Bank of Hawaii 10-K 2006
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Commission File Number 1-6887
BANK OF HAWAII CORPORATION
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.
Yes ý No o
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act.
Yes o No ý
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months, and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.
Yes ý No o
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K (Section 229.405 of this chapter) is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant's knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K. o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated file, or a non-accelerated filer. See definition of "accelerated filer and large accelerated file" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).
Yes o No ý
The aggregate market value of the registrant's voting stock held by non-affiliates is approximately $2,600,263,489 based on the June 30, 2005 closing price of said stock on the New York Stock Exchange ($50.75 per share).
As of February 17, 2006, there were 51,106,794 shares of Common Stock outstanding.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the Proxy Statement relating to the Annual Meeting of Shareholders to be held April 28, 2006, are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Report.
Bank of Hawaii Corporation
Bank of Hawaii Corporation (the "Company") is a Delaware corporation and a bank holding company ("BHC").
The Company's banking subsidiary, Bank of Hawaii (the "Bank"), was organized under the laws of Hawaii on December 17, 1897 and has its headquarters in Honolulu, Hawaii. Its deposits are insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (the "FDIC"). The Bank is a member of the Federal Reserve System. The only other direct subsidiary of the Company is Bancorp Hawaii Capital Trust I, a grantor trust organized to effect a financing transaction.
Through the Bank, the Company provides a range of financial services and products primarily in Hawaii and the Pacific Islands (Guam and nearby islands and American Samoa). The Bank's subsidiaries include Bank of Hawaii Leasing, Inc., Bankoh Investment Services, Inc., Pacific Century Life Insurance Corporation, Triad Insurance Agency, Inc., Bank of Hawaii Insurance Services, Inc., Pacific Century Insurance Services, Inc., Bankoh Investment Partners, LLC and Bank of Hawaii International, Inc. The Bank's subsidiaries are engaged in equipment leasing, securities brokerage and investment services, and insurance and insurance agency services.
The Company is aligned into the following business segments: Retail Banking, Commercial Banking, Investment Services Group and Treasury and Other Corporate. Financial and other additional information about the Company's business segments are presented in Table 5 of the Business Segments section of Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations ("MD&A") and Note 17 to the Consolidated Financial Statements in this report, which is incorporated by reference in this Item.
Information on foreign activities is presented in Table 9 of MD&A, which is incorporated by reference in this Item.
The Company's annual report on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, and all amendments to those reports can be found free of charge on its internet site at http://www.boh.com as soon as reasonably practicable after such material is electronically filed with or furnished to the Securities and Exchange Commission (the "SEC"). The SEC maintains an internet site, http://www.sec.gov, that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC. The Company's Corporate Governance Guidelines; the charters of the Audit Committee, the Executive and Strategic Planning Committee, the Human Resources and Compensation Committee and the Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee; and the Code of Business Conduct and Ethics are available on the Company's website. Upon written request to the Corporate Secretary at 130 Merchant Street, Honolulu, Hawaii, 96813, the information is available in print to any shareholder.
The Company included the Chief Executive Officer and the Chief Financial Officer certifications regarding the Company's public disclosure required by Section 302 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 as Exhibits 31.1 and 31.2 of this report. Additionally, the Company filed with the New York Stock Exchange (the "NYSE") the Chief Executive Officer certification regarding the Company's compliance with the NYSE's Corporate Governance Listing Standards (the "Listing Standards") pursuant to Section 303A.12(a) of the Listing Standards. The certification was dated May 26, 2005 and indicated that the Chief Executive Officer was not aware of any violations of the Listing Standards by the Company.
The Company, the Bank and its subsidiaries are subject to substantial competition from banks, savings associations, credit unions, mortgage companies, finance companies, mutual funds, brokerage firms, insurance companies and other providers of financial services, including financial service subsidiaries of commercial and manufacturing
companies. The Company also competes with certain non-financial institutions and governmental entities that offer financial products and services. Some of the Company's competitors are not subject to the same level of regulation and oversight that is required of banks and BHCs.
Supervision and Regulation
The Company and the Bank are each extensively regulated under both federal and state law. The following information describes certain aspects of those regulations applicable to the Company and the Bank and does not purport to be complete. To the extent statutory or regulatory provisions are described, the description is qualified in its entirety by reference to the particular statutory or regulatory provisions. Proposals to change the laws and regulations governing the banking industry are frequently raised in Congress, in state legislatures and before the various bank regulatory agencies. The likelihood and timing of any changes and the impact such changes might have on the Company or the Bank are impossible to determine with any certainty. A change in applicable laws or regulations, or a change in the way such laws or regulations are interpreted by regulatory agencies or courts, may have a material impact on the business, operations and earnings of the Company and the Bank.
The Company is registered as a BHC under the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956, as amended (the "BHC Act"), and is subject to the supervision of and to examinations by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (the "FRB"). The Company is also registered as a financial institution holding company under the Hawaii Code of Financial Institutions (the "Code") and is subject to the registration, reporting and examination requirements of the Code.
The BHC Act prohibits, with certain exceptions, a BHC from acquiring beneficial ownership or control of more than 5% of the voting shares of any company, including a bank, without the FRB's prior approval and from engaging in any activity other than those of banking, managing or controlling banks or other subsidiaries authorized under the BHC Act, or furnishing services to or performing services for its subsidiaries. Among the permitted activities is the ownership of shares of any company the activities of which the FRB determines to be so closely related to banking or managing or controlling banks as to be a proper incident thereto.
Under FRB policy, a BHC is expected to serve as a source of financial and management strength to its subsidiary bank(s) and to commit resources to support its subsidiary bank(s) in circumstances where it might not do so absent such a policy. This support may be required at times when the BHC may not have the resources to provide it. Under this policy, a BHC is expected to stand ready to use available resources to provide adequate capital funds to its subsidiary bank(s) during periods of financial adversity and to maintain the financial flexibility and capital-raising capacity to obtain additional resources for assisting its subsidiary bank(s).
Subject to certain limits, under the Riegle-Neal Interstate Banking and Branching Efficiency Act ("Riegle-Neal"), an adequately capitalized and adequately managed BHC may acquire control of banks in any state. An interstate acquisition may not be approved if immediately following the acquisition the BHC would control 30% or more of the total FDIC-insured deposits in that state (or such lesser or greater amount set by the state), unless the acquisition is the BHCs initial entry into the state. An adequately capitalized and adequately managed bank may apply for permission to merge with an out-of-state bank and convert all branches of both parties into branches of a single bank. An interstate bank merger may not be approved, if immediately following the acquisition, the acquirer would control 30% or more of the total FDIC-insured deposits in that state (or such lesser or greater amount set by the state), unless the acquisition is the acquirer's initial entry into the state. Banks are also permitted to open newly established branches in any state in which it does not already have banking branches if such state enacts a law permitting such de novo branching.
In addition, under provisions of the Code enacted to authorize interstate branching under Riegle-Neal, out-of-state banks may engage in mergers with Hawaii banks or acquisitions of substantially all of their assets, following which any such out-of-state bank may operate the branches of the Hawaii bank it has acquired. The Hawaii Commissioner of
Financial Institutions is authorized to waive the federal limit on concentration of FDIC-insured deposits. This statute also permits out-of-state banks to acquire branches of Hawaii banks and to open branches in Hawaii on a de novo basis.
Under the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act, a BHC may elect to become a financial holding company and thereby engage in a broader range of financial and other activities than are permissible for traditional BHCs. In order to qualify for the election, all of the depository institution subsidiaries of the BHC must be well capitalized and well managed and all of its insured depository institution subsidiaries must have achieved a rating of "satisfactory" or better under the Community Reinvestment Act (the "CRA"). Financial holding companies are permitted to engage in activities that are "financial in nature" or incidental or complementary thereto as determined by the FRB. The Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act identifies several activities as "financial in nature," including, among others, insurance underwriting and sales, investment advisory services, merchant banking and underwriting and dealing or making a market in securities. The Company has not elected to become a financial holding company.
Bank of Hawaii
The Bank is subject to supervision and examination by the Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco and the State of Hawaii Department of Commerce and Consumer Affairs Division of Financial Institutions. Depository institutions, including the Bank, are subject to extensive federal and state regulation that significantly affect their business and activities. Regulatory bodies have broad authority to implement standards and to initiate proceedings designed to prohibit depository institutions from engaging in activities that represent unsafe and unsound banking practices or constitute violations of applicable laws, rules, regulations, administrative orders or written agreements with regulators. The standards relate generally to operations and management, asset quality, interest rate exposure, capital and executive compensation. The agencies are authorized to take action against institutions that fail to meet such standards, including the assessment of civil money penalties, the issuance of cease-and-desist orders and other actions.
Bankoh Investment Services, Inc., the broker dealer subsidiary of the Bank, is regulated by the National Association of Securities Dealers. The insurance subsidiaries, Bank of Hawaii Insurance Services, Inc., Triad Insurance Agency, Inc. and Pacific Century Insurance Services, Inc., are incorporated in Hawaii and are therefore regulated by the Hawaii State Department of Insurance. Pacific Century Life Insurance Corporation is incorporated in Arizona and regulated by the Insurance Department of Arizona.
The Federal Reserve Board has issued substantially similar risk-based and leverage capital guidelines applicable to BHCs and banks that they supervise. Under the risk-based capital requirements, the Company and the Bank are generally required individually to maintain a minimum ratio of total capital to risk-weighted assets of 8%. At least half of the total capital is to be composed of common equity, retained earnings and qualifying perpetual preferred stock, less certain intangibles ("Tier 1 capital"). The remainder may consist of certain subordinated debt, certain hybrid capital instruments and other qualifying preferred stock, and a limited amount of the loan loss allowance ("Tier 2 capital") and, together with Tier 1 capital, equals total capital ("Total capital"). Risk weighted assets are calculated by taking assets and credit equivalent amounts of off-balance-sheet items and assigning them to one of several broad risk categories, according to the obligor, or, if relevant, the guarantor or the nature of the collateral. The aggregate dollar value of the amount in each category is then multiplied by the risk weight associated with that category. At December 31, 2005, the Company's Tier 1 capital and Total capital ratios to total risk-weighted assets were 10.36% and 12.70%, respectively, and the ratios of Tier 1 capital and Total capital to total risk-weighted assets for the Bank were 10.06% and 12.38%, respectively.
In addition, each of the federal bank regulatory agencies has established minimum leverage capital ratio requirements for BHCs and banks. These requirements provide for a minimum leverage ratio of Tier 1 capital to adjusted quarterly average assets equal to 3% for BHCs and banks that meet certain specified criteria, including that they have the highest regulatory rating and are not experiencing significant growth or expansion. All other BHCs and banks will generally
be required to maintain a leverage ratio of at least 100 to 200 basis points above the stated minimum. The Company's leverage ratio at December 31, 2005 was 7.14% and the Bank's leverage ratio was 6.94%.
The Federal Reserve Board's risk-based capital standards identifies concentrations of credit risk and the risk arising from non-traditional activities, as well as an institution's ability to manage these risks, as important factors to be taken into account by the agency in assessing an institution's overall capital adequacy. The capital guidelines also provide that an institution's exposure to a decline in the economic value of its capital due to changes in interest rates be considered by the agency as a factor in evaluating a bank's capital adequacy. The Federal Reserve Board also has issued additional capital guidelines for certain BHCs that engage in trading activities. The Company does not believe that consideration of these additional factors will affect the regulator's assessment of the Company's or the Bank's capital position.
The Company is a legal entity separate and distinct from the Bank. The Company's principal source of funds to pay dividends on its common stock and to service its debt is dividends from the Bank. Various federal and state statutory provisions and regulations limit the amount of dividends the Bank may pay to the Company without regulatory approval, including requirements to maintain capital above regulatory minimums. The FRB is authorized to determine the circumstances when the payment of dividends would be an unsafe or unsound practice and to prohibit such payments. The right of the Company, its stockholders and creditors to participate in any distribution of the assets or earnings of its subsidiaries also is subject to the prior claims of creditors of those subsidiaries.
