Biogen Idec 10-K 2007
Documents found in this filing:
UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
Commission file number: 0-19311
(Registrants telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
Common Stock, $0.0005 par value and Series X Junior Participating Preferred Stock Purchase Rights
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.
Yes þ No o
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Act.. Yes o No þ
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes þ No o
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of the Registrants knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K. o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, or a non-accelerated filer. See definition of accelerated filer and large accelerated filer in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934). Yes o No þ
The aggregate market value of the Registrants Common Stock held by non-affiliates of the Registrant (without admitting that any person whose shares are not included in such calculation is an affiliate) computed by reference to the price at which the common stock was last sold as of the last business day of the Registrants most recently completed second fiscal quarter was $15,836,264,111.
As of February 15, 2007, the Registrant had 342,436,836 shares of Common Stock, $0.0005 par value, issued and outstanding.
Portions of the definitive Proxy Statement for our 2007 Annual Meeting of Stockholders are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Report.
BIOGEN IDEC INC.
ANNUAL REPORT ON FORM 10-K
For the Year Ended December 31, 2006
Biogen Idec creates new standards of care in oncology, neurology, immunology and other specialty areas of unmet medical need. As a global leader in the development, manufacturing, and commercialization of novel therapies, we transform scientific discoveries into advances in human healthcare. We currently have five products:
AVONEX is approved worldwide for the treatment of relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis, or MS, and is the most prescribed therapeutic product in MS worldwide. Globally over 135,000 patients use AVONEX.
RITUXAN is approved worldwide for the treatment of relapsed or refractory low-grade or follicular, CD20-positive, B-cell non-Hodgkins lymphomas, or B-cell NHLs. In 2006, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, or FDA, approved RITUXAN for three additional uses in NHL. We believe that RITUXAN is the top-selling oncology therapeutic in the United States and has had more than 960,000 patient exposures worldwide. In addition, in February 2006, the FDA approved the RITUXAN supplemental Biologics License Application, or sBLA, for use of RITUXAN, in combination with methotrexate, for reducing signs and symptoms in adult patients with moderately-to-severely active rheumatoid arthritis, or RA, who have had an inadequate response to one or more tumor necrosis factor, or TNF, antagonist therapies. We are working with Genentech and Roche on the development of RITUXAN in additional oncology and other indications.
RITUXAN is the trade name for the compound rituximab in the U.S., Canada and Japan. MabThera is the trade name for rituximab in the European Union, or EU. In this Annual Report, we refer to rituximab, RITUXAN, and MabThera collectively as RITUXAN, except where we have otherwise indicated.
TYSABRI is approved for the treatment of relapsing forms of MS. Under the terms of a collaboration agreement with Elan Corporation plc, or Elan, we are solely responsible for the manufacture of TYSABRI, and we collaborate with Elan on the products marketing, commercial distribution and on-going development activities. The collaboration agreement with Elan is designed to effect an equal sharing of profits and losses generated by the activities of the collaboration between Elan and us.
The ZEVALIN therapeutic regimen, which features the ZEVALIN antibody, is a radioimmunotherapy that is approved for the treatment of patients with relapsed or refractory low-grade, follicular, or transformed B-cell NHL, including patients with RITUXAN refractory NHL. During the third quarter of 2006, we began executing a plan to divest our ZEVALIN product line.
FUMADERM was acquired with the purchase of Fumapharm AG, or Fumapharm, in June 2006. FUMADERM acts as an immunomudulator and has been approved in Germany for the treatment of severe psoriasis since 1994.
In 2006, we recorded product revenues from sales of AMEVIVE® (alefacept) prior to our sale of this product line in April 2006. AMEVIVE is approved in the U.S. and other countries for the treatment of adult patients with moderate-to-severe chronic plaque psoriasis who are candidates for systemic therapy or phototherapy.
We also receive royalty revenues on sales by our licensees of a number of products covered under patents that we control. In addition, we have a pipeline of research and development products in our core therapeutic areas and in other areas of interest.
We devote significant resources to internal research and development programs, and intend to commit significant additional resources to external research and development opportunities. We intend to focus our research and development efforts on finding novel therapeutics in areas of high unmet medical need, both within our current focus areas of oncology, neurology and immunology as well as in new therapeutic areas. Our current late stage efforts include our collaboration with Elan on the development of TYSABRI as a potential treatment for Crohns disease; our work with Genentech and Roche on the development of RITUXAN in additional oncology indications, RA, MS and lupus and the co-development of additional anti-CD-20 antibody products: BG-12 for relapsing forms of MS in Phase III; galiximab for NHL in Phase III; and lumiliximab for chronic lymphocytic leukemia, or CLL, in Phase IIb and our collaboration with PDL BioPharma, Inc., or PDL, on development of two Phase II antibody products in a variety of indications.
On November 12, 2003, Bridges Merger Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of IDEC Pharmaceuticals Corporation, was merged with and into Biogen, Inc. with Biogen, Inc. continuing as the surviving corporation and a wholly owned subsidiary of IDEC Pharmaceuticals Corporation. At the same time, IDEC Pharmaceuticals Corporation changed its name to Biogen Idec Inc. The merger and name change were made under an Agreement and Plan of Merger dated as of June 20, 2003.
We are a Delaware corporation with principal executive offices located at 14 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142. Our telephone number is (617) 679-2000 and our website address is www.biogenidec.com. We make available free of charge through the Investor Relations section of our website our Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and all amendments to those reports as soon as reasonably practicable after such material is electronically filed with or furnished to the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC. We include our website address in this Annual Report on Form 10-K only as an inactive textual reference and do not intend it to be an active link to our website. You may read and copy materials we file with the SEC at the SECs Public Reference Room at 450 Fifth Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20549. You may get information on the operation of the Public Reference Room by calling the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330. The SEC maintains an Internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC at www.sec.gov.
Our Products Approved Indications and Ongoing Development
Our products are targeted to address a variety of key medical needs in the areas of oncology, neurology, and immunology. Our marketed products and late stage product candidates are as follows:
We currently market and sell AVONEX worldwide for the treatment of relapsing forms of MS. In 2006, sales of AVONEX generated worldwide revenues of $1.7 billion as compared to worldwide revenues of $1.5 billion in 2005.
MS is a progressive neurological disease in which the body loses the ability to transmit messages along nerve cells, leading to a loss of muscle control, paralysis and, in some cases, death. Patients with active relapsing MS experience an uneven pattern of disease progression characterized by periods of stability that are interrupted by flare-ups of the disease after which the patient returns to a new baseline of functioning. AVONEX is a recombinant form of a protein produced in the body by fibroblast cells in response to viral infection. AVONEX has been shown in clinical trials in relapsing forms of MS both to slow the accumulation of disability and to reduce the frequency of flare-ups. AVONEX is approved to treat relapsing forms of MS, including patients with a first clinical episode and MRI features consistent with MS. Biogen, Inc. began selling AVONEX in the U.S. in 1996, and in the EU in 1997. AVONEX is on the market in 70 countries. Based on data from an independent third party research organization, information from our distributors and internal analysis, we believe that AVONEX is the most prescribed therapeutic product for the treatment of MS worldwide. Globally over 135,000 patients use AVONEX.
We continue to work to expand the data available about AVONEX and MS treatments. In September 2006, we presented at the European Committee for Treatment and Research in Multiple Sclerosis, or ECTRIMS, Congress results from the Global Adherence Project, or GAP, the largest multi-national study of its kind to date to evaluate patient adherence to long-term treatments for MS in a real-world setting. GAP is a global multi-center, cross-sectional observational study that investigated factors that influence non-adherence to MS therapies. The study enrolled 2,566 patients with relapsing remitting MS at 176 sites in 22 countries taking one of the following therapies: AVONEX, Betaseron® (Interferon beta-1b), Copaxone® (glatiramer acetate), or Rebif® (Interferon beta-1a). Patients were evaluated through a validated MS quality of life scale, as well as a self-reported questionnaire that collected data on disease status, treatment, and factors that may have affected adherence to treatment during the
course of their therapy. Overall 25% of patients reported non-adherence, with patients on AVONEX reporting statistically significantly better adherence than any of the other therapies.
