Applied Materials 10-K 2009
Documents found in this filing:
UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
Commission file number 000-06920
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Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrants knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K. þ
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Aggregate market value of the voting stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant as of April 26, 2009, based upon the closing sale price reported by the NASDAQ Global Select Market on that date: $15,579,209,892
Number of shares outstanding of the registrants Common Stock, $.01 par value, as of November 20, 2009: 1,341,259,033
Portions of the definitive Proxy Statement for Applied Materials, Inc.s Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be held on March 9, 2010 are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Form 10-K.
Certain information in this Annual Report on Form 10-K (report or Form 10-K) of Applied Materials, Inc. and its subsidiaries (Applied or the Company), including Managements Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations in Item 7, is forward-looking in nature. All statements in this report, including those made by the management of Applied, other than statements of historical fact, are forward-looking statements. Examples of forward-looking statements include statements regarding Applieds future financial results, operating results, cash flows and cash deployment strategies, business strategies, costs, products, working capital, competitive positions, managements plans and objectives for future operations, research and development, acquisitions and joint ventures, growth opportunities, customer contracts, investments, liquidity, declaration of dividends, and legal proceedings, as well as market conditions and industry trends. These forward-looking statements are based on managements estimates, projections and assumptions as of the date hereof and include the assumptions that underlie such statements. Forward-looking statements may contain words such as may, will, should, could, would, expect, plan, anticipate, believe, estimate, predict, potential and continue, the negative of these terms, or other comparable terminology. Any expectations based on these forward-looking statements are subject to risks and uncertainties and other important factors, including those discussed in Item 1A, Risk Factors, below and elsewhere in this report. Other risks and uncertainties may be disclosed in Applieds prior Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) filings. These and many other factors could affect Applieds future financial condition and operating results and could cause actual results to differ materially from expectations based on forward-looking statements made in this report or elsewhere by Applied or on its behalf. Applied undertakes no obligation to revise or update any forward-looking statements.
The following information should be read in conjunction with the Consolidated Financial Statements and the accompanying Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in this report.
APPLIED MATERIALS, INC.
FORM 10-K FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDED OCTOBER 25, 2009
Incorporated in 1967, Applied, a Delaware corporation, provides Nanomanufacturing Technologytm solutions for the global semiconductor, flat panel display, solar and related industries, with a broad portfolio of innovative equipment, service and software products. Nanomanufacturing is the production of ultra-small structures, including the engineering of thin films on substrates. Applieds customers include manufacturers of semiconductor wafers and chips, flat panel liquid crystal displays (LCDs), solar photovoltaic cells and modules (solar PVs), and other electronic devices, who use what they manufacture in their own end products or sell the items to other companies for use in advanced electronic components. The Companys fiscal year ends on the last Sunday in October.
Applied is the worlds largest semiconductor fabrication equipment supplier based on revenue, with the capability to provide global deployment and support services. Applied also is the leading supplier of LCD fabrication equipment to the flat panel display industry and in 2009 Applied was named by VLSI Research as the leading supplier of solar PV manufacturing systems to the solar industry.
Applied operates in four reportable segments: Silicon, Applied Global Services, Display, and Energy and Environmental Solutions. A summary of financial information for each reportable segment is found in Note 12 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements. A discussion of factors that could affect Applieds operations is set forth under Risk Factors in Item 1A, which is incorporated herein by reference.
Applieds Silicon Systems Group (SSG), reported under its Silicon segment, develops, manufactures and sells a wide range of manufacturing equipment used to fabricate semiconductor chips, also referred to as integrated circuits (ICs). Most chips are built on a silicon wafer base and include a variety of circuit components, such as transistors and other devices, that are connected by multiple layers of wiring (interconnects). Applied offers systems that perform most of the primary processes used in chip fabrication including atomic layer deposition (ALD), chemical vapor deposition (CVD), physical vapor deposition (PVD), etch, rapid thermal processing (RTP), chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) and wafer metrology and inspection, as well as systems that etch, measure and inspect circuit patterns on masks used in the photolithography process. Applieds semiconductor manufacturing systems are used by both integrated device manufacturers and foundries to build memory, logic and other types of chips.
To build a chip, the transistors, capacitors and other circuit components are first created on the surface of the wafer by performing a series of processes to deposit and selectively remove portions of successive film layers. Similar processes are then used to build the layers of wiring structures on the wafer. As the density of the circuit components increases to enable greater computing capability in the same or smaller physical area, the complexity of building the chip also increases, necessitating more process steps to form smaller structures and more intricate wiring schemes. A typical, simplified process sequence for building the wiring or interconnect portion of a chip involves initially depositing a dielectric film layer onto the base layer of circuit components using a CVD system. An etch system is then used to create openings and patterns in the dielectric layer. To form the metal interconnects, these openings and patterns are subsequently filled with conducting material using PVD and/or electroplating technologies. A CMP step then polishes the wafer to achieve a flat surface. Additional deposition, etch and CMP steps are then performed to build up the layers needed to complete the interconnection of the circuit elements. Advanced chip designs require more than 500 steps involving these and other processes to complete the manufacturing cycle.
While some device manufacturers are still using aluminum as the main conducting material for building interconnect structures, most have transitioned to copper. Copper has lower resistance than aluminum and can carry more current in a smaller area. Applied is the leading supplier of systems for manufacturing copper-based chips, including equipment for depositing, etching and planarizing copper interconnect layers. Complementing the transition to copper to improve chip speed is the use of low dielectric constant (low k) films to replace silicon
dioxide material as the insulator between the copper wiring structures. Applied also leads the industry in providing systems for depositing low k dielectric films.
The transistor is another key area of the chip where semiconductor manufacturers are improving their device designs to enhance speed. Applied has the industrys largest portfolio of technically advanced products for building smaller and faster transistors. One method of enhancing chip performance is strain engineering, a technique that stretches or compresses the space between atoms, allowing electrical current to flow more quickly. Multiple strain films are typically used in advanced devices since they have an additive effect on increasing transistor speed. Applied has a comprehensive portfolio of systems to enable these applications using CVD and epitaxial deposition technologies.
Most chips currently are fabricated using 65 nanometer (nm) and larger linewidth dimensions, although Applied is also working with customers on new technology for advanced nodes such as 45nm and below. Major chipmakers have announced that they will be integrating new high dielectric constant (high-k) and metal materials and processes in their transistor gate structures to increase chip performance and reduce power consumption. Applied has a comprehensive portfolio of fully characterized processes for building these high-k/metal gates. These solutions include an integrated dielectric gate stack tool that combines four critical processes in a single system, a portfolio of metallization technologies using ALD and PVD, and an innovative high temperature etch system.
Another emerging area for Applieds technology is three-dimensional (3D) ICs in which chips are vertically stacked to deliver higher performance and functionality in a smaller area. The individual chips are electrically connected using deep holes called through-silicon vias (TSVs). Applied has the production-proven systems and processes required for the majority of TSV manufacturing steps, including mask, etch, film deposition and CMP systems. Applied is leading efforts to enable the adoption of TSV technology, working with consortiums and other equipment suppliers to lower the cost to customers for implementing TSV technology.
Most of Applieds semiconductor equipment products are single-wafer systems with multiple process chambers attached to a base platform. This enables each wafer to be processed separately in its own environment, allowing precise process control, while the systems multiple chambers enable simultaneous, high productivity manufacturing. Applied sells most of its single-wafer, multi-chamber systems on four basic platforms: the Centura®, the Endura®, the Producer® and the Vantage®. These platforms support ALD, CVD, PVD, etch and RTP technologies.
Over time, the semiconductor industry has migrated to increasingly larger wafers to build chips. The predominant or common wafer size used today for volume production of advanced chips is 300 millimeter (mm), or 12-inch, wafers. Applied offers a comprehensive range of 300mm systems. Applied also offers earlier-generation 200mm systems, as well as products and services to support all of its systems, which are reported under its Applied Global Services segment.
The following summarizes Applieds portfolio of products and their associated process technology areas reported under its Silicon segment.
Deposition is a fundamental step in fabricating a chip. During deposition, layers of dielectric (an insulator), barrier, or electrically conductive (typically metal) films are deposited or grown on a wafer. Applied currently provides equipment to perform three types of deposition: ALD, CVD and PVD. In addition, Applieds RTP systems can be used to perform certain types of dielectric deposition.
ALD is an advanced technology in which atoms are deposited one layer at a time to build chip structures. This technology enables customers to fabricate thin films of either conducting or insulating material with uniform coverage in sub-nanometer sized structures. Applied offers ALD chambers for depositing tungsten and high-k/metal gate films. The Applied Centura iSprinttm Tungsten system (iSprint) combines an ALD chamber, which deposits a tungsten nucleation film, with a CVD tungsten bulk fill process in one system. The iSprint is used to form contact structures that connect the transistors to the wiring areas of the chip. Applieds high-k/metal gate
ALD process is part of the Centura Advanced Gate Stack system, which enables a single integrated solution for building high-k/metal gate structures.
CVD is used to deposit dielectric and metal films on a wafer. During the CVD process, gases that contain atoms of the material to be deposited react on the wafer surface, forming a thin film of solid material. Films deposited by CVD may be silicon oxide, single-crystal epitaxial silicon, amorphous silicon, silicon nitride, dielectric anti-reflective coatings, low k dielectric (for highly efficient insulating materials), aluminum, titanium, titanium nitride, polysilicon, tungsten, refractory metals or silicides. Applied offers the following CVD products and technologies:
The Applied Producer CVD platform This high-throughput platform features Twin-Chamber® modules that have two single-wafer process chambers per unit. Up to three Twin-Chamber modules can be mounted on each Producer platform, giving it a simultaneous processing capacity of six wafers. Many dielectric CVD processes can be performed on this platform. The highest productivity model of this system is the Applied Producer GT, which has achieved rapid customer acceptance due to its fast wafer handling performance and compact design.
Low k Dielectric Films Low k dielectric materials are used in copper-based chip designs to further improve interconnect speed. Using conventional CVD equipment, the Applied Producer Black Diamond® family of low k systems provides customers with a proven, cost-effective way to integrate a variety of low k films into advanced interconnect structures. To further increase the performance of the complete multi-layer dielectric structure, Applied offers a line of BLOKtm (barrier low k) films deposited with the Producer system.
Lithography-Enabling Solutions Applied offers several technologies on the Producer system to help chipmakers extend their current 193nm lithography tools, including a line of Applied APF® (advanced patterning film) films and Applied DARC® (dielectric anti-reflective coating) films. Together, they provide a film stack with the precise dimensional control and compatibility needed to cost-effectively pattern nano-scale features without additional integration complexity.
Gap Fill Films There are many steps during the chipmaking process in which very small and deep, or high aspect ratio (HAR), structures must be filled void-free with a dielectric film. Many of these applications include the deposition of silicon oxides in substrate isolation structures, contacts and interconnects. The Applied Centura Ultima HDP-CVD® (high-density plasma CVD) system has been an industry workhorse, providing multi-generational gap-fill capability for both logic and memory devices. The Applied Producer HARP (high aspect ratio process) provides customers with device scaling capability to 32nm and below using sub-atmospheric CVD (SACVD) technology enabling the seamless, void-free fill of tightly packed HAR structures.
Strain Engineering Solutions The Applied Producer HARPtm system also plays a key role in enhancing transistor performance, enabling chipmakers to boost chip speed by depositing strain-inducing dielectric films. Offering the industrys first integrated stress nitride deposition and ultraviolet (UV) cure solution, the Applied Producer Celera CVD delivers benchmark levels of high-stress tensile silicon nitride films. The Company also offers the Applied Centura SiNgenPlus low pressure CVD system for low temperature silicon nitride films. Used together, and in conjunction with silicon germanium (SiGe) films using Applieds epitaxial deposition technologies, these systems can provide additive strain engineering benefits.
Epitaxial Deposition Epitaxial silicon (epitaxy or epi) is a layer of pure silicon grown in a uniform crystalline structure on the wafer to form a high quality base for the device circuitry. Epi technology is used in an increasing number of integrated circuit devices in both the wafer substrate and transistor areas of a chip to enhance speed. The Applied Centura Epi system integrates pre- and post-epi processes on the same system to improve film quality and reduce production costs. This system is also used for SiGe epi technology, which reduces power usage and increases speed in certain types of advanced chips. For emerging transistor designs, the Applied Centura RP Epi system offers selective epi processes to enable faster transistor switching through strain engineering techniques.
Polysilicon Deposition Polysilicon is a type of silicon used to form portions of the transistor structure within the integrated circuit device. The Applied Centura Polygentm LPCVD system is a single-wafer, multi-chamber product that deposits thin polysilicon films at high temperatures to create transistor gate structures. To address the challenging requirements of shrinking gate dimensions, the Applied Centura DPN Gate Stack system integrates chambers for decoupled plasma nitridation (DPN), RTP anneal and polysilicon deposition on one platform to enable superior film quality and material properties.
Tungsten Deposition Tungsten is used in the contact area of a chip that connects the transistors to the wiring circuitry. In aluminum-based devices, tungsten is also used in the structures that connect the multiple layers of aluminum wiring. Applied has two products for depositing tungsten: the Applied Centura Sprint® Tungsten CVD system for 90nm and below devices and the Applied Centura iSprint ALD/CVD system for more advanced applications. The latter product combines ALD technology and CVD chambers on the same platform.
PVD is a physical process in which atoms of a gas, such as argon, are accelerated toward a metal target. The metal atoms chip off, or sputter away, and are then deposited on the wafer. Applied leads the industry in PVD technology with its Applied Endura PVD system. This system offers a broad range of advanced deposition processes, including aluminum, aluminum alloys, cobalt, titanium/titanium nitride, tantalum/tantalum nitride, tungsten/tungsten nitride, nickel, vanadium and copper.
The Applied Endura CuBS (copper barrier/seed) PVD system is widely used by customers for fabricating copper-based chips. Using PVD technology, the system deposits a tantalum-based barrier film that prevents copper material from entering other areas of the device and then a copper seed layer that primes the structure for the subsequent deposition of bulk copper. This system also features Activ Pre-clean technology to provide clean film interfaces while preserving the k-value integrity of the structure. In 2009, the Company introduced the Applied Endura CuBS RFX PVD system, extending its cost-effective CuBS technology to the 22nm node. Applieds Endura system has also been used for many years in back-end applications to deposit metal layers before final bump or wire bonding packaging steps are performed. In 2009, the Company introduced a new cost-efficient platform specifically designed for under-bump metallization (UBM) and other back-end processes. The Applied Charger UBM PVD systems new linear architecture offers reliable performance and very high productivity at a low cost-per-wafer.
Etching is used many times throughout the integrated circuit manufacturing process to selectively remove material from the surface of a wafer. Before etching begins, the wafer is coated with a light-sensitive film, called photoresist. A photolithography process then projects the circuit pattern onto the wafer. Etching removes material only from areas dictated by the photoresist pattern. Applied offers a wide range of systems for etching dielectric, metal and silicon films to meet the requirements of sub-100nm processing.
For dielectric applications, the Applied Centura eMax® system etches a broad range of dielectric films in the contact and interconnect regions of the chip. Applieds Producer Etch system utilizes the Companys Twin-Chamber Producer platform to target cost-sensitive dielectric etch applications in 90nm and below design geometries. To address advanced low k etch applications, the Applied Centura Enabler® Etch system performs etch, strip and clean steps in a single chamber. The Enablers all-in-one capability streamlines the process flow for advanced chip designs and significantly reduces operating costs. The Applied Centura Carina system uses innovative, high-temperature technology to deliver the etch capability essential for scaling logic and memory devices with high-k/metal gates at 45nm and below.
The Applied Centura AdvantEdgetm Silicon Etch system offers chipmakers high precision gate etching for advanced-generation devices. The Applied Centura Mariana Trench Etch system provides customers with the capability to scale memory devices by etching 80:1 aspect ratio structures. In 2009, the Company introduced the Applied Centura Silvia system, specifically designed for etching small, deep holes for TSV applications in 3D-ICs. For etching metals, the Applied Opus AdvantEdge Metal Etch uses an optimized 5-chamber platform configuration
that enables customers to extend aluminum interconnect technology and productivity to sub-70nm dimensions for flash and DRAM memory applications.
RTP is a process in which a wafer is subjected to rapid bursts of intense heat that can take the wafer from room temperature to more than 1,000 degrees Celsius in less than 10 seconds. A rapid thermal process is used mainly for annealing, which modifies the properties, of deposited films. The Applied Centura Radiance®Plus and Applied Vantage RadOxtm RTP systems feature advanced RTP technology with differing platform designs. While the multi-chamber Centura platform offers exceptional process flexibility, the streamlined two-chamber Vantage platform is designed for dedicated high-volume manufacturing. These single-wafer RTP systems are also used for growing high quality oxide and oxynitride films, deposition steps that traditional large batch furnaces can no longer achieve with the necessary precision and control. With its proprietary radical-based oxidation process, the Applied Vantage RadOx system deposits high-performance transistor gate oxides with high productivity and low operating cost for flash memory applications.
