AACC » Topics » Critical Accounting Policies

This excerpt taken from the AACC 10-K filed Mar 12, 2010.

Critical Accounting Policies

Revenue Recognition

We generally account for our revenues from collections on our purchased receivables by using the interest method of accounting (“Interest Method”) in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, which requires making reasonable estimates of the timing and amount of future cash collections. Application of the Interest Method requires the use of estimates, primarily estimated remaining collections, to calculate a projected IRR for each pool. These estimates are primarily based on historical cash collections and payer dynamics. If future cash collections are materially different in amount or timing than the remaining collections estimate, earnings could be affected, either positively or negatively. The estimates of remaining collections are sensitive to the inputs used and the performance of each pool. Performance is dependent on macro-economic factors and the specific demographic makeup of the debtors in the pool. Higher collection amounts or cash collections that occur sooner than projected will have a favorable impact on reversal of impairments or an increase in yields and revenues. Lower collection amounts or cash collections that occur later than projected will have an unfavorable impact and may result in an impairment. Impairments to purchased receivables reduce our Consolidated Tangible Net Worth and put further pressure on the financial covenants in our Credit Facilities.

We use the cost recovery method when collections on a particular portfolio cannot be reasonably predicted. Under the cost recovery method, no revenue is recognized until we have fully collected the cost of the portfolio.

We adopted the Interest Method in January 2005 and apply it to purchased receivables acquired after December 31, 2004. The provisions of the Interest Method that relate to decreases in expected cash flows amend previously followed guidance for consistent treatment and apply prospectively to purchased receivables acquired before January 1, 2005. We purchase pools of homogenous accounts receivable and record each pool at its acquisition cost. Pools purchased after 2004 may be aggregated into one or more static pools within each quarter, based on common risk characteristics. Risk characteristics of purchased receivables are assumed to be similar since purchased receivables are usually in the late stages of the post charged-off collection cycle. We therefore aggregate most pools purchased within each quarter. Pools purchased before 2005 may not be aggregated with other pool purchases. Each static pool, either aggregated or non-aggregated, retains its own identity and does not change over the remainder of its life. Each static pool is accounted for as a single unit for recognition of revenue, principal payments and impairments.

Each static pool of receivables is statistically modeled to determine its projected cash flows based on historical cash collections for pools with similar characteristics. An IRR is calculated for each static pool of receivables based on the projected cash flows. The IRR is applied to the remaining balance of each static pool of accounts to determine the revenue recognized. Each static pool is analyzed at least quarterly to assess the actual performance compared to the expected performance. This review includes an assessment of the actual results of cash collections, the work effort used and expected to be used in future periods, the components of the static pool including type of paper, the average age of purchased receivables, certain demographics and other factors that help us understand how a pool may perform in future periods. We also review the actual performance against expected cash collections using our historical model. Generally, to the extent the differences in actual performance versus expected performance are favorable and the results of the review by pool is also favorable, the IRR is adjusted prospectively to reflect the revised estimate of cash flows over the remaining life of the static pool. If the differences in actual performance results in revised cash flow estimates that are less than the original estimates, and if the results of the review lead us to believe the decline in performance is not temporary, the IRR remains unchanged and an impairment is recognized. If cash flow estimates increase subsequent to recording an impairment, reversal of the previously recognized impairment is made prior to any increases to the IRR.

 

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These periodic reviews, and any adjustments or impairments (including those in the fourth quarter of 2009), are discussed with our Audit Committee.

Goodwill and Intangible Assets not Subject to Amortization

We periodically review the carrying value of intangible assets not subject to amortization, including goodwill, to determine whether an impairment may exist. U.S. GAAP requires that goodwill and certain intangible assets not subject to amortization be assessed annually for impairment using fair value measurement techniques.

Specifically, goodwill impairment is determined using a two-step test. The first step of the goodwill impairment test is used to identify potential impairment by comparing the fair value of a reporting unit with its book value, including goodwill. If the fair value of the reporting unit exceeds its book value, goodwill is considered not impaired and the second step of the impairment test is unnecessary. If the book value of the reporting unit exceeds its fair value, the second step of the goodwill impairment test is performed to measure the amount of impairment loss, if any. The second step of the goodwill impairment test compares the implied fair value of the reporting unit’s goodwill with the book value of that goodwill. If the book value of the reporting unit’s goodwill exceeds the implied fair value of that goodwill, an impairment loss is recognized in an amount equal to that excess. The implied fair value of goodwill is determined in the same manner as the amount of goodwill recognized in a business combination. That is, the fair value of the reporting unit is allocated to all of the assets and liabilities of that unit as if the reporting unit had been acquired in a business combination and the fair value of the reporting unit was the purchase price paid to acquire the reporting unit.

The estimate of fair value of our goodwill reporting unit, the purchased receivables operating segment, is determined using various valuation techniques including market capitalization and an analysis of discounted cash flows. At the time of the annual goodwill impairment test, November 1, 2009, market capitalization was substantially higher than book value and goodwill was considered not to be impaired, however, a 35% decrease in market capitalization would have resulted in book value greater than market capitalization. We also performed a discounted cash flow analysis, which requires us to make various judgmental assumptions including assumptions about future cash flows, growth rates, and discount rates. We base assumptions about future cash flows and growth rates on our five-year budget and long-term plans. We used a discount rate of 19.6%, which reflected our estimate of cost of equity and our assessment of the risk inherent in the reporting unit. The fair value of goodwill using a discounted cash flow analysis exceeded the book value as of December 31, 2009. However, a 6% increase in the discount rate, or a decrease in cash flow of approximately $7.5 million in each year would result in an excess of book value over fair value and indicate that goodwill may be impaired.