We have also extended the Controlled High Risk AVONEX Multiple Sclerosis Prevention Study In Ongoing Neurological Surveillance, or CHAMPIONS. CHAMPIONS was originally designed to determine whether the effect of early treatment with AVONEX in delaying relapses and reducing the accumulation of MS brain lesions could be sustained for up to five years. The study results showed that AVONEX altered the long-term course of MS in patients who began treatment immediately after their initial MS attack compared to initiation of treatment more than two years after onset of symptoms. The five-year study extension is intended to determine if the effects of early treatment with AVONEX can be sustained for up to ten years. We also continue to support Phase IV investigator-run studies evaluating AVONEX in combination with other therapies.
In November 2006, we launched AVONEX in Japan, following the approval of the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of AVONEX for the prevention of MS relapse. AVONEX is the first new MS treatment available in Japan in six years. It is the second disease-modifying therapy approved to treat MS in Japan and the only one that can be administered once a week.
RITUXAN is approved worldwide for the treatment of relapsed or refractory low-grade or follicular, CD20-positive, B-cell NHLs, which comprise approximately half of the B-cell NHLs diagnosed in the U.S. In the U.S., RITUXAN is approved for NHL with the following label indications:
In addition, in February 2006, the FDA approved the RITUXAN sBLA for use of RITUXAN, in combination with methotrexate, for reducing signs and symptoms in adult patients with moderately-to-severely active rheumatoid arthritis, or RA, who have had an inadequate response to one or more TNF antagonist therapies.
Our interest in RITUXAN is recognized as revenue from unconsolidated joint business, and is made up of three components:
In the U.S., we share responsibility with Genentech for continued development. Such continued development includes conducting supportive research and post-approval clinical studies and seeking potential approval for additional indications. Genentech provides the support functions for the commercialization of RITUXAN in the U.S. and has worldwide manufacturing responsibilities. See Sales, Marketing and Distribution RITUXAN and
ZEVALIN and Manufacturing and Raw Materials. We also have the right to collaborate with Genentech on the development of other humanized anti-CD20 antibodies targeting B-cell disorders for a broad range of indications, and to copromote with Genentech any new products resulting from such development in the U.S. The most advanced such humanized anti-CD20 antibody under development has finished a Phase II trial for use in RA, and has entered a Phase III program.
We believe that RITUXAN is the top-selling oncology therapeutic in the United States and has had more than 960,000 patient exposures worldwide. RITUXAN is generally administered as outpatient therapy by personnel trained in administering chemotherapies or biologics. RITUXAN is unique in the treatment of B-cell NHLs due to its specificity for the antigen CD20, which is expressed only on the surface of normal B-cells and malignant B-cells. Stem cells (including B-cell progenitors or precursor B-cells) in bone marrow lack the CD20 antigen. This allows healthy B-cells to regenerate after treatment with RITUXAN and to return to normal levels within several months. RITUXANs mechanism of action, in part, utilizes the bodys own immune system as compared to conventional lymphoma therapies. In 2006, the FDA approved RITUXAN for three additional uses in NHL: (1) for the treatment of previously untreated patients with diffuse, large B-cell NHL in combination with anthracycline-based chemotherapy regimens (February), (2) for first-line treatment of previously-untreated patients with follicular NHL in combination with CVP chemotherapy (September), and (3) for the treatment of low-grade NHL in patients with stable disease or who achieve a partial or complete response following first-line treatment with CVP chemotherapy (September). A summary of important clinical data follows:
In an effort to identify additional applications for RITUXAN, we, in conjunction with Genentech and Roche, continue to support RITUXAN post-marketing studies. We, along with Genentech and Roche, are also conducting a multi-center global Phase III registrational study in patients with relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukemia, or CLL, comparing the use of fludarabine, cyclophosphamide and RITUXAN together, known as FCR, versus fludarabine and cyclophosphamide alone. This study is open at multiple sites worldwide. Additional clinical studies are ongoing in other B-cell malignancies such as lymphoproliferative disorders associated with solid organ transplant therapies, relapsed aggressive non-Hodgkins lymphoma and mantle cell non-Hodgkins lymphoma.
In February 2006, the FDA approved the sBLA for use of RITUXAN, in combination with methotrexate, for reducing signs and symptoms in adult patients with moderately-to-severely active RA who have had an inadequate response to one or more TNF antagonist therapies. The sBLA was based primarily on the results of a Phase III study known as REFLEX (Random Evaluation of Long-Term Efficacy of Rituximab in RA), announced in April 2005, which met its primary endpoint of a greater proportion of RITUXAN-treated patients achieving an American College of Rheumatology (ACR) 20 response at week 24, compared to placebo. REFLEX included patients with active RA who had an inadequate response or were intolerant prior to treatment with one or more anti-TNF therapies. In November 2005, we, along with Roche, announced the following additional 24-week efficacy data from REFLEX: 51% of patients achieved ACR 20, the primary endpoint of the study, versus 18% of placebo patients; 27% of patients achieved ACR 50, versus 5% of placebo patients; and 12% of patients achieved ACR 70, versus 1% of placebo patients. We, along with Genentech and Roche, initiated a Phase III program of RITUXAN in RA patients who are inadequate responders to disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs, or DMARDs, in the first half of 2006.
Based primarily on results from the studies of RITUXAN in RA, as well as other small investigator-sponsored studies in various autoimmune-mediated diseases, we, along with Genentech, are conducting Phase III clinical
studies of RITUXAN in MS and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, SLE. In August 2006, we and Genentech announced that a Phase II study of RITUXAN in relapsing-remitting MS met its primary endpoint. The study of 104 patients showed a statistically significant reduction in the total number of gadolinium enhancing T1 lesions observed on serial MRI scans of the brain at weeks 12, 16, 20 and 24 in the RITUXAN-treated group compared to placebo. Genentech and Biogen Idec will continue to analyze the study results and has been accepted for presentation at an upcoming medical meeting in the first half of 2007.
In December 2006, we and Genentech issued a dear healthcare provider letter informing healthcare providers that two cases of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, or PML, resulting in death were reported in patients receiving RITUXAN for treatment of SLE, an indication where RITUXAN is not approved for treatment. We are working with regulatory authorities to update the prescribing information for RITUXAN.
TYSABRI is approved for the treatment of relapsing forms of MS. On June 5, 2006, we and Elan announced the FDAs approval of the sBLA for the reintroduction of TYSABRI as a monotherapy treatment for relapsing forms of MS to slow the progression of disability and reduce the frequency of clinical relapses. On June 29, 2006, we and Elan announced that the EMEA had approved TYSABRI as a similar treatment.
TYSABRI was initially approved by the FDA in November 2004 to treat relapsing forms of MS to reduce the frequency of clinical relapses. In February 2005, in consultation with the FDA, we and Elan voluntarily suspended the marketing and commercial distribution of TYSABRI based on reports of cases of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, or PML, a rare and frequently fatal demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, in patients treated with TYSABRI in clinical studies. In consideration of these events, TYSABRI is marketed under risk management or minimization plans as agreed with local regulatory authorities. In the U.S. TYSABRI was reintroduced with a risk minimization action plan, or RiskMAP, known as the TYSABRI Outreach: Unified Commitment to Health, or TOUCH, Prescribing Program, a rigorous system intended to educate physicians and patients about the risks involved and assure appropriate use of the product.