The CMP process removes material from a wafer to create a flat (planarized) surface. This process allows subsequent photolithography patterning steps to occur with greater accuracy and enables film layers to build with minimal height variations. Applied has led the industry with its 300mm Applied Reflexion® LK system, with features such as integrated cleaning, film measurement and process control capabilities.
Applied offers several products for measuring features and inspecting defects on the wafer during various stages of the fabrication process. These systems enable customers to characterize and control critical dimension (CD) and defect issues, especially at advanced generation technology nodes.
Scanning electron microscopes (SEMs) use an electron beam to form images of microscopic features of a patterned wafer at extremely high magnification. Applieds SEM products provide customers with full automation, along with the high accuracy and sensitivity needed for measuring very small CDs. The Applied VeritySEM® Metrology system uses proprietary SEM imaging technology to enable precise control of the lithography and etching processes. The VeritySEM measures CDs at a precision of less than 3.2 angstroms, a requirement for 32nm and below device production and incorporates automation and software advancements for significantly higher throughput. Applieds OPC Checktm software for the VeritySEM system performs automated qualification of OPC-based (optical proximity correction) chip designs, significantly reducing mask (see Mask Making section below) verification time over conventional manual methods.
DR-SEMs review defects on the wafer (such as particles, scratches or residues) that are first located by a defect detection system and then classify the defects to identify their source. The high-throughput, fully automatic Applied SEMVisiontm Defect Analysis products enable customers to use this technology as an integral part of their production lines to analyze defects as small as 30nm with industry-leading throughput. The Applied SEMVision FIB integrates advanced defect review SEM capability with automated focused ion beam (FIB) technology in one system. The FIB provides a cross-sectional view of the defects reviewed by the SEM, enabling chipmakers to analyze the defects in minutes as part of their in-line review process.
Using laser-based technology, defects can be detected on patterned wafers (wafers with printed circuit images) as they move between processing steps. Defects include particles, open circuit lines, and shorts between lines. Incorporating key advances in imaging technology, the Applied ComPlustm Inspection system, for darkfield applications, detects defects in devices with design rules of 65nm and below with the high speed required for customers volume production lines. The Applied UVision® Inspection system is the industrys first laser-based,
three dimensional brightfield tool. Utilizing multi-beam, deep ultraviolet (DUV) laser illumination and high efficiency detectors, the UVision system uncovers previously undetectable defects on the wafer, enabling customers to rapidly resolve defect issues and achieve greater chip yields.
Masks are used by photolithography systems to transfer microscopic circuit designs onto wafers. Since an imperfection in a mask may be replicated on the wafer, the mask must be virtually defect-free. Applied provides systems for etching, cleaning and inspecting masks.
The Applied Tetra IIItm Advanced Reticle Etch system, an advanced etch tool for fabricating leading-edge masks, is used by virtually every advanced mask maker in the world for 45nm photomask development and production. The groundbreaking Applied Aera2tm Mask Inspection system allows customers to meet the most critical defect detection challenges of advanced masks. Using sophisticated aerial imaging technology, the Aera2 is the first mask inspection system that allows users to immediately see how the pattern on the mask will appear on the wafer, revealing only the defects most likely to print and significantly reducing inspection time.
The Applied Global Services segment encompasses products and services designed to improve the performance and productivity, and reduce the environmental impact, of the fab operations of semiconductor, LCD and solar PV manufacturers. The in-depth expertise and best known methods of Applieds extensive global support infrastructure enable Applied to continuously support customers production requirements. Trained customer engineers and process support engineers are deployed in more than a dozen countries. These engineers are usually located at or near customers fab sites and service over 31,000 installed Applied systems, as well as non-Applied systems. Applied offers the following general types of services and products:
Fab Services Applied offers a portfolio of fab-wide operations services to maintain and optimize customers fabrication facilities. Applied Performance Services offers customers comprehensive equipment support with performance-based pricing and predictable costs to enable improved cost of ownership. Included in this program is Applieds ExpertConnect remote diagnostic capability, providing expert support around the clock. The Company also offers Performance Services for its SunFabtm Thin Film Line for producing large-size solar PV panels. The first service product of its kind for the solar industry, the program enables customers to quickly ramp to volume production while optimizing the performance, cost and output of their SunFab lines.
The Company also offers Performance Spares, which are spare parts manufactured to Applieds strict technical specifications and quality standards. The Companys Metron Chamber Performance Services unit provides precision cleaning, technology-enhanced coating and refurbishment on chamber process kits and components. The unit also has extensive analytical testing capabilities to validate and certify performance specifications.
Mature Technology Services Applied offers a wide range of products and services to extend the productive life of 200mm semiconductor fabs, including new and remanufactured 200mm equipment, system enhancements and fab transition services. Designed to maximize productivity and lower cost of ownership, these products also assist customers in implementing green manufacturing solutions. Applieds 200mm systems are available in a broad range of production-proven technologies, including CVD, PVD, etch, implant, RTP, CMP, epitaxy, metrology and inspection tools.
Automation Systems Applied offers automated factory-level and tool-level control software systems for semiconductor, LCD and solar cell manufacturing facilities. These enterprise solutions include manufacturing execution systems (MES) to automate the production of wafers and LCD and solar substrates, advanced process control systems, and scheduling and materials handling control systems. Applied also offers computerized maintenance management systems, performance tracking, and modeling and simulation tools for improving asset utilization. Applieds breakthrough E3 equipment engineering system solution, for example, uniquely integrates all critical equipment automation and process control components. In 2009, the Company introduced its Applied SmartMove system, enabling wireless wafer management in non-automated 200mm and 300mm fabs.
Abatement Systems Applieds family of Metron abatement systems is a comprehensive line of environmental solutions for the semiconductor, solar and display industries. These systems include a wide range of point-of-use scrubbing tools such as wet, dry, thermal and integrated technologies for reliable, cost-effective abatement of exhaust gases. Applieds Marathon Series, for example, offers smart abatement technology that specifically targets perfluorocarbon effluents from processing systems.
Applieds AKT subsidiary, reported under the Display segment, designs, manufactures and sells equipment to fabricate thin film transistor LCDs for televisions, computer displays and other consumer-oriented electronic applications. While similarities exist between the technologies utilized in chipmaking and LCD fabrication, the most significant differences are in the size and composition of the substrate. Substrates used to manufacture LCD panels can be more than 70 times larger in area than 300mm wafers and are made of glass, while wafers are made of silicon. This technology for deposition on large-size substrates is also used in the Applied SunFabtm Thin Film Line.
Applied supplies a wide range of systems that process and test different glass substrate sizes. For fabricating the transistor layer of these panels, the Company offers a line of plasma-enhanced CVD (PECVD) systems that use multi-chamber platform architecture to deposit dielectric and semiconducting films. The AKT-PiVottm 55KV system employs high-productivity, cost-efficient PVD technology to deposit metal and transparent conductive oxide films on the substrate. For manufacturing the color filter of LCD panels, Applied offers the AKT-NEW ARISTOtm for transparent conductive oxide film deposition.
To complement these systems, Applied also offers a line of electron beam test (EBT) systems for testing substrates during production for defective pixels and other imperfections. Featuring one of the industrys fastest and most accurate pixel test technologies with the lowest operating cost, the EBT systems non-contact test technology enables the safe testing of high-value LCD TV panels without damaging or scratching the display.
To meet growing consumer demand for larger, more cost-efficient LCD TVs, LCD manufacturers have moved to increasingly larger-sized substrates. Applieds latest generation (Gen) 10 systems can process substrates sized at approximately 2.85 x 3.05 meters, with each substrate enabling the production of up to six 65-inch LCD TV screens. These Gen-10 systems include the AKT-90K PECVD and the Gen-10 AKT-90K EBT products.
The Energy and Environmental Solutions segment includes manufacturing solutions for the generation and conservation of energy. Applied entered the solar PV market in 2006, announcing its objective to lower the overall cost per watt of solar electricity to parity with that of electricity generated by other sources such as the burning of fossil fuels. Applied offers manufacturing solutions for both wafer-based crystalline silicon (c-Si) and glass-based thin film applications to enable customers to increase the conversion efficiency and yields of solar PV devices.
Applieds extensive portfolio of solar PV cell fabrication technologies has made it the leading supplier of c-Si manufacturing systems worldwide. Key benefits of these systems are high-productivity, advanced ultra-thin wafer handling, and extensive automation, helping customers to lower the cost per watt. Applied offers a comprehensive line of automated metallization and test systems for c-Si cell manufacturing. In 2009, the Company introduced its Baccini Esattotm Technology, a high precision, multi-step printing capability designed to increase the efficiency of c-Si solar cells. Applied also offers systems for slicing and squaring wafers from silicon ingots. In 2009, the Company introduced its Applied HCT MaxEdgetm wire saw, featuring the industrys first dual-wire management system for slicing ultra-thin wafers. Applied also introduced the HCT Diamond Squarertm system with novel diamond wire technology that eliminates the need for abrasive slurry and significantly cuts electricity consumption.
For thin film applications, Applied developed the Applied SunFab Thin Film Line, which is the worlds only integrated glass- in/panel-out production line for manufacturing thin film silicon solar modules using 5.7 square meter (m2) glass substrates. These ultra-large panels, which are approximately four times the size of thin film solar panels offered by others in the industry, are intended for large-scale applications such as solar farms, utilities and building-integrated solar PV system installations. Applied has entered into multiple contracts for its SunFab line with customers in Europe, Asia and Saudi Arabia. Several of these lines have passed final acceptance testing, and
customers have begun volume manufacturing of SunFab modules. SunFab modules have met the stringent requirements of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), certifying that these modules will meet performance and safety specifications under challenging environmental conditions. In 2009, Applied announced its second-generation SunFab technology that enables customers to achieve a 22% reduction in materials cost.
Products in this segment also include the ATONtm in-line deposition system, a large-area platform for high-quality deposition and high-throughput in both c-Si and thin film solar PV cell manufacturing, as well as processes, materials-handling technologies and fabrication services. Other products include roll-to-roll, vacuum web coating systems for high-performance deposition of a range of films on flexible substrates for functional, aesthetic or optical properties. In 2009, the Company shipped its new Applied Topmet 4450, the worlds largest and fastest roll-to-roll machine that deposits ultra-thin aluminum films for flexible packaging applications on 4.5m wide rolls of substrate material at 20 meters per second. Applied also offers large-area deposition equipment for the production of low-emissivity (low-E) and solar control architectural glass.
Applied manufactures systems to meet demand represented by order backlog and customer commitments. Backlog consists of: (1) orders for which written authorizations have been accepted and assigned shipment dates are within the next 12 months, or shipment has occurred but revenue has not been recognized; (2) contractual service revenue and maintenance fees to be earned within the next 12 months; and (3) orders for SunFab lines that are anticipated to be recognized as revenue within the next 12 months.
Applieds backlog decreased from $4.8 billion at October 26, 2008 to $2.7 billion at October 25, 2009. Applieds backlog on any particular date is not necessarily indicative of actual sales for any succeeding period. Customers may delay delivery of products or cancel orders prior to shipment, subject to possible cancellation penalties. Backlog adjustments were negative for fiscal 2009 and totaled $1.2 billion, consisting primarily of customer cancellations and financial debookings, reflecting the decline in demand for semiconductor equipment. Delays in delivery schedules and/or a reduction of backlog during any particular period could have a material adverse effect on Applieds business and results of operations.
Applieds manufacturing activities consist primarily of procurement, assembly, test and integration of various proprietary and commercial parts, components and subassemblies (collectively, parts) that are used to manufacture systems. Products in the Silicon segment are manufactured in Austin, Texas and Rehovot, Israel. Remanufactured products in the Applied Global Services segment are produced primarily in Austin, Texas. Products in the Display segment are manufactured in Santa Clara, California; Alzenau, Germany; and Tainan, Taiwan. Products in the Energy and Environmental Solutions segment are manufactured primarily in Alzenau, Germany; Cheseaux, Switzerland; Treviso, Italy; and Santa Clara, California. Manufacturing requires raw materials, including a wide variety of mechanical and electrical components, to be manufactured to Applieds specifications. Applied uses numerous companies, including contract manufacturers, to supply parts for the manufacture and support of its products. Although Applied makes reasonable efforts to assure that parts are available from multiple qualified suppliers, this is not always possible. Accordingly, some key parts may be obtained from only a single supplier or a limited group of suppliers. Applied seeks to reduce costs and to lower the risks of production and service interruptions, as well as shortages of key parts, by: (1) selecting and qualifying alternate suppliers for key parts; (2) monitoring the financial condition of key suppliers; (3) maintaining appropriate inventories of key parts; (4) qualifying new parts on a timely basis; and (5) locating certain manufacturing operations in areas that are closer to suppliers and customers.
Applieds long-term growth strategy requires continued development of new products. Applieds significant investment in research, development and engineering (RD&E) has generally enabled it to deliver new products and technologies before the emergence of strong demand, thus allowing customers to incorporate these products into their manufacturing plans at an early stage in the technology selection cycle. Applied works closely with its global
customers to design systems and processes that meet their planned technical and production requirements. Product development and engineering organizations are located primarily in the United States, as well as in Europe, Israel and China. In addition, Applied outsources certain RD&E activities, some of which are performed outside the United States. Process support and customer demonstration laboratories are located in the United States, China, Europe and Israel.
Applieds investments in RD&E for product development and engineering programs to create or improve products and technologies over the last three years were as follows: $934 million (19 percent of net sales) in fiscal 2009, $1.1 billion (14 percent of net sales) in fiscal 2008 and $1.1 billion (12 percent of net sales) in fiscal 2007. Applied has spent an average of 14 percent of net sales in RD&E over the last five years. In addition to RD&E for specific product technologies, Applied maintains ongoing programs for automation control systems, materials research and environmental control that are applicable to its products. In fiscal 2009, Applied focused on developing systems for semiconductor customers new chip designs with 32nm and below geometries, including systems to enable faster transistors using strain engineering and high-k/metal gate technologies, as well as double patterning processes that allows customers to extend their existing 193nm lithography tools through additional technology generations. Applied also focused on developing technology for through-silicon vias, an emerging solution for interconnecting three dimensional chip stacks to provide better device performance, lower power consumption and the integration of heterogeneous devices. RD&E also included activities to develop products that enable lower-cost production of solar energy and other products to enable energy conservation.
Because of the highly technical nature of its products, Applied markets and sells products worldwide through a direct sales force. Approximately 81 percent of Applieds fiscal 2009 net sales were to regions outside of the United States. Net sales to customers by region as a percentage of total net sales were: Taiwan 21 percent, North America (primarily the United States) 19 percent, Asia-Pacific (including China) 18 percent, Europe 15 percent, Japan 14 percent, and Korea 13 percent.
General economic conditions impact Applieds business and financial results. From time to time, the markets in which products are sold experience weak economic conditions that may negatively impact sales. Applieds business is usually not seasonal in nature, but it is cyclical, based on capital equipment investment by major semiconductor, flat panel display, solar PV and other manufacturers. These expenditures depend on many factors, including: anticipated market demand and pricing for semiconductors, LCDs, solar cells and modules, architectural glass and other substrates; the development of new technologies; customers factory utilization; capital resources and financing; and global and regional economic conditions.
Applied manages its business and reports financial results based on the segments described above, but does not allocate certain sales and marketing costs to the segments.
Information on net sales to unaffiliated customers and long-lived assets attributable to Applieds geographic regions is included in Note 12 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements. In fiscal 2009, Intel Corporation accounted for 12 percent of Applieds net sales. Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. accounted for 10 percent of Applieds net sales in fiscal 2009, 16 percent of net sales in fiscal 2008, and 12 percent of net sales in fiscal 2007. These net sales were for products in multiple reportable segments.
The industries in which Applied operates are highly competitive and characterized by rapid technological change. Applieds ability to compete generally depends on its ability to timely commercialize its technology, continually improve its products and develop new products that meet constantly evolving customer requirements. Significant competitive factors include technical capability and differentiation, productivity and cost-effectiveness. The importance of these factors varies according to customers needs, including product mix and respective product requirements, applications, and the timing and circumstances of purchasing decisions. Substantial competition exists in all areas of Applieds business. Competitors range from small companies that compete with a single product and/or in a single region, to global, diversified companies with a range of products. Applieds ability to
compete requires a high level of investment in RD&E, marketing and sales and global customer support activities. Management believes that many of Applieds products have strong competitive positions.
The competitive environment for each segment is described below:
The semiconductor industry has been increasingly driven by consumer demand for lower-cost electronic products with increased capability and, to a lesser extent, by demand for commercial applications. As a result, products within the Silicon segment are subject to rapid changes in customer requirements, including transitions to smaller dimensions, new materials and an increasing number of applications. While certain existing technologies may be adapted to new requirements, some applications create the need for an entirely different technical approach. The rapid pace of technological change can quickly diminish the value of current technologies and products and create opportunities for existing and new competitors. Applied offers a broad portfolio of technically differentiated products that must continuously evolve to satisfy customers requirements in order to compete effectively. Applied allocates resources among its many product offerings and therefore may decide not to invest in an individual product to the same degree as competitors who specialize in fewer products. There are many competitors serving the semiconductor manufacturing equipment industry, with some offering a single product line and others offering multiple product lines. These competitors range from suppliers serving a single region to global, diversified companies.
