing the performance of REITs, there can be no assurance that our basis for computing FFO is comparable with that of other REITs.
 
In addition to FFO, we compute an alternate measure of FFO, which we refer to as Proforma FFO and which is FFO attributable to Aimco common stockholders (diluted), excluding operating real estate impairments and preferred stock redemption related amounts (adjusted for the noncontrolling interests). Both operating real estate impairment losses and preferred stock redemption related amounts are recurring items that affect our operating results. We exclude operating real estate impairment losses, net of related income tax benefits and noncontrolling interests, from our calculation of Proforma FFO because we believe the inclusion of such losses in FFO is inconsistent with the treatment of gains on the disposition of operating real estate, which are not included in FFO. We exclude preferred redemption related amounts (gains or losses) from our calculation of Proforma FFO because such amounts are not representative of our operating results. Similar to FFO, we believe Proforma FFO is helpful to investors in understanding our performance because it captures features particular to real estate performance by recognizing that real estate generally appreciates over time or maintains residual value to a much greater extent than do other depreciating assets such as machinery, computers or other personal property. Not all REITs present an


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alternate measure of FFO similar to our Proforma FFO measure and there can be no assurance our basis for calculating Proforma FFO is comparable to those of other REITs.
 
For the years ended December 31, 2009, 2008 and 2007, our FFO and Proforma FFO are calculated as follows (in thousands):
 
                         
    2009     2008     2007  
 
Net (loss) income attributable to Aimco common stockholders(1)
  $ (114,840 )   $ 351,314     $ (40,586 )
Adjustments:
                       
Depreciation and amortization
    444,413       392,999       347,491  
Depreciation and amortization related to non-real estate assets
    (16,667 )     (17,372 )     (20,159 )
Depreciation of rental property related to noncontrolling partners and unconsolidated entities(2)
    (40,852 )     (29,872 )     (15,888 )
Gain on dispositions of unconsolidated real estate and other
    (22,494 )     (99,864 )     (24,470 )
Income tax expense (benefit) arising from disposition of unconsolidated real estate and other
    1,582       (433 )     (17 )
Add back portion of gain on dispositions of unconsolidated real estate and other that relates to non-depreciable assets and debt extinguishment gain
    7,783       1,669       17,956  
Deficit distributions to noncontrolling partners(3)
          37,680       29,210  
Discontinued operations:
                       
Gain on dispositions of real estate, net of noncontrolling partners’ interest(2)
    (164,281 )     (617,906 )     (63,923 )
Depreciation of rental property, net of noncontrolling partners’ interest(2)
    45,836       109,043       114,586  
(Recovery of deficit distributions) deficit distributions to noncontrolling partners, net(3)
          (30,354 )     9,550  
Income tax expense arising from disposals
    5,788       43,146       2,135  
Noncontrolling interests in Aimco Operating Partnership’s share of above adjustments(4)
    (19,509 )     21,667       (36,830 )
Preferred stock dividends
    52,215       55,190       63,381  
Preferred stock redemption related (gains) costs
    (1,649 )     (1,482 )     2,635  
Amounts allocable to participating securities(5)
          6,985       4,481  
                         
FFO
  $ 177,325     $ 222,410     $ 389,552  
Preferred stock dividends
    (52,215 )     (55,190 )     (63,381 )
Preferred stock redemption related gains (costs)
    1,649       1,482       (2,635 )
Amounts allocable to participating securities(5)
    (773 )     (6,985 )     (4,481 )
Dividends/distributions on dilutive preferred securities
          4,292       1,442  
                         
FFO attributable to Aimco common stockholders — diluted
  $ 125,986     $ 166,009     $ 320,497  
Operating real estate impairment losses, continuing operations, net of noncontrolling partners’ interest(6)
    2,012       1,131       1,080  
Operating real estate impairment losses, discontinued operations, net of noncontrolling partners’ interest(6)
    61,313       26,285       5,430  
Income tax benefit on impairment losses
    (4,075 )     (511 )      
Preferred stock redemption related (gains) costs(7)
    (1,649 )     (1,482 )     2,635  
Noncontrolling interests in Aimco Operating Partnership’s share of above adjustments
    (4,304 )     (2,474 )     (850 )
Amounts allocable to participating securities(5)
    (448 )            
Dividends/distributions on dilutive preferred securities
                426  
                         
Proforma FFO attributable to Aimco common stockholders — diluted
  $ 178,835     $ 188,958     $ 329,218  
                         
FFO attributable to Aimco common stockholders — diluted
                       
Weighted average number of common shares, common share equivalents and dilutive preferred securities outstanding(8):
                       
Common shares and equivalents(9)
    115,563       89,827       97,055  
Dilutive preferred securities
          1,490       457  
                         
Total
    115,563       91,317       97,512  
                         
Proforma FFO attributable to Aimco common stockholders — diluted
                       
Weighted average number of common shares, common share equivalents and dilutive preferred securities outstanding(8):
                       
Common shares and equivalents(9)
    115,563       89,827       97,055  
Dilutive preferred securities
          1,490       580  
                         
Total
    115,563       91,317       97,635  
                         
 
 
Notes:
 
(1) Represents the numerator for calculating basic earnings per common share in accordance with GAAP (see Note 14 to the consolidated financial statements in Item 8).
 
(2) “Noncontrolling partners” refers to noncontrolling partners in our consolidated real estate partnerships.


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(3) Prior to adoption of SFAS 160 (see Note 2 to the consolidated financial statements in Item 8), we recognized deficit distributions to noncontrolling partners as charges in our income statement when cash was distributed to a noncontrolling partner in a consolidated partnership in excess of the positive balance in such partner’s noncontrolling interest balance. We recorded these charges for GAAP purposes even though there was no economic effect or cost. Deficit distributions to noncontrolling partners occurred when the fair value of the underlying real estate exceeded its depreciated net book value because the underlying real estate had appreciated or maintained its value. As a result, the recognition of expense for deficit distributions to noncontrolling partners represented, in substance, either (a) our recognition of depreciation previously allocated to the noncontrolling partner or (b) a payment related to the noncontrolling partner’s share of real estate appreciation. Based on White Paper guidance that requires real estate depreciation and gains to be excluded from FFO, we added back deficit distributions and subtracted related recoveries in our reconciliation of net income to FFO. Subsequent to our adoption of SFAS 160, effective January 1, 2009, we may reduce the balance of noncontrolling interests below zero in such situations and we are no longer required to recognize such charges in our income statement.
 
(4) During the years ended December 31, 2009, 2008 and 2007, the Aimco Operating Partnership had 6,534,140, 7,191,199, and 7,367,400 common OP Units outstanding and 2,344,719, 2,367,629 and 2,379,084 High Performance Units outstanding.
 
(5) Amounts allocable to participating securities represent dividends declared and any amounts of undistributed earnings allocable to participating securities. See Note 2 and Note 14 to the consolidated financial statements in Item 8 for further information regarding participating securities.
 
(6) On October 1, 2003, NAREIT clarified its definition of FFO to include operating real estate impairment losses, which previously had been added back to calculate FFO. Although Aimco’s presentation conforms with the NAREIT definition, Aimco considers such approach to be inconsistent with the treatment of gains on dispositions of operating real estate, which are not included in FFO.
 