In September 2004, Elan submitted a Marketing Authorisation Application, or MAA, to the EMEA for approval of TYSABRI as a treatment for Crohns disease. The filing is based on the results of three randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multi-center trials of TYSABRI assessing the safety and efficacy as both an induction and maintenance therapy ENCORE (Efficacy of Natalizumab in Crohns Disease Response and Remission), ENACT-1 (Efficacy of Natalizumab as Active Crohns Therapy) and ENACT-2 (Evaluation of Natalizumab As Continuous Therapy). In December 2006, Elan submitted an sBLA to the FDA seeking approval to market TYSABRI as a treatment for patients with moderately to severely active Crohns disease based on the same data as the European filing. The filing also includes proposed labeling and a risk management plan, both of which are similar to those approved for the MS indication. One of the confirmed cases of PML was in a patient who was in a clinical study of TYSABRI in Crohns disease. The review of the safety database conducted by us and Elan after the TYSABRI suspension led to a serious adverse event previously reported as malignant astrocytoma by a clinical investigator in a clinical study of TYSABRI in Crohns disease to be reassessed as PML. We anticipate regulatory action by the EMEA in the first half of 2007.
TYSABRI binds to adhesion molecules on the immune cell surface known as alpha-4 integrin. Adhesion molecules on the surface of the immune cells play an important role in the migration of the immune cells in the inflammatory process. Research suggests that by binding to alpha-4 integrin, TYSABRI prevents immune cells from migrating from the bloodstream into tissue where they can cause inflammation and potentially damage nerve fibers and their insulation.
Under the terms of the collaboration, we are solely responsible for the manufacture of TYSABRI, and we collaborate with Elan on the products marketing, commercial distribution and ongoing development activities. The collaboration agreement with Elan is designed to effect an equal sharing of profits and losses generated by the activities of the collaboration between Elan and us. Under our agreement with Elan, however, in the event that sales of TYSABRI exceed specified thresholds, Elan is required to make milestone payments to us in order to continue sharing equally in the collaborations results.
In the U.S., we sell TYSABRI to Elan who sells the product to third party distributors. Elan and we co-market the product. The sales price to Elan in the U.S. is set at the beginning of each quarterly period to effect an approximate equal sharing of the gross margin between Elan and us. In addition, both parties share equally in the operating costs, which include research and development, selling, general and administrative expenses and other similar costs. Sales of TYSABRI to Elan are reported as revenues and are recognized upon Elans shipment of the product to third party distributors, at which time all revenue recognition criteria have been met. As of December 31, 2006, we had deferred revenue of $5.0 million for shipments to Elan that remained in Elans ending inventory as of December 31, 2006. Elans reimbursement of TYSABRI operating costs is reflected as a reduction of the respective costs within our consolidated statement of income.
For sales outside of the U.S., we are responsible for distributing TYSABRI to customers and are primarily responsible for all operating activities. Both parties share equally in the operating results of TYSABRI outside the U.S. Sales of TYSABRI are reported as revenue and are recognized at the time of product delivery to our customer, at which time all revenue recognition criteria have been met. Payments from Elan for their share of the collaboration operating losses relating to sales outside the U.S. are reflected in the collaboration profit (loss) sharing line in our consolidated statement of income. For 2006, we recognized $9.7 million in income related to reimbursements made in connection with this arrangement.
In July 2006, we began to ship TYSABRI in both the United States and Europe. In 2006, we recorded sales of TYSABRI in the U.S. and Europe relating to current activity of $11.9 million and $10.0 million, respectively. Prior to the suspension of TYSABRI in 2005, we shipped product to Elan in the U.S. and recognized revenue in accordance with the policy described above. As a result of the suspension of TYSABRI, we deferred $14.0 million in revenue from Elan as of March 31, 2005 related to TYSABRI product that remained in Elans ending inventory. This amount was paid by Elan during 2005 and was subsequently recognized as revenue during 2006, as the uncertainty about the ultimate disposition of the product was eliminated. As a result, we recognized total revenue for U.S. related TYSABRI activities of $25.9 million in 2006.
Prior to the suspension of dosing in clinical studies of TYSABRI we, along with Elan, completed the AFFIRM study and the SENTINEL study. The AFFIRM study was designed to evaluate the ability of natalizumab to slow the progression of disability in MS and reduce the rate of clinical relapses. The SENTINEL study was designed to evaluate the effect of the combination of natalizumab and AVONEX compared to treatment with AVONEX alone in slowing progression of disability and reducing the rate of clinical relapses. Both studies were two-year studies which had protocols that included a one-year analysis of the data.
The one-year data from the AFFIRM study showed that TYSABRI reduced the rate of clinical relapses by 66% relative to placebo, the primary endpoint at one year. AFFIRM also met all one-year secondary endpoints, including MRI measures. In the TYSABRI treated group, 60% of patients developed no new or newly enlarging T2 hyperintense lesions compared to 22% of placebo treated patients. On the one-year MRI scan, 96% of TYSABRI treated patients had no gadolinium enhancing lesions compared to 68% of placebo treated patients. The proportion of patients who remained relapse free was 76% in the TYSABRI treated group compared to 53% in the placebo treated group. In February 2005, we and Elan announced that the AFFIRM study also achieved the two-year primary endpoint of slowing the progression of disability in patients with relapsing forms of MS. In the TYSABRI treated group, there was a 42% reduction in the risk of disability progression relative to placebo, and a 67% reduction in the rate of clinical relapses over two years relative to placebo which was sustained and consistent with the one-year results. Other efficacy data, including MRI measures, were similar to the one-year results.
The one-year data from the SENTINEL combination study also showed that the study achieved its one-year primary endpoint. The addition of TYSABRI to AVONEX resulted in a 54% reduction in the rate of clinical relapses over the effect of AVONEX alone. SENTINEL also met all secondary endpoints, including MRI measures. In the
group treated with TYSABRI plus AVONEX, 67% of the patients developed no new or newly enlarging T2 hyperintense lesions compared to 40% in the AVONEX plus placebo group. On the one-year MRI scan, 96% of TYSABRI plus AVONEX treated patients had no gadolinium enhancing lesions compared to 76% of AVONEX plus placebo treated patients. The proportion of patients who remained relapse free was 67% in the TYSABRI plus AVONEX treated group compared to 46% in the AVONEX plus placebo treated group. In the TYSABRI treated group, 60% of patients developed no new or newly enlarging T2 hyperintense lesions compared to 22% of placebo treated patients. On the one-year MRI scan, 96% of TYSABRI treated patients had no gadolinium enhancing lesions compared to 68% of placebo treated patients. In July 2005, we and Elan announced that the SENTINEL study also achieved the two-year primary endpoint of slowing the progression of disability in patients with relapsing forms of MS. The addition of TYSABRI to AVONEX resulted in a 24% reduction in the risk of disability progression compared to the effect of AVONEX alone, and a 56% reduction in the rate of clinical relapses over two years compared to that provided by AVONEX alone. Other efficacy data, including MRI measures, were similar to the one-year results.
We, along with Elan, have completed three Phase III studies of TYSABRI in Crohns disease. The three completed Phase III studies are known as ENACT-2 (Evaluation of Natalizumab as Continuous Therapy-2), ENACT-1 (Evaluation of Natalizumab as Continuous Therapy-1), and ENCORE (Efficacy of Natalizumab for Crohns Disease Response and Remission).
In ENACT-2, 339 patients who were responders in ENACT-1, the Phase III induction study, were re-randomized to one of two treatment groups, TYSABRI or placebo, both administered monthly for a total of 12 months. In ENACT-1, the primary endpoint of response, as defined by a 70-point decrease in the Crohns Disease Activity Index, or CDAI, at week 10, was not met. In ENACT-2, the primary endpoint, which was met, was maintenance of response through six additional months of therapy. A loss of response was defined as a greater than 70 point increase in CDAI score and a total CDAI score above 220 or any rescue intervention. Through month six, there was a significant treatment difference of greater than 30% in favor of patients taking TYSABRI compared to those taking placebo. Twelve-month data from ENACT-2 showed a sustained and clinically significant response throughout twelve months of extended TYSABRI infusion therapy, confirming findings in patients who had previously shown a sustained response throughout six months. Maintenance of response was defined by a CDAI score of less than 220, and less than 70-point increase from baseline, in the absence of rescue intervention throughout the study. Response was maintained by 54% of patients treated with natalizumab compared to 20% of those treated with placebo. In addition, 39% of patients on TYSABRI maintained clinical remission during the study period, versus 15% of those on placebo. By the end of month twelve, 49% of patients treated with TYSABRI who had previously been treated with corticosteroids were able to withdraw from steroid therapy compared to 20% of placebo-treated patients.