Products and services within the Applied Global Services segment are characterized by demanding worldwide service requirements and a diverse group of numerous competitors. To compete effectively, Applied offers products and services to reduce costs, improve productivity, and lessen the environmental impact of customers fab operations. Significant competitive factors include productivity, cost-effectiveness, and the level of technical service and support. The importance of these factors varies according to customers needs and the type of products or services offered.
Products in the Display segment are subject to strong competition from a number of major competitors. Applied holds established market positions with its technically differentiated thin film technology (TFT)-LCD manufacturing solutions for PECVD, color filter PVD and TFT array testing, although its market position could change quickly due to customers evolving requirements. In fiscal 2007, Applied entered the array PVD market with the AKT-PiVottm 55KV PVD system. Applied faces significant competition from existing array PVD suppliers.
Applieds products within the Energy and Environmental Solutions segment compete in diverse market areas, including equipment to make solar PV cells and modules, flexible electronics and energy-efficient glass. In solar, Applied offers products for two distinct technologies, c-Si wafer-based and thin film glass-based applications. As a recent entrant to the solar equipment business, Applied competes with many other companies that have more experience with solar applications. Applied also is a recent entrant to the flexible electronics equipment business, which operates in an emerging market sector characterized by diverse types of applications, customer requirements and competitors. Applieds glass coating equipment faces significant competition from at least one established supplier and another recent market entrant.
Management believes that Applieds competitive position significantly depends upon the Companys research, development, engineering, manufacturing and marketing capabilities, and not just on its patent position. However, protection of Applieds technological assets through enforcement of its intellectual property rights, including patents, is important. Therefore, Applieds practice is to file patent applications in the United States and other countries for inventions that Applied considers significant. Applied has a substantial number of patents in the United States and other countries, and additional applications are pending for new inventions. Although Applied does not consider its business materially dependent upon any one patent, the rights of Applied and the products made and sold under its patents, taken as a whole, are a significant element of Applieds business. In addition to patents, Applied also possesses other intellectual property, including trademarks, know-how, trade secrets and copyrights.
Applied enters into patent and technology licensing agreements with other companies when management determines that it is in the Companys best interest to do so. Applied pays royalties under existing patent license agreements for the use, in several of its products, of certain patented technologies that are licensed to Applied for the life of the patents. Applied also receives royalties from licenses granted to third parties. Royalties received from or paid to third parties have not been, and are not expected to be, material to Applieds consolidated results of operations.
In the normal course of business, Applied periodically receives and makes inquiries regarding possible patent infringement. In dealing with such inquiries, it may become necessary or useful for Applied to obtain or grant licenses or other rights. However, there can be no assurance that such licenses or rights will be available to Applied on commercially reasonable terms, or at all. If Applied is not able to resolve or settle claims, obtain necessary licenses on commercially reasonable terms, and/or successfully prosecute or defend its position, Applieds business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.
Two of Applieds locations have been designated as environmental cleanup sites. In 1987, the United States Environmental Protection Agency designated one of the locations, in Santa Clara, California, as a Superfund site and named Applied as a Responsible Party. Cleanup activities at this site began in 1984 and were substantially completed in February 2002, and present activities consist of annual sampling of wells. The California Regional Water Quality Control Board designated Applied as a Discharger with respect to another site in Sunnyvale, California. Applied was named a Discharger upon its acquisition of the property in 1997 solely due to its status as property owner. The prior owners of the site and/or operators who caused the contamination are responsible for performing cleanup and monitoring activities.
Applied maintains a number of environmental, health and safety programs that are primarily preventive in nature. As part of these programs, Applied regularly monitors ongoing compliance and periodically conducts investigations of possible contamination.
Compliance with federal, state and local provisions regulating the discharge of materials into the environment, remedial agreements and other actions relating to the environment have not had, and are not expected to have, a material effect on Applieds capital expenditures, competitive position, financial condition or results of operations.
The most recent report on Applieds environmental, health and safety activities can be found in the Companys Citizenship Report on its website at http://www.appliedmaterials.com/about/environment.html. This report is updated periodically. This website address is intended to be an inactive textual reference only. None of the information on Applieds website is part of this Form 10-K or is incorporated by reference herein.
At October 25, 2009, Applied employed 12,619 regular employees and 413 temporary employees. In the high-technology industry, competition for highly-skilled employees is intense. Applied believes that its future success is highly dependent upon its continued ability to attract, retain and motivate qualified employees. There can be no assurance that Applied will be able to attract, hire, assimilate, motivate and retain a sufficient number of qualified employees.
The following table and notes set forth information about Applieds executive officers as of October 25, 2009:
Applieds website is http://www.appliedmaterials.com. Applied makes available free of charge, on or through its website, its annual, quarterly and current reports, and any amendments to those reports, as soon as reasonably practicable after electronically filing such reports with, or furnishing them to, the SEC. This website address is intended to be an inactive textual reference only. None of the information on Applieds website is part of this Form 10-K or is incorporated by reference herein.
The following factors could materially affect Applieds business, financial condition or results of operations and should be carefully considered in evaluating the Company and its business, in addition to other information presented elsewhere in this report.
As a supplier to the global semiconductor, flat panel display, solar and related industries, Applied is subject to business cycles, the timing, length and volatility of which can be difficult to predict and which vary by reportable segment. These industries historically have been cyclical due to sudden changes in customers manufacturing capacity requirements and spending, which depend in part on customers capacity utilization, production volumes, end-use demand, inventory levels relative to demand, and access to affordable capital. These changes have affected the timing and amounts of customers purchases and investments in technology, and continue to affect Applieds orders, net sales, operating expenses and net income.
To meet rapidly changing demand in the industries it serves, Applied must effectively manage its resources and production capacity for each of its segments as well as across multiple segments. The challenging economic and industry conditions have adversely affected Applieds customers and led to a significant decrease in demand for many of Applieds products, although indications of improving conditions are beginning to appear. During periods of increasing demand for its products, Applied must have sufficient manufacturing capacity and inventory to meet customer demand; effectively manage its supply chain; attract, retain and motivate a sufficient number of qualified individuals; and continue to control costs. During periods of decreasing demand, Applied must be able to appropriately align its cost structure with prevailing market conditions; effectively manage its supply chain; and motivate and retain key employees. If Applied is not able to timely and appropriately adapt to changes in its business environment, Applieds business, financial condition or results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.
Applied is exposed to risks associated with the difficult financial markets and weak global economy.
The tightening of the credit markets, disruption in the financial markets, and global economic downturn experienced over the last several quarters contributed to significant slowdowns in the industries in which Applied operates, which slowdowns may persist or worsen if these economic conditions are prolonged or deteriorate further. The markets for semiconductors and flat panel displays in particular depend largely on consumer spending. Economic uncertainty exacerbates negative trends in consumer spending and may cause certain Applied customers to push out, cancel, or refrain from placing orders for equipment or services, which may reduce net sales, reduce backlog, and affect Applieds ability to convert backlog to sales. Difficulties in obtaining capital and uncertain market conditions may also lead to the inability of some customers to obtain affordable financing and to customer insolvencies, resulting in lower sales and/or additional inventory or bad debt expense for Applied. These conditions may also similarly affect key suppliers, which could impair their ability to deliver parts and result in delays for Applieds products. In addition, these conditions may lead to strategic alliances by, or consolidation of, other equipment manufacturers, which could adversely affect Applieds ability to compete effectively.
Further, these adverse conditions and uncertainty about future economic and industry conditions make it challenging for Applied to forecast its operating results, make business decisions, and identify the risks that may affect its business, sources and uses of cash, financial condition and results of operations. Applied may be required to implement additional cost reduction efforts, including restructuring activities, and/or modify its business model, which may adversely affect Applieds ability to capitalize on opportunities in a market recovery. In addition, Applied maintains an investment portfolio that is subject to general credit, liquidity, foreign exchange, market and interest rate risks and that also includes some exposure to asset-backed and mortgage-backed securities. The risks to Applieds investment portfolio may be exacerbated by deteriorating financial market conditions and, as a result, the value and liquidity of the investment portfolio could be negatively impacted and lead to impairment charges. If Applied is not able to timely and appropriately adapt to changes resulting from the difficult macroeconomic environment and industry conditions, Applieds business, financial condition or results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.
Applied is exposed to risks as a result of ongoing changes in the various industries in which it operates.
The global semiconductor, flat panel display, solar and related industries in which Applied operates are characterized by ongoing changes affecting some or all of these industries, including:
If Applied does not successfully manage the risks resulting from the ongoing changes in the semiconductor, flat panel display, solar and related industries, its business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.
The greatest portion of Applieds revenues and profitability historically has been derived from sales of manufacturing equipment to the global semiconductor industry. In addition, a majority of the revenues of Applied Global Services is from sales of service products to semiconductor manufacturers. The semiconductor industry is characterized by ongoing changes particular to that industry, in addition to the general industry changes described in the preceding risk factor, which may result in decreased spending by customers and negatively impact the Companys financial condition and results of operations. The changes include:
If Applied does not successfully manage the risks resulting from the ongoing changes occurring in the semiconductor industry, its business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.
Applied is exposed to risks as a result of ongoing changes specific to the flat panel display industry.
The global flat panel display industry historically has experienced considerable volatility in capital equipment investment levels, due in part to the limited number of LCD manufacturers and the concentrated nature of LCD end-use applications. Recently, industry growth has depended to a considerable extent on consumer demand for increasingly larger and more advanced TVs. In addition to the general industry changes described above in the third risk factor, the display industry is characterized by ongoing changes particular to that industry, including:
If Applied does not successfully manage the risks resulting from the ongoing changes occurring in the display industry, its business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.
Applied anticipates that an increasing portion of its business will be in the emerging solar market, which, in addition to the general industry changes described above in the third risk factor, is characterized by ongoing changes specific to the solar industry, including:
If Applied does not successfully manage the risks resulting from the ongoing changes occurring in the solar industry, its business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.
Applied must adapt its business and product offerings to respond to competition and rapid technological changes.
As Applied operates in a highly competitive environment, its future success depends on many factors, including the effective commercialization and customer acceptance of its nanomanufacturing technology equipment, service and related products. In addition, Applied must successfully execute its growth strategy, including enhancing market share in existing markets, expanding into related markets, cultivating new markets and exceeding industry growth rates, while constantly improving its operational performance. The development, introduction and support of a broadening set of products in more varied competitive environments have grown increasingly complex and expensive over time. Furthermore, new or improved products may entail higher costs and reduced profits. Applieds success is subject to many risks, including but not limited to its ability to timely, cost-effectively and successfully:
If Applied does not successfully manage these challenges, its business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.
Operating in multiple industries and the entry into new markets and industries entail additional challenges.
As part of its growth strategy, Applied must successfully expand into related or new markets and industries, either with its existing nanomanufacturing technology products or with new products developed internally or obtained through acquisitions. The entry into different markets involves additional challenges, including those arising from:
If Applied does not successfully manage the risks resulting from its diversification and entry into new markets and industries, its business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.
In fiscal 2009, approximately 81 percent of Applieds net sales were to customers in regions outside the United States. Certain of Applieds R&D and/or manufacturing facilities, as well as suppliers to Applied, are also located outside the United States, including in China. Applied is also expanding its business and operations in new
countries. The global nature of Applieds business and operations presents challenges, including but not limited to those arising from:
Many of these challenges are present in China, which is experiencing significant growth of both suppliers and competitors to Applied. Applied further believes that China presents a large potential market for its products and opportunity for growth over the long term, although at lower projected levels of profitability and margins than historically have been achieved in other regions. In addition, Applied must regularly reassess the size, capability and location of its global infrastructure and make appropriate changes, and must have effective change management processes and procedures to address changes in its business and operations. These challenges may materially and adversely affect Applieds business, financial condition and results of operations.
Applieds semiconductor and flat panel display customer bases historically have been, and are becoming even more, highly concentrated as a result of industry conditions. These conditions are also adversely affecting customers profitability and access to capital, which leads to lower R&D funding and capital expenditures. In addition, certain customers have entered into strategic alliances or industry consortia that have increased the influence of key industry participants in technology decisions made by their partners. In the solar area, while the number of solar PV manufacturing customers increases as the number of market entrants grows, the size of contracts with particular customers is expected to rise substantially as the industry moves to greater solar module
factory output capacity. The ongoing adverse conditions in the credit and financial markets and industry slowdowns have caused, and may continue to cause, some customers to postpone delivery, reduce or cancel orders, exit businesses, merge with other manufacturers or file for bankruptcy protection and potentially cease operations. In this environment, contracts or orders from a relatively limited number of semiconductor, display and solar manufacturers have accounted for, and are expected to continue to account for, a substantial portion of Applieds business. In addition, the mix and type of customers, and sales to any single customer, may vary significantly from quarter to quarter and from year to year. If customers do not place orders, or they substantially reduce, delay or cancel orders, Applied may not be able to replace the business. As Applieds products are configured to customer specifications, changing, rescheduling or canceling orders may result in significant, non-recoverable costs. Major customers may also seek, and on occasion receive, pricing, payment, intellectual property-related, or other commercial terms that are less favorable to Applied. In addition, certain customers have undergone significant ownership and/or management changes, outsourced manufacturing activities, engaged in collaboration or cooperation arrangements with other customers, or consolidated with other customers, each of which may result in additional complexities in managing customer relationships and transactions, as well as cancelled or decreased orders and lower net sales. These factors could have a material adverse effect on Applieds business, financial condition and results of operations.
Applied has made, and in the future intends to make, acquisitions of, and investments in, companies, technologies or products in existing, related or new markets for Applied. Acquisitions involve numerous risks, including but not limited to:
Applied also makes strategic investments in other companies, including companies formed as joint ventures, which may decline in value and/or not meet desired objectives. The success of these investments depends on various factors over which Applied may have limited or no control and, particularly with respect to joint ventures, requires
ongoing and effective cooperation with strategic partners. The risks to Applieds strategic investment portfolio may be exacerbated by unfavorable financial market and macroeconomic conditions and, as a result, the value of the investment portfolio could be negatively impacted and lead to impairment charges. Mergers and acquisitions and strategic investments are inherently subject to significant risks, and the inability to effectively manage these risks could materially and adversely affect Applieds business, financial condition and results of operations. If Applied does not successfully manage the risks associated with acquisitions and strategic investments, its business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.
Manufacturing interruptions or delays could affect Applieds ability to meet customer demand, while the failure to estimate customer demand accurately could result in excess or obsolete inventory.
Applieds business depends on its ability to timely supply equipment, services and related products that meet the rapidly changing technical and volume requirements of its customers, which depends in part on the timely delivery of parts, components and subassemblies (collectively, parts) from suppliers. Some key parts may be subject to long lead-times and/or obtainable only from a single supplier or limited group of suppliers, and some sourcing or subassembly is provided by suppliers located in countries other than the United States, including China. Further, the ongoing adverse conditions in the credit and financial markets and industry slowdowns have caused, and may continue to cause, some suppliers to scale back operations, exit businesses, merge with other companies, or file for bankruptcy protection and possibly cease operations, potentially affecting Applieds ability to obtain parts. Applied may experience significant interruptions of its manufacturing operations, delays in its ability to deliver products or services, increased costs or customer order cancellations as a result of:
In addition, Applieds need to rapidly increase its business and manufacturing capacity to meet increases in demand or expedited shipment schedules may exacerbate any interruptions in Applieds manufacturing operations and supply chain and the associated effect on Applieds working capital. Moreover, if actual demand for Applieds products is different than expected, Applied may purchase more/fewer parts than necessary or incur costs for canceling, postponing or expediting delivery of parts. The volatility of demand for capital equipment increases capital, technical and other risks for companies in the supply chain. Any or all of these factors could materially and adversely affect Applieds business, financial condition and results of operations.
The failure to successfully implement and conduct off-shoring and outsourcing activities and other operational initiatives could adversely affect results of operations.
To better align its costs with market conditions, increase its presence in growing markets, enhance productivity, and improve efficiencies, Applied conducts engineering, software development and other operations in regions outside the United States, particularly India and China, and outsources certain functions to third parties, including companies in the United States, India, China and other countries. Outsourced functions include certain engineering, manufacturing, customer support, software development, information technology support, finance and administrative activities. The expanding role of third party providers has required changes to Applieds existing operations and the adoption of new procedures and processes for retaining and managing these providers, as well as redistributing responsibilities as warranted, in order to realize the potential productivity and operational efficiencies, assure quality and continuity of supply, and protect Applieds intellectual property. In addition, Applied has implemented several key operational initiatives intended to improve manufacturing efficiency, including
integrate-to-order, module-final-test and merge-in-transit programs. Applied also is implementing a multi-year, company-wide program to transform certain business processes, including the transition to a single enterprise resource planning (ERP) software system to perform various functions. The implementation of additional functionality to the ERP system entails certain risks, including difficulties with changes in business processes that could disrupt Applieds operations, such as its ability to track orders and timely ship products, project inventory requirements, manage its supply chain and aggregate financial and operational data. The implementation of new initiatives may not achieve the anticipated benefits and may divert managements attention from other operational activities, negatively affect employee morale, or have other unintended consequences.