(7) In accordance with the Securities and Exchange Commission’s July 31, 2003 interpretation of the Emerging Issues Task Force Topic D-42, Aimco includes preferred stock redemption related charges or gains in FFO. As a result, FFO for the years ended December 31, 2009, 2008 and 2007 includes redemption discounts, net of issuance costs, of $1.6 million and $1.5 million and a redemption premium of $2.6 million, respectively.
 
(8) Weighted average common shares, common share equivalents, dilutive preferred securities for each of the periods presented above have been adjusted for our application during the fourth quarter 2009 of a change in GAAP, which requires the shares issued in our special dividends paid in 2008 and January 2009 to be treated as issued and outstanding on the dividend payment dates for basic purposes and as potential share equivalents for the periods between the ex-dividend dates and the payment dates for diluted purposes, rather than treating the shares as issued and outstanding as of the beginning of the earliest period presented for both basic and diluted purposes. The change in accounting treatment had no effect on diluted weighted average shares outstanding for the year ended December 31, 2009. The change in accounting treatment reduced diluted weighted average shares outstanding by 32.7 million and 46.5 million for the years ended December 31, 2008 and 2007, respectively.
 
(9) Represents the denominator for earnings per common share — diluted, calculated in accordance with GAAP, plus common share equivalents that are dilutive for FFO.
 
Liquidity and Capital Resources
 
Liquidity is the ability to meet present and future financial obligations. Our primary source of liquidity is cash flow from our operations. Additional sources are proceeds from property sales and proceeds from refinancings of existing property loans and borrowings under new property loans.
 
Our principal uses for liquidity include normal operating activities, payments of principal and interest on outstanding debt, capital additions, dividends paid to stockholders and distributions paid to noncontrolling interest partners, repurchases of shares of our Common Stock, and acquisitions of, and investments in, properties. We use our cash and cash equivalents and our cash provided by operating activities to meet short-term liquidity needs. In the event that our cash and cash equivalents and cash provided by operating activities are not sufficient to cover our


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short-term liquidity demands, we have additional means, such as short-term borrowing availability and proceeds from property sales and refinancings, to help us meet our short-term liquidity demands. We may use our revolving credit facility for general corporate purposes and to fund investments on an interim basis. We expect to meet our long-term liquidity requirements, such as debt maturities and property acquisitions, through long-term borrowings, primarily secured, the issuance of equity securities (including OP Units), the sale of properties and cash generated from operations.
 
The state of credit markets and related effect on the overall economy may have an adverse affect on our liquidity, both through increases in interest rates and credit risk spreads, and access to financing. As further discussed in Item 7A, Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk, we are subject to interest rate risk associated with certain variable rate liabilities, preferred stock and assets. Based on our net variable rate liabilities, preferred stock and assets outstanding at December 31, 2009, we estimate that a 1.0% increase in 30-day LIBOR with constant credit risk spreads would reduce our income attributable to Aimco common stockholders by approximately $1.5 million on an annual basis. Although base interest rates have generally decreased relative to their levels prior to the disruptions in the financial markets, the tightening of credit markets has affected the credit risk spreads charged over base interest rates on, and the availability of, property loan financing. For future refinancing activities, our liquidity and cost of funds may be affected by increases in base interest rates or higher credit risk spreads. If timely property financing options are not available for maturing debt, we may consider alternative sources of liquidity, such as reductions in certain capital spending or proceeds from asset dispositions.
 
As further discussed in Note 2 to our consolidated financial statements in Item 8, we use total rate of return swaps as a financing product to lower our cost of borrowing through conversion of fixed rate tax-exempt bonds payable and fixed rate notes payable to variable interest rates indexed to the SIFMA rate for tax-exempt bonds payable and the 30-day LIBOR rate for notes payable, plus a credit risk spread. The cost of financing through these arrangements is generally lower than the fixed rate on the debt. As of December 31, 2009, we had total rate of return swap positions with two financial institutions with notional amounts totaling $353.1 million. Swaps with notional amounts of $307.9 million and $45.2 million had maturity dates in May 2012 and October 2012, respectively.
 
The total rate of return swaps require specified loan-to-value ratios. In the event the values of the real estate properties serving as collateral under these agreements decline or if we sell properties in the collateral pool with low loan-to-value ratios, certain of our consolidated subsidiaries have an obligation to pay down the debt or provide additional collateral pursuant to the swap agreements, which may adversely affect our cash flows. The obligation to provide collateral is limited to these subsidiaries and is non-recourse to Aimco. At December 31, 2009, these subsidiaries were not required to provide cash collateral based on the loan-to-value ratios of the real estate properties serving as collateral under these agreements.
 
We periodically evaluate counterparty credit risk associated with these arrangements. At the current time, we have concluded we do not have material exposure. In the event a counterparty were to default under these arrangements, loss of the net interest benefit we generally receive under these arrangements, which is equal to the difference between the fixed rate we receive and the variable rate we pay, may adversely affect our operating cash flows.
 
See Derivative Financial Instruments in Note 2 to the consolidated financial statements in Item 8 for additional discussion of these arrangements, including the current swap maturity dates.
 
As of December 31, 2009, the amount available under our $180.0 million revolving credit facility was $136.2 million (after giving effect to $43.8 million outstanding for undrawn letters of credit). Our total outstanding term loan of $90.0 million at December 31, 2009, matures in March 2011. We repaid an additional $45.0 million on the term loan through February 26, 2010, leaving a remaining outstanding balance of $45.0 million. Additionally, we have limited obligations to fund redevelopment commitments during the year ending December 31, 2010, and no development commitments.
 
At December 31, 2009, we had $81.3 million in cash and cash equivalents, a decrease of $218.4 million from December 31, 2008. At December 31, 2009, we had $220.0 million of restricted cash, primarily consisting of reserves and escrows held by lenders for bond sinking funds, capital additions, property taxes and insurance. In addition, cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash are held by partnerships that are not presented on a consolidated


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basis. The following discussion relates to changes in cash due to operating, investing and financing activities, which are presented in our consolidated statements of cash flows in Item 8.
 
 
For the year ended December 31, 2009, our net cash provided by operating activities of $233.8 million was primarily related to operating income from our consolidated properties, which is affected primarily by rental rates, occupancy levels and operating expenses related to our portfolio of properties, in excess of payments of operating accounts payable and accrued liabilities, including amounts related to our organizational restructuring. Cash provided by operating activities decreased $206.6 million compared with the year ended December 31, 2008, primarily due to a $159.3 million decrease in operating income related to consolidated properties included in discontinued operations, which was attributable to property sales in 2009 and 2008, a $42.8 million decrease in promote income, which is generated by the disposition of properties by consolidated real estate partnerships, and an increase in payments on operating accounts payable and accrued expenses, including payments related to our restructuring accrual, in 2009 as compared to 2008.
 
 
For the year ended December 31, 2009, our net cash provided by investing activities of $630.3 million consisted primarily of proceeds from disposition of real estate and partnership interests, partially offset by capital expenditures.
 