In June 2005, we and Elan announced that ENCORE, the second Phase III induction trial of TYSABRI for the treatment of moderately to severely active Crohns disease in patients with evidence of active inflammation, met the primary endpoint of clinical response as defined by a 70-point decrease in baseline CDAI score at both weeks 8 and 12. The study also met all of its secondary endpoints, including clinical remission at both weeks 8 and 12. Clinical remission was defined as achieving a CDAI score of equal to or less than 150 at weeks 8 and 12. At the time of the TYSABRI suspension, all ENCORE study patients had completed dosing based on the study protocol and collection of data and analysis followed.
The ZEVALIN therapeutic regimen is a radioimmunotherapy and part of a regimen that is approved for the treatment of patients with relapsed or refractory low-grade, follicular, or transformed B-cell NHL, including patients with RITUXAN relapsed or refractory non-Hodgkins lymphoma. In 2006, sales of ZEVALIN in the
U.S. generated revenues of $16.4 million as compared to revenues of $19.4 million in 2005. ZEVALIN is approved in the EU for the treatment of adult patients with CD20-positive follicular B-cell NHL who are refractory to or have relapsed following RITUXAN therapy. We sell ZEVALIN to Schering AG for distribution in the EU, and receive royalty revenues from Schering AG on sales of ZEVALIN in the EU. Rest of world product sales for ZEVALIN in 2006 and 2005 were $1.4 million. During the third quarter of 2006, we began executing a plan to divest our ZEVALIN product line.
FUMADERM (dimethylfumarate and monoethylfumarate salts) was acquired with the purchase of Fumapharm in June 2006. FUMADERM acts as an immunomudulator and is approved in Germany for the treatment of severe psoriasis. In 2006, sales of FUMADERM in Germany totaled $9.5 million, which we recorded from the date acquisition of Fumapharm. The product has been in commercial use in Germany for approximately eleven years and is the most prescribed oral systemic treatment for severe psoriasis in Germany.
AMEVIVE is approved in the U.S. and other countries for the treatment of adult patients with moderate-to-severe chronic plaque psoriasis who are candidates for systemic therapy or phototherapy. In 2006, sales of AMEVIVE generated worldwide revenues of $11.5 million, until we sold all rights in the product to Astellas Pharma US, Inc., or Astellas, in the second quarter of 2006. Under the terms of the agreement with, we will continue to manufacture AMEVIVE and supply product to Astellas for a period of up to 11 years. Under the terms of the supply agreement, we charge Astellas fixed amounts based on volume. Such amounts will be recognized as corporate partner revenue and are not expected to be significant.
BG-12 is a second-generation oral fumarate with an immunomodulatory mechanism of action, which we acquired with the purchase of Fumapharm in June 2006. We completed a Phase 2b clinical study of BG-12 in patients with relapsing-remitting MS in October 2005. In January 2006, we announced that this study had its achieved its primary efficacy endpoint. Based on the results of the Phase 2 study, we announced that we initiated a Phase 3 program of BG-12 in MS in January 2007. Fumapharm has also completed a small Phase III study of BG-12 in psoriasis.
The CD80 antigen is expressed on the surface of follicular and other lymphoma cells, and is also known as B7.1. In the fourth quarter of 2005, we completed a Phase IIa study designed to evaluate the anti-CD80 antibody that we developed using our Primatized® antibody technology in patients with non-Hodgkins lymphoma. The antibody was well tolerated, with observation of clinical responses in patients treated with higher doses. Based on the results of the Phase IIa study, we announced that we initiated a Phase III study of the antibody in front line non-Hodgkins lymphoma in combination with RITUXAN and standard chemotherapy in January 2007.
The CD23 antigen is expressed on the surface of mature B-cells and other immune system cells, and is also known as Fc epsilon RII. We have completed a Phase IIa study designed to evaluate the anti-CD23 antibody that we developed using our Primatized® antibody technology in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia, or CLL. The antibody was well tolerated, with observation of clinical complete responses in patients. Based on the results of the Phase IIa study, we announced that we initiated a Phase IIb study of the antibody in relapsed or refractory CLL in January 2007.
We intend to commit significant resources to both internal and external research and development opportunities. We intend to focus our research and development efforts on finding novel therapeutics in areas of high
unmet medical need. Our core focus areas are in oncology, neurobiology and autoimmune disease, but our research and development efforts may extend to additional therapeutic areas outside of these. Below is a brief summary of some of our early stage product candidates.
For the years ended December 31, 2006, 2005, and 2004, our research and development costs were $718.4 million, $747.7 million, and $685.9 million, respectively. Additionally, in 2006, we incurred $330.5 million in charges associated with acquired in-process research and development in connection with the acquisitions of Conforma and Fumapharm.
As described above, we receive royalties on sales of RITUXAN outside the U.S. as part of our collaboration with Genentech and royalties on sales of ZEVALIN outside the U.S. from Schering AG. We also receive royalties from sales by our licensees of a number of other products covered under patents that we control. For example:
We have filed numerous patent applications in the U.S. and various other countries seeking protection of inventions originating from our research and development, including a number of our processes and products. Patents have been issued on many of these applications. We have also obtained rights to various patents and patent applications under licenses with third parties, which provide for the payment of royalties by us. The ultimate degree of patent protection that will be afforded to biotechnology products and processes, including ours, in the U.S. and in other important markets remains uncertain and is dependent upon the scope of protection decided upon by the patent offices, courts and lawmakers in these countries. There is no certainty that our existing patents or others, if obtained, will afford us substantial protection or commercial benefit. Similarly, there is no assurance that our pending patent applications or patent applications licensed from third parties will ultimately be granted as patents or that those patents that have been issued or are issued in the future will stand if they are challenged in court.
A substantial number of patents have already been issued to other biotechnology and biopharmaceutical companies. Competitors may have filed applications for, or have been issued patents and may obtain additional patents and proprietary rights that may relate to products or processes competitive with or similar to our products and processes. Moreover, the patent laws of the U.S. and foreign countries are distinct and decisions as to patenting, validity of patents and infringement of patents may be resolved differently in different countries. In general, we try to obtain licenses to third party patents, which we deem necessary or desirable for the manufacture, use and sale of our products. We are currently unable to assess the extent to which we may wish to or may be required to acquire rights under such patents and the availability and cost of acquiring such rights, or whether a license to such patents will be available on acceptable terms or at all. There may be patents in the U.S. or in foreign countries or patents issued in the future that are unavailable to license on acceptable terms. Our inability to obtain such licenses may hinder our ability to market our products.
We are aware that others, including various universities and companies working in the biotechnology field, have filed patent applications and have been granted patents in the U.S. and in other countries claiming subject matter potentially useful to our business. Some of those patents and patent applications claim only specific products or methods of making such products, while others claim more general processes or techniques useful or now used in the biotechnology industry. There is considerable uncertainty within the biotechnology industry about the validity, scope and enforceability of many issued patents in the U.S. and elsewhere in the world, and, to date, there is no consistent policy regarding the breadth of claims allowed in biotechnology patents. We cannot currently determine the ultimate scope and validity of patents which may be granted to third parties in the future or which patents might be asserted to be infringed by the manufacture, use and sale of our products.
There has been, and we expect that there may continue to be, significant litigation in the industry regarding patents and other intellectual property rights. We expect that litigation may be necessary in some instances to determine the validity and scope of certain of our proprietary rights. Conversely, litigation may be necessary in some instances to determine the validity, scope and/or noninfringement of certain patent rights claimed by third parties to be pertinent to the manufacture, use or sale of our products. Intellectual property litigation could therefore create business uncertainty and consume substantial financial and human resources. Ultimately, the outcome of such litigation could adversely affect the validity and scope of our patent or other proprietary rights, or, conversely, hinder our ability to market our products. See Item 3 Legal Proceedings for a description of our patent litigation.