For information regarding the limitations on Bank dividends, see Note 9 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, which is incorporated by reference in this Item. Currently, the Bank has the requisite regulatory approval to pay dividends up to the amount of the Bank's income for 2006, subject to the absence of any material adverse change in the Bank's financial condition.
Transactions with Affiliates
The Bank is subject to restrictions under federal law that limit the transfer of funds or other items of value to the Company and any other non-bank affiliates in so-called "covered transactions." In general, covered transactions include loans and other extensions of credit, investments and asset purchases, as well as other transactions involving the transfer of value from the Bank to an affiliate or for the benefit of an affiliate. Unless an exemption applies, covered transactions by the Bank with a single affiliate are limited to 10% of the Bank's capital and surplus and, with respect to all covered transactions with affiliates in the aggregate, to 20% of the Bank's capital and surplus.
The Bank's deposits are insured up to applicable limits by the Bank Insurance Fund ("BIF") of the FDIC. As an FDIC-insured bank, the Bank also is subject to FDIC insurance assessments. Currently, the amount of FDIC assessments paid by individual insured depository institutions ranges from zero to $0.27 per $100.00 of insured deposits, based on their relative risk to the deposit insurance funds, as measured by the institutions' regulatory capital position and other supervisory factors. The Bank currently pays the lowest premium rate, which is zero, based upon this risk assessment. However, the FDIC retains the ability to increase regular assessments and to levy special additional assessments.
In addition to deposit insurance fund assessments, beginning in 1997 the FDIC assessed BIF-assessable and Savings Association Insurance Fund ("SAIF")-assessable deposits to fund the repayment of debt obligations of the Financing Corporation ("FICO"). FICO is a government-sponsored entity that was formed to borrow the money necessary to carry out the closing and ultimate disposition of failed thrift institutions by the Resolution Trust Corporation. At December 31, 2005, the annualized rate established by the FDIC for both BIF-assessable and SAIF-assessable deposits was 1.32 basis points (hundredths of 1%).
On February 1, 2006, the FDIC Reform Act of 2005 was adopted by Congress. This legislation, will merge BIF and SAIF into one fund, increase insurance coverage for retirement accounts to $250,000 and index the insurance levels for inflation, among other changes.
Under federal law, deposits and certain claims for administrative expenses and employee compensation against insured depository institutions are afforded a priority over other general unsecured claims against such an institution, including federal funds and letters of credit, in the liquidation or other resolution of such an institution by any receiver appointed by regulatory authorities. Such priority creditors would include the FDIC.
Other Safety and Soundness Regulations
Under the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Improvement Act of 1991 ("FDICIA") the federal banking agencies possess broad powers to take prompt corrective action to resolve problems of insured depository institutions. The extent of these powers depends upon whether the institution in question is "well capitalized," "adequately capitalized," "undercapitalized," "significantly undercapitalized," or "critically undercapitalized," as defined by the law. Under regulations established by the federal banking agencies, a "well capitalized" institution must have a Total capital ratio of at least 10%, a Tier 1 capital ratio of at least 6% and a leverage ratio of at least 5% and not be subject to a capital directive order. An "adequately capitalized" institution must have a Total capital ratio of at least 8%, a Tier 1 capital ratio and leverage ratio of at least 4%. As of December 31, 2005, the Bank was classified as "well capitalized." The classification of depository institutions is primarily for the purpose of applying the federal banking agencies' prompt corrective action provisions and is not intended to be, and should not be, interpreted as a representation of overall financial condition or prospects of any financial institution.
The federal banking agencies' prompt corrective action powers (which increase depending upon the degree to which an institution is undercapitalized) can include, among other things, requiring an insured depository institution to adopt a capital restoration plan which cannot be approved unless guaranteed by the institution's parent company; placing limits on asset growth and restrictions on activities; including restrictions on transactions with affiliates; restricting the interest rates the institution may pay on deposits; prohibiting the payment of principal or interest on subordinated debt; prohibiting the holding company from making capital distributions without prior regulatory approval and, ultimately, appointing a receiver for the institution. Among other things, only a "well capitalized" depository institution may accept brokered deposits without prior regulatory approval.
As required by FDICIA, the federal banking agencies also have adopted guidelines prescribing safety and soundness standards relating to internal controls and information systems, internal audit systems, loan documentation, credit underwriting, interest rate exposure, asset growth, and compensation fees and benefits. In general, the guidelines require, among other things, appropriate systems and practices to identify and manage the risks and exposures specified in the guidelines. The guidelines prohibit excessive compensation as an unsafe and unsound practice and describe compensation as excessive when the amounts paid are unreasonable or disproportionate to the services performed by an executive officer, employee, director or principal stockholder. In addition, the agencies adopted regulations that authorize, but do not require, an agency to order an institution that has been given notice by an agency that it is not in compliance with any of such safety and soundness standards to submit a compliance plan. If, after being so notified, an institution fails to submit an acceptable compliance plan, the agency must issue an order directing action to correct the deficiency and may issue an order directing other actions of the types to which an undercapitalized institution is subject under the prompt corrective action provisions described above.
Community Reinvestment and Consumer Protection Laws
In connection with its lending activities, the Bank is subject to a number of federal laws designed to protect borrowers and promote lending to various sectors of the economy and population. These include the Equal Credit Opportunity Act, the Truth-in-Lending Act, the Home Mortgage Disclosure Act, the Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act and the CRA.
The CRA requires the appropriate federal banking agency, in connection with its examination of a bank, to assess the bank's record in meeting the credit needs of the communities served by the bank, including low-and moderate-income neighborhoods. Furthermore, such assessment also is required of any bank that has applied, among other things, to merge or consolidate with or acquire the assets or assume the liabilities of an insured depository institution, or to open or relocate a branch office. In the case of a BHC (including a financial holding company) applying for approval to acquire a bank or BHC, the Federal Reserve Board will assess the record of each subsidiary bank of the applicant BHC in considering the application. Under the CRA, institutions are assigned a rating of "outstanding," "satisfactory," "needs to improve" or "substantial non-compliance." The Bank was rated outstanding in its most recent CRA evaluation.
Bank Secrecy Act / Anti-Money Laundering Laws
The Bank is subject to the Bank Secrecy Act and its implementing regulations and other anti-money laundering laws and regulations, including the USA PATRIOT Act of 2001. Among other things, these laws and regulations require the Bank to take steps to prevent the use of the Bank for facilitating the flow of illegal or illicit money, to report large currency transactions, to file suspicious activity reports and to implement appropriate compliance programs, training, risk assessments and "know your customer" programs. Violations of these requirements can result in substantial civil and criminal sanctions. In addition, provisions of the USA PATRIOT Act require the federal financial institution regulatory agencies to consider the effectiveness of a financial institution's anti-money laundering activities when reviewing bank mergers and BHC acquisitions.
Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002
The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 comprehensively revised the laws affecting corporate governance, accounting obligations and corporate reporting for companies, such as the Company, with equity or debt securities registered under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (the "Exchange Act"). In particular, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act established: 1) new requirements for audit committees, including independence, expertise, and responsibilities; 2) requirements with respect to the establishment and evaluation of disclosure controls and procedures and internal control over financial reporting, and the audit of internal control over financial reporting; 3) additional responsibilities regarding financial statements for the Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer of the reporting company with respect to financial statements and other information included in Exchange Act reports; 4) new standards for auditors and regulation of audits; 5) increased disclosure and reporting obligations for the reporting company and its directors and executive officers; and 6) new and increased civil and criminal penalties for violations of the securities laws.
At January 31, 2006, the Company and its subsidiaries had approximately 2,600 employees.
There are a number of risks and uncertainties, many of which are beyond the Company's control that could have a material adverse impact on the Company's financial condition or results of operations. The Company describes below some of these risks and uncertainties.
Changes in the Hawaii and island market economies could adversely impact the Company.
The Company's business is closely tied to the economies of Hawaii and its other island markets, which are heavily influenced by tourism, government and other service-based industries. A sustained economic downturn could adversely affect the Company's financial condition or results of operations.
Changes in interest rates could adversely impact the Company.
The Company's earnings are highly dependent on the spread between the interest earned on loans and investments and the interest paid on deposits and borrowings. Changes in market interest rates impact the rates earned on loans and investment securities and the rates paid on deposits and borrowings. In addition, changes to the market interest rates could impact the level of loans, deposits and investments, and the credit profile of existing loans. These rates may be affected by many factors beyond the Company's control, including general and economic conditions and the monetary and fiscal policies of various governmental and regulatory authorities. Changes in interest rates may negatively impact the Company's ability to attract deposits, make loans and achieve satisfactory interest rate spreads which could adversely affect the Company's financial condition or results of operations.
The Company's reserve for credit losses may not be adequate to cover actual loan losses.
The risk of nonpayment of loans is inherent in all lending activities, and nonpayment, if it occurs, may have an adverse effect on the Company's financial condition or results of operation. The Company maintains a Reserve for Credit Losses (the "Reserve") to absorb estimated probable credit losses inherent in the loan and commitment portfolios as of the balance sheet date. In determining the level of the Reserve, management makes various assumptions and judgments about the loan portfolio. If the Company's assumptions are incorrect, the Reserve may not be sufficient to cover losses which could adversely affect the Company's financial condition or results of operations.
Many of the Company's loans are secured by real estate in Hawaii and Guam. If these locations experience an economic downturn that impacted real estate values and customers' ability to repay, loan losses could exceed the estimates that are currently included in the Reserve.
The Company is subject to extensive regulation.
The Company's operations are subject to extensive regulation by federal and state governmental authorities which impose requirements and restrictions on the Company's operations. The impact of changes to laws and regulations or other actions by regulatory agencies could make regulatory compliance more difficult or expensive for the Company and could adversely affect the Company's financial condition or results of operations.
Competition may adversely affect the Company's business.
The Company faces competition for its services from a variety of competitors. The Company's future growth and success depends on its ability to compete effectively. The Company competes for deposits, loans and other financial services with numerous banks, thrifts, credit unions, mortgage companies, broker dealers, and insurance companies that are based in and out of Hawaii. The financial services industry is also likely to become more competitive as further technological advances enable more companies to provide financial services, this could adversely affect the Company's financial condition or results of operations.
The Parent's liquidity is dependent on dividends from the Bank.
The Bank's ability to pay dividends to the Parent is limited by various statutes and regulations. It is possible, depending upon the financial condition of the Bank and other factors, that the Federal Reserve Board could assert that payment of dividends from the Bank to the Parent is an unsafe or unsound practice. In the event the Bank was unable to pay dividends to the Parent, dividends on the Company's common stock could be jeopardized. The Company's failure to pay dividends or a reduction in the dividend rate could have a material adverse effect on the market price of the Company's common stock.
An interruption or breach in security of the Company's information systems may result in a loss of customers.
The Company relies heavily on communications and information systems to conduct its business. In addition, the Company depends, to a significant extent, on several third party service providers. Third parties provide key components of the Company's infrastructure including loan, deposit and general ledger processing, internet connections and network access. Any disruption in service of these key components could adversely affect the Company's ability to deliver products and services to its customers and otherwise to conduct its business. Further, any security breach of the Company's information systems or data, whether managed by the Company or by third parties, could harm the Company's reputation, cause a decrease in the number of customers, and adversely affect the Company's financial condition or results of operations.
Additional risks and uncertainties could have a negative effect on the Company's financial condition or results of operations.
Such factors include, but are not limited to: new litigation or changes in existing litigation, claims and assessments; environmental liabilities, asset impairments; real or threatened acts of war or terrorist activity, adverse weather, public health; changes in accounting standards, taxing authority interpretations; and an inability on the Company's part to retain and attract skilled people.