The annual impairment test for other intangible assets not subject to amortization, for example, trademark and trade names, consists of a comparison of the fair value of the intangible asset with its carrying value. If the carrying value of the intangible asset exceeds its fair value, an impairment loss is recognized in an amount equal to that excess. The estimates of fair value of intangible assets not subject to amortization are determined using various discounted cash flow valuation methodologies. Significant assumptions are inherent in this process, including estimates of discount rates and future cash flows. Discount rate assumptions are based on an assessment of the risk inherent in the respective intangible assets and include estimates of the cost of debt and equity for market participants in the Company’s industry. We performed a discounted cash flow analysis of our trademark and trade names as of September 30, 2009 using a discount rate of 18% and determined that the carrying value exceeded the fair value. We recorded an impairment of $1,167,000, which is included in “Impairment of assets” in the accompanying consolidated statements of operations.

Income Taxes

We record a tax provision for the anticipated tax consequences of the reported results of operations. The provision for income taxes is computed using the asset and liability method, under which deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the expected future tax consequences of temporary differences between the financial

 

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reporting and tax basis of assets and liabilities, and for operating losses and tax credit carry-forwards. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using the enacted tax rates and laws that will be in effect when the differences are expected to be reversed.

We believe it is more likely than not that forecasted income, including income that may be generated as a result of certain tax planning strategies, together with the tax effects of the deferred tax liabilities, will be sufficient to fully recover the remaining deferred tax assets. In the event that all or part of the deferred tax assets are determined not to be realizable in the future, a valuation allowance would be established and charged to earnings in the period such determination is made. Similarly, if we subsequently realize deferred tax assets that were previously determined to be unrealizable, the respective valuation allowance would be reversed, resulting in a positive adjustment to earnings in the period such determination is made. In addition, the calculation of tax liabilities involves significant judgment in estimating the impact of uncertainties in the application of complex tax laws. Resolution of these uncertainties in a manner inconsistent with our expectations could have a material impact on our results of operations and financial position. We account for uncertain tax positions using a recognition threshold and measurement attribute for the financial statement recognition and measurement of a tax position taken or expected to be taken in a tax return.

This excerpt taken from the AACC 10-Q filed May 1, 2009.

Critical Accounting Policies

Revenue Recognition

We utilize the interest method of accounting for our purchased receivables because we believe that the amounts and timing of cash collections for our purchased receivables can be reasonably estimated. This belief is predicated on our historical results and our knowledge of the industry. The interest method is prescribed by SOP 03-3.

We adopted the provisions of SOP 03-3 in January 2005 and apply SOP 03-3 to purchased receivables acquired after December 31, 2004. The provisions of SOP 03-3 that relate to decreases in expected cash flows amend previously followed guidance, PB 6, for consistent treatment and apply prospectively to purchased receivables acquired before January 1, 2005. We purchase pools of homogenous accounts receivable and record each pool at its acquisition cost. Pools purchased after 2004 may be aggregated into one or more static pools within each quarter, based on common risk characteristics. Risk characteristics of purchased receivables are assumed to be similar since purchased receivables are usually in the late stages of the post charged-off collection cycle. We therefore aggregate most pools purchased within each quarter. Pools purchased before 2005 may not be aggregated with other pool purchases. Each static pool, either aggregated or non-aggregated, retains its own identity and does not change over the remainder of its life. Each static pool is accounted for as a single unit for recognition of revenue, principal payments and impairments.

Each static pool of receivables is statistically modeled to determine its projected cash flows based on historical cash collections for pools with similar characteristics. An internal rate of return (“IRR”) is calculated for each static pool of receivables based on the projected cash flows. The IRR is applied to the remaining balance of each static pool of accounts to determine the revenue recognized. Each static pool is analyzed at least quarterly to assess the actual performance compared to the expected performance. To the extent there are differences in actual performance versus expected performance, the IRR is adjusted prospectively to reflect the revised estimate of cash flows over the remaining life of the static pool. Effective January 2005, under SOP 03-3, if the revised cash flow estimates are less than the original estimates, the IRR remains unchanged and an impairment is recognized. If cash flow estimates increase subsequent to recording an impairment, reversal of the previously recognized impairment is made prior to any increases to the IRR.

The cost recovery method prescribed by SOP 03-3 is used when collections on a particular portfolio cannot be reasonably predicted. Under the cost recovery method, no revenue is recognized until we have fully collected the cost of the portfolio.

Application of the interest method of accounting requires the use of estimates, primarily estimated remaining collections, to calculate a projected IRR for each pool. These estimates are primarily based on historical cash collections. If future cash collections are materially different in amount or timing than the remaining collections estimate, earnings could be affected, either positively or negatively. Higher collection amounts or cash collections that occur sooner than projected will have a favorable impact on yields and revenues. Lower collection amounts or cash collections that occur later than projected will have an unfavorable impact and may result in an impairment being recorded.

 

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Goodwill and Intangible Assets not Subject to Amortization

We periodically review the carrying value of intangible assets not subject to amortization, including goodwill, to determine whether impairment may exist. SFAS No. 142, “Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets”, requires that goodwill and certain intangible assets not subject to amortization be assessed annually for impairment using fair value measurement techniques.

Specifically, goodwill impairment is determined using a two-step test. The first step of the goodwill impairment test is used to identify potential impairment by comparing the fair value of a reporting unit with its book value, including goodwill. If the fair value of the reporting unit exceeds its book value, goodwill is considered not impaired and the second step of the impairment test is unnecessary. If the book value of the reporting unit exceeds its fair value, the second step of the goodwill impairment test is performed to measure the amount of impairment loss, if any. The second step of the goodwill impairment test compares the implied fair value of the reporting unit’s goodwill with the book value of that goodwill. If the book value of the reporting unit’s goodwill exceeds the implied fair value of that goodwill, an impairment loss is recognized in an amount equal to that excess. The implied fair value of goodwill is determined in the same manner as the amount of goodwill recognized in a business combination. That is, the fair value of the reporting unit is allocated to all of the assets and liabilities of that unit as if the reporting unit had been acquired in a business combination and the fair value of the reporting unit was the purchase price paid to acquire the reporting unit.