Although we hold all of our properties for investment, we sell properties when they do not meet our investment criteria or are located in areas that we believe do not justify our continued investment when compared to alternative uses for our capital. During the year ended December 31, 2009, we sold 89 consolidated properties. These properties were sold for an aggregate sales price of $1.3 billion, or $1.2 billion, after the payment of transaction costs and debt prepayment penalties. The $1.2 billion is inclusive of promote income and debt assumed by buyers. Net cash proceeds from property sales were used primarily to repay term debt and for other corporate purposes.
 
Capital Additions
 
We classify all capital additions as Capital Replacements (which we refer to as CR), Capital Improvements (which we refer to as CI), casualties or redevelopment. Additions other than casualty or redevelopment capital additions are apportioned between CR and CI based on the useful life of the capital item under consideration and the period we have owned the property.
 
CR represents the share of capital additions that are deemed to replace the portion of acquired capital assets that was consumed during the period we have owned the asset. CI represents the share of additions that are made to enhance the value, profitability or useful life of an asset as compared to its original purchase condition. CR and CI exclude capital additions for casualties and redevelopment. Casualty additions represent capitalized costs incurred in connection with casualty losses and are associated with the restoration of the asset. A portion of the restoration costs may be reimbursed by insurance carriers subject to deductibles associated with each loss. Redevelopment additions represent additions that substantially upgrade the property.


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The table below details our share of actual spending, on both consolidated and unconsolidated real estate partnerships, for CR, CI, casualties and redevelopment for the year ended December 31, 2009, on a per unit and total dollar basis (in thousands, except per unit amounts). Per unit numbers for CR and CI are based on approximately 97,196 average units for the year, including 81,135 conventional units and 16,061 affordable units. Average units are weighted for the portion of the period that we owned an interest in the property, represent ownership-adjusted effective units, and exclude non-managed units.
 
                 
    Aimco’s Share of
       
    Additions     Per Effective Unit  
 
Capital Replacements Detail:
               
Building and grounds
  $ 32,876     $ 338  
Turnover related
    30,298       312  
Capitalized site payroll and indirect costs
    7,076       73  
                 
Our share of Capital Replacements
  $ 70,250     $ 723  
                 
Capital Replacements:
               
Conventional
  $ 64,675     $ 797  
Affordable
    5,575     $ 347  
                 
Our share of Capital Replacements
    70,250     $ 723  
                 
Capital Improvements:
               
Conventional
    47,634     $ 587  
Affordable
    5,755     $ 358  
                 
Our share of Capital Improvements
    53,389     $ 549  
                 
Casualties:
               
Conventional
    17,724          
Affordable
    1,872          
                 
Our share of casualties
    19,596          
                 
Redevelopment:
               
Conventional projects
    66,768          
Tax credit projects(1)
    46,066          
                 
Our share of redevelopment
    112,834          
                 
Our share of capital additions
    256,069          
                 
Plus noncontrolling partners’ share of consolidated additions
    20,062          
Less our share of unconsolidated additions
    (687 )        
                 
Total capital additions
  $ 275,444          
                 
 
 
(1) Redevelopment additions on tax credit projects are substantially funded from tax credit investor contributions.
 
Included in the above additions for CI, casualties and redevelopment, was approximately $34.6 million of our share of capitalized site payroll and indirect costs related to these activities for the year ended December 31, 2009.
 
We generally fund capital additions with cash provided by operating activities, working capital and property sales as discussed below.
 
 
For the year ended December 31, 2009, net cash used in financing activities of $1.1 billion was primarily attributed to debt principal payments, dividends paid to common and preferred stockholders and distributions to noncontrolling interests, partially offset by proceeds from property loans.


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At December 31, 2009 and 2008, we had $5.6 billion and $6.3 billion, respectively, in consolidated property debt outstanding, which included $29.2 million and $759.3 million, respectively, of property debt classified within liabilities related to assets held for sale. During the year ended December 31, 2009, we refinanced or closed property loans on 55 properties generating $788.1 million of proceeds from borrowings with a weighted average interest rate of 5.78%. Our share of the net proceeds after repayment of existing debt, payment of transaction costs and distributions to limited partners, was $132.3 million. We used these total net proceeds for capital expenditures and other corporate purposes. We intend to continue to refinance property debt primarily as a means of extending current and near term maturities and to finance certain capital projects.
 
 
We have an Amended and Restated Senior Secured Credit Agreement, as amended, with a syndicate of financial institutions, which we refer to as the Credit Agreement.
 
As of December 31, 2009, the Credit Agreement consisted of aggregate commitments of $270.0 million, comprised of our $90.0 million outstanding balance on the term loan and $180.0 million of revolving loan commitments. The term loan bears interest at LIBOR plus 1.5%, or at our option, a base rate equal to the prime rate, and matures March 2011. Borrowings under the revolving credit facility bear interest based on a pricing grid determined by leverage (either at LIBOR plus 4.25% with a LIBOR floor of 2.00% or, at our option, a base rate equal to the Prime rate plus a spread of 3.00%). The revolving credit facility matures May 1, 2011, and may be extended for an additional year, subject to certain conditions, including payment of a 45.0 basis point fee on the total revolving commitments and repayment of the remaining term loan balance by February 1, 2011.
 
At December 31, 2009, the term loan had an outstanding principal balance of $90.0 million and an interest rate of 1.73%. We repaid $45.0 million on the term loan through February 26, 2010, leaving a remaining outstanding balance of $45.0 million. At December 31, 2009, we had no outstanding borrowings under the revolving credit facility. The amount available under the revolving credit facility at December 31, 2009, was $136.2 million (after giving effect to $43.8 million outstanding for undrawn letters of credit issued under the revolving credit facility). The proceeds of revolving loans are generally permitted to be used to fund working capital and for other corporate purposes.
 
 
We have entered into total rate of return swaps on various fixed rate secured tax-exempt bonds payable and fixed rate notes payable to convert these borrowings from a fixed rate to a variable rate and provide an efficient financing product to lower our cost of borrowing. We designate total rate of return swaps as hedges of the risk of overall changes in the fair value of the underlying borrowings. At each reporting period, we estimate the fair value of these borrowings and the total rate of return swaps and recognize any changes therein as an adjustment of interest expense.
 
Our method used to calculate the fair value of the total rate of return swaps generally results in changes in fair value that are equal to the changes in fair value of the related borrowings, which is consistent with our hedging strategy. We believe that these financial instruments are highly effective in offsetting the changes in fair value of the related borrowings during the hedging period, and accordingly, changes in the fair value of these instruments have no material impact on our liquidity, results of operations or capital resources.
 
During the year ended December 31, 2009, changes in the fair values of these financial instruments resulted in increases of $5.2 million in the carrying amount of the hedged borrowings and equal decreases in accrued liabilities and other for total rate of return swaps. At December 31, 2009, the cumulative recognized changes in the fair value of these financial instruments resulted in a $24.3 million reduction in the carrying amount of the hedged borrowings offset by an equal increase in accrued liabilities and other for total rate of return swaps. The cumulative changes in the fair values of the hedged borrowings and related swaps reflect the recent uncertainty in the credit markets which has decreased demand and increased pricing for similar debt instruments.