The principal offices of the Company and each of its business segments are located in the Financial Plaza of the Pacific in Honolulu, Hawaii. The Company and its subsidiaries own and lease other premises, consisting of branch offices and operating facilities located in Hawaii and the Pacific Islands which are primarily used by the Retail Banking and Commercial Banking business segments.
The Company and its subsidiaries are involved in various legal proceedings arising from normal business activities. In the opinion of management, after reviewing these proceedings with counsel, the aggregate liability, if any, resulting from these proceedings is not expected to have a material effect on the Company's consolidated financial condition or results of operations.
No matter was submitted during the fourth quarter of 2005 to a vote of security holders through solicitation of proxies or otherwise.
Executive Officers of the Registrant:
Listed below are executive officers of the Company as of February 17, 2006.
Item 5. Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
The common stock of the Company is traded on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE Symbol: BOH) and quoted daily in leading financial publications. As of February 17, 2006, there were 7,902 common shareholders of record.
Information regarding the historical market prices of the Company's common stock and dividends declared on that stock are shown below.
Market Prices, Book Values and Common Stock Dividends Per Share
The Company's Board of Directors considers on a quarterly basis the feasibility of paying a cash dividend to the Company's shareholders. Under the Company's general practice, dividends are declared at the beginning of a quarter to be paid prior to the end of the quarter and are based, in part, on the expected earnings for the quarter. For additional information regarding the limitation on the Company's ability to pay dividends, see "Dividend Restrictions" under "Supervision and Regulation" in Item 1 of this report and Note 9 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, which is incorporated by reference in this Item.
Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Summary of Selected Consolidated Financial Data 1
This report contains forward-looking statements concerning, among other things, the economic and business environment in the Company's service area and elsewhere, credit quality, anticipated net income and other financial and business matters in future periods. The Company's forward-looking statements are based on numerous assumptions, any of which could prove to be inaccurate and actual results may differ materially from those projected because of a variety of risks and uncertainties, including, but not limited to: 1) unanticipated changes in business and economic conditions, the competitive environment, fiscal and monetary policies, taxing authority interpretations, legislation in Hawaii and the other markets the Company serves, or the timing and interpretation of proposed accounting standards; 2) changes in the Company's credit quality or risk profile that may increase or decrease the required level of reserve for credit losses; 3) changes in market interest rates that may affect the Company's credit markets and ability to maintain its net interest margin; 4) unpredictable costs and other consequences of legal or regulatory matters involving the Company; 5) changes to the amount and timing of the Company's proposed equity repurchases; 6) real or threatened acts of war or terrorist activity affecting business conditions; and 7) adverse weather, public health and other natural conditions impacting the Company and its customers' operations. A detailed discussion of these and other risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results and events to differ materially from such forward-looking statements is included under the section entitled "Risk Factors" in Part 1 of this report. Words such as "believes," "anticipates," "expects," "intends," "targeted" and similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements but are not exclusive means of identifying such statements. The Company does not undertake an obligation to update forward-looking statements to reflect later events or circumstances.
Critical Accounting Estimates
The Company's Consolidated Financial Statements were prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles and follow general practices within the industries in which it operates. The most significant accounting policies followed by the Company are presented in Note 1 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, which is incorporated by reference in this Item. Application of these principles requires management to make estimates, assumptions and judgments that affect the amounts reported in the financial statements and accompanying notes. Critical accounting estimates are defined as those that require assumptions or judgments to be made based on information available as of the date of the financial statements. Certain policies inherently have a greater reliance on the use of estimates. Those policies have a greater possibility of producing results that could be materially different than reported if there is a change to any of the estimates, assumptions or judgments made by management. Based on the potential impact to the financial statements of the valuation methods, estimates, assumptions and judgments used, management identified the determination of the reserve for credit losses, the valuation of mortgage servicing rights, the valuation of leased asset residuals and the valuation of pension and postretirement obligations to be the accounting estimates that are the most subjective and/or judgmental.
Reserve for Credit Losses
A consequence of lending activities is that losses may be experienced. The amount of such losses will vary from time to time depending upon the risk characteristics of the loan portfolio as affected by economic conditions, including rising interest rates, and the financial performance of borrowers. The Company maintains a Reserve which consists of the Allowance for Loan and Lease Losses ("Allowance") and a Reserve for Unfunded Commitments ("Unfunded Reserve"). The Reserve provides for the risk of credit losses inherent in the credit extension process and is based on a range of loss estimates derived from a comprehensive quarterly evaluation, reflecting analyses of individual borrowers and historical loss experience, supplemented as necessary by credit judgment to address observed changes in trends, conditions, and other relevant environmental and economic factors. The Allowance and the Unfunded Reserve are both increased and decreased through the provisioning process. The adequacy of the Allowance and the Unfunded Reserve is based on a range of inherent loss estimates derived from a comprehensive quarterly analysis of historical loss experience, plus an amount for credit management judgment reflecting the evaluation of the impact of
environmental factors on portfolio performance, plus an amount for imprecision of estimates. There is no exact method of predicting specific losses or amounts that ultimately may be charged off on particular segments of the loan portfolio. Note 1 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, which is incorporated by reference in this Item, describes the methodologies used to develop the Reserve.
The determination of the amount of the Reserve is a critical accounting estimate as it requires the use of estimates and significant judgment related to the amount and timing of expected future cash flows on impaired loans, estimated loss rates on homogenous portfolios and deliberation on economic factors and trends. There is no exact method of predicting specific losses or amounts that ultimately may be charged-off on particular segments of the loan portfolio. Each quarter, senior-level committees approve specific credit and reserve-related activities. Also each quarter, the Audit Committee of the Board of Directors reviews and approves the Reserve prior to final affirmation by the Board of Directors.
Mortgage Servicing Rights Valuation
When mortgage loans are sold with servicing retained, a servicing asset is established and accounted for based on estimated fair values. Once mortgage servicing rights have been recorded, they must be periodically evaluated for impairment. Impairment occurs when the current estimated fair value of mortgage servicing rights is less than the book value. The current estimated fair value is determined using discounted cash flow modeling techniques, which require management to make estimates and assumptions regarding the amount and timing of expected future cash flows, loan repayment rates, costs to service and interest rates that reflect the risk involved. The value of these assets is sensitive to changes in the estimates and assumptions made. Had the Company assumed that interest rates would decrease and prepayment rates increase, then the value of the mortgage servicing rights could have been lower. Note 4 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, which includes further discussion on the accounting for these assets and a sensitivity analysis, is incorporated by reference in this Item.
Residual Valuation of Leased Assets
Lease financing receivables include a residual value component, which represents the estimated value of leased assets upon lease expiration. The determination of expected value at lease termination is derived from a variety of sources, including equipment valuation services, appraisals and publicly available market data on recent sales transactions on similar equipment. The length of time until termination, the cyclical nature of equipment values and the limited marketplace for re-sale for certain leased assets are important variables considered in making this determination. The Company updates its valuation analysis on an annual basis, or more often when events or circumstances warrant. When it is determined that a residual value is higher than the expected fair market value at lease expiration, the difference is recorded as an asset impairment in the period in which the analysis was completed. The Company is unable to predict future events or conditions that could result in future asset impairments. Note 3 to the Consolidated Financial Statements includes further discussion on the accounting for these assets and is incorporated by reference in this Item.
Pension and Postretirement Plans
The Company's pension and postretirement obligations and net periodic cost are actuarially determined based on the following key assumptions: discount rate, estimated future return on plan assets, and the health care cost trend rate. The determination of the pension and postretirement obligations and net periodic cost is a critical accounting estimate as it requires the use of estimates and judgment related to the amount and timing of expected future cash out-flows for benefit payments and cash in-flows for maturities and returns on investments, mortality rates, future health care cost and other factors, and changes in any or all of the underlying estimates, factors or assumptions could have a material impact to the financial statements. The discount rate is used to determine the present value of future benefit obligations and the net periodic cost. The discount rate used to value the future benefit obligation as of each year-end is the rate used to determine the periodic expense in the next year. The discount rate of 5.75% used for the December 31, 2005 valuations was determined based on match-funding maturities and interest payments on corporate bonds available in the market place to projected cash flows for future benefit payments. In determining the net periodic cost,
the Company lowered the discount rate to 6.00% in 2005 from 6.25% used in 2004 and 6.75% used in 2003, reflecting the decline in market interest rates during these periods. The estimated return on plan assets of 8.5% was based on historical trends and a building block approach taking into account the type of investments in the pension plan. The health care cost trend rate for 2005 was 9% and will decrease by 1% annually until reaching the ultimate trend rate of 5% in 2009. A 25 basis point decrease in the discount rate would have increased the total pension and postretirement net periodic cost in 2005 by approximately $0.3 million and the benefit obligations at December 31, 2005 by $4.1 million. A 25 basis point increase in the discount rate would have decreased the total pension and postretirement net periodic cost in 2005 by approximately $0.3 million and the benefit obligations at December 31, 2005 by $3.9 million. A 1% change in the health care cost trend rate would have changed the 2005 net periodic postretirement cost by approximately $0.4 million.
The estimated pension and postretirement net periodic cost for 2006 is $5.0 million based on a discount rate of 5.75%. A 25 basis point decrease in the discount rate would increase the total pension and postretirement net periodic cost by approximately $0.3 million. Note 11 to the Consolidated Financial Statements includes further discussion on the accounting for these plans and is incorporated by reference in this Item.
The Company is entering the final year of its 2004-2006 plan (the "Plan"), which continues to build on the governing objective of maximizing shareholder value over time.
The Plan consists of five key elements:
During 2005 the Company continued to meet the key financial objectives of the Plan. Results for 2005 compared to 2004 included the following components:
The Company's overall financial results are more fully discussed in the following sections of this report.
Analysis of Statement of Income
Certain 2004 and 2003 information has been reclassified to conform to 2005 presentation.
Net Interest Income
Net interest income on a taxable equivalent basis increased $16.5 million or 4.2% from 2004. The increase in net interest income was largely a result of higher income earned on the loan and investment securities portfolios. The investment securities portfolio, which consists primarily of mortgage-backed securities, experienced an increase in interest income due to higher yields on securities acquired and a reduction in prepayments. Interest income from loans increased from 2004 as a result of higher yields earned, which was consistent with increases in benchmark interest rates (e.g. prime), and higher average balances. The average balance of commercial and industrial loans increased 14% from 2004 as a result of continued new loan growth while home equity loans increased 32% during the year.
Partially offsetting these increases in interest income was a rise in interest expense on interest-bearing deposits and short-term borrowings, as a result of increases in short-term interest rates during the year.
The net interest margin was 4.37% in 2005, a five basis points increase from 2004. The improvement in the margin was attributable to the increase in the average yield earned on the loan and investment securities portfolio in 2005, partially offset by the rise in the Company's cost of funds.
In 2004, the net interest income on a taxable equivalent basis increased $24.7 million or 6.7% from 2003. The increase in net interest income was due to higher income earned on the investment securities portfolio, resulting from reduction in prepayments in 2004, and lower expense paid on interest-bearing deposits. The increase in investment securities portfolio was partially offset by a decrease in interest income on loans. Interest income on loans decreased mainly due to the lower income earned on mortgage loans as a result of lower yields in 2004 compared to 2003. The decline in interest expense from interest-bearing deposits was mainly due to lower average rates paid on savings and time deposits.
The net interest margin was 4.32% in 2004, a nine basis points increase from 2003. The improvement in the margin was attributable to the improvement in the average yield earned on the investment securities portfolio and a 23 basis point decline in the average rate paid on interest-bearing deposits, primarily savings and time deposits which lowered the Company's cost of funds.
Average balances, related income and expenses, and resulting yields and rates are presented in Table 1. An analysis of the change in net interest income is presented in Table 2.