Our trademarks RITUXAN, AVONEX, and ZEVALIN are important to us and are generally covered by trademark applications or registrations owned or controlled by us in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and in other countries. We employ other trademarks in the conduct of our business under license by third parties, for example, we utilize the mark TYSABRI under license from Elan.
Third parties have pending patent applications or issued patents in the U.S., Europe and other countries with claims to key intermediates in the production of beta interferon. These are known as the Taniguchi patents. Third parties also have pending patent applications or issued patents with claims to beta interferon itself. These are known as the Roche patents and the Rentschler patents, respectively. We have obtained non-exclusive rights in various countries of the world, including the U.S., Japan and Europe, to manufacture, use and sell AVONEX, our brand of recombinant beta interferon, under the Taniguchi, Roche and Rentschler issued patents. The last of the Taniguchi patents expire in the U.S. in May 2013 and have expired already in other countries of the world. The Roche patents expire in the U.S. in May 2008 and also have generally expired elsewhere in the world. The Rentschler EU patent expires in July 2012.
We have several issued U.S. patents and U.S. patent applications, and numerous corresponding foreign counterparts directed to anti-CD20 antibody technology, including RITUXAN and ZEVALIN. We have also been granted patents covering RITUXAN and ZEVALIN by the European and Japanese Patent Offices. In the U.S. our principal patents covering the drugs or their uses expire between 2015 and 2018. With regard to the rest of the world, our principal patents covering the drug products expire in 2013 subject to potential patent term extensions in countries where such extensions are available. Our recently-granted patent in certain European countries claiming the treatment with anti-CD-20 antibodies of certain auto-immune indications, including rheumatoid arthritis, has been opposed by numerous third parties. This opposition proceeding is likely to be protracted and its outcome is uncertain at this time.
In addition Genentech, our collaborative partner for RITUXAN, has secured an exclusive license to five U.S. patents and counterpart U.S. and foreign patent applications assigned to Xoma Corporation that relate to chimeric antibodies against the CD20 antigen. These patents expire between 2007 and 2014. Genentech has granted us a non-exclusive sublicense to make, have made, use and sell RITUXAN under these patents and patent applications. We, along with Genentech, share the cost of any royalties due to Xoma in the Genentech/Biogen Idec copromotion territory on sales of RITUXAN. In addition, we and our collaborator, Genentech, have filed numerous
patent applications directed to anti-CD-20 antibodies and their uses to treat various diseases. These pending patent applications have the potential of issuing as patents in the U.S. and abroad covering anti-CD-20 antibody molecules for periods beyond that stated above for RITUXAN and ZEVALIN.
AMEVIVE is presently claimed in a number of patents granted in the U.S. and the EU, which cover LFA-3 polypeptides and DNA, LFA-3 fusion proteins and DNA, host cells, manufacturing methods and pharmaceutical compositions. We have obtained previously composition of matter patent coverage for the commercial product and important intermediates in the manufacturing process. The patent portfolio also included patents granted in the U.S. and the EU, which cover the use of LFA-3 polypeptides and LFA-3 fusion proteins in methods to inhibit T cell responses and use of LFA-3 polypeptides and fusion proteins to treat skin diseases, specifically including psoriasis. The patent portfolio further included pending patent applications, which seek coverage for the use of LFA-3 polypeptides and fusion proteins in the treatment of other indications of possible future interest as well for certain combination therapy treatments of potential interest and utility. Patents issued or which may be issued on these various patent applications expire between 2007 (for patents relating to manufacturing intermediates) and 2021 (in the case of recently filed patent applications). The principal patents covering the drug product expire in 2013 subject to potential patent term extensions in countries where such extensions are available and by supplemental protection certificates in countries of the EU where such certificates may be obtained if and when approval of the product in the EU is obtained. Method of use patent protection for the product to treat skin diseases, including psoriasis, extends until 2017 in the U.S. and generally until 2015 in the rest of the world. The foregoing patent portfolio has been sold to Astellas as part of the sale of the product which was consummated in the second quarter of 2006.
In 1979, we granted an exclusive worldwide license to Schering-Plough under our alpha interferon patents. Most of our alpha interferon patents have since expired, including expiration of patents in the U.S., Japan and all countries of Europe. We had obtained a supplementary protection certificate in Italy extending the coverage until 2007, but the Italian Legislature implemented legislation that shortened this period to December 31, 2005. We appealed the decision of the Italian Patent & Trademark Office to recalculate the duration of this supplementary protection certificate but our appeal has been denied, and the supplemental protection certificate has expired as a result of the new legislation. Schering-Plough pays us royalty payments on U.S. sales of alpha interferon products under an interference settlement entered into in 1998. Under the terms of the interference settlement, Schering-Plough agreed to pay us royalties under certain patents to be issued to Roche and Genentech in consideration of our assignment to Schering-Plough of the alpha interferon patent application that had been the subject of a settled interference with respect to a Roche/Genentech patent. Schering-Plough entered into an agreement with Roche as part of settlement of the interference. The first of the Roche/Genentech patents was issued on November 19, 2002 and has a seventeen-year term.
We have obtained numerous patents in countries around the world, including in the U.S. and in European countries, covering the recombinant production of hepatitis B surface, core and e antigens. We have licensed our recombinant hepatitis B antigen patent rights to manufacturers and marketers of hepatitis B vaccines and diagnostic test kits, and receive royalties on sales of the vaccines and test kits by our licensees. See Principal Licensed Products. The obligation of GlaxoSmithKline and Merck to pay royalties on sales of hepatitis B vaccines and the obligation of our other licensees under our hepatitis B patents to pay royalties on sales of diagnostic products will terminate upon expiration of our hepatitis B patents in each licensed country. Following the conclusion of a successful interference proceeding in the U.S., we were granted patents in the U.S. expiring in 2018. These patents claim hepatitis B virus polypeptides and vaccines and diagnostics containing such polypeptides. Our European hepatitis B patents expired at the end of 1999 and have also since expired in those countries in which we have obtained supplementary protection certificates. See Item 3 Legal Proceedings for a description of our litigation with Classen Immunotherapies, Inc.
We are developing TYSABRI in collaboration with Elan. TYSABRI is presently claimed in a number of pending patent applications and issued patents held by both companies in the U.S. and abroad. These patent applications and patents cover the protein, DNA encoding the protein, manufacturing methods and pharmaceutical compositions, as well as various methods of treatment using the product. In the U.S. the principal patents covering the product and methods of manufacturing the product generally expire between 2014 and 2020, subject to any available patent term extensions. In the remainder of the world patents on the product and methods of manufacturing the product generally expire between 2014 and 2016, subject to any supplemental protection certificates that may be obtained. Both companies have method of treatment patents for a variety of indications including the treatment of MS and Crohns disease and treatments of inflammation. These patents expire in the U.S. generally between 2012 and 2020 and outside the U.S. generally between 2012 and 2016, subject to any available patent term extensions and/or supplemental protection certificates extending such terms.
We also rely upon unpatented trade secrets, and we cannot assure that others will not independently develop substantially equivalent proprietary information and techniques or otherwise gain access to our trade secrets or disclose such technology, or that we can meaningfully protect such rights. We require our employees, consultants, outside scientific collaborators, scientists whose research we sponsor and other advisers to execute confidentiality agreements upon the commencement of employment or consulting relationships with us. These agreements provide that all confidential information developed or made known to the individual during the course of the individuals relationship with us is to be kept confidential and not disclosed to third parties except in specific circumstances. In the case of our employees, the agreement provides that all inventions conceived by such employees shall be our exclusive property. These agreements may not provide meaningful protection or adequate remedies for our trade secrets in the event of unauthorized use or disclosure of such information.