If Applied does not effectively develop and implement its off-shoring and outsourcing strategies, if required export and other governmental approvals are not timely obtained, if Applieds third party providers do not perform as anticipated, or if there are delays or difficulties in implementing a new ERP system or enhancing business processes, Applied may not realize anticipated productivity improvements or cost efficiencies, and may experience operational difficulties, increased costs (including energy and transportation), manufacturing interruptions or delays, inefficiencies in the structure and/or operation of its supply chain, loss of its intellectual property rights, quality issues, increased product time-to-market and/or inefficient allocation of human resources, any or all of which could materially and adversely affect Applieds business, financial condition and results of operations.
Applieds success and competitiveness depend in large part on its ability to attract, retain and motivate key employees. Achieving this objective may be difficult due to many factors, including fluctuations in global economic and industry conditions, changes in Applieds management or leadership, competitors hiring practices, cost reduction activities (including workforce reductions, unpaid shutdowns and salary reductions), and the effectiveness of Applieds compensation and benefit programs, including its equity-based programs. Applied periodically evaluates its overall compensation program and makes adjustments, as appropriate, to enhance its competitiveness. If Applied does not successfully attract, retain and motivate key employees, Applied may be unable to capitalize on its opportunities and its operating results may be materially and adversely affected.
As a global company, Applied is subject to taxation in the United States and various other countries. Significant judgment is required to determine and estimate worldwide tax liabilities. Applieds future annual and quarterly tax rates could be affected by numerous factors, including changes in the: (1) applicable tax laws; (2) amount and composition of pre-tax income in countries with differing tax rates; or (3) valuation of Applieds deferred tax assets and liabilities. In addition, Applied is subject to regular examination by the Internal Revenue Service and other tax authorities, and from time to time initiates amendments to previously filed tax returns. Applied regularly assesses the likelihood of favorable or unfavorable outcomes resulting from these examinations and amendments to determine the adequacy of its provision for income taxes. Although Applied believes its tax estimates are reasonable, there can be no assurance that the tax authorities will agree with such estimates. Applied may have to engage in litigation to achieve the results reflected in the estimates, which may be time-consuming and expensive. There can be no assurance that Applied will be successful or that any final determination will not be materially different from the treatment reflected in Applieds historical income tax provisions and accruals, which could materially and adversely affect Applieds financial condition and results of operations.
Applied is exposed to various risks related to legal proceedings or claims and protection of intellectual property rights.
Applied from time to time is, and in the future may be, involved in legal proceedings or claims regarding patent infringement, intellectual property rights, antitrust, environmental regulations, securities, contracts, product performance, product liability, unfair competition, employment and other matters. In addition, Applied on occasion receives notification from customers who believe that Applied owes them indemnification or other obligations related to claims made against such customers by third parties. These legal proceedings and claims, whether with or without merit, may be time-consuming and expensive to prosecute or defend, divert managements attention and resources, and/or inhibit Applieds ability to sell its products. There can be no assurance regarding the outcome of
current or future legal proceedings or claims. Applied previously entered into a mutual covenant-not-to-sue arrangement with one of its competitors to decrease the risk of patent infringement lawsuits in the future. There can be no assurance that the intended results of this arrangement will be achieved or that Applied will be able to adequately protect its intellectual property rights with the restrictions associated with such a covenant. In addition, Applieds success depends in significant part on the protection of its intellectual property and other rights. Infringement of Applieds rights by a third party, such as the unauthorized manufacture or sale of equipment or spare parts, could result in uncompensated lost market and revenue opportunities for Applied. Applieds intellectual property rights may not provide significant competitive advantages if they are circumvented, invalidated, rendered obsolete by the rapid pace of technological change, or if Applied does not adequately protect or assert these rights. Furthermore, the laws and practices of other countries, including China, India, Taiwan and Korea, permit the protection and enforcement of Applieds rights to varying extents, which may not be sufficient to protect Applieds rights. If Applied is not able to obtain or enforce intellectual property rights, resolve or settle claims, obtain necessary licenses on commercially reasonable terms, and/or successfully prosecute or defend its intellectual property position, Applieds business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.
Applied is subject to environmental and safety regulations in connection with its global business operations, including but not limited to: regulations related to the development, manufacture and use of its products; recycling and disposal of materials used in its products or in producing its products; the operation of its facilities; and the use of its real property. The failure or inability to comply with existing or future environmental and safety regulations could result in: (1) significant remediation liabilities; (2) the imposition of fines; (3) the suspension or termination of the development, manufacture, sale or use of certain of its products; (4) limitations on the operation of its facilities or ability to use its real property; and/or (5) a decrease in the value of its real property, each of which could have a material adverse effect on Applieds business, financial condition and results of operations.
Applied is subject to various risks related to: (1) new, different, inconsistent or even conflicting laws, rules and regulations that may be enacted by legislative bodies and/or regulatory agencies in the countries in which Applied operates; (2) disagreements or disputes between national or regional regulatory agencies related to international trade; and (3) the interpretation and application of laws, rules and regulations. If Applied is found by a court or regulatory agency not to be in compliance with applicable laws, rules or regulations, Applieds business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.
Applied is subject to internal control evaluations and attestation requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act.
Pursuant to Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, Applied must include in its Annual Report on Form 10-K a report of management on the effectiveness of Applieds internal control over financial reporting. Ongoing compliance with this requirement is complex, costly and time-consuming. If Applied fails to maintain effective internal control over financial reporting or Applieds management does not timely assess the adequacy of such internal control, Applied could be subject to regulatory sanctions and the publics perception of Applied may decline.
Information concerning Applieds principal properties at October 25, 2009 is set forth below:
Because of the interrelation of Applieds operations, properties within a country may be shared by the segments operating within that country. Products in the Silicon segment are manufactured in Austin, Texas and Rehovot, Israel. Remanufactured products in the Applied Global Services segment are produced primarily in Austin, Texas. Products in the Display segment are manufactured in Santa Clara, California; Alzenau, Germany; and Tainan, Taiwan. Products in the Energy and Environmental Solutions segment are primarily manufactured in Alzenau, Germany; Cheseaux, Switzerland; Treviso, Italy; and Santa Clara, California.
In addition to the above properties, Applied leases office space for marketing, sales, engineering and customer support offices in 81 locations throughout the world: 21 in Europe, 18 in Japan, 17 in North America (principally the United States), 16 in Asia-Pacific (including China and India), 7 in Korea and 2 in Taiwan. At October 25, 2009, Applied had a 298,000 square foot facility under construction in Singapore.
In addition, Applied owns 112 acres of buildable land in Texas that could accommodate approximately 1,708,000 square feet of additional building space, 43 acres in California that could accommodate approximately 1,247,000 square feet of additional building space, and 6 acres in Colorado that could accommodate approximately 87,000 square feet of additional building space. Applied also leases: 13 acres in Taiwan that could accommodate approximately 270,000 square feet of additional building space; 5 acres in Singapore that could accommodate approximately 333,000 square feet of additional building space; 4 acres in Italy that could accommodate approximately 180,000 square feet of additional building space; 10 acres in Israel that could accommodate approximately 111,000 square feet of additional building space; and 25 acres in China that could accommodate approximately 768,000 square feet of additional building space.
Applied considers the properties that it owns or leases as adequate to meet its current and future requirements. Applied regularly assesses the size, capability and location of its global infrastructure and periodically makes adjustments based on these assessments.
The information set forth under Legal Matters in Note 13 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements is incorporated herein by reference.
The following table sets forth the high and low closing sale prices for the periods presented as reported on the NASDAQ Global Select Market.
Applieds common stock is traded on the NASDAQ Global Select Market under the symbol AMAT. As of November 20, 2009, there were 4,641 directly registered holders of Applied common stock.
The performance graph below shows the five-year cumulative total stockholder return on Applied common stock during the period from October 31, 2004 through October 25, 2009. This is compared with the cumulative total return of the Standard & Poors 500 Stock Index and the RDG Semiconductor Composite Index over the same period. The comparison assumes $100 was invested on October 31, 2004 in Applied common stock and in each of the foregoing indices and assumes reinvestment of dividends, if any. Dollar amounts in the graph are rounded to the nearest whole dollar. The performance shown in the graph represents past performance and should not be considered an indication of future performance.
Comparison of 5 Year Cumulative Total Return*
Among Applied Materials, Inc., The S&P 500 Index
And The RDG Semiconductor Composite Index
During fiscal 2009, Applieds Board of Directors declared four quarterly cash dividends in the amount of $0.06 per share each quarter. The fourth quarterly cash dividend declared in fiscal 2009 was paid on December 3, 2009 to stockholders of record as of November 12, 2009. During fiscal 2008, Applieds Board of Directors declared four quarterly cash dividends in the amount of $0.06 per share each quarter. Dividends declared during fiscal 2009 and fiscal 2008 totaled $320 million and $325 million, respectively. Applied currently anticipates that it will continue to pay cash dividends on a quarterly basis in the future, although the declaration of any future cash dividend is at the discretion of the Board of Directors and will depend on Applieds financial condition, results of operations, capital requirements, business conditions and other factors, as well as a determination that cash dividends are in the best interest of Applieds stockholders.
Repurchases of Applied Common Stock
In November 2008, Applied announced that it was suspending stock repurchases in order to maintain financial flexibility in light of the deteriorating global economic and market conditions. The stock repurchase program that the Board of Directors approved in 2006 expired in September 2009.
The following selected financial information has been derived from Applieds historical audited consolidated financial statements and should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and the accompanying notes for the corresponding fiscal years:
Managements Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (MD&A) is intended to facilitate an understanding of Applieds business and results of operations. This MD&A should be read in conjunction with Applieds Consolidated Financial Statements and the accompanying Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included elsewhere in this Form 10-K. The following discussion contains forward-looking statements and should also be read in conjunction with the cautionary statement set forth at the beginning of this Form 10-K. MD&A consists of the following sections:
Applied provides Nanomanufacturing Technologytm solutions for the global semiconductor, flat panel display, solar and related industries, with a broad portfolio of innovative equipment, service and software products. Applieds customers are primarily manufacturers of semiconductors, flat panel liquid crystal displays (LCDs), solar photovoltaic cells and modules (solar PVs), flexible electronics and energy-efficient glass. Applied operates in four reportable segments: Silicon, Applied Global Services, Display, and Energy and Environmental Solutions. Product development and manufacturing activities occur primarily in North America, Europe, Israel and Asia. Applieds broad range of equipment and service products are highly technical and are sold primarily through a direct sales force.
Applieds results historically have been driven primarily by worldwide demand for semiconductors, which in turn depends on end-user demand for electronic products. Each of Applieds businesses is subject to cyclical industry conditions, as demand for manufacturing equipment and services can change depending on supply and demand for chips, LCDs, solar PVs and other electronic devices, as well as other factors, such as global economic and market conditions, and technological advances in fabrication processes. Credit constraints in the financial markets and the weak global economy are compounding the impact of the highly cyclical markets in which Applied operates.
The following table presents certain significant measurements for the past three fiscal years:
Fiscal 2009 financial results reflected significantly reduced demand for manufacturing equipment and services due to extremely unfavorable global economic and industry conditions, particularly in the first half of fiscal 2009. Negative trends in consumer spending and pervasive economic uncertainty led some customers to dramatically reduce factory operations and to reduce their spending. In the second half of fiscal 2009, demand for semiconductor and display equipment increased, but was still down significantly from fiscal 2008 levels. Fiscal 2009 financial results included charges associated with restructuring programs. While Applied achieved profitability in the fourth quarter of fiscal 2009, a meaningful improvement in the equipment sector for fiscal 2010 will depend on a recovery
in customers end markets sufficient to support factories running at higher utilization and to encourage customers investments in new capacity, as well as advanced technologies. Applied currently expects a recovery in fiscal 2010, particularly in the market for semiconductor capital equipment, and anticipates that total net sales will increase more than 30 percent in fiscal 2010 as compared to fiscal 2009.
Fiscal 2008 financial results reflected decreased demand for semiconductor equipment and, to a lesser extent, service products, due to unfavorable market conditions in the semiconductor industry, partially offset by increased demand for LCD and solar products. New orders decreased from fiscal 2007 due to lower demand for semiconductor equipment from memory, foundry and logic chip manufacturers, partially offset by increased demand by LCD customers and, beginning in the first quarter of fiscal 2008, the recognition of orders for Applieds SunFabtm Thin Film Line for manufacturing solar panels. Net sales decreased during fiscal 2008 compared to fiscal 2007 due to the decline in investment from memory and logic customers, partially offset by increased sales of crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar manufacturing products. Net income decreased in fiscal 2008 compared to fiscal 2007 due to lower net sales, offset in part by lower operating expenses. Fiscal 2008 financial results included charges associated with restructuring programs.
Fiscal 2007 financial results reflected improved conditions in the semiconductor industry that began with the industrys recovery in 2006, while conditions in the display industry were mixed as manufacturers postponed capacity additions despite strong consumer demand for LCD TVs. Total orders decreased slightly from fiscal 2006, primarily due to the significant decline in demand for display manufacturing products, partially offset by increased demand for products and services in all other segments. Net sales in fiscal 2007 reflected strong demand from dynamic random access memory (DRAM) and flash memory chip manufacturers, partially offset by a significant decline in LCD equipment sales as manufacturers absorbed capacity following substantial investment in 2006. Improved net income in fiscal 2007 reflected higher sales and lower operating expenses, offset in part by lower interest income. Fiscal 2007 financial results included restructuring and asset impairment and other charges associated with ceasing development of beamline implant products, and an in-process research and development (IPR&D) expense associated with the acquisition of certain net assets of Brooks Automation, Inc. (Brooks Software).
Results of Operations
The following table presents certain quarterly and full fiscal year financial information:
Applieds business was subject to cyclical industry conditions in fiscal 2009, 2008 and 2007. As a result of these conditions and the global economic environment, there were significant fluctuations in Applieds quarterly new orders and net sales, both within and across the fiscal years. Demand for manufacturing equipment has historically been volatile as a result of sudden changes in chip, LCD and solar PV supply and demand and other factors, including global economic and market conditions and rapid technological advances in fabrication processes. In response to the challenging economic environment in fiscal 2009, Applied implemented certain temporary cost reduction programs such as company-wide shutdowns.
New orders by geographic region, which are attributed according to the location of customers facilities, were as follows:
New orders decreased 55 percent to $4.1 billion in fiscal 2009 compared to fiscal 2008. The decrease in new orders was across all segments, and particularly in the semiconductor and display businesses, reflecting the challenging economic and industry conditions prevalent during fiscal 2009. Customer demand for semiconductor and LCD equipment began to recover in the second half of fiscal 2009.
New orders decreased 5 percent to $9.2 billion in fiscal 2008 compared to fiscal 2007, due to lower demand for semiconductor equipment from logic, memory, and foundry chip manufacturers, partially offset by increased demand for LCD and solar equipment, including the initial recognition of orders for the Applied SunFab Thin Film Line. Demand for LCD equipment slowed substantially in the fourth quarter of fiscal 2008, as Display customers absorbed capacity following robust demand over the preceding three quarters.
New orders for fiscal 2007 decreased 2 percent to $9.7 billion from $9.9 billion in the prior year, reflecting delays in investment by LCD customers, partially offset by increased demand for solar equipment, semiconductor equipment, and service products. Demand for semiconductor equipment slowed in the second half of fiscal 2007 as customers absorbed added capacity, while demand from LCD customers recovered in the fourth quarter of fiscal 2007.
Applieds backlog as of the end of each of the last three fiscal years was as follows: $2.7 billion at October 25, 2009, $4.8 billion at October 26, 2008, and $3.7 billion at October 28, 2007. Backlog decreased in fiscal 2009 primarily due to customer cancellations and financial debookings which totaled $1.2 billion, reflecting the decline in demand for semiconductor equipment. Backlog consists of: (1) orders for which written authorizations have been accepted and assigned shipment dates are within the next 12 months, or shipment has occurred but revenue has not been recognized; (2) contractual service revenue and maintenance fees to be earned within the next 12 months; and (3) orders for SunFab lines that are anticipated to be recognized as revenue within the next 12 months. Due to the potential for customer changes in delivery schedules or cancellation of orders, Applieds backlog at any particular time is not necessarily indicative of actual sales for any future periods.
Net sales by geographic region, which are attributed according to the location of customers facilities, were as follows:
Net sales decreased 38 percent to $5.0 billion in fiscal 2009 compared to fiscal 2008, as a result of significantly lower sales of equipment and services to semiconductor and display customers, partially offset by increased sales of solar manufacturing equipment. Net sales decreased 16 percent to $8.1 billion in fiscal 2008 compared to fiscal 2007, due to decreased investment from memory and logic chip manufacturers, partially offset by increased demand from solar and LCD customers. During fiscal 2007, net sales increased by 6 percent, to $9.7 billion from $9.2 billion in fiscal 2006, led by strength in memory capacity expansion throughout the year.