The estimate of fair value of our goodwill reporting unit, the purchased receivables operating segment, is determined using various valuation techniques including market capitalization and an analysis of discounted cash flows. At the time of the annual goodwill impairment test in the fourth quarter of 2008, market capitalization was substantially higher than book value and goodwill was considered not to be impaired. Given recent declines in our stock price, we also performed a discounted cash flow analysis. A discounted cash flow analysis requires us to make various judgmental assumptions including assumptions about future cash flows, growth rates, and discount rates. We base assumptions about future cash flows and growth rates on our budget and long-term plans. Discount rate assumptions are based on an assessment of the risk inherent in the reporting unit. The fair value of goodwill using a market capitalization approach and a discounted cash flow analysis exceeded the book value as of December 31, 2008.

The annual impairment test for other intangible assets not subject to amortization, for example, trademark and trade names, consists of a comparison of the fair value of the intangible asset with its carrying value. If the carrying value of the intangible asset exceeds its fair value, an impairment loss is recognized in an amount equal to that excess. The estimates of fair value of intangible assets not subject to amortization are determined using various discounted cash flow valuation methodologies. Significant assumptions are inherent in this process, including estimates of discount rates. Discount rate assumptions are based on an assessment of the risk inherent in the respective intangible assets. We performed a discounted cash flow analysis of our trademark and trade names as of December 31, 2008 and determined that no impairment charges were required.

Income Taxes

We record a tax provision for the anticipated tax consequences of the reported results of operations. In accordance with SFAS No. 109, “Accounting for Income Taxes,” (“SFAS 109”) the provision for income taxes is computed using the asset and liability method, under which deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the expected future tax consequences of temporary differences between the financial reporting and tax basis of assets and liabilities, and for operating losses and tax credit carry-forwards. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using the enacted tax rates and laws that will be in effect when the differences are expected to be reversed.

We believe it is more likely than not that forecasted income, including income that may be generated as a result of certain tax planning strategies, together with the tax effects of the deferred tax liabilities, will be sufficient to fully recover the remaining deferred tax assets. In the event that all or part of the deferred tax assets are determined not to be realizable in the future, a valuation allowance would be established and charged to earnings in the period such determination is made. Similarly, if we subsequently realize deferred tax assets that were previously determined to be unrealizable, the respective valuation allowance would be reversed, resulting in a positive adjustment to earnings or a decrease in goodwill in the period such determination is made. In addition, the calculation of tax liabilities involves significant judgment in estimating the impact of uncertainties in the application of complex tax laws. Resolution of these uncertainties in a manner inconsistent with our expectations could have a material impact on our results of operations and financial position.

 

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FASB Interpretation No. 48, “Accounting for Uncertainty in Income Taxes—an interpretation of SFAS No. 109” (“FIN 48”), clarifies the accounting for uncertainty in income taxes recognized in an enterprise’s financial statements in accordance with SFAS 109. FIN 48 prescribes a recognition threshold and measurement attribute for the financial statement recognition and measurement of a tax position taken or expected to be taken in a tax return. FIN 48 also provides guidance on derecognition, classification, interest and penalties.

 

Item 3. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk

Our exposure to market risk relates to the interest rate risk with our Credit Facilities. We may periodically enter into interest rate swap agreements to modify the interest rate exposure associated with our outstanding debt. The outstanding borrowings on our Credit Facilities were $162.0 million and $181.6 million as of March 31, 2009 and December 31, 2008, respectively. In September 2007, we entered into an amortizing interest rate swap agreement whereby, on a quarterly basis, we swap variable rates equal to three-month LIBOR for fixed rates on the notional amount of $125 million. Every year thereafter, on the anniversary of the swap agreement the notional amount will decrease by $25 million. The outstanding unhedged borrowings on our Credit Facilities were $62.0 million as of March 31, 2009, consisting of $17.1 million outstanding on the Revolving Credit Facility and $44.9 million outstanding on the term loan facility. Interest rates on unhedged borrowings may be based on the Prime rate or LIBOR, at our discretion. Assuming a 200 basis point increase in interest rates, interest expense would have increased approximately $0.8 million and $0.3 million on the unhedged borrowings for the three months ended March 31, 2009 and 2008, respectively.

For the three months ended March 31, 2009, the swap was determined to be highly effective in hedging against fluctuations in variable interest rates associated with the underlying debt. Interest rates have decreased since we entered into our swap agreement, reducing the fair value and resulting in a liability balance. Additional declines in interest rates will further reduce the fair value, while increasing interest rates will increase the fair value.

Interest rate fluctuations do not have a material impact on interest income.

 

Item 4. Controls and Procedures

As of the end of the period covered by this report, we carried out an evaluation, under the supervision and with the participation of our management, including our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer, of the effectiveness of the design and operation of our disclosure controls and procedures pursuant to Rule 13a-15 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. Based upon that evaluation, our Chief Executive Officer and our Chief Financial Officer concluded that our disclosure controls and procedures are effective to cause material information required to be disclosed by us in the reports that we file or submit under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 to be recorded, processed, summarized and reported within the time periods specified in the Commission’s rules and forms.

There have been no changes in our internal controls over financial reporting that occurred during our fiscal quarter ended March 31, 2009 that have materially affected, or are reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal controls over financial reporting.

This excerpt taken from the AACC 10-K filed Mar 6, 2009.

Critical Accounting Policies

Revenue Recognition

We utilize the interest method of accounting for our purchased receivables because we believe that the amounts and timing of cash collections for our purchased receivables can be reasonably estimated. This belief is predicated on our historical results and our knowledge of the industry. The interest method is prescribed by SOP 03-3.