Our sales and marketing efforts are generally focused on specialist physicians in private practice or at major medical centers. We utilize common pharmaceutical company practices to market our products and to educate physicians, including sales representatives calling on individual physicians, advertisements, professional symposia, direct mail, selling initiatives, public relations and other methods. We provide customer service and other related programs for our products, such as disease and product-specific websites, insurance research services and order, delivery and fulfillment services. We have also established programs in the U.S., which provide qualified uninsured or underinsured patients with commercial products at no charge. Specifics concerning the sales, marketing and distribution of each of our commercialized products are as follows:
We continue to focus our marketing and sales activities on maximizing the potential of AVONEX in the U.S. and the EU in the face of increased competition. In the U.S., Canada, Australia and most of the major countries of the EU and a number of other countries, we use our own sales forces and marketing groups to market and sell AVONEX. In these countries, we distribute AVONEX principally through wholesale distributors of pharmaceutical products, mail order specialty distributors or shipping service providers. In countries outside the U.S., Canada, Australia and the major countries of the EU, we sell AVONEX to distribution partners who are then responsible for most marketing and distribution activities. In November 2006, we launched AVONEX in Japan and as with the U.S. and major countries in the EU, we use our own sales forces and marketing groups to market and sell AVONEX.
We use our own sales force and marketing group to market TYSABRI in the U.S., and Elan distributes TYSABRI in the U.S. We use our own sales force and marketing group to market TYSABRI in Europe, and we distribute TYSABRI in Europe.
RITUXAN AND ZEVALIN
We market and sell RITUXAN in the U.S. in collaboration with Genentech. We, along with Genentech, have sales and marketing staffs dedicated to RITUXAN. Sales efforts for RITUXAN as a treatment for B-cell NHLs are focused on hematologists and medical oncologists in private practice, at community hospitals and at major medical centers in the U.S. Sales efforts for RITUXAN as a treatment for RA are focused on rheumatologists in private practice, at community hospitals and at major medical centers in the U.S.
Most B-cell NHLs are treated today in community-based group oncology practices. RITUXAN fits well into the community practice, as generally no special equipment, training or licensing is required for its administration or for management of treatment- related side effects. To date ZEVALIN has been primarily administered by nuclear medicine specialists or radiation oncologists at medical or cancer centers that are licensed and equipped for the handling, administration and disposal of radioisotopes.
RITUXAN is generally sold to wholesalers and specialty distributors and directly to hospital pharmacies. We rely on Genentech to supply marketing support services for RITUXAN including customer service, order entry, shipping, billing, insurance verification assistance, managed care sales support, medical information and sales training. Under our agreement with Genentech, all U.S. sales of RITUXAN are recognized by Genentech and we record our share of the pretax copromotion profits on a quarterly basis.
We use our own sales force and marketing group to market and sell ZEVALIN in the U.S. We generally focus our sales and marketing activities on educating physicians about ZEVALINs efficacy in relapsed indolent lymphoma, its safety profile and patient tolerance. In the U.S., we sell ZEVALIN to radiopharmacies that radiolabel, or combine, the ZEVALIN antibody with an indium-111 isotope or an yttrium-90 radioisotope and then distribute the finished product to hospitals or licensed treatment facilities for administration. In the EU, we sell ZEVALIN to Bayer Schering Pharma AG, our exclusive licensee for ZEVALIN outside the U.S. Bayer Schering Pharma AG is responsible for sales, marketing and distribution activities for ZEVALIN outside the U.S. We have appointed MDS (Canada) Inc., or MDS (Canada), as our exclusive supplier of the yttrium-90 radioisotope required for therapeutic use of ZEVALIN to radiopharmacies. MDS (Canada) is the only supplier of the yttrium-90 radioisotope that is approved by the FDA. Radiopharmacies independently obtain the indium-111 isotope required for the imaging use of ZEVALIN from one of the two third party suppliers currently approved by the FDA to supply the indium-111 isotope. During the third quarter of 2006, we began executing a plan to divest our ZEVALIN product line.
FUMADERM has been approved in Germany since 1994 for the treatment of severe psoriasis. FUMADERM is produced by Fumapharm, which we acquired in June 2006. We recently settled certain agreements with Fumedica Arzneimittel AG and Fumedica Arzneimittel GmbH, collectively, Fumedica, under which we bought the distribution rights to FUMADERM in Germany. Fumedica will continue to distribute FUMADERM until April 30, 2007, along with co-promotion partner Hermal. As of May 1, 2007, we expect that we will continue to co-promote FUMADERM in Germany together with a third party.
We sold the rights in the product to Astellas in the second quarter of 2006. Under the terms of the sale agreement with Astellas, we will continue to manufacture AMEVIVE and supply product to Astellas for a period of up to 11 years.
Competition in the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries is intense and comes from many and varied sources. We do not believe that any of the industry leaders can be considered dominant in view of the rapid
technological change in the industry. We experience significant competition from specialized biotechnology firms in the U.S., the EU and elsewhere and from many large pharmaceutical, chemical and other companies. Certain of these companies have substantially greater financial, marketing, research and development and human resources than we do. Most large pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies have considerable experience in undertaking clinical trials and in obtaining regulatory approval to market pharmaceutical products.
We believe that competition and leadership in the industry will be based on managerial and technological superiority and establishing proprietary positions through research and development. Leadership in the industry may also be influenced significantly by patents and other forms of protection of proprietary information. A key aspect of such competition is recruiting and retaining qualified scientists and technicians. We believe that we have been successful in attracting skilled and experienced scientific personnel. The achievement of a leadership position also depends largely upon our ability to identify and exploit commercially the products resulting from research and the availability of adequate financial resources to fund facilities, equipment, personnel, clinical testing, manufacturing and marketing.
Competition among products approved for sale may be based, among other things, on patent position, product efficacy, safety, convenience, reliability, availability and price. Many of our competitors are working to develop products similar to those that we are developing. The timing of the entry of a new pharmaceutical product into the market can be an important factor in determining the products eventual success and profitability. Early entry may have important advantages in gaining product acceptance and market share. Moreover, under the Orphan Drug Act, the FDA is prevented for a period of seven years from approving more than one application for the same product for the same indication in certain diseases with limited patient populations, unless a later product is considered clinically superior. The EU has similar laws and other jurisdictions have or are considering such laws. Accordingly, the relative speed with which we can develop products, complete the testing and approval process and supply commercial quantities of the product to the market will have an important impact on our competitive position.
After a patent expiry for a product, an abbreviated process exists for approval of small molecule drugs in the U.S. that are comparable to existing products, also known as generics. It is possible that legislative and regulatory bodies in the U.S. and Europe may provide a similar abbreviated process for comparable biologic products.
AVONEX, which generated $1.7 billion of worldwide revenues in 2006, and TYSABRI, which generated $35.8 million of worldwide revenues for us in 2006, both compete primarily with three other products:
Along with us, a number of companies are working to develop products to treat MS that may in the future compete with AVONEX and TYSABRI. Some of our current competitors are also working to develop alternative formulations for delivery of their products, which may in the future compete with AVONEX.
AVONEX also faces competition from off-label uses of drugs approved for other indications. Some of our current competitors are also working to develop alternative formulations for delivery of their products, which may in the future compete with AVONEX.
RITUXAN is typically used after patients fail to respond or relapse after treatment with traditional radiation therapy or standard chemotherapy regimes, such as CVP and CHOP. ZEVALIN is typically used after patients fail to respond or relapse following treatment with RITUXAN. ZEVALIN received designation as an Orphan Drug from
the FDA for the treatment of relapsed or refractory low grade, follicular, or transformed B-cell NHLs, including patients with RITUXAN refractory follicular NHL. Marketing exclusivity resulting from this Orphan Drug designation will expire in February 2009. ZEVALIN competes with BEXXAR® (tositumomab, iodine I-131 tositumomab), a radiolabeled molecule developed by Corixa Corporation which is being developed and commercialized by GlaxoSmithKline. BEXXAR is approved to treat patients with CD20+, follicular, non-Hodgkins lymphoma, with and without transformation, whose disease is refractory to RITUXAN and has relapsed following chemotherapy.