Provision for Credit Losses
The Provision for Credit Losses (the "Provision") reflects management's judgment of the adequacy of the Allowance and the Unfunded Reserve. It is determined through detailed quarterly analytical reviews of the loan and commitment portfolios. In 2005, the Company recorded a Provision of $4.6 million whereas, in 2004, the Company returned $10.0 million to income from a release from the Allowance. The Provision is based on the levels of net loan charge-offs, changes in the economic environment during the period, as well as management's ongoing assessment of the credit quality and growth of the loan portfolio. For information on the Allowance, refer to the "Corporate Risk Profile Allowance for Loan and Lease Losses" section of this report.
Based on current conditions, the Company estimates a $17.0 million Provision for 2006. However, the actual amount of the Provision is determined based upon analysis performed each quarter.
Table 3 presents the major components of non-interest income.
n.m. not meaningful.
Trust and asset management income is comprised of fees earned for the management and administration of assets. The fees are generally based on the market value of the assets that are managed. Total assets under administration were $12.5 billion, $11.5 billion and $10.0 billion (adjusted for sale of corporate trust business in the first quarter of 2004) at December 31, 2005, 2004 and 2003, respectively. The increase in trust and asset management income in 2005 from 2004 is consistent with the increase in equity markets which led to an increase in the Company's average market value of assets under management. In addition, trust and asset management income increased due to higher advisory fees on money market assets.
Mortgage banking income is comprised primarily of gains from sales of loans and net servicing income. Net servicing income is income earned for servicing loans less the amortization of mortgage servicing rights. Mortgage banking income is highly influenced by the level and direction of mortgage interest rates. Mortgage banking income increased in 2005 as compared to 2004 largely as a result of a decline in the amortization of servicing rights attributable to a decrease in prepayments. Mortgage loan production volume (approximately $1.0 billion) was consistent with 2004. Mortgage banking income declined in 2004 as compared to 2003 largely as a result of a 50% decrease in mortgage loan production. Mortgage interest rates hit record lows in 2003, which led to a record year for production. The decreased production volume in 2004 combined with competitive sales margins and a change in the mix of production to more variable rate loans led to lower gains on sale of loans. Gains from the sale of loans declined $13.2 million and other fees declined $2.9 million in 2004 from 2003. However, the decline in re-financings benefited the Company as loan prepayments declined by 68% resulting in an increase in net servicing income of 87%.
Fees, exchange and other service charges are primarily comprised of merchant service activity, fees from ATMs and other loan fees and service charges. Merchant service activity experienced growth in each period as a result of increased tourism levels in Hawaii during 2005. In 2003, a $3.0 million prepayment fee on a commercial real estate loan was recognized.
Table 4 shows the major components of non-interest expense.
n.m. not meaningful.
Total salaries and benefits declined in both 2005 and 2004 compared to the respective preceding year, however, components have varied each year. The decrease in 2005 was primarily due to lower stock-based compensation expense associated with restricted stock units and lower base salaries as a result of a decline in the number of employees. The average number of employees declined 3% in both 2005 and 2004 compared to the respective preceding year. Offsetting the decline in base salaries in 2005 was an increase in retirement and other benefits due to increased expense for actuarial determined benefits as a result of changes in the discount rate. Total salaries and benefits declined in 2004 compared to 2003 due to decreases in salaries and commission expense, partially offset by an increase in stock-based compensation expense. Consistent with the trends in mortgage banking income, commission expense increased by $0.4 million in 2005 and declined $3.1 million in 2004 from the increased level in 2003. In 2003, the Company recognized a $2.5 million curtailment gain on its post retirement benefits due to the termination of life insurance benefits. The Company also recognized expense for its frozen defined benefit plan in 2005 and 2004.
Professional fees increased in 2005 primarily due to legal fees and other expenses resulting from the now resolved SEC investigation related to alleged market timing and/or excessive trading in a mutual fund family to which the Bank serves as a registered investment adviser. In the fourth quarter of 2005, the SEC terminated its investigation and decided not to recommend enforcement action. The increased legal fees in 2005 were partially offset by decreases in other professional fees due to lower consulting fees. The increase in professional fees in 2004 from 2003 was mainly due to added professional services relating to the Company's mutual fund business and an increase in audit fees.
Other expense increased in 2005 primarily as a result of a goodwill impairment charge of $1.3 million in the first quarter of 2005 relating to the Bank's insurance business. Other expense increased in 2004 from 2003 due to a legal settlement accrual of $2.2 million. In 2003, other expenses were reduced due to a $2.5 million gain on the sale of foreclosed real estate and a gain on the transfer of an affinity mileage program.
The provision for income taxes reflected an effective tax rate of 36.11% in 2005 and 36.09% in 2004, compared to an effective rate of 34.62% in 2003. For additional information regarding tax expense, including a reconciliation of the effective tax rate to the statutory tax rate, refer to Note 13 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, which is incorporated by reference in this Item.
The Company's business segments are defined as Retail Banking, Commercial Banking, Investment Services Group and Treasury and Other Corporate. The Company's internal management accounting process measures the performance of the business segments based on the management structure of the Company. This process, which is not necessarily comparable with similar information for any other financial institution, uses various techniques to assign balance sheet and income statement amounts to the business segments, including allocations of interest income, expense overhead, the Provision and capital. This process is dynamic and requires certain allocations based on judgment and subjective factors. Unlike financial accounting, there is no comprehensive, authoritative guidance for management accounting that is equivalent to U.S. generally accepted accounting principles. Previously reported results have been reclassified to conform to the current organizational reporting structure.
The Company evaluates several performance measures of the business segments, the most important of which are net income after capital charge ("NIACC") and risk adjusted return on capital ("RAROC"). NIACC is economic net income less a charge for the cost of allocated capital. The cost of allocated capital is determined by multiplying management's estimate of a shareholder's minimum required rate of return on the cost of capital invested (currently 11%) by the segment's allocated equity. The Company assumes a cost of capital that is equal to a risk-free rate plus a risk premium. RAROC is the ratio of economic net income to risk-adjusted equity. Equity is allocated to each business segment based on an assessment of its inherent risk. The net interest income of the business segments reflects the results of a funds transfer pricing process that matches assets and liabilities with similar interest rate sensitivity and maturity characteristics and reflects the allocation of net interest income related to the Company's overall asset and liability management activities on a proportionate basis. The basis for the allocation of net interest income is a function of management decisions and assumptions that are subject to change based on changes in current interest rate and market conditions. Funds transfer pricing also serves to transfer interest rate risk to the Treasury segment. However, the other business segments have some latitude to retain certain interest rate exposures related to customer pricing decisions within guidelines. The Provision recorded in the Retail Banking, Commercial Banking and Investment Services Group segments represents actual net charge-offs of these segments. The Provision charged to the Treasury and Other Corporate segment represents residual changes in the level of the Reserve. The business segments are charged an economic provision which is a statistically derived estimate of average annual expected credit losses over an economic cycle.
On a consolidated basis, the Company considers NIACC a measure of shareholder value creation. For the year ended December 31, 2005, consolidated NIACC was $89.1 million, compared to $67.6 million in 2004, a result of improved financial performance and more efficient use of capital.
Financial results for each of the segments are presented in Table 5 and Note 17 of the Consolidated Financial Statements, which is incorporated by reference in this Item.
The following table summarizes NIACC and RAROC results for the Company's business segments:
The Company's Retail Banking segment offers a broad range of financial products and services to consumers and small businesses. Loan and lease products include residential mortgage loans, home equity lines of credit, automobile loans and leases and installment loans. Deposit products include checking, savings and time deposit accounts. The Retail Banking segment also provides merchant services to its small business customers. Products and services from the Retail Banking segment are delivered to customers through 72 Hawaii branch locations, over 500 ATMs, e-Bankoh (on-line banking service) and a 24-hour telephone banking service. Also included in the segment is Bankoh Investment Services, Inc., a full service brokerage offering equities and bonds, mutual funds, life insurance and annuity products.
The increase in the Retail Banking financial measures from 2004 to 2005 was primarily due to higher net interest income and non-interest income. The increase in net interest income was the result of higher earnings credit on the
funds transfer pricing of the segment's deposit portfolio as well as increased loan and deposit balances. The increase in non-interest income was primarily due to improved application of fee schedules and growth in the number of deposit accounts, along with increased mortgage banking income. Non-interest expense in 2005 remained relatively flat as compared to 2004. The increase in the Provision was primarily due to increased charge-offs in the segment's growing loan portfolios.
The Retail Banking segment's financial measures in 2004 remained relatively consistent with 2003. Net interest income and non-interest income declined and were partially offset by a decrease in non-interest expense. The decrease in net interest income was mainly a result of lower earnings credit from funds transfer pricing on the segment's deposit account balances, reflective of the lower interest rate environment. During 2004, the segment experienced steady growth in its indirect auto, direct personal and home equity portfolios, partially offsetting the effect of the lower earnings credit on deposit accounts. The decrease in non-interest income primarily resulted from lower gains on the sale of mortgage loans due to lower production and related sales volume and competitive market conditions. The segment's decrease in non-interest expense was primarily due to reductions in technology and operations support, depreciation and software costs attributable to the Systems Replacement Project. The increase in the Provision was primarily due to increased charge-offs in the segment's growing loan portfolios.
The Commercial Banking segment offers products including corporate banking and commercial real estate loans, lease financing, auto dealer financing, deposit and cash management products and property and casualty insurance products. Lending, deposit and cash management services are offered to middle-market and large companies in Hawaii. Commercial real estate mortgages are focused on customers that include investors, developers and builders primarily domiciled in Hawaii. The Commercial Banking unit also includes the Company's operations at its 12 branches in the Pacific Islands.
The improvement in the segment's financial measures for 2005 compared with 2004 was due to an increase in net-interest income and a decrease in non-interest expense, partially offset by a decrease in non-interest income. The increase in net-interest income was primarily due to higher deposit balances and the related earnings credit from funds transfer pricing. The decrease in non-interest income was due to large non-recurring transactions that resulted in higher gains in 2004. The reduction in non-interest expense was due to a gain realized on the sale of foreclosed assets in the first quarter of 2005 and lower salaries expense. Reductions in operating risk and the further refinement of credit risk factors resulted in a lower charge for capital. The increase in Provision over 2004 was primarily the result of a leveraged lease charge-off in relation to the bankruptcy of a major airline carrier.
The improvement in the segment's financial measures for 2004 compared with 2003 was primarily due to an increase in non-interest income and a decrease in capital charge, partially offset by a decrease in net interest income. The increase in non-interest income was a result of a gain on the sale of assets at the end of a leveraged lease transaction, a leasing partnership investment distribution and increased insurance income. This was offset by a decrease in net interest income due to a decrease in the earnings credit from funds transfer pricing on the segment's deposit account balances, reflective of lower interest rates. Total non-interest expense declined in 2004 from 2003 because of decreases in salaries and lower allocated expenses from support units within the Company. The charge for capital decreased because of the refinement of credit risk factors.
Investment Services Group
The Investment Services Group includes private banking, trust services, asset management and institutional investment advice. A significant portion of this segment's income is derived from fees, which are generally based on the market values of assets under management. The private banking and personal trust group assists individuals and families in building and preserving their wealth by providing investment, credit and trust expertise to high net-worth individuals. The asset management group manages portfolios and creates investment products. Institutional sales and service offers investment advice to corporations, government entities and foundations.
The decline in the segment's financial measures for 2005 from 2004 was primarily due to previously announced charges for legal fees and other expenses as a result of the now resolved SEC investigation discussed above under "Analysis of Statement of Income Non-Interest Expense." Increases in both net interest income and non-interest income partially offset the increased non-interest expenses. Trust and asset management fee income increased largely due to improved market conditions which resulted in an increase in the average market value of assets under management and an increase in investment advisory fees on money market accounts.
The improvement in the segment's financial measures for 2004 was a result of an increase in non-interest income. Non-interest income increased because of growth in trust and asset management fee income resulting from improved market conditions and an increase in other income due to the sale of the corporate trust business. These positive trends were offset by increases in both direct and allocated non-interest expense. The increase in non-interest expense was primarily due to increased professional fees relating to the Company's mutual fund business.