Gross margin as a percentage of net sales decreased to 28.5 percent in fiscal 2009 from 42.4 percent in fiscal 2008, compared to 46.1 percent in fiscal 2007. The decrease in the gross margin percentage in fiscal 2009 from fiscal 2008 was due to lower net sales, lower-margin product mix, and reduced factory absorption, offset in part by cost control initiatives. The decrease in the gross margin percentage from fiscal 2007 to fiscal 2008 was attributable to lower net sales and lower margin product mix. Gross margin during fiscal 2009, 2008 and 2007 included $28 million, $32 million and $27 million, respectively, of equity-based compensation expense.
Applieds future operating results depend to a considerable extent on its ability to maintain a competitive advantage in the equipment and service products it provides. Applied believes that it is critical to continue to make substantial investments in RD&E to assure the availability of innovative technology that meets the current and projected requirements of its customers most advanced designs. Applied historically has maintained its commitment to investing in RD&E in order to continue to offer new products and technologies. RD&E expenses were $934 million (19 percent of net sales) in fiscal 2009, $1.1 billion (14 percent of net sales) in fiscal 2008 and $1.1 billion (12 percent of net sales) in fiscal 2007. RD&E expense during fiscal 2009, 2008 and 2007 included $50 million, $59 million and $56 million, respectively, of equity-based compensation expense. Development cycles range from 12 to 36 months depending on whether the product is an enhancement of an existing product, which typically has a shorter development cycle, or a new product, which typically has a longer development cycle. Most of Applieds existing products resulted from internal development activities and innovations involving new technologies, materials and processes. In certain instances, Applied acquires technologies, either in existing or new product areas, to complement its existing technology capabilities and to reduce time to market.
In fiscal 2009, Applied focused on developing systems for semiconductor customers new chip designs with 32nm and below geometries, including systems to enable faster transistors using strain engineering and high-k/metal gate technologies, as well as double patterning processes that enable customers to extend their existing 193nm lithography tools through additional technology generations. Applied also focused on developing
technology for manufacturing next generation displays. RD&E also included activities to develop products that enable lower-cost production of solar energy and other products to enable energy conservation.
In fiscal 2008, Applied focused on the development of processes and systems for the continued scaling of semiconductor devices. Applied pioneered a self-aligned double patterning approach that can enable 22nm and below device fabrication using conventional optical lithography. The Company also developed technology for the implementation of through-silicon vias. Efforts were also focused on developing the systems and technology to reduce the cost-per-watt of solar electricity.
In fiscal 2007, Applied focused on developing systems for customers new chip designs with 45nm and below geometries, including systems to enable faster transistors using strain engineering and high-k/metal gate technologies, and patterning processes to enable customers to extend their existing 193 nm lithography tools through additional technology generations. Applied also continued to invest in solar research and development.
There were no IPR&D charges recorded in either fiscal 2009 or 2008. During fiscal 2007, Applied recorded an IPR&D expense of $5 million associated with the acquisition of certain net assets of Brooks Software, a division of Brooks Automation Inc. Applieds methodology for allocating the purchase price relating to purchased acquisitions to IPR&D was determined through established valuation techniques. The IPR&D was expensed upon acquisition because technological feasibility had not been established and no future alternative uses existed.
Marketing, selling, general and administrative expenses were $735 million (15 percent of net sales) in fiscal 2009, $965 million (12 percent of net sales) in fiscal 2008, and $952 million (10 percent of net sales) in fiscal 2007. The decrease in marketing, selling, general and administrative expenses in fiscal 2009 from fiscal 2008 was primarily due to cost control initiatives. The increase in marketing, selling, general and administrative expenses in fiscal 2008 from fiscal 2007 was principally attributable to increased operating costs from business acquisitions and equity compensation expenses, offset in part by cost control initiatives. Marketing, selling and general and administrative expenses during fiscal 2009, 2008 and 2007 included $69 million, $88 million and $77 million, respectively, of equity-based compensation expense.
During the first quarter of fiscal 2009, Applied announced a restructuring program to reduce its global workforce by approximately 1,800 positions. During the second quarter of fiscal 2009, Applied expanded the scope of the restructuring program by approximately 200 positions. During fiscal 2009, Applied recorded restructuring charges of $143 million associated with this program. The restructuring charges consisted of employee related costs to reduce the Companys workforce through a combination of attrition, voluntary separation and other workforce reduction programs. During fiscal 2009, Applied also determined that the carrying value of certain fixed assets to be sold exceeded the estimated fair value and, as a result, recorded a $15 million impairment charge.
During the first quarter of fiscal 2008, Applied announced a global cost reduction plan that primarily affected its Silicon and Applied Global Services segments and related support organizations. As part of this plan, Applied reduced its global workforce through a combination of job elimination and attrition. For fiscal 2008, Applied recorded restructuring charges of $29 million relating to this plan, consisting primarily of employee related costs to reduce its workforce. The affected employees were based in North America, Europe and Asia, and represented multiple functions.
During the second quarter of fiscal 2007, Applied announced a plan (the Implant Plan) to cease development of beamline implant products for semiconductor manufacturing and curtail the operations of its Implant group based in Horsham, England. Under the Implant Plan, Applied closed its research, development and manufacturing operations in Horsham in October 2007. Restructuring charges under the Implant Plan for fiscal 2008 totaled $11 million and were associated with facilities. Restructuring and asset impairment charges under the Implant Plan in fiscal 2007 aggregated $30 million and consisted of $21 million in restructuring charges primarily associated with employee related costs and $9 million in asset impairments. The majority of the affected employees were based in Horsham, England, and represented multiple functions. Costs associated with the Implant Plan in fiscal 2007 also
included inventory-related charges, reported as cost of products sold, of $56 million and other operating expenses of $10 million. The Implant group operated in the Silicon segment, and the results of its operations were not material to Applieds financial position or results of operations.
For further details, see Note 8 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
Net interest income was $27 million for fiscal 2009, $89 million for fiscal 2008, and $98 million for fiscal 2007. The decrease in net interest and other income in fiscal 2009 from fiscal 2008 was primarily due to a decrease in interest rates. The decrease in net interest and other income in fiscal 2008 from fiscal 2007 was primarily due to a reduction in investments and a decrease in interest rates, offset by a decrease in interest expense associated with scheduled debt maturities that occurred in September 2007.
Applieds effective income tax rate for fiscal 2009 was a benefit of 37.2 percent as compared to a provision of 31.8 percent for fiscal 2008, and a provision of 29.9 percent for fiscal 2007. The change in the fiscal 2009 tax rate from the fiscal 2008 rate was principally attributable to the net loss before taxes incurred in fiscal 2009. Applieds effective tax rate was higher for fiscal 2008 compared to fiscal 2007 as fiscal 2007 reflected a benefit of $36 million principally related to the favorable resolution of audits of prior years income tax filings, partially offset by a $13 million charge from the expensing of equity-based compensation.
Applieds future effective income tax rate depends on various factors, such as tax legislation, the geographic composition of Applieds pre-tax income, and non-tax deductible expenses incurred in connection with acquisitions. Management carefully monitors these factors and timely adjusts the effective income tax rate accordingly.
Applied operates in four reportable segments: Silicon, Applied Global Services, Display, and Energy and Environmental Solutions. A description of the products and services, as well as financial data, for each reportable segment can be found in Note 12 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements. Applied does not allocate to its reportable segments certain operating expenses, which it manages separately at the corporate level. These unallocated costs include those for equity-based compensation and certain components of variable compensation, corporate marketing and sales, corporate functions (certain management, finance, legal, human resources and RD&E), and unabsorbed information technology and occupancy.
Discussions below include the results of each reportable segment.
The Silicon segment includes semiconductor capital equipment for deposition, etch, rapid thermal processing (RTP), chemical mechanical planarization (CMP), and metrology and inspection. Development efforts are focused on solving customers key technical challenges, including transistor performance and nanoscale patterning, and on improving chip manufacturing productivity to reduce costs.
Certain significant measures for the past three fiscal years were as follows:
Fiscal 2009 financial results reflected significantly reduced demand for manufacturing equipment due to extremely unfavorable global economic and industry conditions. Silicon new orders decreased 59 percent to $1.7 billion in fiscal 2009 compared to fiscal 2008. The decrease in new orders reflected significantly lower demand, primarily from memory and logic customers. Net sales decreased 51 percent to $2.0 billion in fiscal 2009
compared to fiscal 2008. The decrease in net sales was due to decreased capital investments, primarily by memory customers. Operating income decreased 88 percent to $152 million in fiscal 2009 compared to fiscal 2008. The decrease in operating income was due to significantly lower sales resulting in lower factory absorption, partially offset by lower operating expenses from cost control initiatives. Operating income for fiscal 2009 also reflected an increase in bad debt expense. After an operating loss in the first half of fiscal 2009, the Silicon segment returned to operating profitability during the second half of the year, which was primarily driven by sales to foundry customers. During the year, the Company introduced a new platform specifically designed for under-bump metallization (UBM) and other back-end processes, the Applied Charger UBM PVD system.
Fiscal 2008 Silicon new orders decreased 38 percent to $4.1 billion compared to fiscal 2007. The decrease in new orders was due to reduced demand for equipment from logic, memory and foundry customers. Net sales decreased 38 percent to $4.0 billion in fiscal 2008 compared to fiscal 2007. The decrease in net sales was due to decreased investment by logic and memory customers. Operating income decreased 48 percent to $1.2 billion in fiscal 2008 compared to fiscal 2007. The decrease in operating income was due to significantly lower revenue levels from the slowdown in the semiconductor equipment industry, partially offset by lower operating expenses attributable to continued focus on cost controls and improvement in manufacturing activities. In fiscal 2008, the Company launched two key products for photomask applications: the Applied Aera2 Mask Inspection system, which detects critical defects on a photomask, and the Applied Tetra Reticle Clean system, which cleans 32nm and below photomasks using wet clean chemistry. The Company also introduced the Applied Producer eHARP system for depositing films in high aspect ratio device structures.
Silicon orders in fiscal 2007 reflected the semiconductor industrys strength during this period, driven by demand for cell phones, computers, digital TVs, game consoles, MP3 players and other electronic products. The majority of new orders were for memory applications as customers invested in leading-edge flash and DRAM memory devices, while orders from foundries remained at low levels. Net sales reflected increased investment by memory and logic semiconductor customers in multiple areas, including etch, inspection, and RTP products. Operating income reflected higher revenue levels and continued focus on cost controls. Operating income for fiscal 2007 included charges of $66 million related to ceasing development of beamline implant products. In fiscal 2007, the Company launched the Applied Producer GT for chemical vapor deposition processing for 45 nm and beyond applications. Applied also announced its portfolio of high-k/metal gate solutions, including the Applied Advanced Gate Stack and Applied Centura Carina Etch systems. Other new etch systems introduced were the Applied Mariana Trench, for etching high aspect ratio structures, the Applied Opus AdvantEdge Metal Etch with a new 5-chamber platform, and the Applied Centura Tetra III Advanced Reticle Etch. The Company also added to its line of lithography-enabling systems with the new Applied Producer ACE SACVD and added to its line of strain engineering solutions with the Applied Producer Celera CVD.
The Applied Global Services segment encompasses technically differentiated products, including spares, services, certain earlier generation equipment products, and remanufactured equipment, to improve operating efficiency, reduce operating costs, and lessen the environmental impact of semiconductor, display and solar customers factories. Customer demand for products and services is fulfilled through a global distribution system with trained service engineers located in close proximity to customer sites.
Certain significant measures for the past three fiscal years were as follows:
Fiscal 2009 financial results reflected significantly reduced demand for manufacturing services due to extremely unfavorable global economic and industry conditions, as well as a significant reduction in the installed base of 200mm systems. New orders decreased 48 percent to $1.2 billion in fiscal 2009 compared to fiscal 2008, due primarily to decreased demand for spares and refurbished equipment arising from semiconductor manufacturers
low wafer production volumes. Net sales decreased 40 percent to $1.4 billion in fiscal 2009 compared to fiscal 2008, reflecting lower sales of spares and refurbished equipment. Operating income decreased 80 percent to $113 million in fiscal 2009 compared to fiscal 2008 as a result of lower sales volumes, which led to lower infrastructure cost absorption, partially offset by lower operating expenses from cost control initiatives. Operating income for fiscal 2009 also included an increase in bad debt expense. In the second half of fiscal 2009, the Applied Global Services segment returned to operating profitability as sales of spares improved.
Fiscal 2008 results were impacted by lower levels of semiconductor and display customers factory utilization. New orders decreased 10 percent to $2.2 billion in fiscal 2008 compared to fiscal 2007, due to lower orders for spares, fab-wide services, and refurbished equipment, partially offset by increased orders for service and system enhancements. Net sales decreased 1 percent to $2.3 billion in fiscal 2008 compared to fiscal 2007. The net sales decrease reflected lower sales of fab-wide services and spares, offset by increased sales in services and system enhancements. Operating income decreased 9 percent to $575 million in fiscal 2008 compared to fiscal 2007 due to higher operating expenses in fiscal 2008.
New orders in fiscal 2007 reflected increased demand for spare parts and services, as well as demand for factory automation products obtained as part of the Brooks Software acquisition. Net sales in fiscal 2007 reflected increases in factory automation sales offset by declines in spares sales. Fiscal 2007 remanufactured equipment orders and net sales remained consistent with fiscal 2006 levels. Operating income compared to fiscal 2006 reflected changes in product mix and increased operating expenses and charges related to the Brooks Software acquisition.
The Display segment encompasses products for manufacturing LCDs for TVs, personal computers and other video-enabled devices. The business is focused on expanding market share by differentiation with larger-scale substrates, entry into new markets, and development of products to enable cost reductions through productivity and uniformity.
Certain significant measures for the past three fiscal years were as follows:
Fiscal 2009 financial results reflected significantly reduced demand for LCD equipment due to extremely unfavorable global economic and industry conditions. New orders decreased significantly to $287 million in fiscal 2009 compared to $1.5 billion in fiscal 2008, which reflected the slowdown in the display industry from fiscal 2008 when display manufacturers added capacity. Net sales decreased 49 percent to $502 million in fiscal 2009 compared to fiscal 2008 as a result of significantly lower orders. Operating income decreased to $65 million in fiscal 2009 from $310 million in fiscal 2008. Operating income decreased due to significantly lower revenue, partially offset by lower operating expenses due to cost control initiatives.
In fiscal 2008, new orders increased significantly to $1.5 billion compared to $273 million in fiscal 2007. Increased orders were due to substantial increases in demand by Display customers in response to strong end-product demand. This demand for LCD equipment reached an inflection point in the third quarter of fiscal 2008 and decreased significantly in the fourth quarter of fiscal 2008, reflecting the volatility of the display industry. Net sales increased 38 percent to $976 million in fiscal 2008 compared to fiscal 2007, primarily due to customers investment in Gen-8 products. Operating income increased to $310 million in fiscal 2008 from $159 million in fiscal 2007. Operating income increased due to higher revenue levels, product mix and lower operating costs. In fiscal 2008, the Company introduced its Gen-10 systems that can process substrates sized at approximately 2.85 x 3.05 meters. These systems include the AKT-90K PECVD and AKT-90K EBT products.
New orders for fiscal 2007 reflected delays in capacity expansion plans by LCD panel makers in light of excess inventories and end product sales price declines. Display customers increased spending levels in the fourth quarter
of fiscal 2007 as panel makers began to experience more favorable market conditions. Net sales reflected lower investment by LCD manufacturers as they absorbed capacity. Operating income reflected lower revenues and factory absorption, product mix and higher operating expenses in support of the expanded product portfolio resulting from the acquisition of Applied Films in July 2006. In 2007, Applied launched the AKT-PiVottm 55KV system, which employs high-productivity, cost-efficient PVD technology to deposit metal and transparent conductive oxide films on the substrate.
The Energy and Environmental Solutions segment includes products for fabricating solar PV cells and modules, high throughput roll-to-roll coating systems for flexible electronics and web products, and systems used in the manufacture of energy-efficient glass. This segment also includes products for manufacturing c-Si solar PVs that were obtained through the acquisitions of HCT Shaping Systems SA (HCT) in fiscal 2007 and Baccini S.p.A. (Baccini) in fiscal 2008. This business is focused on delivering solutions to generate and conserve energy, with an emphasis on lowering the cost to produce solar power by providing equipment to enhance manufacturing scale and efficiency.