A number of other companies, including us, are working to develop products to treat B-cell NHLs and other forms of non-Hodgkins lymphoma that may ultimately compete with RITUXAN and ZEVALIN. Other potential competitors include Campath® (Berlex, Inc.), which is indicated for B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (an unapproved use of RITUXAN), Velcade® (Millennium Pharmaceuticals, Inc.) which is indicated for multiple myeloma (an unapproved use of RITUXAN), and Humax CD20 (GenMab) which is in late-stage development for refractory CLL and NHL. In addition to the foregoing products, we are aware of other anti-CD20 molecules in development that, if successfully developed and registered, may compete with RITUXAN.
In February 2006, the FDA approved the sBLA for use of RITUXAN, in combination with methotrexate, for reducing signs and symptoms in adult patients with moderately-to-severely active RA who have had an inadequate response to one or more TNF antagonist therapies. RITUXAN will compete with several different types of therapies in the RA market, including:
In addition, a number of other companies, including us, are working to develop products to treat RA that may ultimately compete with RITUXAN in the RA marketplace.
Our current and contemplated activities and the products and processes that will result from such activities are subject to substantial government regulation.
Before new pharmaceutical products may be sold in the U.S. and other countries, clinical trials of the products must be conducted and the results submitted to appropriate regulatory agencies for approval. Clinical trial programs must establish efficacy, determine an appropriate dose and regimen, and define the conditions for safe use, a high-risk process that requires stepwise clinical studies in which the candidate product must successfully meet predetermined endpoints. The results of the preclinical and clinical testing of a product are then submitted to the FDA in the form of a Biologics License Application, or BLA, or a New Drug Approval Application, or NDA. In response to a BLA or NDA, the FDA may grant marketing approval, request additional information or deny the application if it determines the application does not provide an adequate basis for approval. Similar submissions are required by authorities in other jurisdictions who independently assess the product and may reach the same or different conclusions. The receipt of regulatory approval often takes a number of years, involving the expenditure of substantial resources and depends on a number of factors, including the severity of the disease in question, the availability of alternative treatments and the risks and benefits demonstrated in clinical trials. On occasion, regulatory authorities may require larger or additional studies, leading to unanticipated delay or expense. Even after
initial FDA approval or approvals from other regulatory agencies have been obtained, further clinical trials may be required to provide additional data on safety and effectiveness and are required to gain clearance for the use of a product as a treatment for indications other than those initially approved. The FDA may grant accelerated approval status to products that treat serious or life-threatening illnesses and that provide meaningful therapeutic benefits to patients over existing treatments. Under this pathway, the FDA may approve a product based on surrogate endpoints, or clinical endpoints other than survival or irreversible morbidity, or when the product is shown to be effective but safe conditions of use can only be ensured by restricting access or distribution. Products approved under accelerated approval are required to satisfy additional commitments. When approval is based on surrogate endpoints or clinical endpoints other than survival or morbidity, the sponsor will be required to conduct clinical studies to verify and describe clinical benefit. When accelerated approval requires restricted use or distribution, the sponsor may be required to establish rigorous systems to assure use of the product under safe conditions, including use of a RiskMAP. In addition, for all products approved under accelerated approval, sponsors must submit all copies of its promotional materials, including advertisements, to the FDA at least thirty days prior to their initial dissemination. The FDA may also withdraw approval under accelerated approval after a hearing if, for instance, post-marketing studies fail to verify any clinical benefit or it becomes clear that restrictions on the distribution of the product are inadequate to ensure its safe use. Approval of ZEVALIN was granted under the accelerated approval provisions. The sBLA for TYSABRI in MS was granted accelerated approval under a restricted distribution program, and if approved, a supplemental BLA for Crohns disease would also likely fall under accelerated approval and a restricted distribution program. We cannot be certain that the FDA will approve any products for the proposed indications whether under accelerated approval or another pathway. If the FDA approves products or new indications, the agency may require us to conduct additional post-marketing studies. If we fail to conduct the required studies or otherwise fail to comply with the conditions of accelerated approval, the FDA may take action to seek to withdraw that approval. In Europe, the EMEA has new powers of sanction for non-completion of post marketing commitments. These range from a fine of 10% of global revenue to removal of the product from the market.
Regulatory authorities track information on side effects and adverse events reported during clinical studies and after marketing approval. Non-compliance with FDA safety reporting requirements may result in FDA regulatory action that may include civil action or criminal penalties. Side effects or adverse events that are reported during clinical trials can delay, impede, or prevent marketing approval. Similarly, adverse events that are reported after marketing approval can result in additional limitations being placed on the products use and, potentially, withdrawal or suspension of the product from the market. For example, in February 2005, in consultation with the FDA, we and Elan voluntarily suspended the marketing and commercial distribution of TYSABRI, and informed physicians that they should suspend dosing of TYSABRI until further notification. In addition, we suspended dosing in clinical studies of TYSABRI in MS, Crohns disease and RA. These decisions were based on reports of two cases of PML, a rare and frequently fatal, demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, that occurred in patients treated with TYSABRI in clinical studies. See Our Products Approved Indications and Ongoing Development TYSABRI. Any adverse event, either before or after marketing approval, could result in product liability claims against us. For example, in July 2005, a complaint was filed against us and Elan by the estate and husband of Anita Smith, a patient from the TYSABRI Phase III clinical study in combination with AVONEX, known as SENTINEL, who died after developing PML, a rare and frequently fatal, demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. See Item 3 Legal Proceedings and the sections of Item 1A Risk Factors entitled Our near terms success depends on the market acceptance and successful launch of our third product TYSABRI and Pending and future product liability claims may adversely affect our business and our reputation.
If we seek to make certain changes to an approved product, such as adding a new indication, making certain manufacturing changes, or changing manufacturers or suppliers of certain ingredients or components, we will need review and approval by regulatory authorities, including FDA and EMEA, before certain changes can be implemented.
Under the U.S. Orphan Drug Act, the FDA may grant orphan drug designation to drugs intended to treat a rare disease or condition, which generally is a disease or condition that affects fewer than 200,000 individuals in the U.S. Orphan drug designation must be requested before submitting a BLA or NDA. After the FDA grants orphan drug designation, the generic identity of the therapeutic agent and its potential orphan use are publicly disclosed by
the FDA. Orphan drug designation does not convey any advantage in, or shorten the duration of, the regulatory review and approval process. If a product which has an orphan drug designation subsequently receives the first FDA approval for the indication for which it has such designation, the product is entitled to orphan exclusivity, i.e., the FDA may not approve any other applications to market the same drug for the same indication for a period of seven years following marketing approval, except in certain very limited circumstances, including a showing of clinical superiority. ZEVALIN received orphan drug exclusivity in the U.S., which will expire in February 2009.
Most of our marketed products, including AVONEX, RITUXAN, ZEVALIN and TYSABRI, are licensed under the Public Health Service Act as biological products. Currently, all biological products (including follow-on biologics) must submit a full biologics license application (BLA) to the FDA and undergo rigorous review prior to approval. Unlike small molecule generic drugs subject to the generic drug provisions (Hatch-Waxman Act) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, as described below, there currently is no process in the US for the submission of applications based upon abbreviated data packages like those submitted to form the approval of a generic drug for follow-on biologics. In Europe, the EMEA has issued guidelines and the first biosimilar has been approved. The US government has also begun a process to determine the scientific and statutory basis upon which follow-on biologics could be marketed in the US. The FDA is engaged in an ongoing public dialogue regarding the appropriate scientific standards for these products. Key members of the U.S. Congress are considering legislation to allow for the approval of follow-on biologics but have not yet formally introduced legislation. We cannot be certain when, or if, Congress will pass such a law. We cannot predict what impact, if any, the approval of follow-on biologics will have on the sales of our products.