We adopted the provisions of SOP 03-3 in January 2005 and apply SOP 03-3 to purchased receivables acquired after December 31, 2004. The provisions of SOP 03-3 that relate to decreases in expected cash flows amend previously followed guidance, PB 6, for consistent treatment and apply prospectively to purchased receivables acquired before January 1, 2005. We purchase pools of homogenous accounts receivable and record

 

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each pool at its acquisition cost. Pools purchased after 2004 may be aggregated into one or more static pools within each quarter, based on common risk characteristics. Risk characteristics of purchased receivables are assumed to be similar since purchased receivables are usually in the late stages of the post charged-off collection cycle. We therefore aggregate most pools purchased within each quarter. Pools purchased before 2005 may not be aggregated with other pool purchases. Each static pool, either aggregated or non-aggregated, retains its own identity and does not change over the remainder of its life. Each static pool is accounted for as a single unit for recognition of revenue, principal payments and impairments.

Each static pool of receivables is statistically modeled to determine its projected cash flows based on historical cash collections for pools with similar characteristics. An internal rate of return (“IRR”) is calculated for each static pool of receivables based on the projected cash flows. The IRR is applied to the remaining balance of each static pool of accounts to determine the revenue recognized. Each static pool is analyzed at least quarterly to assess the actual performance compared to the expected performance. To the extent there are differences in actual performance versus expected performance, the IRR is adjusted prospectively to reflect the revised estimate of cash flows over the remaining life of the static pool. Effective January 2005, under SOP 03-3, if the revised cash flow estimates are less than the original estimates, the IRR remains unchanged and an impairment is recognized. If cash flow estimates increase subsequent to recording an impairment, reversal of the previously recognized impairment is made prior to any increases to the IRR.

The cost recovery method prescribed by SOP 03-3 is used when collections on a particular portfolio cannot be reasonably predicted. Under the cost recovery method, no revenue is recognized until we have fully collected the cost of the portfolio.

Application of the interest method of accounting requires the use of estimates, primarily estimated remaining collections, to calculate a projected IRR for each pool. These estimates are primarily based on historical cash collections. If future cash collections are materially different in amount or timing than the remaining collections estimate, earnings could be affected, either positively or negatively. Higher collection amounts or cash collections that occur sooner than projected will have a favorable impact on yields and revenues. Lower collection amounts or cash collections that occur later than projected will have an unfavorable impact and may result in an impairment being recorded.

Goodwill and Intangible Assets not Subject to Amortization

We periodically review the carrying value of intangible assets not subject to amortization, including goodwill, to determine whether impairment may exist. SFAS No. 142, “Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets”, requires that goodwill and certain intangible assets not subject to amortization be assessed annually for impairment using fair value measurement techniques.

Specifically, goodwill impairment is determined using a two-step test. The first step of the goodwill impairment test is used to identify potential impairment by comparing the fair value of a reporting unit with its book value, including goodwill. If the fair value of the reporting unit exceeds its book value, goodwill is considered not impaired and the second step of the impairment test is unnecessary. If the book value of the reporting unit exceeds its fair value, the second step of the goodwill impairment test is performed to measure the amount of impairment loss, if any. The second step of the goodwill impairment test compares the implied fair value of the reporting unit’s goodwill with the book value of that goodwill. If the book value of the reporting unit’s goodwill exceeds the implied fair value of that goodwill, an impairment loss is recognized in an amount equal to that excess. The implied fair value of goodwill is determined in the same manner as the amount of goodwill recognized in a business combination. That is, the fair value of the reporting unit is allocated to all of the assets and liabilities of that unit as if the reporting unit had been acquired in a business combination and the fair value of the reporting unit was the purchase price paid to acquire the reporting unit.

The estimate of fair value of our reporting unit, our purchased receivables operating segment is determined using various valuation techniques including market capitalization and an analysis of discounted cash flows. At

 

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the time of the annual goodwill impairment test in the fourth quarter of 2008, market capitalization was substantially higher than book value and goodwill was considered not to be impaired. Given recent declines in our stock price, we also performed a discounted cash flow analysis. A discounted cash flow analysis requires us to make various judgmental assumptions including assumptions about future cash flows, growth rates, and discount rates. We base assumptions about future cash flows and growth rates on our budget and long-term plans. Discount rate assumptions are based on an assessment of the risk inherent in the reporting unit. The fair value of goodwill using a discounted cash flow analysis also exceeded the book value as of December 31, 2008; therefore, we did not recognize an impairment of goodwill.

The annual impairment test for other intangible assets not subject to amortization, for example, trademark and trade names, consists of a comparison of the fair value of the intangible asset with its carrying value. If the carrying value of the intangible asset exceeds its fair value, an impairment loss is recognized in an amount equal to that excess. The estimates of fair value of intangible assets not subject to amortization are determined using various discounted cash flow valuation methodologies. Significant assumptions are inherent in this process, including estimates of discount rates. Discount rate assumptions are based on an assessment of the risk inherent in the respective intangible assets. We performed a discounted cash flow analysis of our trademark and trade names as of December 31, 2008 and determined that no impairment charges were required.

Income Taxes

We record a tax provision for the anticipated tax consequences of the reported results of operations. In accordance with SFAS No. 109, “Accounting for Income Taxes,” (“SFAS 109”) the provision for income taxes is computed using the asset and liability method, under which deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the expected future tax consequences of temporary differences between the financial reporting and tax basis of assets and liabilities, and for operating losses and tax credit carry-forwards. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using the currently enacted tax rates that apply to taxable income in effect for the years in which those tax assets are expected to be realized or settled.

We believe it is more likely than not that forecasted income, including income that may be generated as a result of certain tax planning strategies, together with the tax effects of the deferred tax liabilities, will be sufficient to fully recover the remaining deferred tax assets. In the event that all or part of the deferred tax assets are determined not to be realizable in the future, a valuation allowance would be established and charged to earnings in the period such determination is made. Similarly, if we subsequently realize deferred tax assets that were previously determined to be unrealizable, the respective valuation allowance would be reversed, resulting in a positive adjustment to earnings or a decrease in goodwill in the period such determination is made. In addition, the calculation of tax liabilities involves significant judgment in estimating the impact of uncertainties in the application of complex tax laws. Resolution of these uncertainties in a manner inconsistent with our expectations could have a material impact on our results of operations and financial position.