Treasury and Other Corporate
The primary income earning component of this segment is Treasury, which consists of corporate asset and liability management activities, including interest rate risk management and foreign exchange business. This segment's assets and liabilities (and related interest income and expense) consist of interest-bearing deposits, investment securities, funds sold and purchased, government deposits and short- and long-term borrowings. The primary sources of non-interest income are bank-owned life insurance and foreign exchange income related to customer driven currency requests from merchants and island visitors. The net residual effect of transfer pricing of assets and liabilities is included in Treasury, along with eliminations of inter-company transactions.
This segment also includes divisions (Technology and Operations, Human Resources, Finance, Credit and Risk Management and Corporate and Regulatory Administration) that provide a wide-range of support to the other business segments. Expenses incurred by these support units are charged to the business segments through an internal cost allocation process. Results for this segment in 2003 include the System Replacement Project costs that were not incurred by or allocated to the other business segments.
The segment's financial measures in 2005 remained relatively consistent with 2004, although net interest income and non-interest income decreases were offset by a decrease in non-interest expense. The reduction in net interest income was due to the impact on the Treasury unit of funding higher average deposit balances. Non-interest income decreased due to reduced income from bank-owned life insurance and the sale of a parcel of land in 2004. Non-interest expenses decreased due to reductions in stock-based compensation and separation expense.
The improvement in the segment's financial measures in 2004 compared to 2003 was primarily due to an increase in net interest income and the absence of System Replacement Project costs. The increase in net interest income was due to the impact of the lower cost of funding deposits by the Treasury unit and higher average balances in the investment securities portfolio. NIACC was also favorably impacted by a lower capital charge due to the reduction of the Company's excess capital as a result of the continuing share repurchase activity.
Balance Sheet Analysis
Certain 2004 information has been reclassified to conform to 2005 presentation.
The Company's investment securities portfolio is managed in an effort to provide liquidity and interest income, offset interest rate risk positions and provide collateral for various banking activities. As of December 31, 2005, the investment securities portfolio totaled $3.0 billion, a decrease of $81.2 million from December 31, 2004. The investment securities portfolio was in a gross unrealized loss position of $59.7 million or 2.0% of total amortized cost at December 31, 2005. The Company intends and has the ability to hold the securities for the time necessary to recover
the amortized cost value. See Note 2 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, which is incorporated by reference in this Item, for further information.
See Table 6 for the contractual maturity distribution, market value and weighted-average yield to maturity of investment securities.
Loans and Leases
Loans and leases represent the Company's largest category of interest earning assets and the largest source of revenue. The loan portfolio, which is divided into commercial and consumer components, increased 3% to $6.2 billion at December 31, 2005 from 2004. Table 7 presents the geographic distribution of the loan and lease portfolio based on the location of the borrower and Table 8 presents maturities and sensitivity of loans to changes in interest rates.
The commercial loan portfolio is comprised of commercial and industrial loans, commercial mortgages, construction loans and lease financing. Commercial and industrial loans are extended primarily to corporations, middle market and small businesses. The purpose of these loans is for working capital needs, acquisitions, equipment or other expansion projects. Although the Company's primary market is Hawaii, the commercial portfolio contains some borrowers from the continental United States ("Mainland") that are principally shared national credits. Commercial mortgages and construction loans are offered to real estate investors, developers and builders primarily domiciled in Hawaii. Commercial mortgages are secured by real estate. The source of repayment for investor property is cash flow from the property and for owner-occupied property it is operating cash flow from the business. Construction loans are for the purchase or construction of a property for which repayment will be generated by the property. Lease financing consists of direct financing leases and leveraged leases. Overall, the commercial loan portfolio decreased compared to 2004 due to a significant loan payoff during the fourth quarter partially offset by the growth in construction loans mainly due to the strong local economy.
The consumer loan portfolio is comprised of residential mortgage loans, home equity loans, personal credit lines, direct installment loans and indirect auto loans and leases. These products are offered generally in the markets the Company serves through its branch network. Both the residential mortgage and home equity portfolios continued to benefit from higher home values in 2005. Median and average home sales prices in Hawaii increased more than 25% in 2005, resulting in higher purchase prices and additional equity in existing homes, bolstering growth in the residential mortgage and home equity portfolios. The Company used targeted marketing campaigns and promotions as well as improved service standards to make loans available to creditworthy customers. The Company expects to see continued growth in these portfolios in 2006. By contrast, the purchased home equity portfolio, which is comprised of Mainland borrowers, continues to run-off with no new purchases in 2005. Note 3 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, which is incorporated by reference in this Item, presents the composition of the loan and lease portfolio by major loan categories. For additional information, refer to the "Corporate Risk Profile Credit Risk" section of this Item.
During the second quarter of 2005, a deposit was placed with the Internal Revenue Service (the "IRS") relating to a review by the IRS of the Company's tax positions for certain leveraged lease transactions. The placing of the deposit will reduce additional accrual of interest associated with the potential underpayment of taxes related to these transactions. The Company believes its tax position related to these transactions was proper based on applicable statutes, regulations and case law at the time the transactions were entered into. This deposit is reported in other assets
in the Company's consolidated statement of condition. Note 5 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, which is incorporated by reference in this Item, presents the detail of other assets.
Total deposits were $7.9 billion at December 31, 2005, a 4.5% increase over the prior year-end. Demand and time deposits increased while savings deposits declined as a result of the balance movement to higher rate time deposits. The year-to-date average time deposits of $100,000 or more was $0.6 billion in both 2005 and 2004. See Note 6 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, which is incorporated by reference in this Item, for additional deposit information.
Securities Sold Under Agreements to Repurchase
Securities sold under agreements to repurchase ("repos") totaled $609.4 million at December 31, 2005, an increase of $40.4 million from December 31, 2004. The increase was due to $175.0 million in repos placed with private entities in 2005, partially offset by a reduction in repos with government entities. The private repos are at floating interest rates tied to the London Inter Bank Offering Rate ("LIBOR") of which the weighted average rate was 3.69% at December 31, 2005. The terms of the repos are 10 to 15 years. The private entities have the right to terminate repos totaling $100.0 million in two years, repos totaling $50.0 million quarterly after the third year, and the remaining repos totaling $25.0 million in five years. If the agreements are not terminated, the rates become fixed ranging from 3.85% to 4.25% for the respective remaining term.
Short-term borrowings, including funds purchased, commercial paper and other short-term borrowings, totaled $277.6 million at December 31, 2005, an increase of $112.9 million from December 31, 2004 primarily due to a higher funds purchased balance. The Company's long-term debt was lower in 2005 from 2004 due to maturing Federal Home Loan Bank advances. The source of funds used to repay the long-term debt was deposit growth, repos and other short-term borrowings. See Notes 7 and 8 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, which are incorporated by reference in this Item, for more information on short-term borrowings and long-term debt.
During 2005, the Company continued to hold U.S. dollar placements and securities issued by foreign entities, as a tax efficient investment structure to generate foreign source earnings. The Company had foreign tax credits available to reduce the tax on this income.
Table 9 presents a geographic distribution of international assets for which the Company has cross-border exposure exceeding 0.75% of total assets.
Corporate Risk Profile
Credit Risk is defined as the risk that borrowers or counter parties will not be able to repay their obligations to the Company. Credit exposures reflect legally binding commitments for loans, leases, banker's acceptances, financial and standby letters of credit and overnight deposit account overdrafts.
The Company manages and controls risk in the loan portfolio by adhering to well-defined and uniform underwriting criteria and account administration standards established by management. Written credit policies establish underwriting standards, approval levels, exposure limits and other limits or standards deemed necessary and prudent. The Company generally does not participate in sub-prime lending activities. Portfolio diversification at the obligor, industry, product and/or geographic location levels is actively managed to mitigate concentration risk. In addition, credit risk management also includes an independent credit review process that assesses compliance with commercial and consumer credit policies, risk ratings and other critical credit information.
The Company's credit risk position remained stable and strong during 2005. The Company observed lower levels of internally criticized loans and non-performing assets. The ratio of non-accrual loans to total loans at December 31, 2005 was 0.09%, down from 0.23% at December 31, 2004.
Net loan charge-offs in 2005 as a percent of average loans outstanding was 0.36%, an increase from 0.09% from the same prior year period. The increase is primarily due to a $10.0 million charge-off taken for a leveraged lease following the bankruptcy announcement of a national air carrier in the third quarter of 2005. This charge-off was fully reserved. During 2004, the Company benefited from a $6.0 million recovery of a previously charged-off loan from its divested Asia business.
The Company's favorable credit risk profile reflects sustained expansion and strength in the Hawaii and Mainland economies and improving economic conditions in Guam as well as disciplined commercial and retail underwriting and portfolio management. The quality of the portfolio of Hawaii-based loans continued to improve, primarily due to the expanding local economy led by construction and real estate industries and record levels of domestic tourism despite sustained higher energy prices and some increasing inflationary trends.
Consumer loans increased $192.3 million from 2004 to $4.07 billion driven primarily by an increase in home equity loans. Home equity loans totaled $801.8 million, an increase from $657.2 million at December 31, 2004. Expansion primarily stems from organic growth in Hawaii as a result of a strong residential real estate market. The majority of credit facilities are to high credit-scoring owner occupants with credit line facilities less than $250,000 and combined loan-to-value ratios of less than or equal to 80%.
Relative to the Company's total portfolio, domestic airline carriers continued to demonstrate a higher risk profile due to sustained high oil prices and marginal pricing power. In the evaluation of the Reserve, the Company considered the current financial strain on airlines, which offset the impact of the improvement in other components of the loan portfolio. Table 10 below summarizes the Company's air transportation credit exposure.
Non-performing assets ("NPAs") consist of non-accrual loans and leases, loans held for sale, foreclosed real estate and other non-performing investments. At December 31, 2005, the ratio of NPAs to total loans and leases, foreclosed real estate and other investments was 0.11%, a decline from 0.23% at December 31, 2004. The net decrease in NPAs at December 31, 2005 from December 31, 2004 primarily included $11.0 million of payments and pay-offs, $3.3 million of loans that returned to accrual status, $0.8 million of charge-offs and offset by $8.0 million of additions. The remaining NPAs are principally residential mortgages.
Loans Past Due 90 Days or More and Still Accruing Interest
Accruing loans past due 90 days or more totaled $2.9 million at December 31, 2005, an increase of $0.8 million from December 31, 2004. The increase is primarily from residential mortgages in Guam. The Company believes the improved real estate market conditions in Guam will provide sufficient resilience to resolve any distressed properties within an acceptable time frame.
Table 11 presents a five-year history of non-performing assets and accruing loans past due 90 days or more.
Table 12 presents foregone interest on non-accrual loans.
Allowance for Loan and Lease Losses
The Allowance was $91.1 million at December 31, 2005, a decrease of $15.7 million from December 31, 2004. Based on management's ongoing assessment of the credit quality of the loan portfolio and the economic environment, the Company recorded a Provision of $4.6 million in 2005. In 2004, the Company returned $10.0 million to income from a release of the Allowance. In addition, during 2004, $6.8 million was reclassified to other liabilities from the Allowance relating to the Unfunded Reserve. See Note 3 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, which is incorporated by reference in this Item, for changes in the Allowance during the last five years.
The ratio of the Allowance to total loans and leases outstanding was 1.48% at December 31, 2005, down from 1.78% at December 31, 2004.
Net charge-offs for 2005 of $22.0 million, or 0.36% of total average loans and leases, increased from $5.5 million or 0.09% of total average loans and leases in 2004. Net charge-offs in 2005 included the $10.0 million charge-off of a fully reserved aircraft lease and in 2004 net charge-offs included recoveries of $8.2 million from divested businesses. Adjusted for activity from these non-recurring items, net charge-offs for 2005 and 2004 were $12.0 million and $13.7 million or 0.20% and 0.24%, respectively, of total average loans.