Certain significant measures for the past three fiscal years were as follows:
New orders of $955 million in fiscal 2009 decreased from $1.3 billion in fiscal 2008. The decrease in new orders was primarily due to decreased demand from c-Si customers and reflected the challenging global economic environment, solar manufacturers difficulties in obtaining cost-effective capital, and a decrease in end demand. Net sales of $1.2 billion in fiscal 2009 increased from $819 million in fiscal 2008 due to an increase in sales for the Applied SunFabtm Thin Film Line. The operating loss of $242 million in fiscal 2009 increased from $183 million in fiscal 2008 due to an increase in RD&E expenses and unfavorable gross margins associated with initial SunFab line start-ups, offset in part by cost control initiatives. In 2009, the Company introduced its Baccini Esatto Technology, a high precision, multi-step printing capability designed to increase the efficiency of c-Si solar cells, and its Applied HCT MaxEdge wire saw, featuring the industrys first dual-wire management system for slicing ultra-thin silicon wafers.
New orders of $1.3 billion in fiscal 2008 increased from $245 million in fiscal 2007. The increase in new orders was primarily due to the recognition of orders for the SunFab line beginning in the first quarter of fiscal 2008, as well as growth in orders for c-Si products. Net sales of $819 million in fiscal 2008 increased from $165 million in fiscal 2007 due to customers investment in c-Si products from the acquisitions of HCT and Baccini, in addition to increased sales across all other products in the segment. The increase in net sales for fiscal 2008 included the first revenue recognition of a SunFab line. The operating loss of $183 million in fiscal 2008 increased from $89 million in fiscal 2007. The increase in operating loss reflected increased RD&E spending to develop products that enable lower-cost production of solar energy, increased operating costs, amortization of acquisition-related costs, and costs related to expansion of solar marketing efforts, partially offset by higher revenues.
New orders in fiscal 2007 reflected increased demand for c-Si solar, glass and flexible electronics products. Net sales in fiscal 2007 reflected higher net sales in glass, flexible electronics and c-Si solar products. Operating loss for fiscal 2007 reflected increased RD&E spending to develop products and services that enable lower-cost production of solar energy and costs related to expansion of solar marketing efforts, offset by higher revenues. In fiscal 2007, Applied introduced the Applied SunFabtm Thin Film Line, the first integrated production line designed for manufacturing thin film silicon solar modules using 5.7 square meter glass panels.
On November 16, 2009, Applied entered into an agreement to acquire all of the outstanding shares of Semitool, Inc. (Semitool), a public company based in the state of Montana, for $11 per share in an all-cash tender offer. Semitool is a leading supplier of electrochemical plating and wafer surface preparation equipment used by semiconductor packaging and manufacturing companies globally. Under the terms of the agreement approved by the Boards of Directors of both companies, Applied will pay an aggregate purchase price of approximately $364 million based on the fully-diluted capitalization of Semitool. The acquisition will be conducted through a tender offer for all of the outstanding shares of Semitool and is conditioned on the occurrence or absence of certain events, including the tender of at least 66.67% of Semitools outstanding stock on a fully-diluted basis, as well as regulatory approvals and other customary closing conditions. In connection with this tender offer, Applied has been named as a defendant in three purported class action lawsuits filed in Montana state court. For further details, see Note 15 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
On January 31, 2008, Applied acquired all of the outstanding shares of Baccini, a privately-held company based in Italy, for a purchase price of $215 million in cash, net of cash and marketable securities acquired. The acquired business is a leading supplier of automated metallization and test systems for manufacturing c-Si photovoltaic cells.
On November 9, 2007, Applied purchased from Edwards Vacuum, Inc. certain assets of its Kachina semiconductor equipment parts cleaning and refurbishment business for $19 million.
On August 23, 2007, Applied acquired all of the outstanding shares of Switzerland-based HCT for $463 million in cash, net of cash acquired. The acquired business is the worlds leading supplier of precision wafering systems used principally in manufacturing c-Si substrates for the solar industry.
On March 30, 2007, Applied purchased Brooks Software for $137 million in cash. The acquired business is a leading provider of factory management and control software to the semiconductor and flat panel display industries. Its products complement Applieds existing software applications and enable Applied to offer customers a comprehensive computer integrated manufacturing solution for optimizing fab operations.
For further details, see Notes 14 and 15 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
In October 2009, the FASB issued authoritative guidance for revenue recognition with multiple deliverables. This authoritative guidance impacts the determination of when the individual deliverables included in a multiple-element arrangement may be treated as separate units of accounting. Additionally, this guidance modifies the manner in which the transaction consideration is allocated across the separately identified deliverables by no longer permitting the residual method of allocating arrangement consideration. Applied will adopt this authoritative guidance prospectively commencing in its first quarter of fiscal 2010. The implementation is not expected to have a material impact on Applieds financial position or results of operations.
In October 2009, the FASB issued authoritative guidance for the accounting for certain revenue arrangements that include software elements. This authoritative guidance amends the scope of pre-existing software revenue guidance by removing from the guidance non-software components of tangible products and certain software components of tangible products. Applied will adopt this authoritative guidance prospectively commencing in its first quarter of fiscal 2010. The implementation is not expected to have a material impact on Applieds financial position or results of operations.
In June 2009, the FASB issued authoritative guidance on variable interest entities, which becomes effective the first annual reporting period after November 15, 2009 and will be effective for Applied in fiscal 2011. This authoritative guidance requires revised evaluations of whether entities represent variable interest entities, ongoing assessments of control over such entities, and additional disclosures for variable interests. Applied is evaluating the potential impact of the implementation of this authoritative guidance on its consolidated financial statements.
In April 2009, the FASB issued authoritative guidance on accounting for assets acquired and liabilities assumed in a business combination that arise from contingencies, which amends the provisions related to the initial
recognition and measurement, subsequent measurement and disclosure of assets and liabilities arising from contingencies in a business combination under previously issued guidance. The authoritative guidance requires that such contingencies be recognized at fair value on the acquisition date if fair value can be reasonably estimated during the allocation period. This authoritative guidance will be effective for Applied in fiscal 2010. Applied expects that this authoritative guidance will have an impact on its consolidated financial statements, but the nature and magnitude of the specific effects will depend upon the nature, term and size of the acquired contingencies.
In December 2008, the FASB issued authoritative guidance on employers disclosures about plan assets of a defined benefit pension or other postretirement plan. Applied will comply with this authoritative guidance in fiscal 2010.
In December 2007, the FASB revised the authoritative guidance on business combinations, including the measurement of acquirer shares issued in consideration for a business combination, the recognition of contingent consideration, the accounting for preacquisition gain and loss contingencies, the recognition of capitalized in-process research and development, the accounting for acquisition-related restructuring cost accruals, the treatment of acquisition-related transaction costs, and the recognition of changes in the acquirers income tax valuation allowance. This authoritative guidance will be effective for Applied in fiscal 2010, with early adoption prohibited. Applied expects that this authoritative guidance will have an impact on its consolidated financial statements, but the nature and magnitude of the specific effects will depend upon the nature, terms and size of the acquisitions it consummates after the effective date.
In December 2007, the FASB issued authoritative guidance on noncontrolling interests, which changes the accounting for noncontrolling (minority) interests in consolidated financial statements, including the requirements to classify noncontrolling interests as a component of consolidated stockholders equity, and the elimination of minority interest accounting in results of operations with earnings attributable to noncontrolling interests reported as part of consolidated earnings. Additionally, this authoritative guidance revises the accounting for both increases and decreases in a parents controlling ownership interest. This authoritative guidance will be effective for Applied in fiscal 2010, with early adoption prohibited. Applied is evaluating the potential impact of the implementation of this authoritative guidance on its financial position or results of operations.
In February 2007, the FASB issued authoritative guidance on the fair value option for financial assets and financial liabilities, which permits entities to elect to measure many financial instruments and certain other items at fair value that are not currently required to be measured at fair value. This election is irrevocable. This authoritative guidance became effective for Applied beginning with its 2009 fiscal year. Applied has not elected the fair value measurement option for its financial assets or liabilities that are not currently required to be measured at fair value.
In September 2006, the FASB issued authoritative guidance for fair value measurements, which defines fair value, establishes a framework for measuring fair value in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and expands disclosures about fair value measurements. In February 2008, the FASB issued authoritative guidance on fair value measurements for purposes of lease classification, which amends previously issued guidance on fair value measurements to remove certain leasing transactions from its scope. The FASB also issued authoritative guidance on the effective date of fair value measurements, which delays the effective date for Applied for all non-financial assets and non-financial liabilities, except for items that are recognized or disclosed at fair value in the financial statements on a recurring basis (at least annually), until the beginning of Applieds first quarter of fiscal 2010. The measurement and disclosure requirements related to financial assets and financial liabilities became effective for Applied beginning in the first quarter of fiscal 2009. In October 2008, the FASB issued authoritative guidance that clarifies the application of fair value measurements in a market that is not active, and provides guidance on the key considerations in determining the fair value of a financial asset when the market for that financial asset is not active. Applied adopted the effective portions of fair value measurements beginning in the first quarter of fiscal 2009. See Note 3 for information and related disclosures regarding Applieds fair value measurements.
Applieds cash, cash equivalents and investments decreased to $3.3 billion at October 25, 2009 from $3.5 billion at October 26, 2008, due primarily to a decrease in cash generated from operating activities. Applied has not undertaken any significant external financing activities for several years.
Cash, cash equivalents and investments consist of the following:
Applied generated cash from operating activities of $333 million in fiscal 2009, $1.7 billion in fiscal 2008, and $2.2 billion in fiscal 2007. The primary sources of cash from operations in fiscal 2009 were collections of accounts receivable and a reduction in inventories, which was offset by a decrease in accounts payable and accrued expenses and in income taxes payable. The net loss incurred was offset by the effect of non-cash charges, including depreciation, amortization, restructuring and asset impairments, equity-based compensation, impairment of investments, and provision for bad debts. Applied utilized programs to discount letters of credit issued by customers of $299 million in fiscal 2009, $167 million in fiscal 2008, and $431 million in fiscal 2007. Discounting of letters of credit depends on many factors, including the willingness of financial institutions to discount the letters of credit and the cost of such arrangements. In fiscal 2009 and 2008, Applied factored accounts receivable and discounted promissory notes totaling $43 million and $138 million, respectively. Days sales outstanding were 75 days at the end of fiscal 2009 and 79 days at the end of both fiscal 2008 and 2007.
Applied generated $113 million of cash from investing activities in fiscal 2009 and used $76 million and $977 million of cash in investing activities in fiscal 2008 and 2007, respectively. Proceeds from sales and maturities of investments, net of purchases of investments, totaled $361 million in fiscal 2009 and $405 million in fiscal 2008. Purchases of investments, net of proceeds from sales and maturities of investments, totaled $150 million in fiscal 2007.
Capital expenditures were $248 million in fiscal 2009, $288 million in fiscal 2008, and $265 million in fiscal 2007. These expenditures were primarily for the implementation of an enterprise resource planning software system and the construction of a solar R&D/demonstration center in Xian, China. Capital expenditures in fiscal 2009 also included investment to construct a facility in Singapore.
Investing activities also included investments in technology and acquisitions of companies to allow Applied to access new market opportunities or emerging technologies. During fiscal 2008, Applied acquired all of the outstanding shares of Baccini, a privately-held company based in Italy, for a purchase price of $215 million in cash, net of cash and marketable securities acquired. Also in fiscal 2008, Applied also purchased certain assets from Edwards Vacuum, Inc. consisting of its Kachina semiconductor equipment parts cleaning and refurbishment business for $19 million. During fiscal 2007, Applied acquired all of the outstanding shares of HCT for $463 million in cash, net of cash acquired, and certain net assets of Brooks Automation, Inc. consisting of its Brooks Software division for $137 million in cash. See Note 14 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for additional details.
Applied used cash of $281 million for financing activities in fiscal 2009, $1.4 billion in fiscal 2008, and $892 million in fiscal 2007. Financing activities included payment of cash dividends to stockholders and to a lesser extent issuances and repurchases of common stock. Since November 2008, Applied has temporarily suspended stock repurchases in order to maintain financial flexibility in light of uncertain global economic and market conditions. Cash used to repurchase shares totaled $23 million in fiscal 2009, $1.5 billion in fiscal 2008, and $1.3 billion in fiscal 2007. In each of fiscal 2009 and 2008, Applieds Board of Directors declared four quarterly cash dividends in the amount of $0.06 per share each. The fourth quarterly cash dividend declared in fiscal 2009 was paid on December 3, 2009 to stockholders of record as of November 12, 2009. During fiscal 2007, Applieds Board
of Directors declared one quarterly cash dividend in the amount of $0.05 per share and three quarterly cash dividends in the amount of $0.06 per share each. Dividends paid during fiscal 2009, 2008 and 2007 were $320 million, $325 million and $306 million, respectively. Applied currently anticipates that it will continue to pay cash dividends on a quarterly basis in the future, although the declaration of any future cash dividend is at the discretion of the Board of Directors and will depend on Applieds financial condition, results of operations, capital requirements, business conditions and other factors, as well as a determination that cash dividends are in the best interest of Applieds stockholders. Financing activities also included borrowings and repayments of debt. Applied did not have any borrowings in fiscal years 2009, 2008 or 2007. Cash used for debt repayments totaled $1 million for fiscal 2009, $2 million for fiscal 2008, and $202 million for fiscal 2007. Cash generated from issuances of common stock pursuant to Applieds equity compensation programs totaled $62 million for fiscal 2009, $401 million for fiscal 2008, and $948 million for fiscal 2007.
Applied has credit facilities for unsecured borrowings in various currencies of up to $1.2 billion, of which $1.0 billion is comprised of a 5-year revolving credit agreement with a group of banks that is scheduled to expire in January 2012. This agreement provides for borrowings in United States dollars at interest rates keyed to one of the two rates selected by Applied for each advance and includes financial and other covenants with which Applied was in compliance at October 25, 2009. In May 2009, Applied amended certain terms of this credit agreement, including (i) replacing the funded-debt-to-adjusted-earnings ratio financial covenant with a minimum liquidity covenant and a funded-debt-to-total-capital ratio covenant and (ii) increasing the facility fee and applicable interest rate margins on advances. Remaining credit facilities in the amount of approximately $165 million are with Japanese banks. Applieds ability to borrow under these facilities is subject to bank approval at the time of the borrowing request, and any advances will be at rates indexed to the banks prime reference rate denominated in Japanese yen. No amounts were outstanding under any of the above credit facilities at October 25, 2009.
In the ordinary course of business, Applied provides standby letters of credit or other guarantee instruments to third parties as required for certain transactions initiated by either Applied or its subsidiaries. As of October 25, 2009, the maximum potential amount of future payments that Applied could be required to make under these guarantee arrangements was $83 million. Applied has not recorded any liability in connection with these guarantee arrangements beyond that required to appropriately account for the underlying transaction being guaranteed. Applied does not believe, based on historical experience and information currently available, that it is probable that any amounts will be required to be paid under these guarantee arrangements.
Applied expects that changes in its business will affect its working capital components, primarily related to its Energy and Environmental Solutions segment, which includes products for manufacturing solar PVs. Applied has entered into contracts with multiple customers for its SunFab Thin Film Line for projects of varying scale. Fulfillment of these contracts requires Applied to invest in inventory, particularly work in process, which investment may be offset by customer deposits. Changes in these contracts may result in inventory charges if Applied determines the inventory to be in excess of anticipated demand.
Applieds investment portfolio consists principally of investment grade money market mutual funds, U.S. Treasury and agency securities, municipal bonds, corporate bonds and, to a small extent, mortgage-backed and asset-backed securities, as well as equity securities. Applied regularly monitors the credit risk in its investment portfolio and takes appropriate measures, which may include the sale of certain securities, to manage such risks prudently in accordance with its investment policies.
In fiscal 2009, as part of its regular investment review process, Applied recorded impairment charges of $84 million associated with its equity method investment in Sokudo Co., Ltd., other strategic investments and marketable securities. At October 25, 2009, Applied had a gross unrealized loss of $1 million due to a decrease in the fair value of certain fixed income securities. Applied regularly reviews its investment portfolio to identify and evaluate investments that have indications of possible impairment. Factors considered in determining whether a loss is temporary include: the length of time and extent to which fair value has been lower than the cost basis; the financial condition, credit quality and near-term prospects of the investee; and whether it is more likely-than-not that Applied will be required to sell the security prior to any anticipated recovery in fair value. Generally, the contractual terms of the investments do not permit settlement at prices less than the amortized cost of the investments. While Applied cannot predict future market conditions or market liquidity, Applied believes that its
investment policies provide an appropriate means to manage the risks in its investment portfolio. The following types of financial instruments may present additional risks arising from liquidity and/or credit concerns: structured investment vehicles, auction rate securities, sub-prime and Alt-A mortgage-backed securities, and collateralized debt obligations. At October 25, 2009, Applieds holdings in these categories of investments totaled $6 million, or less than 1% of total cash, cash equivalents and investments, which Applied does not consider to be material. In the event that these categories of investments become illiquid, Applied does not believe that this will materially affect its liquidity or results of operations.
During fiscal 2009, Applied recorded a bad debt provision of $63 million as a result of certain customers deteriorating financial condition. While Applied believes that its allowance for doubtful accounts at October 25, 2009 is adequate, it will continue to closely monitor customer liquidity and other economic conditions.