FASB Interpretation No. 48, “Accounting for Uncertainty in Income Taxes—an interpretation of SFAS No. 109” (“FIN 48”), clarifies the accounting for uncertainty in income taxes recognized in an enterprise’s financial statements in accordance with SFAS 109. FIN 48 prescribes a recognition threshold and measurement attribute for the financial statement recognition and measurement of a tax position taken or expected to be taken in a tax return. FIN 48 also provides guidance on derecognition, classification, interest and penalties, accounting in interim periods, disclosure and transition. We adopted the provisions of FIN 48 on January 1, 2007.

This excerpt taken from the AACC 10-Q filed Nov 7, 2008.

Critical Accounting Policies

Revenue Recognition

We utilize the interest method of accounting for our purchased receivables because we believe that the amounts and timing of cash collections for our purchased receivables can be reasonably estimated. This belief is predicated on our historical results and our knowledge of the industry. The interest method is prescribed by SOP 03-3.

We adopted the provisions of SOP 03-3 in January 2005 and apply SOP 03-3 to purchased receivables acquired after December 31, 2004. The provisions of SOP 03-3 that relate to decreases in expected cash flows amend previously followed guidance, the Accounting Standards Executive Committee Practice Bulletin 6, “Amortization of Discounts on Certain Acquired Loans”, for consistent treatment and apply prospectively to purchased receivables acquired before January 1, 2005. We purchase pools of homogenous accounts receivable and record each pool at its acquisition cost. Pools purchased after 2004 may be aggregated into one or more static pools within each quarter, based on common risk characteristics. Risk characteristics of purchased receivables are assumed to be similar since purchased receivables are usually in the late stages of the post charged-off collection cycle. We therefore aggregate most pools purchased within each quarter. Pools purchased before 2005 may not be aggregated with other pool purchases. Each static pool, either aggregated or non-aggregated, retains its own identity and does not change over the remainder of its life. Each static pool is accounted for as a single unit for recognition of revenue, principal payments and impairments.

Each static pool of receivables is statistically modeled to determine its projected cash flows based on historical cash collections for pools with similar characteristics. An internal rate of return (“IRR”) is calculated for each static pool of receivables based on the projected cash flows. The IRR is applied to the remaining balance of each static pool of accounts to determine the revenue recognized. Each static pool is analyzed at least quarterly to assess the actual performance compared to the expected performance. To the extent there are differences in actual performance versus expected performance, the IRR is adjusted prospectively to reflect the revised estimate of cash flows over the remaining life of the static pool. Effective January 2005, under SOP 03-3, if the revised cash flow estimates are less than the original estimates, the IRR remains unchanged and an impairment is recognized. If cash flow estimates increase subsequent to recording an impairment, reversal of the previously recognized impairment is made prior to any increases to the IRR.

The cost recovery method prescribed by SOP 03-3 is used when collections on a particular portfolio cannot be reasonably predicted. Under the cost recovery method, no revenue is recognized until we have fully collected the cost of the portfolio.

Application of the interest method of accounting requires the use of estimates, primarily estimated remaining collections, to calculate a projected IRR for each pool. These estimates are primarily based on historical cash collections. If future cash collections are materially different in amount or timing than the remaining collections estimate, earnings could be affected, either positively or negatively. Higher collection amounts or cash collections that occur sooner than projected will have a favorable impact on yields and revenues. Lower collection amounts or cash collections that occur later than projected will have an unfavorable impact and may result in an impairment being recorded.

Income Taxes

We record a tax provision for the anticipated tax consequences of the reported results of operations. In accordance with SFAS No. 109, “Accounting for Income Taxes,” (“SFAS 109”) the provision for income taxes is computed using the asset and liability method, under which deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the expected future tax consequences of temporary differences between the financial reporting and tax basis of assets and liabilities, and for operating losses and tax credit carry-forwards. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using the currently enacted tax rates that apply to taxable income in effect for the years in which those tax assets are expected to be realized or settled.

We believe it is more likely than not that forecasted income, including income that may be generated as a result of certain tax planning strategies, together with the tax effects of the deferred tax liabilities, will be sufficient to fully recover the remaining deferred tax assets. In the event that all or part of the deferred tax assets are determined not to be realizable in the future, a valuation allowance would be established and charged to earnings in the period such determination is made.

 

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Similarly, if we subsequently realize deferred tax assets that were previously determined to be unrealizable, the respective valuation allowance would be reversed, resulting in a positive adjustment to earnings or a decrease in goodwill in the period such determination is made. In addition, the calculation of tax liabilities involves significant judgment in estimating the impact of uncertainties in the application of complex tax laws. Resolution of these uncertainties in a manner inconsistent with our expectations could have a material impact on our results of operations and financial position.

FASB Interpretation No. 48, “Accounting for Uncertainty in Income Taxes—an interpretation of SFAS No. 109” (“FIN 48”), clarifies the accounting for uncertainty in income taxes recognized in an enterprise’s financial statements in accordance with SFAS 109. FIN 48 prescribes a recognition threshold and measurement attribute for the financial statement recognition and measurement of a tax position taken or expected to be taken in a tax return. FIN 48 also provides guidance on derecognition, classification, interest and penalties, accounting in interim periods, disclosure and transition. We adopted the provisions of FIN 48 on January 1, 2007.