Although the Company determines the amount of each element of the Allowance separately, the Allowance was considered appropriate by management at December 31, 2005, based on an ongoing analysis of estimated probable credit losses, credit risk profiles, economic conditions, coverage ratios and other relevant factors.
Allowance allocations by loan category are presented in Table 13.
Reserve for Unfunded Commitments
Unfunded commitments to extend credit reflect banker's acceptances, financial and standby letters of credit, commercial letters of credit, overnight overdrafts and credit cards where the Company has issued a loss guarantee on behalf of its customers. The process used to determine the Unfunded Reserve is consistent with the process for determining the Allowance as adjusted for estimated funding probabilities or loan equivalency factors. The Unfunded Reserve at December 31, 2005 was $5.1 million compared with $6.8 million at December 31, 2004.
Market risk is the potential of loss arising from adverse changes in interest rates and prices. The Company is exposed to market risk as a consequence of the normal course of conducting its business activities. Financial products that expose the Company to market risk include investment securities, loans, deposits, debt and derivative financial instruments. The Company's market risk management process involves measuring, monitoring, controlling and managing risks that can significantly impact the Company's financial condition and results of operations. In this management process, market risks are balanced with expected returns in an effort to enhance earnings performance and shareholder value, while limiting the volatility of each. The activities associated with these market risks are categorized into "trading" and "other than trading."
The Company's trading activities include foreign currency and foreign exchange contracts that expose the Company to a minor degree of foreign currency risk. These transactions are primarily executed on behalf of customers and at times for the Company's own account.
The Company's "other than trading" activities include normal business transactions that expose the Company's balance sheet profile to varying degrees of market risk. The Company's primary market risk exposure is interest rate risk. A key element in the process of managing market risk involves oversight by senior management and the Board of Directors as to the level of such risk assumed by the Company in its balance sheet. The Board of Directors reviews and approves risk management policies, including risk limits and guidelines and delegates oversight functions to the Asset Liability Management Committee ("ALCO"). The ALCO, consisting of senior business and finance officers, monitors the Company's market risk exposure and, as market conditions dictate, modifies balance sheet positions. The ALCO may also direct the use of derivative instruments.
Interest Rate Risk
The Company's balance sheet is sensitive to changes in the general level of interest rates. This interest rate risk arises primarily from the Company's normal business activities of making loans, taking deposits and purchasing securities. Many other factors also affect the Company's exposure to changes in interest rates, such as general economic and financial conditions, customer preferences and historical pricing relationships.
The earnings of the Company and the Bank are affected not only by general economic conditions, but also by the monetary and fiscal policies of the United States and its agencies, particularly the Federal Reserve System. The monetary policies of the Federal Reserve System influence, to a significant extent, the overall growth of loans, investments and deposits; the level of interest rates earned on assets and paid for liabilities; and interest rates charged on loans and paid on deposits. The nature and impact of future changes in monetary policies are generally not predictable.
A key element in the Company's ongoing process to measure and monitor interest rate risk is the utilization of a net interest income ("NII") simulation model. This model is used to estimate the amount that NII will change over a one-year time horizon under various interest rate scenarios. These estimates are based on assumptions on the behavior of loan and deposit pricing, prepayment speeds on mortgage-based assets, and principal amortization and maturities on other financial instruments. The model's analytics include the effects of embedded options. While such assumptions are inherently uncertain, management believes that these assumptions are reasonable. As a result, the NII
simulation model attempts to capture the dynamic nature of the balance sheet and provide a sophisticated estimate rather than a precise prediction of NII's exposure to changes in interest rates.
The Company continues to be asset sensitive and, as a result, net interest income will generally increase from higher interest rates. Interest rate risk was reduced in 2005 by effectively matching asset and liability durations in response to a more stable interest rate outlook.
Table 14 presents, as of December 31, 2005, 2004 and 2003, the estimate of the change in NII from a gradual 200 basis point increase or decrease in interest rates, moving in parallel fashion for the entire yield curve, over the next 12-month period relative to the measured base case scenario for NII.
To enhance and complement the results from the NII simulation model, the Company also monitors interest rate risk utilizing measures such as sensitivity of market value of equity, value-at-risk, and the exposure to basis risk and non-parallel yield curve shifts. There are inherent limitations to these measures; however, used along with the NII simulation model, the Company obtains better overall insight for managing its exposure to changes in interest rates.
In managing interest rate risk, the Company uses several approaches to modify its risk position. Approaches that are used to shift balance sheet mix or alter the interest rate characteristics of assets and liabilities include changing product pricing strategies, modifying investment securities portfolio characteristics, or using financial derivative instruments. The use of financial derivatives, as detailed in Note 14 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, which is incorporated by reference in this Item, has generally been limited over the past several years.
Liquidity is managed in an effort to ensure that the Company has continuous access to sufficient, reasonably priced funding. Funding requirements are impacted by loan refinancings and originations, liability settlements and issuances and off-balance sheet funding commitments. The Company considers and complies with various regulatory guidelines regarding required liquidity levels and periodically monitors its liquidity position in light of the changing economic environment and customer activity. Based on periodic liquidity assessments, the Company may alter its assets, liabilities and off-balance sheet positions. The ALCO monitors sources and uses of funds and modifies asset and liability positions as liquidity requirements change. This process, combined with the Company's ability to raise funds in money and capital markets and through private placements, provides flexibility in managing the exposure to liquidity risk.
In an effort to ensure that its liquidity needs are met, the Company actively manages its assets and liabilities. The primary sources of liquidity are available-for-sale investment securities, interest-bearing deposits and cash flows from loans and investments, as well as the ability to sell certain assets. With respect to liabilities, liquidity is generated through growth in deposits, repos and other funding. During 2005, the Company continued to use liquidity to repurchase stock (see "Capital Management") and reduce debt where possible. In 2005, a total of $10.0 million in Federal Home Loan Bank advances matured. In addition, excess liquidity was deployed into longer term assets.
Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements, Commitments and Aggregate Contractual Obligations
The Company does not participate in transactions that generate relationships with unconsolidated entities or financial partnerships, such as entities often referred to as structured finance or special purpose entities ("SPEs"), which would have been established for the purpose of facilitating off-balance sheet arrangements.
The Company's commitments and contractual obligations as of December 31, 2005 are summarized in Table 15. See the following Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements which are incorporated by reference in this Item for additional information.
The Company obtains liquidity through repos, funds purchased and commercial paper. The Company issues commercial paper in various denominations with maturities of generally 90 days or less.
Repos are financing transactions, under which securities are pledged as collateral for borrowings. Historically, these transactions were generally entered into with governmental entities, which have provided a stable source of funds via repos. During 2005, the Company entered into several repo transactions with private parties for terms greater than one year.
The Bank is a member of the Federal Home Loan Bank of Seattle (the "FHLB"), which provides an additional source for short- and long-term funding. Borrowings from the FHLB were $77.5 million, at rates ranging from 3.2% to 5.69%, and $87.5 million, at rates ranging from 3.2% to 5.91%, at the end of 2005 and 2004, respectively.
Additionally, the Bank maintains a $1.0 billion senior and subordinated bank note program. Under this facility, the Bank may issue additional notes provided that the aggregate amount outstanding does not exceed $1.0 billion. Subordinated notes outstanding under this bank note program totaled $124.8 million bearing a fixed interest rate of 6.875% at the end of 2005 and 2004.
The largest purchase obligation included in the above table is an outsourcing agreement for technology services. Total payments over the remaining term (through 2010) of this contract will be approximately $48.0 million. Other contracts included in purchase obligations consist of service agreements for the Company's asset management system, ATM system and cash management system.
The Company and the Bank are subject to regulatory capital requirements administered by the federal banking agencies. Failure to meet minimum capital requirements can cause certain mandatory and discretionary actions by regulators that, if undertaken, could have a material effect on the Company's financial statements. Under capital adequacy guidelines and the regulatory framework for prompt corrective action, the Company and the Bank must meet specific capital guidelines that involve quantitative and qualitative measures. These measures were established by regulation to ensure capital adequacy. At December 31, 2005 and 2004, the Company and the Bank were "well capitalized" under this regulatory framework. There have been no conditions or events since December 31, 2005 that management believes have changed either the Company's or the Bank's capital classifications. Note 8 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, which is incorporated by reference in this Item, provides additional information on long-term debt while Note 9 provides information about the regulatory capital framework and the Company's capital amounts and ratios.
As of December 31, 2005, $31.4 million of the 8.25% Capital Securities that mature in 2026 were outstanding. These securities qualify as Tier 1 capital for regulatory accounting purposes, but are classified as long-term debt in the consolidated statements of condition. In addition, the Company had subordinated debt of $74.9 million at the end of 2005 that qualifies as Total capital for regulatory purposes.
At year-end 2005, the Company's shareholders' equity was $693.4 million, a decrease of $121.5 million or 15% from year-end 2004. The decrease in shareholders' equity resulted primarily from stock repurchases of $247.4 million and dividends of $70.8 million. The decrease was partially offset by current year earnings. Table 16 presents a five-year history of activities and balances in the Company's capital accounts, along with key capital ratios.
During 2005, the Company's Board of Directors approved additional authorizations of $200.0 million to repurchase shares of common stock under the share repurchase program. In January 2006, an additional $100.0 million authorization was approved, which combined with the Company's previously announced authorization of $1.35 billion, brings the total authorized repurchase amount to $1.45 billion. From the beginning of the share repurchase program in July 2001 through December 31, 2005, the Company had repurchased a total of 40.0 million shares and returned a total of $1.33 billion to its shareholders at an average cost of $33.31 per share. From January 1, 2006 through February 17, 2006, the Company repurchased an additional 0.4 million shares at an average cost of $52.73 per share for a total of $20.5 million. Remaining buyback authority was $97.5 million at February 17, 2006.
In December 2005, the Company retired 25.0 million shares of its treasury stock.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements and Developments
Note 1 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, which is incorporated by reference in this Item, discusses the expected impact of new accounting standards recently issued or proposed but not yet required to be adopted.
Fourth Quarter Results and Other Matters
Net income in the fourth quarter of 2005 was $44.8 million, down $1.5 million or 3.2% from the comparable period in 2004. Diluted earnings per share for the fourth quarter of 2005 were $0.86, an increase of $0.04 or 4.9% from $0.82 per diluted share for the same prior year period. The return on average assets for the fourth quarter of 2005 was 1.76%, down from 1.89% in the comparable period in 2004. Return on average equity for the fourth quarter of 2005 improved to 25.19% from 23.63% in the same quarter last year. Results for the fourth quarter of 2004 included a return to income of $6.5 million before tax ($4.1 million after tax or $0.07 per diluted share), resulting from a release of the Reserve.
Net interest income, on a taxable equivalent basis for the fourth quarter of 2005 was $103.5 million, up $3.5 million from $100.0 million in the fourth quarter last year. The increase in net interest income was largely due to an increase in the yield in average earning assets partially offset by a rise in deposit rates as a result of short term rate increases.
The net interest margin was 4.42% for the fourth quarter of 2005, a two basis point increase from 4.40% in the fourth quarter of 2004. The net interest margin improvement from the prior year quarter was a result of an increase in the yield on average earning assets partially offset by a rise in deposit rates as a result of short term rate increases.
Net income for the fourth quarter of 2005 included a Provision of $1.6 million. As previously mentioned, the Company returned to income $6.5 million of the Reserve during the fourth quarter of 2004.
Non-interest income was $50.8 million for the fourth quarter, an increase of $2.5 million or 5.1% compared to non-interest income of $48.4 million in the same quarter last year. The increase was primarily a result of higher advisory fees on money market assets as well as higher mortgage servicing income due to lower amortization expense.