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During the year ended December 31, 2009, we received net cash receipts of $19.4 million under the total return swaps, which positively affected our liquidity. To the extent interest rates increase above the fixed rates on the underlying borrowings, our obligations under the total return swaps will negatively affect our liquidity. At December 31, 2009, we were not required to provide cash collateral pursuant to the total rate of return swaps. In the event the values of the real estate properties serving as collateral under these agreements decline, we may be required to provide additional collateral pursuant to the swap agreements, which would adversely affect our liquidity.
 
See Note 2 to the consolidated financial statements in Item 8 for more information on our total rate of return swaps and related borrowings.
 
 
During the year ended December 31, 2009, we paid cash dividends or distributions totaling $52.2 million, $95.3 million and $28.5 million to preferred stockholders, common stockholders and noncontrolling interests in the Aimco Operating Partnership, respectively. Additionally, we paid dividends totaling $149.0 million to common stockholders through the issuance of approximately 15.5 million shares. During the year ended December 31, 2009, we paid distributions of $91.9 million to noncontrolling interests in consolidated real estate partnerships.
 
During the year ended December 31, 2009, we repurchased 12 shares, or $6.0 million in liquidation preference, of CRA Preferred Stock for $4.2 million.
 
We and the Aimco Operating Partnership have a shelf registration statement that provides for the issuance of debt and equity securities by Aimco and debt securities by the Aimco Operating Partnership.
 
 
This table summarizes information contained elsewhere in this Annual Report regarding payments due under contractual obligations and commitments as of December 31, 2009 (amounts in thousands):
 
                                         
          Less than
                More than
 
    Total     One Year     1-3 Years     3-5 Years     5 Years  
 
Scheduled long-term debt maturities(1)
  $ 5,600,310     $ 105,294     $ 660,733     $ 868,615     $ 3,965,668  
Scheduled long-term debt maturities related to properties classified as held for sale(1)
    29,177       519       11,206       868       16,584  
Term loan(1)(2)
    90,000             90,000              
Redevelopment and other construction commitments
    4,795       4,795                    
Leases for space occupied(3)
    24,888       7,345       10,856       4,859       1,828  
Other obligations(4)
    4,605       4,605                    
                                         
Total
  $ 5,753,775     $ 122,558     $ 772,795     $ 874,342     $ 3,984,080  
                                         
 
 
(1) Scheduled debt maturities presented above include amortization and the maturities in 2010 consist primarily of amortization. The scheduled maturities presented above exclude related interest amounts. Refer to Note 6 in the consolidated financial statements in Item 8 for a description of average interest rates associated with our debt.
 
(2) After payments of $45.0 million through February 26, 2010, the term loan had an outstanding balance of $45.0 million.
 
(3) Inclusive of leased space that has been abandoned as part of our organizational restructuring in 2008 (see Restructuring Costs in Note 3 to the consolidated financial statements in Item 8).
 
(4) Represents a commitment to fund $4.6 million in second mortgage loans on certain properties in West Harlem, New York City.
 
In addition to the amounts presented in the table above, at December 31, 2009, we had $690.5 million of outstanding preferred stock outstanding with annual dividend yields ranging from 1.5% (variable) to 9.4%, and


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$85.7 million of preferred units of the Aimco Operating Partnership outstanding with annual distribution yields ranging from 5.9% to 9.5%.
 
Additionally, we may enter into commitments to purchase goods and services in connection with the operations of our properties. Those commitments generally have terms of one year or less and reflect expenditure levels comparable to our historical expenditures.
 
 
In addition to the items set forth in “Contractual Obligations” above, we expect to fund any future acquisitions, additional redevelopment projects, capital improvements and capital replacement principally with proceeds from property sales (including tax-free exchange proceeds), short-term borrowings, debt and equity financing (including tax credit equity) and operating cash flows.
 
 
We own general and limited partner interests in unconsolidated real estate partnerships, in which our total ownership interests typically range from less than 1% to 50% and in some instances may exceed 50%. There are no lines of credit, side agreements, or any other derivative financial instruments related to or between our unconsolidated real estate partnerships and us and no material exposure to financial guarantees. Accordingly, our maximum risk of loss related to these unconsolidated real estate partnerships is limited to the aggregate carrying amount of our investment in the unconsolidated real estate partnerships and any outstanding notes receivable as reported in our consolidated financial statements (see Note 4 of the consolidated financial statements in Item 8 for additional information about our investments in unconsolidated real estate partnerships).
 
Item 7A.   Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
 
Our primary market risk exposure relates to changes in base interest rates, credit risk spreads and availability of credit. We are not subject to any other material market rate or price risks. We use predominantly long-term, fixed-rate non-recourse property debt in order to avoid the refunding and repricing risks of short-term borrowings. We use short-term debt financing and working capital primarily to fund short-term uses and acquisitions and generally expect to refinance such borrowings with cash from operating activities, property sales proceeds, long-term debt or equity financings. We use total rate-of-return swaps to obtain the benefit of variable rates on certain of our fixed rate debt instruments. We make limited use of other derivative financial instruments and we do not use them for trading or other speculative purposes.
 
We had $654.6 million of floating rate debt and $67.0 million of floating rate preferred stock outstanding at December 31, 2009. Of the total floating rate debt, the major components were floating rate tax-exempt bond financing ($433.9 million), floating rate secured notes ($122.2 million) and a term loan ($90.0 million). At December 31, 2009, we had approximately $440.9 million in cash and cash equivalents, restricted cash and notes receivable, the majority of which bear interest. The effect of our interest-bearing assets would partially reduce the effect of an increase in variable interest rates. Historically, changes in tax-exempt interest rates have been at a ratio of less than 1:1 with changes in taxable interest rates. Floating rate tax-exempt bond financing is benchmarked against the SIFMA rate, which since 1989 has averaged 73% of the 30-day LIBOR rate. If the historical relationship continues, on an annual basis, we estimate that an increase in 30-day LIBOR of 100 basis points (73 basis points for tax-exempt interest rates) with constant credit risk spreads would result in net income and our net income attributable to Aimco common stockholders being reduced by $1.1 million and $1.5 million, respectively.
 
We estimate the fair value for our debt instruments using present value techniques that include income and market valuation approaches with market rates for debt with the same or similar terms. Present value calculations vary depending on the assumptions used, including the discount rate and estimates of future cash flows. In many cases, the fair value estimates may not be realizable in immediate settlement of the instruments. The estimated aggregate fair value of our consolidated debt (including amounts reported in liabilities related to assets held for sale) was approximately $5.7 billion and $6.7 billion at December 31, 2009 and 2008, respectively. The combined carrying value of our consolidated debt (including amounts reported in liabilities related to assets held for sale) was approximately $5.7 billion and $6.8 billion at December 31, 2009 and 2008, respectively. See Note 6 and Note 7 to


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the consolidated financial statements in Item 8 for further details on our consolidated debt. Refer to Derivative Financial Instruments in Note 2 to the consolidated financial statements in Item 8 for further discussion regarding certain of our fixed rate debt that is subject to total rate of return swap instruments. If market rates for our fixed-rate debt were higher by 100 basis points with constant credit risk spreads, the estimated fair value of our debt discussed above would have decreased from $5.7 billion to $5.4 billion. If market rates for our debt discussed above were lower by 100 basis points with constant credit risk spreads, the estimated fair value of our fixed-rate debt would have increased from $5.7 billion to $6.1 billion.
 