 

Item 3. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk

Our exposure to market risk relates to the interest rate risk with our Amended New Credit Facilities. We may periodically enter into interest rate swap agreements to modify the interest rate exposure associated with our outstanding debt. The outstanding borrowings on our Amended New Credit Facilities were $189.1 million and $191.3 million as of September 30, 2008 and December 31, 2007, respectively. In September 2007, we entered into an amortizing interest rate swap agreement whereby, on a quarterly basis, we swap variable rates equal to three-month LIBOR for fixed rates on the notional amount of $125 million. Every year thereafter, on the anniversary of the swap agreement the notional amount will decrease by $25 million. The hedged borrowings on our Amended New Credit Facilities were $100.0 million at September 30, 2008. The outstanding unhedged borrowings on our Amended New Credit Facilities were $89.1 million as of September 30, 2008, consisting of $41.0 million outstanding on the Revolving Credit Facility and $48.1 million outstanding on the term loan facility. Interest rates on unhedged borrowings may be based on the Prime rate or LIBOR, at our discretion. Assuming a 200 basis point increase in interest rates, interest expense would have increased approximately $0.8 million on the unhedged borrowings for the nine months ended September 30, 2008.

For the nine months ended September 30, 2008, the swap was determined to be highly effective in hedging against fluctuations in variable interest rates associated with the underlying debt. Interest rates have decreased since we entered into our swap agreement, reducing the fair value and resulting in a liability balance. Additional declines in interest rates will further reduce the fair value, while increasing interest rates will increase the fair value.

Interest rate fluctuations do not have a material impact on interest income.

 

Item 4. Controls and Procedures

As of the end of the period covered by this report, we carried out an evaluation, under the supervision and with the participation of our management, including our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer, of the effectiveness of the design and operation of our disclosure controls and procedures pursuant to Rule 13a-15 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. Based upon that evaluation, our Chief Executive Officer and our Chief Financial Officer concluded that our disclosure controls and procedures are effective to cause material information required to be disclosed by us in the reports that we file or submit under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 to be recorded, processed, summarized and reported within the time periods specified in the Commission’s rules and forms.

We implemented a new proprietary revenue recognition system that we believe has improved our internal control over financial reporting during our fiscal quarter ended September 30, 2008.

This excerpt taken from the AACC 10-Q filed Aug 6, 2008.

Critical Accounting Policies

We utilize the interest method of accounting for our purchased receivables because we believe that the amounts and timing of cash collections for our purchased receivables can be reasonably estimated. This belief is predicated on our historical results and our knowledge of the industry. The interest method is prescribed by the Accounting Standards Executive Committee Statement of Position 03-3, “Accounting for Certain Loans or Debt Securities Acquired in a Transfer” (“SOP 03-3”).

We adopted the provisions of SOP 03-3 in January 2005 and apply SOP 03-3 to purchased receivables acquired after December 31, 2004. The provisions of SOP 03-3 that relate to decreases in expected cash flows amend previously followed guidance, the Accounting Standards Executive Committee Practice Bulletin 6, “Amortization of Discounts on Certain

 

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Acquired Loans”, for consistent treatment and apply prospectively to purchased receivables acquired before January 1, 2005. We purchase pools of homogenous accounts receivable and record each pool at its acquisition cost. Pools purchased after 2004 may be aggregated into one or more static pools within each quarter, based on common risk characteristics. Risk characteristics of purchased receivables are assumed to be similar since purchased receivables are usually in the late stages of the post charged-off collection cycle. We therefore aggregate most pools purchased within each quarter. Pools purchased before 2005 may not be aggregated with other pool purchases. Each static pool, either aggregated or non-aggregated, retains its own identity and does not change over the remainder of its life. Each static pool is accounted for as a single unit for recognition of revenue, principal payments and impairments.

Each static pool of receivables is statistically modeled to determine its projected cash flows based on historical cash collections for pools with similar characteristics. An internal rate of return (“IRR”) is calculated for each static pool of receivables based on the projected cash flows. The IRR is applied to the remaining balance of each static pool of accounts to determine the revenue recognized. Each static pool is analyzed at least quarterly to assess the actual performance compared to the expected performance. To the extent there are differences in actual performance versus expected performance, the IRR is adjusted prospectively to reflect the revised estimate of cash flows over the remaining life of the static pool. Effective January 2005, under SOP 03-3, if the revised cash flow estimates are less than the original estimates, the IRR remains unchanged and an impairment is recognized. If cash flow estimates increase subsequent to recording an impairment, reversal of the previously recognized impairment is made prior to any increases to the IRR.

The cost recovery method prescribed by SOP 03-3 is used when collections on a particular portfolio cannot be reasonably predicted. Under the cost recovery method, no revenue is recognized until we have fully collected the cost of the portfolio.

Application of the interest method of accounting requires the use of estimates, primarily estimated remaining collections, to calculate a projected IRR for each pool. These estimates are primarily based on historical cash collections. If future cash collections are materially different in amount or timing than the remaining collections estimate, earnings could be affected, either positively or negatively. Higher collection amounts or cash collections that occur sooner than projected will have a favorable impact on yields and revenues. Lower collection amounts or cash collections that occur later than projected will have an unfavorable impact and may result in an impairment being recorded.

 

Item 3. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk

Our exposure to market risk relates to the interest rate risk with our Amended New Credit Facilities. We may periodically enter into interest rate swap agreements to modify the interest rate exposure associated with our outstanding debt. The outstanding borrowings on our Amended New Credit Facilities were $189.5 million and $191.3 million as of June 30, 2008 and December 31, 2007, respectively. In September 2007, we entered into an amortizing interest rate swap agreement whereby, on a quarterly basis, we swap variable rates equal to three-month LIBOR for fixed rates on the notional amount of $125 million. Every year thereafter, on the anniversary of the swap agreement the notional amount will decrease by $25 million. The outstanding unhedged borrowings on our Amended New Credit Facilities were $64.5 million as of June 30, 2008, consisting of $41.0 million outstanding on the Revolving Credit Facility and $23.5 million outstanding on the term loan facility. Interest rates on unhedged borrowings may be based on the Prime rate or LIBOR, at our discretion. Assuming a 200 basis point increase in interest rates, interest expense would have increased approximately $0.4 million on the unhedged borrowings for the six months ended June 30, 2008.