Non-interest expense was $83.2 million in the fourth quarter of 2005, up $1.1 million or 1.3% from $82.1 million in the fourth quarter of 2004. The increase from the same quarter last year was due to an increase in legal fees relating to the Company's mutual fund business. Partially offsetting the increased legal fees were decreases in base salaries due to a lower employee count and lower stock-based compensation due to fewer restricted shares outstanding in the fourth quarter of 2005.
During the fourth quarter of 2005, the Company repurchased 0.6 million shares of common stock at a total cost of $32.3 million under its share repurchase program. The average cost was $51.20 per share.
Table 17 presents the Company's 2005 and 2004 quarterly results of operations.
The Company currently estimates that its net income for 2006 will be approximately $187.0 million, which exceeds its previous guidance by $9.0 million. Net income estimates for 2006 include a $17.0 million Provision. An analysis of credit quality is performed quarterly to determine the adequacy of the Reserve. The results of this analysis determine the timing and amount of the Provision.
See the Market Risk section in Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations included in Item 7 of this report.
Consolidated Quarterly Results of Operations See Table 17 included in Item 7 of this report.
of Directors and Shareholders
We have audited the accompanying consolidated statements of condition of Bank of Hawaii Corporation and subsidiaries as of December 31, 2005 and 2004, and the related consolidated statements of income, shareholders' equity, and cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2005. These financial statements are the responsibility of the Company's management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on these financial statements based on our audits.
We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States). Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement. An audit includes examining, on a test basis, evidence supporting the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. An audit also includes assessing the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall financial statement presentation. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.
In our opinion, the financial statements referred to above present fairly, in all material respects, the consolidated financial position of Bank of Hawaii Corporation and subsidiaries at December 31, 2005 and 2004, and the consolidated results of their operations and their cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2005, in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles.
We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States), the effectiveness of Bank of Hawaii Corporation and subsidiaries' internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2005, based on the criteria established in Internal Control Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission and our report dated February 22, 2006 expressed an unqualified opinion thereon.
Ernst & Young LLP
Bank of Hawaii Corporation and Subsidiaries
See accompanying notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
Bank of Hawaii Corporation and Subsidiaries
See accompanying notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
Bank of Hawaii Corporation and Subsidiaries
See accompanying notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
Bank of Hawaii Corporation and Subsidiaries
Non-Cash Investing Activity
In September 2004, the Company transferred a $4.0 million foreclosed real estate property to premises.
During the years ended December 31, 2005, 2004 and 2003, interest payments of $95.4 million, $64.9 million and $82.8 million, respectively, and income tax payments of $39.8 million, $5.2 million and $23.8 million, respectively, were made.
See accompanying notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
Note 1 Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Bank of Hawaii Corporation (the "Company") is a Bank Holding Company ("BHC") providing a broad range of financial products and services to customers in Hawaii and the Pacific Islands (Guam, nearby islands and American Samoa). The majority of the Company's operations consist of customary commercial and consumer banking services including, but not limited to, lending, leasing, deposit services, trust and investment activities, brokerage services, insurance products and trade financing.
The accounting and reporting principles of the Company conform to U.S. generally accepted accounting principles ("GAAP") and prevailing practices within the financial services industry. The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts in the financial statements and accompanying notes. Actual results may differ from those estimates and such differences could be material to the financial statements.
Certain prior period amounts have been reclassified to conform to current year presentation.
The following is a description of the significant accounting policies of the Company:
The Company's Consolidated Financial Statements include the accounts of the Company and its subsidiaries. The Company's principal subsidiary is Bank of Hawaii (the "Bank"). All significant intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
The Company has investments in low-income housing projects and sponsors the Bank of Hawaii Charitable Foundation. These entities are not consolidated in the Company's financial statements. The Company also has investments in leveraged leases, as discussed in Note 3.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
For purposes of reporting cash flows, cash and cash equivalents include cash and non-interest-bearing deposits, interest-bearing deposits and funds sold. All amounts are readily convertible to cash and have maturities less than 90 days.
Investment securities are accounted for according to their purpose and holding period. Debt securities that may not be held to maturity and marketable equity securities are classified as securities available for sale and are reported at fair value, with unrealized gains and losses, after applicable taxes, reported as a component of cumulative other comprehensive income. Debt securities that management has the positive intent and ability to hold to maturity are classified as held to maturity and are reported at amortized cost. Trading securities are those securities acquired for the purpose of funding the Company's liabilities associated with certain compensation plans. These securities are included in other assets and are carried at fair value with unrealized holding gains and losses recognized currently in non-interest income. Non-marketable equity securities (Federal Reserve Bank and Federal Home Loan Bank stock) are accounted for at cost and included in other assets.
The estimated fair value of a security is determined based on current market quotations. Declines in the value of debt securities and marketable equity securities that are considered other than temporary are recorded in non-interest income. Realized gains and losses are recorded in non-interest income using the specific identification method.
Loans Held for Sale
Loans held for sale, principally mortgage loans, are valued on an aggregate basis at the lower of carrying amount or fair value. Gains and losses on loan sales (sales proceeds minus carrying value) are recorded in the mortgage banking component of non-interest income.
Loans and Leases
Loans are reported at the principal amount outstanding, net of unearned income. Interest income is recognized on an accrual basis. Loan origination fees, certain direct costs, unearned discounts and premiums are deferred and amortized into interest income as an adjustment to yield using methods that approximate the effective yield method over the term or estimated life of the loan. Non-refundable fees and direct loan origination cost related to loans held for sale are deferred and recognized as a component of the gain or loss on sale. Loan commitment fees are generally deferred and amortized into interest income over the commitment period. Other credit-related fees are recognized as fee income, a component of non-interest income, when earned.
Direct financing leases are carried at the aggregate of lease payments receivable plus estimated residual value of the leased property, less unearned income. Leveraged leases, which are a form of financing leases, are carried net of non-recourse debt. Unearned income on direct financing and leveraged leases is amortized over the lease term by methods that approximate the interest method. Residual values on leased assets are reviewed regularly for other than temporary impairment.
Non-Performing Loans and Leases
Generally, loans are placed on non-accrual status upon becoming contractually past due 90 days or more for principal or interest (unless adequately secured by collateral, and are in the process of collection and are reasonably expected to result in repayment), when terms are renegotiated below market levels, or where substantial doubt about full repayment of principal and or interest is evident.
When a loan is placed on non-accrual status, the accrued and unpaid interest receivable is reversed and the loan is accounted for on the cash or cost recovery method until qualifying for return to accrual status. A loan may be returned to accrual status when all delinquent interest and principal become current in accordance with the terms of the loan agreement.
Loans are charged-off when it is probable that a loss has been incurred and when it is possible to make a reasonable estimate of the loss. For commercial loans, a charge-off is determined on a judgmental basis after due consideration of the debtor's prospects for repayment and the fair value of collateral is deemed deficient. For residential mortgage and home equity loans, a charge-off is required at 120 days delinquency for the amount that the estimated fair value (sales price minus all costs to acquire title, to hold and to sell) is less than the loan balance. Other consumer loans are charged-off upon becoming past due 120 days.
Reserve for Credit Losses
The Company's reserve for credit losses is comprised of two components, the Allowance for Loan and Lease Losses (the "Allowance") and the Reserve for Unfunded Commitments ("Unfunded Reserve"). The Unfunded Reserve was reclassified on a prospective basis at December 31, 2004 from the Allowance to other liabilities in the Company's Consolidated Statements of Condition. Changes to the level of the Reserve are recognized through charges or credits to the provision for credit losses (the "Provision").
Allowance for Loan and Lease Losses
The Allowance is a valuation allowance for estimated probable credit losses inherent in the loan and lease portfolio as of a given balance sheet date. In accordance with accounting and regulatory guidance, the Company maintains an Allowance adequate to cover management's estimate of probable credit losses. Changes to the absolute level of the Allowance are recognized through charges or credits to the Provision. Losses represent a charge or reduction to the Allowance while recoveries are credited or added back. Credit exposures covered by the Allowance are defined as funded or outstanding amounts of loans and leases.
The Allowance is allocated based on analyses of individual borrowers and historical loss experience supplemented as necessary by credit judgment to address observed changes in trends and conditions and other relevant environmental and economic factors that may affect the collectibility of loans in the portfolio. Given the many subjective factors affecting the loan portfolio, observed changes in trends and conditions may not directly coincide with changes in credit risk ratings or current loss experience.
The allocation is separated between baseline and credit judgment segments. Baseline loss estimates reflect a "bottoms-up" approach based on a quarterly evaluation of individual commercial borrowers for impairment in accordance with Statement of Financial Accounting Standards ("SFAS") No. 114, "Accounting by Creditors for Impairment of a Loan" as amended by SFAS No. 118, "Accounting by Creditors for Impairment of a Loan-Income Recognition and Disclosures" ("SFAS No. 114"). Identification of specific borrowers for review is based on non-accrual status and those identified by management as exhibiting above average levels of risk.
The baseline segment also includes analyses of historical loss patterns in various loan pools that have been grouped based on similar risk characteristics for collective evaluation of impairment in accordance with SFAS No. 5, "Accounting for Contingencies" ("SFAS No. 5"). Commercial loan pools are collectively evaluated for impairment based on line-of-business and internal risk rating segmentation and exclude those loans evaluated for impairment under SFAS No. 114. Loss estimates are calculated based on an analysis of historical risk rating migrations to loss. Consumer and small business loan pools reflect aggregation of similar products based on geography. A range of loss estimate is calculated based on historical rolling average loss rates, credit score band or tier-based loss rates and average delinquency flows to loss.
The credit judgment segment supplements the baseline and is based on assessments of portfolio performance not reflected in the historical analyses. Evaluation of these environmental and economic factors results in a range of probable loss from which the amount of credit judgment is set. Relevant factors include, but are not limited to, concentrations (geographic, large borrower and industry), economic trends and conditions, changes in underwriting standards, experience and depth of lending staff, and trends in delinquencies, loan impairment and net charge-offs. In addition, the Company uses a variety of other tools to estimate probable losses including, but not limited to, a rolling quarterly forecast of asset quality metrics; stress testing; and performance indicators based on the Company's own experience, peers or other industry sources.
The Allowance also contains an unallocated component that covers a measure for imprecision relative to quantitative and judgmental estimates that will inevitably be imprecise partially due to delayed information and interpretation of that information. Management recognizes that a measure of imprecision is in-and-of itself highly subjective and is based on collective experience. The level of the unallocated component may vary from period to period.
Reserve for Unfunded Commitments
The Unfunded Reserve is a component of other liabilities and represents the estimate for probable credit losses inherent in unfunded commitments to extend credit. Unfunded commitments to extend credit include banker's acceptances, financial and standby letters of credit, commercial letters of credit, overnight overdrafts and credit cards where the Company has issued a loss guarantee on behalf of its customers to facilitate card issuance. The process used to determine the Unfunded Reserve is consistent with the process for determining the Allowance as adjusted for
estimated funding probabilities or loan equivalency factors. The Unfunded Reserve is increased or decreased through the Provision.
Premises and Equipment
Premises and equipment are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation and amortization. Depreciation and amortization is computed using the straight line method over the estimated useful lives of the asset. Leasehold improvements are amortized over the term of the respective lease. Useful lives range from three to fifty years for premises and improvements, and three to ten years for equipment.
Foreclosed Real Estate
Foreclosed real estate consists of properties acquired through foreclosure proceedings or acceptance of a deed-in-lieu of foreclosure. These properties are carried at the lower of cost or fair value based on current appraisals less estimated selling costs. Losses arising at the time of acquiring such property are charged against the Allowance. Subsequent declines in property value are recognized through charges to non-interest expense.
Mortgage Servicing Rights
Mortgage servicing rights are recognized as assets when mortgage loans are sold and the rights to service those loans are retained. The assets are recorded at their relative fair values on the date the loans are sold and are carried at the lower of the initial recorded value, adjusted for amortization, or fair value. The assets are amortized in proportion to and over the period of estimated total net servicing income.