At December 31, 2009, we had swap positions with two financial institutions totaling $353.1 million. The related swap agreements provide for collateral calls to maintain specified loan-to-value ratios. In the event the values of the real estate properties serving as collateral under these agreements decline, we may be required to provide additional collateral pursuant to the swap agreements, which would adversely affect our cash flows. At December 31, 2009, we were not required to provide cash collateral based on the loan-to-value ratios of the real estate properties serving as collateral under these agreements.
 
Item 8.   Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
 
The independent registered public accounting firm’s report, consolidated financial statements and schedule listed in the accompanying index are filed as part of this report and incorporated herein by this reference. See “Index to Financial Statements” on page F-1 of this Annual Report.
 
Item 9.   Changes in and Disagreements With Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure
 
None.
 
Item 9A.   Controls and Procedures
 
 
Our management, with the participation of our chief executive officer and chief financial officer, has evaluated the effectiveness of our disclosure controls and procedures (as defined in Rules 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e) under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”)) as of the end of the period covered by this report. Based on such evaluation, our chief executive officer and chief financial officer have concluded that, as of the end of such period, our disclosure controls and procedures are effective.
 
 
Our management is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting. Internal control over financial reporting is defined in Rule 13a-15(f) and 15d-15(f) under the Exchange Act as a process designed by, or under the supervision of, our principal executive and principal financial officers and effected by our Board of Directors, management and other personnel to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles and includes those policies and procedures that:
 
  •  pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of assets;
 
  •  provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures are being made only in accordance with authorizations of our management and directors; and
 
  •  provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use or disposition of assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.
 
Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risks that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.


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Management assessed the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2009. In making this assessment, management used the criteria set forth by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO) in Internal Control-Integrated Framework.
 
Based on their assessment, management concluded that, as of December 31, 2009, our internal control over financial reporting is effective.
 
Our independent registered public accounting firm has issued an attestation report on our internal control over financial reporting.
 
 
There has been no change in our internal control over financial reporting (as defined in Rules 13a-15(f) and 15d-15(f) under the Exchange Act) during the fourth quarter of 2009 that has materially affected, or is reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting.


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Stockholders and Board of Directors Apartment Investment and Management Company
 
We have audited Apartment Investment and Management Company’s (the “Company”) internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2009, based on criteria established in Internal Control — Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (the COSO criteria). The Company’s management is responsible for maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting, and for its assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting included in the accompanying Management’s Report on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s internal control over financial reporting based on our audit.
 
We conducted our audit in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States). Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether effective internal control over financial reporting was maintained in all material respects. Our audit included obtaining an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, assessing the risk that a material weakness exists, testing and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of internal control based on the assessed risk, and performing such other procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. We believe that our audit provides a reasonable basis for our opinion.
 
A company’s internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. A company’s internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (1) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the company; (2) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the company; and (3) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use or disposition of the company’s assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.
 
Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.
 
In our opinion, the Company maintained, in all material respects, effective internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2009, based on the COSO criteria.
 
We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States), the consolidated balance sheets of the Company as of December 31, 2009 and 2008, and the related consolidated statements of income, equity, and cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2009, and our report dated February 26, 2010 expressed an unqualified opinion thereon.
 
/s/  Ernst & Young LLP
 
Denver, Colorado
February 26, 2010


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Item 9B.   Other Information
 
None.
 
 
Item 10.   Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance
 
The information required by this item is presented under the captions “Board of Directors and Executive Officers,” “Corporate Governance Matters — Code of Ethics,” “Other Matters — Section 16(a) Beneficial Ownership Reporting Compliance,” “Corporate Governance Matters — Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee,” “Corporate Governance Matters — Audit Committee” and “Corporate Governance Matters — Audit Committee Financial Expert” in the proxy statement for our 2010 annual meeting of stockholders and is incorporated herein by reference.
 
Item 11.   Executive Compensation
 
The information required by this item is presented under the captions “Compensation Discussion & Analysis,” “Compensation and Human Resources Committee Report to Stockholders,” “Summary Compensation Table,” “Grants of Plan-Based Awards in 2009,” “Outstanding Equity Awards at Fiscal Year End 2009,” “Option Exercises and Stock Vested in 2009,” “Potential Payments Upon Termination or Change in Control” and “Corporate Governance Matters — Director Compensation” in the proxy statement for our 2010 annual meeting of stockholders and is incorporated herein by reference.
 
Item 12.   Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters
 
The information required by this item is presented under the captions “Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management” and “Securities Authorized for Issuance Under Equity Compensation Plans” in the proxy statement for our 2010 annual meeting of stockholders and is incorporated herein by reference.
 
Item 13.   Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence
 
The information required by this item is presented under the caption “Certain Relationships and Related Transactions” and “Corporate Governance Matters — Independence of Directors” in the proxy statement for our 2010 annual meeting of stockholders and is incorporated herein by reference.
 
Item 14.   Principal Accountant Fees and Services
 
The information required by this item is presented under the caption “Principal Accountant Fees and Services” in the proxy statement for our 2010 annual meeting of stockholders and is incorporated herein by reference.


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Item 15.   Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules
 
(a)(1)  The financial statements listed in the Index to Financial Statements on Page F-1 of this report are filed as part of this report and incorporated herein by reference.
 
(a)(2)  The financial statement schedule listed in the Index to Financial Statements on Page F-1 of this report is filed as part of this report and incorporated herein by reference.
 
(a)(3)  The Exhibit Index is incorporated herein by reference.
 
 
         
Exhibit No.
 
Description
 
  3 .1   Charter (Exhibit 3.1 to Aimco’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2008, is incorporated herein by this reference)
  3 .2   Amended and Restated Bylaws (Exhibit 3.2 to Aimco’s Current Report on Form 8-K dated February 4, 2010, is incorporated herein by this reference)
  10 .1   Fourth Amended and Restated Agreement of Limited Partnership of AIMCO Properties, L.P., dated as of July 29, 1994, as amended and restated as of February 28, 2007 (Exhibit 10.1 to Aimco’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2006, is incorporated herein by this reference)
  10 .2   First Amendment to Fourth Amended and Restated Agreement of Limited Partnership of AIMCO Properties, L.P., dated as of December 31, 2007 (Exhibit 10.1 to Aimco’s Current Report on Form 8-K, dated December 31, 2007, is incorporated herein by this reference)
  10 .3   Second Amendment to the Fourth Amended and Restated Agreement of Limited Partnership of AIMCO Properties, L.P., dated as of July 30, 2009 (Exhibit 10.1 to Aimco’s Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarterly period ended June 30, 2009, is incorporated herein by this reference)
  10 .4   Amended and Restated Secured Credit Agreement, dated as of November 2, 2004, by and among Aimco, AIMCO Properties, L.P., AIMCO/Bethesda Holdings, Inc., and NHP Management Company as the borrowers and Bank of America, N.A., Keybank National Association, and the Lenders listed therein (Exhibit 4.1 to Aimco’s Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarterly period ended September 30, 2004, is incorporated herein by this reference)
  10 .5   First Amendment to Amended and Restated Secured Credit Agreement, dated as of June 16, 2005, by and among Aimco, AIMCO Properties, L.P., AIMCO/Bethesda Holdings, Inc., and NHP Management Company as the borrowers and Bank of America, N.A., Keybank National Association, and the Lenders listed therein (Exhibit 10.1 to Aimco’s Current Report on Form 8-K, dated June 16, 2005, is incorporated herein by this reference)
  10 .6   Second Amendment to Amended and Restated Senior Secured Credit Agreement, dated as of March 22, 2006, by and among Aimco, AIMCO Properties, L.P., and AIMCO/Bethesda Holdings, Inc., as the borrowers, and Bank of America, N.A., Keybank National Association, and the lenders listed therein (Exhibit 10.1 to Aimco’s Current Report on Form 8-K, dated March 22, 2006, is incorporated herein by this reference)
  10 .7   Third Amendment to Senior Secured Credit Agreement, dated as of August 31, 2007, by and among Apartment Investment and Management Company, AIMCO Properties, L.P., and AIMCO/Bethesda Holdings, Inc., as the Borrowers, the pledgors and guarantors named therein, Bank of America, N.A., as administrative agent and Bank of America, N.A., Keybank National Association and the other lenders listed therein (Exhibit 10.1 to Aimco’s Current Report on Form 8-K, dated August 31, 2007, is incorporated herein by this reference)