The hedged borrowings on our Amended New Credit Facilities were $125.0 million at June 30, 2008. For the six months ended June 30, 2008, the swap was determined to be highly effective in hedging against fluctuations in variable interest rates associated with the underlying debt. Interest rates have decreased since we entered into our swap agreement, reducing the fair value and resulting in a liability balance. Additional declines in interest rates will further reduce the fair value, while increasing interest rates will increase the fair value. As of June 30, 2008, the Company does not have any fair value hedges.

Interest rate fluctuations do not have a material impact on interest income.

 

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Item 4. Controls and Procedures

As of the end of the period covered by this report, we carried out an evaluation, under the supervision and with the participation of our management, including our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer, of the effectiveness of the design and operation of our disclosure controls and procedures pursuant to Rule 13a-15 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. Based upon that evaluation, our Chief Executive Officer and our Chief Financial Officer concluded that our disclosure controls and procedures are effective to cause material information required to be disclosed by us in the reports that we file or submit under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 to be recorded, processed, summarized and reported within the time periods specified in the Commission’s rules and forms.

There have been no changes in our internal controls over financial reporting that occurred during our fiscal quarter ended June 30, 2008 that have materially affected, or are reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal controls over financial reporting.

These excerpts taken from the AACC 10-K filed Mar 13, 2008.
Critical Accounting Policies
 
We utilize the interest method of accounting for our purchased receivables because we believe that the amounts and timing of cash collections for our purchased receivables can be reasonably estimated. This belief is predicated on our historical results and our knowledge of the industry. The interest method is prescribed by the Accounting Standards Executive Committee Statement of Position 03-3, “Accounting for Certain Loans or Debt Securities Acquired in a Transfer” (“SOP 03-3”).
 
We adopted the provisions of SOP 03-3 in January 2005 and apply SOP 03-3 to purchased receivables acquired after December 31, 2004. The provisions of SOP 03-3 that relate to decreases in expected cash flows amend previously followed guidance, the Accounting Standards Executive Committee Practice Bulletin 6, “Amortization of Discounts on Certain Acquired Loans”, for consistent treatment and apply prospectively to purchased receivables acquired before January 1, 2005. We purchase pools of homogenous accounts receivable and record each pool at its acquisition cost. Pools purchased after 2004 may be aggregated into one or more static pools within each quarter, based on common risk characteristics. Risk characteristics of purchased receivables are generally considered to be similar since purchased receivables are usually in the late stages of the post charged-off collection cycle. We therefore aggregate most pools purchased within each quarter. Pools purchased before 2005 may not be aggregated with other pool purchases. Each static pool, either aggregated or non-aggregated, retains its own identity and does not change over the remainder of its life. Each static pool is accounted for as a single unit for recognition of revenue, principal payments and impairments.


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Each static pool of receivables is statistically modeled to determine its projected cash flows based on historical cash collections for pools with similar characteristics. An internal rate of return (“IRR”) is calculated for each static pool of receivables based on the projected cash flows. The IRR is applied to the remaining balance of each static pool of accounts to determine the revenue recognized. Each static pool is analyzed at least quarterly to assess the actual performance compared to the expected performance. To the extent there are differences in actual performance versus expected performance, the IRR is adjusted prospectively to reflect the revised estimate of cash flows over the remaining life of the static pool. Effective January 2005, under SOP 03-3, if the revised cash flow estimates are less than the original estimates, the IRR remains unchanged and an impairment is recognized. If cash flow estimates increase subsequent to recording an impairment, reversal of the previously recognized impairment is made prior to any increases to the IRR.
 
The cost recovery method prescribed by SOP 03-3 is used when collections on a particular portfolio cannot be reasonably predicted. Under the cost recovery method, no revenue is recognized until we have fully collected the cost of the portfolio.
 
Application of the interest method of accounting requires the use of estimates, primarily estimated remaining collections, to calculate a projected IRR for each pool. These estimates are primarily based on historical cash collections. If future cash collections are materially different in amount or timing than the remaining collections estimate, earnings could be affected, either positively or negatively. Higher collection amounts or cash collections that occur sooner than projected will have a favorable impact on yields and revenues. Lower collection amounts or cash collections that occur later than projected will have an unfavorable impact and result in an impairment being recorded.
 
Critical
Accounting Policies



 



We utilize the interest method of accounting for our purchased
receivables because we believe that the amounts and timing of
cash collections for our purchased receivables can be reasonably
estimated. This belief is predicated on our historical results
and our knowledge of the industry. The interest method is
prescribed by the Accounting Standards Executive Committee
Statement of Position
03-3,
“Accounting for Certain Loans or Debt Securities Acquired
in a Transfer”
(“SOP 03-3”).


 



We adopted the provisions of
SOP 03-3
in January 2005 and apply
SOP 03-3
to purchased receivables acquired after December 31, 2004.
The provisions of
SOP 03-3
that relate to decreases in expected cash flows amend previously
followed guidance, the Accounting Standards Executive Committee
Practice Bulletin 6, “Amortization of Discounts on
Certain Acquired Loans”, for consistent treatment and apply
prospectively to purchased receivables acquired before
January 1, 2005. We purchase pools of homogenous accounts
receivable and record each pool at its acquisition cost. Pools
purchased after 2004 may be aggregated into one or more
static pools within each quarter, based on common risk
characteristics. Risk characteristics of purchased receivables
are generally considered to be similar since purchased
receivables are usually in the late stages of the post
charged-off collection cycle. We therefore aggregate most pools
purchased within each quarter. Pools purchased before
2005 may not be aggregated with other pool purchases. Each
static pool, either aggregated or non-aggregated, retains its
own identity and does not change over the remainder of its life.
Each static pool is accounted for as a single unit for
recognition of revenue, principal payments and impairments.