On November 11, 2009, Applied announced that it will implement a restructuring program beginning in the first quarter of fiscal 2010. As part of this program, Applied plans to reduce its global workforce as of October 25, 2009 by approximately 1,300 to 1,500 positions, or 10 to 12 percent, over a period of 18 months, consistent with local legal requirements and in consultation with employee works councils and other representatives, as applicable. The Company anticipates cash outlays of between $100 million and $125 million for this plan.
On November 16, 2009, Applied entered into an agreement to acquire all of the outstanding shares of Semitool, a public company based in the state of Montana, for $11 per share in an all-cash tender offer. Under the terms of the agreement approved by the Boards of Directors of both companies, Applied will pay an aggregate purchase price of approximately $364 million based on the fully-diluted capitalization of Semitool. The acquisition will be conducted through a tender offer for all of the outstanding shares of Semitool and is conditioned on the occurrence or absence of certain events, including the tender of at least 66.67% of Semitools outstanding stock on a fully-diluted basis, as well as regulatory approvals and other customary closing conditions.
Although cash requirements will fluctuate based on the timing and extent of factors such as those discussed above, Applieds management believes that cash generated from operations, together with the liquidity provided by existing cash balances and borrowing capability, will be sufficient to satisfy Applieds liquidity requirements for the next 12 months. For further details regarding Applieds operating, investing and financing activities for each of the three years in the period ended October 25, 2009, see the Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows in this report.
During the ordinary course of business, Applied provides standby letters of credit or other guarantee instruments to third parties as required for certain transactions initiated either by Applied or its subsidiaries. As of October 25, 2009, the maximum potential amount of future payments that Applied could be required to make under these guarantee agreements was $83 million. Applied has not recorded any liability in connection with these guarantee arrangements beyond that required to appropriately account for the underlying transaction being guaranteed. Applied does not believe, based on historical experience and information currently available, that it is probable that any amounts will be required to be paid under these guarantee arrangements.
Applied also has operating leases for various facilities. Total rental expense for operating leases was $64 million for fiscal 2009, $68 million for fiscal 2008, and $62 million for fiscal 2007.
The following table summarizes Applieds contractual obligations as of October 25, 2009:
In addition to the contractual obligations disclosed above, the Company has certain tax obligations. Gross interest and penalties and unrecognized tax benefits that are not expected to result in payment or receipt of cash within one year have been reported as non-current liabilities on the Consolidated Balance Sheet. As of October 25, 2009, the gross liability for unrecognized tax benefits was $325 million, exclusive of interest and penalties. Increases or decreases to interest and penalties on uncertain tax positions are included in provision for income taxes in the Consolidated Statement of Operations. Interest and penalties related to uncertain tax positions were $8 million as of October 26, 2008 and $5 million as of October 25, 2009. All $5 million in interest and penalties is classified as long-term payable in the Consolidated Balance Sheets. At this time, the Company is unable to make a reasonably reliable estimate of the timing of payments in individual years due to uncertainties in the timing of tax audit outcomes and, accordingly, such amounts are not included in the above contractual obligation table.
As discussed above, on November 16, 2009, Applied entered into an agreement to acquire all of the outstanding shares of Semitool, a public company based in the state of Montana, for $11 per share in an all-cash tender offer. Under the terms of the agreement approved by the Boards of Directors of both companies, Applied will pay an aggregate purchase price of approximately $364 million based on the fully-diluted capitalization of Semitool. The acquisition will be conducted through a tender offer for all of the outstanding shares of Semitool and is conditioned on the occurrence or absence of certain events, including the tender of at least 66.67% of Semitools outstanding stock on a fully-diluted basis, as well as regulatory approvals and other customary closing conditions.
The preparation of consolidated financial statements and related disclosures in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America requires management to make judgments, assumptions and estimates that affect the amounts reported. Note 1 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements describes the significant accounting policies used in the preparation of the consolidated financial statements. Certain of these significant accounting policies are considered to be critical accounting policies.
A critical accounting policy is defined as one that is both material to the presentation of Applieds consolidated financial statements and requires management to make difficult, subjective or complex judgments that could have a material effect on Applieds financial condition or results of operations. Specifically, these policies have the following attributes: (1) Applied is required to make assumptions about matters that are highly uncertain at the time of the estimate; and (2) different estimates Applied could reasonably have used, or changes in the estimate that are reasonably likely to occur, would have a material effect on Applieds financial condition or results of operations.
Estimates and assumptions about future events and their effects cannot be determined with certainty. Applied bases its estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions believed to be applicable and
reasonable under the circumstances. These estimates may change as new events occur, as additional information is obtained and as Applieds operating environment changes. These changes have historically been minor and have been included in the consolidated financial statements as soon as they became known. In addition, management is periodically faced with uncertainties, the outcomes of which are not within its control and will not be known for prolonged periods of time. These uncertainties are discussed in the section above entitled Risk Factors. Based on a critical assessment of its accounting policies and the underlying judgments and uncertainties affecting the application of those policies, management believes that Applieds consolidated financial statements are fairly stated in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America, and provide a meaningful presentation of Applieds financial condition and results of operations.
Management believes that the following are critical accounting policies:
Applied provides for the estimated cost of warranty when revenue is recognized. Estimated warranty costs are determined by analyzing specific product, current and historical configuration statistics and regional warranty support costs. Applieds warranty obligation is affected by product and component failure rates, material usage and labor costs incurred in correcting product failures during the warranty period. As Applieds customer engineers and process support engineers are highly trained and deployed globally, labor availability is a significant factor in determining labor costs. The quantity and availability of critical replacement parts is another significant factor in estimating warranty costs. Unforeseen component failures or exceptional component performance can also result in changes to warranty costs. If actual warranty costs differ substantially from Applieds estimates, revisions to the estimated warranty liability would be required, which could have a material adverse effect on Applieds business, financial condition and results of operations.
Applied maintains an allowance for doubtful accounts for estimated losses resulting from the inability of its customers to make required payments. This allowance is based on historical experience, credit evaluations, specific customer collection history and any customer-specific issues Applied has identified. Changes in circumstances, such as an unexpected material adverse change in a major customers ability to meet its financial obligation to Applied or its payment trends, may require Applied to further adjust its estimates of the recoverability of amounts due to Applied, which could have a material adverse effect on Applieds business, financial condition and results of operations.
Inventories are generally stated at the lower of cost or market, with cost determined on a first-in, first-out basis. The carrying value of inventory is reduced for estimated obsolescence by the difference between its cost and the estimated market value based upon assumptions about future demand. Applied evaluates the inventory carrying value for potential excess and obsolete inventory exposures by analyzing historical and anticipated demand. In addition, inventories are evaluated for potential obsolescence due to the effect of known and anticipated engineering change orders and new products. If actual demand were to be substantially lower than estimated, additional adjustments for excess or obsolete inventory may be required, which could have a material adverse effect on Applieds business, financial condition and results of operations.
Applied reviews goodwill and intangible assets for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of these assets may not be recoverable, and also annually reviews goodwill and intangibles with indefinite lives for impairment. Intangible assets, such as purchased technology, are generally recorded in connection with a business acquisition. The value assigned to intangible assets is usually based on estimates and judgments regarding expectations for the success and life cycle of products and technology acquired. If actual product acceptance differs significantly from the estimates, Applied may be required to record an impairment charge to reduce the carrying value of the reporting unit to its realizable value. The fair value of a
reporting unit is estimated using both the income approach and the market approach taking into account such factors as future anticipated operating results and estimated cost of capital. Management uses significant judgment when assessing goodwill for potential impairment, especially in new emerging markets. A severe decline in market value could result in an unexpected impairment charge for impaired goodwill, which could have a material adverse effect on Applieds business, financial condition and results of operations.
The effective tax rate is highly dependent upon the geographic composition of worldwide earnings, tax regulations governing each region, non-tax deductible expenses incurred in connection with acquisitions and availability of tax credits. Management carefully monitors the changes in many factors and adjusts the effective income tax rate as required. If actual results differ from these estimates, Applied could be required to record a valuation allowance on deferred tax assets or adjust its effective income tax rate, which could have a material adverse effect on Applieds business, financial condition and results of operations.
Applied accounts for income taxes by recognizing deferred tax assets and liabilities using statutory tax rates for the effect of temporary differences between the book and tax bases of recorded assets and liabilities, net operating losses and tax credit carryforwards. Deferred tax assets are also reduced by a valuation allowance if it is more likely than not that a portion of the deferred tax asset will not be realized. Management has determined that it is more likely than not that Applieds future taxable income will be sufficient to realize its deferred tax assets.
The calculation of tax liabilities involves significant judgment in estimating the impact of uncertainties in the application of complex tax laws. Resolution of these uncertainties in a manner inconsistent with Applieds expectations could have a material impact on Applieds results of operations and financial condition.
At October 25, 2009, Applieds investment portfolio included fixed-income securities with a fair value of approximately $2.6 billion. Applieds primary objective for investing in fixed-income securities is to preserve principal while maximizing returns and minimizing risk. These securities are subject to interest rate risk and will decline in value if interest rates increase. Based on Applieds investment portfolio at October 25, 2009, an immediate 100 basis point increase in interest rates would result in a decrease in the fair value of the portfolio of approximately $21 million. While an increase in interest rates reduces the fair value of the investment portfolio, Applied will not realize the losses in the Consolidated Statement of Operations unless the individual fixed-income securities are sold prior to recovery or the investment is determined to be other-than-temporarily impaired.
All of Applieds debt bears interest at fixed rates. Therefore, an immediate 100 basis point increase in interest rates would not be expected to have a material effect on Applieds near-term financial condition or results of operations.
Certain operations of Applied are conducted in foreign currencies, such as Japanese yen, euro, Israeli shekel and Swiss francs. Applied enters into forward exchange and currency option contracts to hedge a portion of, but not all, existing and anticipated foreign currency denominated transactions expected to occur typically within 24 months. Gains and losses on these contracts are generally recognized in the Consolidated Statements of Operations at the time that the related transactions being hedged are recognized. Because the effect of movements in currency exchange rates on forward exchange and currency option contracts generally offsets the related effect on the underlying items being hedged, these financial instruments are not expected to subject Applied to risks that would otherwise result from changes in currency exchange rates. Applied does not use derivative financial instruments for trading or speculative purposes.
Forward exchange contracts are denominated in the same currency as the underlying transactions (primarily Japanese yen, euro, Israeli shekel and Swiss francs), and the terms of the forward exchange contracts generally match the terms of the underlying transactions. Applieds outstanding forward exchange contracts are marked-to-market as are the majority of the related underlying transactions being hedged; therefore, the effect of exchange rate changes on forward exchange contracts is expected to be substantially offset by the effect of these changes on the underlying
transactions. The effect of an immediate 10 percent change in exchange rates on forward exchange contracts and the underlying hedged transactions is not expected to be material to Applieds near-term financial condition or results of operations. Applieds risk with respect to currency option contracts is limited to the premium paid for the right to exercise the option. Premiums paid for options outstanding at October 25, 2009 were not material. For further details, see Note 3 and Note 9 of Notes to Consolidated Condensed Financial Statements.
The consolidated financial statements required by this Item are set forth on the pages indicated at Item 15(a).
As of the end of the period covered by this report, management of Applied conducted an evaluation, under the supervision and with the participation of Applieds Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer, of the effectiveness of the design and operation of Applieds disclosure controls and procedures, as such term is defined in Rule 13a-15(e) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (the Exchange Act). Based upon that evaluation, Applieds Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer concluded that Applieds disclosure controls and procedures were effective as of the end of the period covered by this report in ensuring that information required to be disclosed was recorded, processed, summarized and reported within the time periods specified in the SECs rules and forms, and to provide reasonable assurance that information required to be disclosed by Applied in such reports is accumulated and communicated to the Companys management, including its Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer, as appropriate to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosure.
Applieds management is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting, as such term is defined in Rule 13a-15(f) of the Exchange Act. Under the supervision and with the participation of Applieds Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer, management of Applied conducted an evaluation of the effectiveness of Applieds internal control over financial reporting based upon the framework in Internal Control Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission. Based on that evaluation, Applieds management concluded that Applieds internal control over financial reporting was effective as of October 25, 2009.
KPMG LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, has audited the consolidated financial statements included in this Form 10-K and, as part of the audit, has issued a report, included herein, on the effectiveness of Applieds internal control over financial reporting as of October 25, 2009.
During the fourth quarter of fiscal 2009, there were no changes in the internal control over financial reporting that materially affected, or are reasonably likely to materially affect, Applieds internal control over financial reporting.
Inherent Limitations of Disclosure Controls and Procedures and Internal Control over Financial Reporting
It should be noted that any system of controls, however well designed and operated, can provide only reasonable, and not absolute, assurance that the objectives of the system will be met. In addition, the design of any control system is based in part upon certain assumptions about the likelihood of future events.
The Board of Directors and Stockholders
Applied Materials, Inc.:
We have audited Applied Materials, Inc. and subsidiaries (the Company) internal control over financial reporting as of October 25, 2009, based on criteria established in Internal Control Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO). The Companys management is responsible for maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting and for its assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting, included in the accompanying Managements Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting in Item 9A. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Companys internal control over financial reporting based on our audit.
We conducted our audit in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States). Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether effective internal control over financial reporting was maintained in all material respects. Our audit included obtaining an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, assessing the risk that a material weakness exists, and testing and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of internal control based on the assessed risk. Our audit also included performing such other procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. We believe that our audit provides a reasonable basis for our opinion.
A companys internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. A companys internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (1) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the company; (2) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the company; and (3) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the companys assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.
Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.
In our opinion, Applied Materials, Inc. and subsidiaries maintained, in all material respects, effective internal control over financial reporting as of October 25, 2009, based on criteria established in Internal Control Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission.
We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States), the consolidated balance sheets of Applied Materials Inc. and subsidiaries as of October 25, 2009 and October 26, 2008, and the related consolidated statements of operations, stockholders equity and comprehensive income (loss), and cash flows for each of the years in the three-year period ended October 25, 2009. In connection with our audits of the consolidated financial statements, we have also audited the financial statement schedule II. Our report dated December 11, 2009 expressed an unqualified opinion on those consolidated financial statements and financial statement schedule.
/s/ KPMG LLP
Mountain View, California
December 11, 2009
Pursuant to Paragraph G(3) of the General Instructions to Form 10-K, portions of the information required by Part III of Form 10-K are incorporated by reference from Applieds Proxy Statement to be filed with the SEC in connection with the 2010 Annual Meeting of Stockholders (the Proxy Statement).
(1) Information concerning directors, including director nominations, and Applieds audit committee and audit committee financial expert, appears in the Proxy Statement under Election of Directors, and is incorporated herein by reference.
(2) For information with respect to Executive Officers, see Part I, Item 1 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, under Executive Officers of the Registrant.
(3) Information concerning Section 16(a) beneficial ownership reporting compliance appears in the Proxy Statement under Section 16(a) Beneficial Ownership Reporting Compliance, and is incorporated herein by reference.
Applied has implemented the Standards of Business Conduct, a code of ethics with which every person who works for Applied and every member of the Board of Directors is expected to comply. If any substantive amendments are made to the Standards of Business Conduct or any waiver is granted, including any implicit waiver, from a provision of the code to Applieds Chief Executive Officer, Chief Financial Officer or Chief Accounting Officer, Applied will disclose the nature of such amendment or waiver on its website or in a report on Form 8-K. The above information, including the Standards of Business Conduct, is available on Applieds website under the Investors section at http://www.appliedmaterials.com/investors/index.html. This website address is intended to be an inactive, textual reference only. None of the material on this website is part of this report or is incorporated by reference herein.
Information concerning executive compensation appears in the Proxy Statement under Executive Compensation and Related Information and is incorporated herein by reference.
Information concerning compensation committee interlocks and insider participation appears in the Proxy Statement under Compensation Committee Interlocks and Insider Participation and is incorporated herein by reference.
Information concerning the compensation committee report appears in the Proxy Statement under Human Resources and Compensation Committee Report and is incorporated herein by reference.
Information concerning the security ownership of certain beneficial owners and management appears in the Proxy Statement, under Principal Stockholders, and is incorporated herein by reference.
The following table summarizes information with respect to options and other equity awards under Applieds equity compensation plans as of October 25, 2009:
Applied has the following equity compensation plans that have not been approved by stockholders:
2000 Global Equity Incentive Plan The 2000 Global Equity Incentive Plan (the 2000 Plan) was adopted effective as of June 21, 2000. The 2000 Plan provides for the grant of non-qualified stock options to employees other than officers and directors. The administrator of the 2000 Plan (either the Board of Directors of Applied or a committee appointed by the Board) determines the terms and conditions of all stock options granted; provided, however, that (1) the exercise price generally may not be less than 100 percent of the fair market value (on the date of grant) of the stock covered by the option, and (2) the term of options can be no longer than 10 years (or 13 years in the event of death). A total of 147,000,000 shares have been authorized for issuance under the 2000 Plan, and 47,955 shares remain available for issuance as of October 25, 2009.