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Exhibit No.
 
Description
 
  10 .8   Fourth Amendment to Senior Secured Credit Agreement, dated as of September 14, 2007, by and among Apartment Investment and Management Company, AIMCO Properties, L.P., and AIMCO/Bethesda Holdings, Inc., as the Borrowers, the pledgors and guarantors named therein, Bank of America, N.A., as administrative agent and Bank of America, N.A., Keybank National Association and the other lenders listed therein (Exhibit 10.1 to Aimco’s Current Report on Form 8-K, dated September 14, 2007, is incorporated herein by this reference)
  10 .9   Fifth Amendment to Senior Secured Credit Agreement, dated as of September 9, 2008, by and among Apartment Investment and Management Company, AIMCO Properties, L.P., and AIMCO/Bethesda Holdings, Inc., as the Borrowers, the pledgors and guarantors named therein, Bank of America, N.A., as administrative agent and Bank of America, N.A., Keybank National Association and the other lenders listed therein (Exhibit 10.1 to Aimco’s Current Report on Form 8-K, dated September 11, 2008, is incorporated herein by this reference)
  10 .10   Sixth Amendment to Senior Secured Credit Agreement, dated as of May 1, 2009, by and among Apartment Investment and Management Company, AIMCO Properties, L.P., and AIMCO/Bethesda Holdings, Inc., as the Borrowers, the pledgors and guarantors named therein, Bank of America, N.A., as administrative agent and Bank of America, N.A., Keybank National Association and the other lenders listed therein (Exhibit 10.1 to Aimco’s Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarterly period ended March 31, 2009, is incorporated herein by this reference)
  10 .11   Seventh Amendment to Senior Secured Credit Agreement, dated as of August 4, 2009, by and among Apartment Investment and Management Company, AIMCO Properties, L.P., and AIMCO/Bethesda Holdings, Inc., as the Borrowers, the pledgors and guarantors named therein and the lenders party thereto (Exhibit 10.1 to Aimco’s Current Report on Form 8-K, dated August 6, 2009, is incorporated herein by this reference)
  10 .12   Eighth Amendment to Senior Secured Credit Agreement, dated as of February 3, 2010, by and among Apartment Investment and Management Company, AIMCO Properties, L.P., and AIMCO/Bethesda Holdings, Inc., as the Borrowers, the pledgors and guarantors named therein and the lenders party thereto (Exhibit 10.1 to Aimco’s Current Report on Form 8-K, dated February 5, 2010, is incorporated herein by this reference)
  10 .13   Master Indemnification Agreement, dated December 3, 2001, by and among Apartment Investment and Management Company, AIMCO Properties, L.P., XYZ Holdings LLC, and the other parties signatory thereto (Exhibit 2.3 to Aimco’s Current Report on Form 8-K, dated December 6, 2001, is incorporated herein by this reference)
  10 .14   Tax Indemnification and Contest Agreement, dated December 3, 2001, by and among Apartment Investment and Management Company, National Partnership Investments, Corp., and XYZ Holdings LLC and the other parties signatory thereto (Exhibit 2.4 to Aimco’s Current Report on Form 8-K, dated December 6, 2001, is incorporated herein by this reference)
  10 .15   Limited Liability Company Agreement of AIMCO JV Portfolio #1, LLC dated as of December 30, 2003 by and among AIMCO BRE I, LLC, AIMCO BRE II, LLC and SRV-AJVP#1, LLC (Exhibit 10.54 to Aimco’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2003, is incorporated herein by this reference)
  10 .16   Employment Contract executed on December 29, 2008, by and between AIMCO Properties, L.P. and Terry Considine (Exhibit 10.1 to Aimco’s Current Report on Form 8-K, dated December 29, 2008, is incorporated herein by this reference)*
  10 .17   Apartment Investment and Management Company 1997 Stock Award and Incentive Plan (October 1999) (Exhibit 10.26 to Aimco’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 1999, is incorporated herein by this reference)*
  10 .18   Form of Restricted Stock Agreement (1997 Stock Award and Incentive Plan) (Exhibit 10.11 to Aimco’s Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarterly period ended September 30, 1997, is incorporated herein by this reference)*

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Exhibit No.
 
Description
 
  10 .19   Form of Incentive Stock Option Agreement (1997 Stock Award and Incentive Plan) (Exhibit 10.42 to Aimco’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 1998, is incorporated herein by this reference)*
  10 .20   2007 Stock Award and Incentive Plan (incorporated by reference to Appendix A to Aimco’s Proxy Statement on Schedule 14A filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on March 20, 2007)*
  10 .21   Form of Restricted Stock Agreement (Exhibit 10.2 to Aimco’s Current Report on Form 8-K, dated April 30, 2007, is incorporated herein by this reference)*
  10 .22   Form of Non-Qualified Stock Option Agreement (Exhibit 10.3 to Aimco’s Current Report on Form 8-K, dated April 30, 2007, is incorporated herein by this reference)*
  10 .23   2007 Employee Stock Purchase Plan (incorporated by reference to Appendix B to Aimco’s Proxy Statement on Schedule 14A filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on March 20, 2007)*
  21 .1   List of Subsidiaries
  23 .1   Consent of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
  31 .1   Certification of Chief Executive Officer pursuant to Securities Exchange Act Rules 13a-14(a)/15d-14(a), as Adopted Pursuant to Section 302 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002
  31 .2   Certification of Chief Financial Officer pursuant to Securities Exchange Act Rules 13a-14(a)/15d-14(a), as Adopted Pursuant to Section 302 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002
  32 .1   Certification Pursuant to 18 U.S.C. Section 1350, as Adopted Pursuant to Section 906 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002
  32 .2   Certification Pursuant to 18 U.S.C. Section 1350, as Adopted Pursuant to Section 906 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002
  99 .1   Agreement re: disclosure of long-term debt instruments
 
 
(1) Schedule and supplemental materials to the exhibits have been omitted but will be provided to the Securities and Exchange Commission upon request.
 