45





Table of Contents






Each static pool of receivables is statistically modeled to
determine its projected cash flows based on historical cash
collections for pools with similar characteristics. An internal
rate of return (“IRR”) is calculated for each static
pool of receivables based on the projected cash flows. The IRR
is applied to the remaining balance of each static pool of
accounts to determine the revenue recognized. Each static pool
is analyzed at least quarterly to assess the actual performance
compared to the expected performance. To the extent there are
differences in actual performance versus expected performance,
the IRR is adjusted prospectively to reflect the revised
estimate of cash flows over the remaining life of the static
pool. Effective January 2005, under
SOP 03-3,
if the revised cash flow estimates are less than the original
estimates, the IRR remains unchanged and an impairment is
recognized. If cash flow estimates increase subsequent to
recording an impairment, reversal of the previously recognized
impairment is made prior to any increases to the IRR.


 



The cost recovery method prescribed by
SOP 03-3
is used when collections on a particular portfolio cannot be
reasonably predicted. Under the cost recovery method, no revenue
is recognized until we have fully collected the cost of the
portfolio.


 



Application of the interest method of accounting requires the
use of estimates, primarily estimated remaining collections, to
calculate a projected IRR for each pool. These estimates are
primarily based on historical cash collections. If future cash
collections are materially different in amount or timing than
the remaining collections estimate, earnings could be affected,
either positively or negatively. Higher collection amounts or
cash collections that occur sooner than projected will have a
favorable impact on yields and revenues. Lower collection
amounts or cash collections that occur later than projected will
have an unfavorable impact and result in an impairment being
recorded.


 




This excerpt taken from the AACC 10-K filed Mar 5, 2007.
Critical Accounting Policies
 
We utilize the interest method of accounting for our purchased receivables because we believe that the amounts and timing of cash collections for our purchased receivables can be reasonably estimated. This belief is predicated on our historical results and our knowledge of the industry. The interest method is prescribed by the Accounting Standards Executive Committee Practice Bulletin 6 (“PB 6”), “Amortization of Discounts on Certain Acquired Loans” as well as the Accounting Standards Executive Committee Statement of Position 03-3 (“SOP 03-3”), “Accounting for Certain Loans or Debt Securities Acquired in a Transfer”.


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We adopted the provisions of SOP 03-3 in January 2005 and apply SOP 03-3 to purchased receivables acquired after December 31, 2004. The provisions of SOP 03-3 that relate to decreases in expected cash flows amend PB 6 for consistent treatment and apply prospectively to receivables acquired before January 1, 2005. Purchased receivables acquired before January 1, 2005 will continue to be accounted for under PB 6, as amended, for provisions related to decreases in expected cash flows.
 
Each static pool of receivables is statistically modeled to determine its projected cash flows based on historical cash collections for pools with similar characteristics. An internal rate of return (“IRR”) is calculated for each static pool of receivables based on the projected cash flows. The IRR is applied to the remaining balance of each static pool of accounts to determine the revenue recognized. Each static pool is analyzed at least quarterly to assess the actual performance compared to the expected performance. To the extent there are differences in actual performance versus expected performance, the IRR may be adjusted prospectively to reflect the revised estimate of cash flows over the remaining life of the static pool. Effective January 2005, under SOP 03-3, if the revised cash flow estimates are less than the original estimates, the IRR remains unchanged and an impairment is recognized. If cash flow estimates increase subsequent to recording an impairment, reversal of the previously recognized impairment is made prior to any increases to the IRR.
 
Application of the interest method of accounting requires the use of estimates, primarily estimated remaining collections, to calculate a projected IRR for each pool. These estimates are primarily based on historical cash collections. If future cash collections are materially different in amount or timing than the remaining collections estimate, earnings could be affected, either positively or negatively. Higher collection amounts or cash collections that occur sooner than projected will have a favorable impact on yields and revenues. Lower collection amounts or cash collections that occur later than projected will have an unfavorable impact and result in an impairment being recorded.
 
This excerpt taken from the AACC 10-K filed Feb 27, 2006.
Critical Accounting Policies
 
We utilize the interest method of accounting for our purchased receivables because we believe that the amounts and timing of cash collections for our purchased receivables can be reasonably estimated. This belief is predicated on our historical results and our knowledge of the industry. The interest method is prescribed by the Accounting Standards Executive Committee Practice Bulletin 6 (“PB 6”), “Amortization of Discounts on Certain Acquired Loans” as well as the Accounting Standards Executive Committee Statement of Position 03-3 (“SOP 03-3”), “Accounting for Certain Loans or Debt Securities Acquired in a Transfer.”
 
The provisions of SOP 03-3 were adopted by us in January 2005 and apply to purchased receivables acquired after December 31, 2004. The provisions of SOP 03-3 that relate to decreases in expected cash flows amend PB 6 for


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Table of Contents

consistent treatment and apply prospectively to receivables acquired before January 1, 2005. Purchased receivables acquired before January 1, 2005 will continue to be accounted for under PB 6, as amended, for provisions related to decreases in expected cash flows.
 
Each static pool of receivables is statistically modeled to determine its projected cash flows based on historical cash collections for pools with similar characteristics. An internal rate of return (“IRR”) is calculated for each static pool of receivables based on the projected cash flows. The IRR is applied to the remaining balance of each static pool of accounts to determine the revenue recognized. Each static pool is analyzed at least quarterly to assess the actual performance compared to the expected performance. To the extent there are differences in actual performance versus expected performance, the IRR is adjusted prospectively to reflect the revised estimate of cash flows over the remaining life of the static pool. Effective January 2005, under SOP 03-3, if the revised cash flow estimates are less than the original estimates, the IRR remains unchanged and an impairment is recognized. If cash flow estimates increase subsequent to recording an impairment, reversal of the previously recognized impairment is made prior to any increases to the IRR.
 
Application of the interest method of accounting requires the use of estimates to calculate a projected IRR for each pool. These estimates are based on historical cash collections. If future cash collections are materially different in amount or timing than projected cash collections, earnings could be affected, either positively or negatively. Higher collection amounts or cash collections that occur sooner than projected cash collections will have a favorable impact on reversal of impairments, yields and revenues. Lower collection amounts or cash collections that occur later than projected cash collections will have an unfavorable impact and result in an impairment being recorded.
 
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