Stock Purchase Plan for Offshore Employees The Stock Purchase Plan for Offshore Employees (the Offshore ESPP) was adopted effective as of October 16, 1995 for the benefit of employees of Applieds participating affiliates (other than United States citizens or residents). The Offshore ESPP provides for the grant of options to purchase shares of Applied common stock through payroll deductions pursuant to one or more offerings. The administrator of the Offshore ESPP (the Board of Directors of Applied or a committee appointed by the Board) determines the terms and conditions of all options prior to the start of an offering, including the purchase price of shares, the number of shares covered by the option and when the option may be exercised. All options granted as part of an offering must be granted on the same date. Prior to June 8, 2009, a
total of 12,800,000 shares had been authorized for issuance under the Offshore ESPP. Effective June 8, 2009, Applied amended the Offshore ESPP to increase the number of shares available for issuance under such plan by 3,000,000 shares and correspondingly amended the stockholder-approved Applied Materials, Inc. Employees Stock Purchase Plan (the U.S. ESPP) to reduce the number of shares available for issuance under such plan by 3,000,000 shares. Accordingly, as of October 25, 2009 a total of 15,800,000 shares have been authorized for issuance under the Offshore ESPP, and 2,033,000 shares remain available for issuance. These plan amendments did not result in any increase in the total aggregate number of shares authorized for issuance under the Offshore ESPP and the U.S. ESPP.
Nonemployee Director Share Purchase Plan The Applied Materials, Inc. Nonemployee Director Share Purchase Plan was adopted effective March 22, 2005. The Nonemployee Director Share Purchase Plan provides a method by which non-employee directors may purchase Applied common stock at 100% of fair market value on the purchase date by foregoing cash they have earned as retainer fees or meeting fees. The shares generally are purchased at the same time the directors otherwise would have been paid the fees in cash. Since the directors pay full fair market value for the shares, there is no reserved amount of shares under this plan and, accordingly, the table above does not include any set number of shares available for future issuance under the plan.
Applied Materials Profit Sharing Scheme The Applied Materials Profit Sharing Scheme was adopted effective July 3, 1996 to enable employees of Applied Materials Ireland Limited and its participating subsidiaries to purchase Applied common stock at 100% of fair market value on the purchase date. Under this plan, eligible employees may elect to forego a certain portion of their base salary and certain bonuses they have earned and that otherwise would be payable in cash to purchase shares of Applied common stock at full fair market value. Since the eligible employees pay full fair market value for the shares, there is no reserved amount of shares under this plan and, accordingly, the table above does not include any set number of shares available for future issuance under the plan.
The information appearing in the Proxy Statement under the heading Certain Relationships and Related Transactions is incorporated herein by reference.
The information appearing in the Proxy Statement under the heading Director Independence is incorporated herein by reference.
Information concerning principal accounting fees and services and the audit committees preapproval policies and procedures appears in the Proxy Statement under the headings Fees Paid to KPMG LLP and Policy on Audit Committees Pre-Approval of Audit and Permisssible Non-audit Services of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm, is incorporated herein by reference.
(a) The following documents are filed as part of this Annual Report on Form 10-K:
All other schedules are omitted because they are not applicable or the required information is shown in the Consolidated Financial Statements or Notes thereto.
APPLIED MATERIALS, INC.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS
See accompanying Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
APPLIED MATERIALS, INC.
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
See accompanying Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
APPLIED MATERIALS, INC.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF STOCKHOLDERS EQUITY
AND COMPREHENSIVE INCOME (LOSS)
See accompanying Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
APPLIED MATERIALS, INC.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
See accompanying Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
APPLIED MATERIALS, INC.
The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Applied Materials, Inc. and its subsidiaries (Applied or the Company) after elimination of intercompany balances and transactions. All references to a fiscal year apply to Applieds fiscal year which ends on the last Sunday in October. Fiscal 2009, 2008 and 2007 contained 52 weeks each. Each fiscal quarter of 2009, 2008 and 2007 contained 13 weeks.
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes. Actual results could differ materially from those estimates.
Prior year amounts for customer deposits and deferred revenue have been reclassified to conform to the current year presentation.
During fiscal 2009, Applied implemented authoritative guidance and changed the measurement date for its defined and postretirement benefit plan assets and obligations from an interim date to Applieds fiscal year end. Accordingly, Applied recorded a $2 million (after tax) adjustment to the fiscal 2009 beginning balance of retained earnings.
All highly-liquid investments with a remaining maturity of three months or less at the time of purchase are considered to be cash equivalents. Cash equivalents consists primarily of investments in institutional money market funds.
All of Applieds investments are classified as available-for-sale at the respective balance sheet dates. Investments classified as available-for-sale are recorded at fair value based upon quoted market prices, and any temporary difference between the cost and fair value of an investment is presented as a separate component of accumulated other comprehensive income (loss). The specific identification method is used to determine the gains and losses on investments.
Inventories are stated at the lower of cost or market, with cost determined on a first-in, first-out (FIFO) basis.
Property, plant and equipment is stated at cost. Depreciation is provided over the estimated useful lives of the assets using the straight-line method. Estimated useful lives for financial reporting purposes are as follows: buildings and improvements, 3 to 30 years; demonstration and manufacturing equipment, 3 to 5 years; software, 3 to 5 years; and furniture, fixtures and other equipment, 3 to 15 years. Land improvements are amortized over the shorter of 15 years or the estimated useful life. Leasehold improvements are amortized over the shorter of five years or the lease term.
Goodwill and indefinite-lived assets are not amortized, but are reviewed for impairment annually during the fourth quarter of each fiscal year. Purchased technology and other intangible assets are presented at cost, net of
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accumulated amortization, and are amortized over their estimated useful lives of 1 to 15 years using the straight-line method.
Applied reviews long-lived assets for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of these assets may not be recoverable. Applied assesses these assets for impairment based on estimated future cash flows from these assets.
Research, Development and Engineering Costs
Research, development and engineering costs are expensed as incurred.
Advertising costs are expensed as incurred. Advertising costs were not material for all periods presented.
Taxes collected from customers and remitted to governmental authorities are presented on a net basis in the accompanying Consolidated Statements of Operations.
Income tax expense is based on pretax earnings. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the expected tax consequences of temporary differences between the book and tax bases of recorded assets and liabilities, net operating losses and tax credit carryforwards.
Applied recognizes revenue when all four revenue recognition criteria have been met: persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists; delivery has occurred or services have been rendered; sellers price to buyer is fixed or determinable; and collectability is reasonably assured. Applieds shipping terms are customarily FOB Applied shipping point or equivalent terms. Applieds revenue recognition policy generally results in revenue recognition at the following points: (1) for all transactions where legal title passes to the customer upon shipment, Applied recognizes revenue upon shipment for all products that have been demonstrated to meet product specifications prior to shipment; the portion of revenue associated with certain installation-related tasks is deferred based on the estimated fair value, and that revenue is recognized upon completion of the installation-related tasks; (2) for products that have not been demonstrated to meet product specifications prior to shipment, revenue is recognized at customer technical acceptance; (3) for transactions where legal title does not pass at shipment, revenue is recognized when legal title passes to the customer, which is generally at customer technical acceptance; and (4) for arrangements containing multiple elements, the revenue relating to the undelivered elements is deferred at their estimated relative fair values until delivery of the deferred elements. In cases where Applied has sold products that have been demonstrated to meet product specifications prior to shipment, Applied believes that at the time of delivery, it has an enforceable claim to amounts recognized as revenue. The completed contract method is used for SunFabtm Thin Film Lines. Certain SunFab Thin Film contracts have provisions for additional amounts to become due to Applied if the line achieves certain output criteria subsequent to factory acceptance. Any additional amounts earned under these contracts are recognized upon achievement. Spare parts revenue is generally recognized upon shipment, and services revenue is generally recognized over the period that the services are provided.
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Applied uses financial instruments, such as forward exchange and currency option contracts, to hedge a portion of, but not all, existing and anticipated foreign currency denominated transactions typically expected to occur within 24 months. The terms of currency instruments used for hedging purposes are generally consistent with the timing of the transactions being hedged. The purpose of Applieds foreign currency management is to mitigate the effect of exchange rate fluctuations on certain foreign currency denominated revenues, costs and eventual cash flows. All of Applieds derivative financial instruments are recorded at fair value based upon quoted market prices for comparable instruments. For derivative instruments designated and qualifying as cash flow hedges of anticipated foreign currency denominated transactions, the effective portion of the gain or loss on these hedges is reported as a component of accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) in stockholders equity, and is reclassified into earnings when the hedged transaction affects earnings. If the transaction being hedged fails to occur, or if a portion of any derivative is ineffective, the gain or loss on the associated financial instrument is recorded promptly in earnings. For derivative instruments used to hedge existing foreign currency denominated assets or liabilities, the gain or loss on these hedges is recorded promptly in earnings to offset the changes in the fair value of the assets or liabilities being hedged. Applied does not use derivative financial instruments for trading or speculative purposes.
As of October 25, 2009, primarily all of Applieds subsidiaries use the United States dollar as their functional currency. Accordingly, assets and liabilities of these subsidiaries are translated using exchange rates in effect at the end of the period, except for non-monetary assets, such as inventories and property, plant and equipment, which are translated using historical exchange rates. Revenues and costs are translated using average exchange rates for the period, except for costs related to those balance sheet items that are translated using historical exchange rates. The resulting translation gains and losses are included in the Consolidated Statements of Operations as incurred.
Financial instruments that potentially subject Applied to significant concentrations of credit risk consist principally of cash equivalents, investments, trade accounts receivable and derivative financial instruments used in hedging activities. Applied invests in a variety of financial instruments, such as, but not limited to, certificates of deposit, corporate and municipal bonds, United States Treasury and agency securities, and asset-backed and mortgage-backed securities, and, by policy, limits the amount of credit exposure with any one financial institution or commercial issuer. Applied performs ongoing credit evaluations of its customers financial condition and generally requires no collateral to secure accounts receivable. Applied maintains an allowance reserve for potentially uncollectible accounts receivable based on its assessment of the collectibility of accounts receivable. Applied regularly reviews the allowance by considering factors such as historical experience, credit quality, age of the accounts receivable balances, and current economic conditions that may affect a customers ability to pay. In addition, Applied utilizes letters of credit to mitigate credit risk when considered appropriate. Applied is exposed to credit-related losses in the event of nonperformance by counterparties to derivative financial instruments, but does not expect any counterparties to fail to meet their obligations.
Applied has adopted stock plans that permit grants to employees of equity-based awards, including stock options, restricted stock and restricted stock units (also referred to as performance shares under the Applied Materials, Inc. Employee Stock Incentive Plan). In addition, the Employee Stock Incentive Plan provides for the automatic grant of restricted stock units to non-employee directors and permits the grant of equity-based awards to consultants. Applied also has an Employee Stock Purchase Plan for United States employees, and a second
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Employee Stock Purchase Plan for international employees (collectively, ESPP), which enable eligible employees to purchase Applied common stock.
During fiscal 2009, 2008 and 2007, Applied recognized total equity-based compensation expense related to stock options, ESPP shares, restricted stock units and restricted stock of $147 million (or $0.08 per diluted share), $179 million (or $0.09 per diluted share) and $161 million (or $0.08 per diluted share), respectively. During fiscal 2009, 2008 and 2007, Applied recognized income tax benefits related to equity-based compensation of $41 million, $50 million and $45 million, respectively. The equity-based compensation expense related to restricted stock units and restricted stock for fiscal 2009, 2008 and 2007 was $115 million, $137 million and $104 million, respectively. The cost associated with Applieds stock options and restricted stock units less expected forfeitures, is recognized over the awards service period for the entire award on a straight-line basis. The cost associated with Applieds performance-based equity awards are recognized over the service for each tranche.
The exercise price of each stock option equals the fair market value of Applied common stock on the date of grant. Most options are scheduled to vest over four years and expire no later than seven years from the grant date. The fair value of each option grant is estimated on the date of grant using the Black-Scholes option pricing model. This model was developed for use in estimating the value of publicly traded options that have no vesting restrictions and are fully transferable. Applieds employee stock options have characteristics significantly different from those of publicly traded options. The weighted average assumptions used in the model are outlined in the following table:
The computation of the expected volatility assumption used in the Black-Scholes calculations for new grants is based on a combination of historical and implied volatilities. When establishing the expected life assumption, Applied periodically reviews historical employee exercise behavior with respect to option grants with similar vesting periods.
Options outstanding had an aggregate intrinsic value of $109 million, $0.6 million and $190 million at October 25, 2009, October 26, 2008 and October 28, 2007, respectively. The total grant date fair value of options granted during fiscal 2009, 2008 and 2007 was $62 million, $34,000 and $2 million, respectively. The total intrinsic value of options exercised during fiscal 2009, 2008 and 2007 was $1 million, $54 million and $141 million, respectively. The total fair value of options that vested during fiscal 2009, 2008 and 2007 was $14 million, $55 million and $124 million, respectively. At October 25, 2009, Applied had $42 million of total unrecognized compensation expense, net of estimated forfeitures, related to stock option plans that will be recognized over the weighted average period of 1.3 years. Cash received from stock option exercises was $9 million, $328 million and $837 million, respectively, during fiscal 2009, 2008 and 2007. The actual tax benefit realized for the tax deductions from options exercised for fiscal 2009, 2008 and 2007 totaled $22 million, $57 million and $50 million, respectively.
Under the ESPP, substantially all employees may purchase Applied common stock through payroll deductions at a price equal to 85 percent of the lower of the fair market value of Applied common stock at the beginning of the applicable offering period or at the end of each applicable purchase period. Effective March 2, 2009, the length of offering periods under the ESPP was reduced to 6 months from a maximum of 24 months in duration. The
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incremental compensation cost associated with this modification was insignificant. The number of shares issued under the ESPP during fiscal 2009, 2008 and 2007 was 6,920,000 shares, 4,617,000 shares and 4,310,000 shares, respectively. Based on the Black-Scholes option pricing model, the weighted average estimated fair value of purchase rights under the ESPP was $3.19 per share for the year ended October 25, 2009, $4.97 per share for the year ended October 26, 2008 and $4.83 per share for the year ended October 28, 2007. Compensation expense is calculated using the fair value of the employees purchase rights under the Black-Scholes model. Underlying assumptions used in the model are outlined in the following table:
Restricted stock units are converted into shares of Applied common stock upon vesting on a one-for-one basis. Restricted stock units typically vest over three to four years. Vesting of restricted stock units usually is subject to the grantees continued service with Applied. The compensation expense related to these awards is determined using the fair value of Applied common stock on the date of the grant, and compensation is recognized over the vesting period. At October 25, 2009, Applied had $136 million total unrecognized compensation expense, net of estimated forfeitures, related to restricted stock unit grants, which will be recognized over the weighted average period of 1.2 years (see Note 10).
Beginning in fiscal 2007, Applied initiated a performance-based equity award program for named executive officers and other key employees. These awards vest only if specific performance goals set by the Human Resources and Compensation Committee of Applieds Board of Directors (the Committee) are achieved and if the grantee remains employed by Applied through the applicable vesting date. The performance goals require the achievement of targeted relative annual operating profit margin levels as compared to Applieds peer companies in at least one of the four fiscal years beginning with the fiscal year of the grant. There were no performance-based awards granted in fiscal 2009. The Committee approved grants of 1,565,000 and 1,950,000 performance-based restricted stock units under this program for fiscal 2008 and fiscal 2007, respectively. The Committee also approved the issuance to Applieds President and Chief Executive Officer of performance-based restricted stock in the amounts of 100,000 and 150,000 shares for fiscal 2008 and fiscal 2007, respectively, at $0.01 per share. The fair value of the performance-based restricted stock units and restricted stock is estimated using the fair market value of Applied common stock on the date of the grant and assumes that the performance goals will be achieved. If achieved, the award vests over a specified remaining service period. If the performance goals are not met, no compensation expense is recognized and any previously recognized compensation expense is reversed. The expected cost of each award is reflected over the service period and is reduced for estimated forfeitures. As of October 25, 2009, 70% of the performance goals associated with the fiscal 2008 awards were achieved. The performance goals associated with the remaining 30% may still be achieved, depending on future performance, during fiscal 2010. The performance goals associated with the fiscal 2007 awards were achieved prior to fiscal 2009. Fiscal 2009 equity-based compensation expense included $13 million attributable to the performance-based awards granted in fiscal 2008 and fiscal 2007. Fiscal 2008 equity-based compensation expense included $21 million attributable to the performance-based awards granted in fiscal 2008 and fiscal 2007. Fiscal 2007 equity-based compensation expense included $13 million attributable to the performance-based awards granted in fiscal 2007.
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Basic earnings (loss) per share is determined using the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the period. Diluted earnings per share is determined using the weighted average number of common shares and potential common shares (representing the dilutive effect of stock options, restricted stock units, and ESPP shares) outstanding during the period. Applieds net income (loss) has not been adjusted for any period presented for purposes of computing basic or diluted earnings (loss) per share due to the Companys non-complex capital structure.
For purposes of computi