(2) The file reference number for all exhibits is 001-13232, and all such exhibits remain available pursuant to the Records Control Schedule of the Securities and Exchange Commission.
 
*  Management contract or compensatory plan or arrangement

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Pursuant to the requirements of Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, the registrant has duly caused this report to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized.
 
Apartment Investment And
Management Company
 
  By: 
/s/  Terry Considine
Terry Considine
Chairman of the Board and
Chief Executive Officer
 
Date: February 26, 2010
 
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, this report has been signed below by the following persons on behalf of the registrant and in the capacities and on the dates indicated.
 
             
Signature
 
Title
 
Date
 
         
/s/  Terry Considine

Terry Considine
  Chairman of the Board and
Chief Executive Officer
(principal executive officer)
  February 26, 2010
         
/s/  Ernest M. Freedman

Ernest M. Freedman
  Executive Vice President and
Chief Financial Officer
(principal financial officer)
  February 26, 2010
         
/s/  Paul Beldin

Paul Beldin
  Senior Vice President and
Chief Accounting Officer
(principal accounting officer)
  February 26, 2010
         
/s/  James N. Bailey

James N. Bailey
  Director   February 26, 2010
         
/s/  Richard S. Ellwood

Richard S. Ellwood
  Director   February 26, 2010
         
/s/  Thomas L. Keltner

Thomas L. Keltner
  Director   February 26, 2010
         
/s/  J. Landis Martin

J. Landis Martin
  Director   February 26, 2010
         
/s/  Robert A. Miller

Robert A. Miller
  Director   February 26, 2010
         
/s/  Michael A. Stein

Michael A. Stein
  Director   February 26, 2010


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APARTMENT INVESTMENT AND MANAGEMENT COMPANY
 
 
         
    Page
 
Financial Statements:
       
    F-2  
    F-3  
    F-4  
    F-5  
    F-6  
    F-8  
Financial Statement Schedule:
       
    F-53  
All other schedules are omitted because they are not applicable or the required information is shown in the financial statements or notes thereto.
       


F-1


Table of Contents

 
 
Stockholders and Board of Directors Apartment Investment and Management Company
 
We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Apartment Investment and Management Company (the “Company”) as of December 31, 2009 and 2008, and the related consolidated statements of income, equity and cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2009. Our audits also included the financial statement schedule listed in the accompanying Index to Financial Statements. These financial statements and schedule are the responsibility of the Company’s management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on these financial statements and schedule based on our audits.
 
We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States). Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement. An audit includes examining, on a test basis, evidence supporting the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. An audit also includes assessing the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall financial statement presentation. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.
 
In our opinion, the financial statements referred to above present fairly, in all material respects, the consolidated financial position of the Company at December 31, 2009 and 2008, and the consolidated results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2009, in conformity with United States generally accepted accounting principles. Also, in our opinion, the related financial statement schedule, when considered in relation to the basic financial statements taken as a whole, presents fairly, in all material respects the information set forth therein.
 
The consolidated financial statements include retroactive adjustments to reflect the adoption in 2009 of Statement of Financial Accounting Standards No. 160, Noncontrolling Interests in Consolidated Financial Statements, an amendment to ARB 51 (codified in FASB ASC 810), Statement of Financial Accounting Standards No. 141(R), Business Combinations — a replacement of FASB Statement No 141 (codified in FASB ASC 805), FASB Staff Position No. EITF 03-6-1, Determining Whether Instruments Granted in Share-Based Payment Transactions are Participating Securities (codified in FASB ASC 260), and FASB Accounting Standards Update No. 2010-01, Accounting for Distributions to Shareholders with Components of Stock and Cash (codified in FASB ASC 505). Further, the Company retrospectively adjusted the 2008 and 2007 consolidated financial statements to reflect real estate assets that meet the definition of a component and have been sold or meet the criteria to be classified as held for sale at December 31, 2009 pursuant to Statement of Financial Accounting Standards No. 144, Accounting for the Impairment or Disposal of Long-Lived Assets (codified in FASB ASC 360), through December 31, 2009. As discussed in Note 2 to the consolidated financial statements, the consolidated statement of income for the year ended December 31, 2008 has been restated to reclassify provisions for impairment losses on real estate development assets into operating income.
 
We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States), the Company’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2009, based on criteria established in Internal Control — Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission and our report dated February 26, 2010 expressed an unqualified opinion thereon.
 
/s/  ERNST & YOUNG LLP
 
Denver, Colorado
February 26, 2010


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Table of Contents

 
 
                 
    2009     2008  
 
ASSETS
Real estate:
               
Buildings and improvements
  $ 7,479,480     $ 7,278,734  
Land
    2,183,927       2,167,574  
                 
Total real estate
    9,663,407       9,446,308  
Less accumulated depreciation
    (2,701,046 )     (2,320,671 )
                 
Net real estate
    6,962,361       7,125,637  
Cash and cash equivalents
    81,260       299,676  
Restricted cash
    220,037       253,315  
Accounts receivable, net
    59,822       90,318  
Accounts receivable from affiliates, net
    23,744       38,978  
Deferred financing costs, net
    52,725       51,568  
Notes receivable from unconsolidated real estate partnerships, net
    14,295       22,567  
Notes receivable from non-affiliates, net
    125,269       139,897  
Investment in unconsolidated real estate partnerships
    105,324       119,036  
Other assets
    185,890       198,713  
Deferred income tax assets, net
    42,015       28,326  
Assets held for sale
    33,726       1,073,839  
                 
Total assets
  $ 7,906,468     $ 9,441,870  
                 
 
LIABILITIES AND EQUITY
Property tax-exempt bond financing
  $ 574,926     $ 629,499  
Property loans payable
    4,972,327       4,944,324  
Term loans
    90,000       400,000  
Other borrowings
    53,057       95,981  
                 
Total indebtedness
    5,690,310       6,069,804  
                 
Accounts payable
    29,819       64,241  
Accrued liabilities and other
    286,328       569,996  
Deferred income
    182,485       193,810  
Security deposits
    35,764       37,244  
Liabilities related to assets held for sale
    30,403       771,878  
                 
Total liabilities
    6,255,109       7,706,973  
                 
Preferred noncontrolling interests in Aimco Operating Partnership
    86,656       88,148  
Preferred stock subject to repurchase agreement (Note 11)
    30,000        
Commitments and contingencies (Note 8)
           
Equity:
               
Perpetual Preferred Stock (Note 11)
    660,500       696,500  
Class A Common Stock, $0.01 par value, 426,157,736 shares authorized, 116,479,791 and 100,631,881 shares issued and outstanding, at December 31, 2009 and 2008, respectively
    1,165       1,006  
Additional paid-in capital
    3,072,665       2,910,002  
Accumulated other comprehensive loss
    (1,138 )     (2,249 )
Notes due on common stock purchases
    (1,392 )     (3,607 )
Distributions in excess of earnings
    (2,492,082 )     (2,335,628 )
                 
Total Aimco equity
    1,239,718       1,266,024  
                 
Noncontrolling interests in consolidated real estate partnerships
    316,177       380,725  
Common noncontrolling interests in Aimco Operating Partnership
    (21,192 )      
                 
Total equity
    1,534,703       1,646,749  
                 
Total liabilities and equity
  $ 7,906,468     $ 9,441,870  
                 
 
See notes to consolidated financial statements.