An impairment analysis is performed on a quarterly basis by estimating the fair value of the mortgage servicing rights and comparing that value to the carrying amount. The assets are stratified by certain risk characteristics, primarily loan type and note rate. The Company estimates the fair value using a discounted cash flow model to calculate the present value of estimated future net servicing income. The model uses factors such as loan prepayment rates, costs to service, ancillary income, impound account balances and interest rate assumptions in its calculations. An impairment in any one stratification would result in a valuation allowance of the mortgage servicing rights being recognized in mortgage banking income. No impairment charges were recognized in 2005 or 2003 but an expense of $13,000 was recorded in 2004.
Goodwill represents the excess of the cost of an acquisition over the fair value of the net assets acquired. Goodwill is assessed at least annually for impairment in accordance with SFAS No. 142, Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets. There was a $1.3 million impairment charge in 2005 related to the Company's insurance business. No impairment of goodwill occurred in 2004 or 2003.
Securities Sold Under Agreements to Repurchase
The Company enters into agreements under which it sells securities subject to an obligation to repurchase the same or similar securities. Under these arrangements, the Company may transfer legal control over the assets but still retain effective control through an agreement that both entitles and obligates the Company to repurchase the assets. As a result, repurchase agreements are accounted for as collateralized financing arrangements and not as a sale and subsequent repurchase of securities. The obligation to repurchase the securities is reflected as a liability in the Consolidated Statements of Condition while the securities underlying the agreements remain in the respective asset accounts. If the secured party can re-sell or re-pledge the securities, they are classified as pledged securities in the Consolidated Statements of Condition. If the secured party cannot resell or re-pledge the securities, they are not separately identified.
Under Company policy, which is in accordance with SFAS No. 144, Accounting for the Impairment or Disposal of Long-Lived Assets, long-lived assets are evaluated for impairment based on their future use. For an asset that is to be held and used, an impairment loss, which is measured as the difference between the carrying amount and fair value of the asset, is recognized only if the carrying value of the long-lived asset is not recoverable from its undiscounted cash flows. For a long-lived asset to be disposed of by sale, the asset is measured at the lower of its carrying amount or fair value less cost to sell and depreciation is ceased. There was no impairment of long-lived assets in 2005, 2004 or 2003; however, in 2003 depreciation was accelerated over their remaining useful life on assets related to the Systems Replacement Project, as further discussed below.
Information Technology System Replacement Project
In 2003, the Company completed the Information Technology System Replacement Project, which was accounted for under SFAS No. 146, Accounting for Costs Associated with Exit or Disposal Activities. The costs associated with this project included employee termination benefits, costs to terminate contracts, asset abandonment and professional fees. Termination benefits for employees not required to render service beyond a minimum retention period were recognized at fair value at the communication date. Termination benefits for employees that were required to render service beyond a minimum retention period were recognized ratably over the remaining service period. Costs to terminate a contract before the end of its term were recognized and measured at fair value when the contract terminated. Professional fees were expensed ratably over the conversion period. Depreciation expense on assets abandoned was accelerated and recognized over the shortened life.
The Company files a consolidated federal income tax return with the Bank and its subsidiaries. Deferred income taxes are provided to reflect the tax effect of temporary differences between financial statement carrying amounts and the corresponding tax basis of assets and liabilities. Deferred taxes are calculated by applying enacted statutory tax rates and tax laws to future years in which temporary differences are expected to reverse. The impact on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax rates is recognized in income in the period that the rate change is enacted. A deferred tax valuation reserve is established if it is more likely than not that a deferred tax asset will not be realized.
The Company maintains reserves for certain tax exposures that arise in the normal course of business. These exposures are evaluated based on an assessment of probabilities as to the likelihood of whether a liability has been incurred. Such assessments are reviewed as events occur and adjustments to the reserves are made as appropriate.
The Company's tax sharing policy provides for the settlement of income taxes between each relevant subsidiary as if the subsidiary had filed a separate return. Payments are made to the Company by subsidiaries with tax liabilities, and subsidiaries that generate tax benefits receive payments for those benefits as used.
Pension and Postretirement Benefits
The Company incurs certain employment-related expenses associated with pensions and postretirement health benefits. In order to measure the expense associated with these benefits, various assumptions are made including the discount rate used to value certain liabilities, expected return on plan assets, anticipated mortality rates and expected future healthcare costs. The assumptions used are based on historical experience as well as current facts and circumstances. A third-party actuarial firm is used to assist the Company's management in properly measuring the expense and liability associated with these benefits. The Company uses a December 31 measurement date for all its plans. At the measurement date, plan assets are determined based on fair value, generally representing observable market prices. The projected benefit obligation is principally determined based on the present value of projected benefit distributions at an assumed discount rate.
Periodic pension expense (or credits) includes interest costs based on the assumed discount rate, the expected return on plan assets based on an actuarially derived market-related value and amortization of actuarial gains and losses. Periodic postretirement expense includes service cost, interest costs based on the assumed discount rate, amortization of unrecognized net transition obligation and recognized actuarial gains or losses.
Earnings Per Share
Basic earnings per share ("EPS") is computed by dividing net income by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding for the period. Diluted EPS reflects the dilutive impact of common stock equivalents and uses the average share price during the period in determining the number of incremental shares to be added to the weighted average number of common shares outstanding. There were no adjustments to net income (the numerator) for purposes of computing basic EPS. A reconciliation of the weighted average common shares outstanding for computing diluted EPS for 2005, 2004 and 2003 follows:
Risk Management Instruments
The Company has authorization from its Board to use derivative financial instruments as an end-user in connection with its risk management activities and to accommodate the needs of customers. The Company has not qualified for any of the hedge accounting methods (i.e., fair value, cash flow or net investment in foreign operations hedges) addressed under SFAS No. 133, Accounting for Derivative Instruments and Hedging Activities ("SFAS No. 133"). All risk management derivative instruments are carried at fair value in the balance sheet and changes in fair values are reported in current period non-interest income.
The Company has employee and director stock option plans that are more fully described in Note 12. As permitted by SFAS No. 123, Accounting for Stock-Based Compensation ("SFAS No. 123") through December 31, 2005, the Company had elected to continue applying the intrinsic value method of Accounting Principles Board Opinion No. 25, Accounting for Stock Issued to Employees ("APB No. 25"), in accounting for stock-based employee compensation plans. The Company adopted the provisions of SFAS No. 123(R), Share-Based Payment, ("SFAS No. 123(R)") on January 1, 2006. Generally, prior to the adoption of SFAS No. 123(R), no expense for stock option grants was reflected in the results of operations as all options granted had an exercise price equal to the market value of the underlying common stock on the date of grant. The following table illustrates the effect on net income and earnings per share if the Company had applied the fair value recognition provisions of SFAS No. 123.
The method of estimating the average expected volatility was changed in 2005 to consider the change in daily market price of the Company's stock over the expected term of the options, excluding the interim years 2000-2003. During this excluded period, the Company divested most of its foreign and U.S. mainland operations in addition to outsourcing its information technology system. The volatility during that period was not considered representative of the Company's normal volatility measure. The change in the volatility assumption resulted in a decrease in the option fair value.
Shares of the Company's common stock that are repurchased are recorded in treasury stock at cost.
The Company recognizes its advertising costs as incurred. Advertising costs were $5.3 million, $5.5 million and $4.6 million in 2005, 2004 and 2003, respectively.
The Bank has operations that are conducted in certain Pacific Islands that are denominated in U.S. dollars. These operations are classified as domestic.
Recent Accounting Standards
In December 2004, the Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") issued SFAS No. 123(R), which is a revision of SFAS No. 123. SFAS No. 123(R) supersedes APB No. 25 and amends FASB Statement No. 95, Statement of Cash Flows. SFAS No. 123(R) requires all share-based payments to employees, including grants of employee stock options, to be recognized as compensation expense through the income statement based on estimated fair value at issue date. Pro forma disclosure will no longer be an alternative. The Company adopted SFAS No. 123(R) on January 1, 2006.
The Company adopted SFAS No. 123(R) using the "modified prospective" method. Under this method, awards that are granted, modified, or settled after January 1, 2006, will be measured and accounted for in accordance with SFAS No. 123(R). Also under this method, expense will be recognized in the income statement for unvested awards that were granted prior to January 1, 2006, based upon the fair value determined at the grant date under SFAS No. 123.
The adoption of SFAS No. 123(R) is not expected to have a material adverse effect on the Company's overall financial condition or results of operations. Had the Company adopted SFAS No. 123(R) in prior periods, the impact of that standard would have approximated the impact of SFAS No. 123 as described in the disclosure of pro forma net income and earnings per share shown in the table above.
In July 2005, the FASB issued an exposure draft, FASB Staff Position ("FSP") No. FAS 13-a "Accounting for a Change or Projected Change in the Timing of Cash Flows Relating to Income Taxes Generated by a Leveraged Lease Transaction" ("FSP 13-a"). Under FSP 13-a, a revision in the timing of expected cash flows of a leveraged lease may require a recalculation of the original lease assumptions. A material change in the net investment in a leveraged lease using different cash flow assumptions would be recognized as a gain or loss in the period in which the assumptions are revised. The Company has entered into one leveraged lease transaction known as Lease In/Lease Out ("LILO") and several Sale In/Lease Out ("SILO") transactions that are currently under various stages of review by the Internal Revenue Service ("IRS"). The outcome of these reviews may change the timing of cash flows from these leases which, under the current draft of FSP 13-a, would result in gain or loss recognition. Under FSP 13-a, a one time implementation gain or loss (net of tax) would be recognized as a cumulative effect of change in accounting principle. The LILO transaction is currently in the IRS appeals process. The range of settlement with the IRS may result in an approximate after-tax expense that could be as much as $4.0 million which, under the current draft form of FSP 13-a, would be recorded as a cumulative effect of change in accounting principle (this charge would be recognized back into income over the remaining term of the affected lease). The SILO transactions currently have not entered the appeals process. Thus, based on the current set of facts known at this time, the Company cannot estimate a range of loss on the SILOs. The final FSP is expected to be issued in 2006.
Note 2 Investment Securities
The following presents the details of the investment securities portfolio:
The following presents an analysis of the contractual maturities of the investment securities portfolio as of December 31, 2005:
Investment securities of $1.7 billion and $1.5 billion carrying value which approximated fair value were pledged to secure deposits of governmental entities and repurchase agreements at December 31, 2005 and 2004, respectively.
Gross gains and losses from sales of investment securities for the years ended December 31, 2005, 2004 and 2003 were as follows:
The following presents temporarily impaired investment securities as of December 31, 2005 and 2004:
The Company does not believe gross unrealized losses as of December 31, 2005, which is comprised of 211 securities, represent an other-than-temporary impairment. The gross unrealized losses reported for mortgage-backed securities relate primarily to securities issued by the Federal National Mortgage Association, Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation and private institutions. These gross unrealized losses, which represent 2.0% of total amortized cost basis, were attributable to changes in interest rates. The Company has both the intent and ability to hold the securities for a time necessary to recover the amortized cost.
Income taxes related to 2005 net realized gain on the sale of investment securities were $0.1 million. The cumulative other comprehensive income from net unrealized losses on investment securities was $(27.3) million (net of taxes) as of December 31, 2005.
Note 3 Loans and the Reserve for Credit Losses
The loan portfolio was comprised of the following at December 31:
Total loans and leases were reported net of unearned income totaling $154.9 million and $176.8 million as of December 31, 2005 and 2004, respectively.
The Company's lending activities are concentrated in its primary geographic markets of Hawaii and the Pacific Islands. As of December 31, 2005 and 2004, the Company had foreign loans which were not significant, and therefore, included in the appropriate loan category.
Commercial and mortgage loans totaling $455.4 million and $476.2 million were pledged to secure Federal Home Loan Bank and Federal Reserve Bank advances at December 31, 2005 and 2004, respectively.
The aggregate amount of gains and losses on sales of mortgage loans is shown below. There were no sales of commercial loans.