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Table of Contents

APARTMENT INVESTMENT AND MANAGEMENT COMPANY

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF INCOME
For the Years Ended December 31, 2009, 2008 and 2007
(In thousands, except per share data)
 
                         
    2009     2008     2007  
          (as restated
       
          see Note 2)        
 
REVENUES:
                       
Rental and other property revenues
  $ 1,140,828     $ 1,137,995     $ 1,093,779  
Property management revenues, primarily from affiliates
    5,082       6,345       6,923  
Asset management and tax credit revenues
    49,853       98,830       73,755  
                         
Total revenues
    1,195,763       1,243,170       1,174,457  
                         
OPERATING EXPENSES:
                       
Property operating expenses
    521,161       526,238       503,890  
Property management expenses
    2,869       5,385       6,678  
Investment management expenses
    15,779       24,784       20,507  
Depreciation and amortization
    444,413       392,999       347,491  
Provision for operating real estate impairment losses
    2,329             1,080  
Provision for impairment losses on real estate development assets
          91,138        
General and administrative expenses
    69,567       99,157       90,674  
Other expenses, net
    17,891       22,568       19,338  
Restructuring costs
    11,241       22,802        
                         
Total operating expenses
    1,085,250       1,185,071       989,658  
                         
Operating income
    110,513       58,099       184,799  
Interest income
    9,341       19,914       43,222  
Provision for losses on notes receivable, net
    (21,549 )     (17,577 )     (2,010 )
Interest expense
    (324,160 )     (324,118 )     (313,038 )
Equity in losses of unconsolidated real estate partnerships
    (12,025 )     (4,601 )     (3,347 )
Impairment losses related to unconsolidated real estate partnerships
    (322 )     (2,661 )      
Gain on dispositions of unconsolidated real estate and other
    22,494       99,864       24,470  
                         
Loss before income taxes and discontinued operations
    (215,708 )     (171,080 )     (65,904 )
Income tax benefit
    18,671       53,202       19,795  
                         
Loss from continuing operations
    (197,037 )     (117,878 )     (46,109 )
Income from discontinued operations, net
    152,237       744,880       171,615  
                         
Net (loss) income
    (44,800 )     627,002       125,506  
Noncontrolling interests:
                       
Net income attributable to noncontrolling interests in consolidated real estate partnerships
    (22,541 )     (155,727 )     (92,165 )
Net income attributable to preferred noncontrolling interests in Aimco Operating Partnership
    (6,288 )     (7,646 )     (7,128 )
Net loss (income) attributable to common noncontrolling interests in Aimco Operating Partnership
    9,355       (51,622 )     3,698  
                         
Total noncontrolling interests
    (19,474 )     (214,995 )     (95,595 )
                         
Net (loss) income attributable to Aimco
    (64,274 )     412,007       29,911  
Net income attributable to Aimco preferred stockholders
    (50,566 )     (53,708 )     (66,016 )
Net income attributable to participating securities
          (6,985 )     (4,481 )
                         
Net (loss) income attributable to Aimco common stockholders
  $ (114,840 )   $ 351,314     $ (40,586 )
                         
Earnings (loss) per common share — basic and diluted:
                       
Loss from continuing operations attributable to Aimco common stockholders
  $ (1.75 )   $ (2.10 )   $ (1.41 )
Income from discontinued operations attributable to Aimco common stockholders
    0.75       6.06       0.98  
                         
Net (loss) income attributable to Aimco common stockholders
  $ (1.00 )   $ 3.96     $ (0.43 )
                         
Weighted average common shares outstanding — basic and diluted
    114,301       88,690       95,107  
                         
Dividends declared per common share
  $ 0.40     $ 7.48     $ 4.31  
                         
 
See notes to consolidated financial statements.


F-4


Table of Contents

 
APARTMENT INVESTMENT AND MANAGEMENT COMPANY
 
 
                                                                                         
                                  Accumulated
    Notes Due
                         
    Preferred Stock     Common Stock     Additional
    Other
    on Common
    Distributions in
    Total
             
    Shares
          Shares
          Paid-in
    Comprehensive
    Stock
    Excess of
    Aimco
    Noncontrolling
    Total
 
    Issued     Amount     Issued     Amount     Capital     Loss     Purchases     Earnings     Equity     Interests     Equity  
 
Balances at December 31, 2006
    26,845     $ 823,500       96,820     $ 968     $ 3,095,564     $   (134 )   $  (4,714 )   $ (1,575,292 )   $ 2,339,892     $  310,289     $ 2,650,181  
Redemption of Preferred Stock and preferred partnership units
    (1,905 )     (100,000 )                 635                   (2,635 )     (102,000 )           (102,000 )
Cumulative effect of change in accounting principle — adoption of FIN 48
                                              (764 )     (764 )     (81 )     (845 )
Redemption of Aimco Operating Partnership units for Common Stock
                471       5       27,848                         27,853       (27,810 )     43  
Repurchases of Common Stock and common partnership units
                (7,456 )     (75 )     (325,747 )                       (325,822 )     (2,181 )     (328,003 )
Repayment of notes receivable from officers
                                        1,659             1,659             1,659  
Officer and employee stock awards and purchases, net
                313       3       2,555             (2,386 )           172             172  
Stock options exercised
                1,403       14       53,705                         53,719             53,719  
Amortization of stock option and restricted stock compensation cost
                            19,224                         19,224             19,224  
Issuance of Aimco Operating Partnership units
                                                          2,998       2,998  
Contributions from noncontrolling interests
                                                          203,552       203,552  
Adjustment to noncontrolling interests from VMS transactions (Note 3)
                                                          62,820       62,820  
Adjustment to noncontrolling interests from consolidation of entities
                                                          91,219       91,219  
Reversal of excess income tax benefits related to stock-based compensation and other
                            (751 )                       (751 )           (751 )
Change in accumulated other comprehensive income
                                  (550 )                 (550 )     365       (185 )
Net income
                                              29,911       29,911       88,467       118,378  
Common dividends and distributions
                                              (406,121 )     (406,121 )     (252,887 )     (659,008 )
Preferred Stock dividends
                                              (64,817 )     (64,817 )           (64,817 )
                                                                                         
Balances at December 31, 2007
    24,940       723,500       91,551       915       2,873,033       (684 )     (5,441 )     (2,019,718 )     1,571,605       476,751       2,048,356  
                                                                                         
Repurchase of Preferred Stock
          (27,000 )                 678                   1,482       (24,840 )           (24,840 )
Redemption of Aimco Operating Partnership units for Common Stock
                114       1       4,181                         4,182       (4,182 )      
Repurchases of Common Stock and common partnership units
                (13,919 )     (139 )     (473,393 )                       (473,532 )     (3,192 )     (476,724 )
Repayment of notes receivable from officers
                                        1,458             1,458             1,458  
Officer and employee stock awards and purchases, net
                106       1       651             376             1,028             1,028  
Amortization of stock option and restricted stock compensation cost