We are developing small molecule products. If development is successful, these products may be approved as drugs under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. Under the Drug Price Competition and Patent Term Restoration Act of 1984, also known as the Hatch-Waxman Act, Congress created an abbreviated FDA review process for generic versions of pioneer (brand name) small molecule drug products. The Hatch-Waxman Act created two pathways for abbreviated FDA review in the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. The first is the abbreviated new drug application (ANDA), a type of application in which approval is based on a showing of sameness to an already approved drug product. ANDAs do not need to contain full reports of safety and effectiveness, as do new drug applications (NDAs), but rather are required to demonstrate that their proposed products are the same as reference products with regard to their conditions of use, active ingredient(s), route of administration, dosage form, strength, and labeling. ANDA applicants are also required to demonstrate the bioequivalence of their products to the reference product. The second is a 505(b)(2) application, or an NDA for which one or more of the investigations relied upon by the applicant for approval was not conducted by or for the applicant and for which the applicant has not obtained a right of reference or use from the person by or for whom the investigation was conducted. The FDA has determined that 505(b)(2) applications may be submitted for products that represent changes from approved products in conditions of use, active ingredient(s), route of administration, dosage form, strength, or bioavailability. A 505(b)(2) applicant must provide the FDA with any additional clinical data necessary to demonstrate the safety and effectiveness of the product with the proposed change(s).
In addition to providing for the abbreviated review process, the Hatch-Waxman Act also provides for the restoration of a portion of the patent term lost during small molecule product development. In addition, the statute establishes a complex set of processes for notifying sponsors of pioneer products of ANDA and 505(b)(2) applicants that may infringe patents and to permit sponsors of pioneer drugs an opportunity to pursue patent litigation prior to FDA approval of the generic product. The Hatch-Waxman Act also awards non-patent marketing exclusivities to qualifying pioneer drug products. For example, the first applicant to gain approval of an NDA for a product that does not contain an active ingredient found in any other approved product is awarded five years of new chemical entity marketing exclusivity. Where this exclusivity is awarded, the FDA is prohibited from accepting any ANDAs or 505(b)(2) applications during the five-year period. The Hatch-Waxman Act also provides three years of new use marketing exclusivity for the approval of NDAs, 505(b)(2) applications, and supplements, where those applications contain the results of new clinical investigations (other than bioavailability studies) essential to the FDAs approval of the applications. Provided that the new clinical investigations are essential to the FDAs approval of the change, this three-year exclusivity prohibits the final approval of ANDAs or 505(b)(2) applications for products with the specific changes associated with those clinical investigations.
The FDA, the EMEA and other regulatory agencies regulate and inspect equipment, facilities, and processes used in the manufacturing of pharmaceutical and biologic products prior to providing approval to market a product. If after receiving clearance from regulatory agencies, a material change is made in manufacturing equipment, location, or process, additional regulatory review and approval may be required. We also must adhere to current Good Manufacturing Practices, or cGMP, and product-specific regulations enforced by the FDA through its facilities inspection program. The FDA, the EMEA and other regulatory agencies also conduct regular, periodic visits to re-inspect equipment, facilities, and processes following the initial approval. If, as a result of these inspections, it is determined that our equipment, facilities, or processes do not comply with applicable regulations and conditions of product approval, regulatory agencies may seek civil, criminal, or administrative sanctions and/or remedies against us, including the suspension of our manufacturing operations. In addition, the FDA regulates all advertising and promotion activities for products under its jurisdiction both prior to and after approval. Companies must comply with all applicable FDA requirements. If they do not, they are subject to the full range of civil and criminal penalties available to the FDA.
In the EU, Canada, and Australia, regulatory requirements and approval processes are similar in principle to those in the U.S. depending on the type of drug for which approval is sought. There are currently three potential tracks for marketing approval in EU countries: mutual recognition, decentralized and centralized procedures. These review mechanisms may ultimately lead to approval in all EU countries, but each method grants all participating countries some decision-making authority in product approval.
In the U.S., the federal government regularly considers reforming health care coverage and costs. For example, recent reforms to Medicare have reduced the reimbursement rates for many of our products. Effective January 1, 2005, Medicare pays physicians and suppliers that furnish our products under a new payment methodology using average sales price, or ASP, information. Manufacturers, including us, are required to provide ASP information to Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services on a quarterly basis. The manufacturer submitted information is used to compute Medicare payment rates, which are set at ASP plus 6 percent, updated quarterly. There is a mechanism for comparison of such payment rates to widely available market prices, which could cause further decreases in Medicare payment rates, although this mechanism has yet to be utilized. Effective January 1, 2006, Medicare began to use the same ASP plus 6 percent payment methodology to determine Medicare rates paid for products furnished by hospital outpatient departments. If a manufacturer is found to have made a misrepresentation in the reporting of ASP, the statute provides for civil monetary penalties of up to $10,000 for each misrepresentation and for each day in which the misrepresentation was applied.
Another payment reform is the addition of an expanded prescription drug benefit for all Medicare beneficiaries known as Medicare Part D. This is a voluntary benefit that is being implemented through private plans under contractual arrangements with the federal government. Like pharmaceutical coverage through private health insurance, Part D plans establish formularies that govern the drugs and biologicals that will be offered and the out-of-pocket obligations for such products. In addition, plans are expected to negotiate discounts from drug manufacturers and pass on some of those savings to Medicare beneficiaries.
Future legislation or regulatory actions implementing recent or future legislation may have a significant effect on our business. Our ability to successfully commercialize products may depend in part on the extent to which reimbursement for the costs of our products and related treatments will be available in the U.S. and worldwide from government health administration authorities, private health insurers and other organizations. Substantial uncertainty exists as to the reimbursement status of newly approved health care products by third party payors.
We also participate in the Medicaid rebate program established by the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1990, and under amendments of that law that became effective in 1993. Under the Medicaid rebate program, we pay a rebate for each unit of product reimbursed by Medicaid. The amount of the rebate for each product is set by law as a minimum 15.1% of the average manufacturer price, or AMP, of that product, or if it is greater, the difference between AMP and the best price available from us to any commercial or non-governmental customer. The rebate amount also includes an inflation adjustment if AMP increases faster than inflation. Pending federal legislation would revise the calculation of AMP in a way that may lead to an increase in rebate amounts effective in 2007. The rebate amount is required to be recomputed each quarter based on our reports of current average manufacturer price and best price for each of our products to the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. The terms of our
participation in the program impose an obligation to correct the prices reported in previous quarters, as may be necessary, for up to three years. Any such corrections could result in an overage or underage in our rebate liability for past quarters, depending on the direction of the correction. In addition to retroactive rebates, if we were found to have knowingly submitted false information to the government, in addition to other penalties available to the government, the statute provides for civil monetary penalties in the amount of $100,000 per item of false information. Participation in the Medicaid rebate program includes extending discounts under the Public Health Service, or PHS, pharmaceutical pricing program. The PHS pricing program extends discounts to a variety of community health clinics and other entities that receive health services grants from the PHS, as well as hospitals that serve a disproportionate share of poor Medicare beneficiaries.
We also make our products available for purchase by authorized users off of our Federal Supply Schedule, or FSS, contract with the Department of Veterans Affairs. As a result of the Veterans Health Care Act of 1992, or the VHC Act, federal law requires that FSS contract prices for our products for purchases by the Veterans Administration, the Department of Defense, Coast Guard, and the PHS (including the Indian Health Service) be capped at federal ceiling prices, or FCPs. FCPs are computed by taking, at a minimum, a 24% reduction off the non-federal average manufacturer price, or non-FAMP. Our reported non-FAMPs and FCPs for our various products are used in establishing the FSS prices available to these government agencies. The accuracy of the reported non-FAMPs and FCPs may be audited by the government under applicable federal procurement laws. Among the remedies available to the government for infractions of these laws is recoupment of any overages paid by FSS users during the audited years. In addition, if we were found to have knowingly reported a false non-FAMP or FCP, the VHC Act provides for civil monetary penalties of $100,000 per item of false information.
We are also subject to various federal and state laws pertaining to health care fraud and abuse, including anti-kickback laws and false claims laws. Anti-kickback laws make it illegal for a prescription drug manufacturer to solicit, offer, receive, or pay any remuneration in exchange for, or to induce, the referral of business, including the purchase or prescription of a particular drug. Due to the breadth of the statutory provisions and the absence of guidance in the form of regulations and very few court decisions addressing industry practices, it is possible that our practices might be challenged under anti-kickback or similar laws. False claims laws prohibit anyone from knowingly and willingly presenting, or causing to be presented for payment to third party payors (including Medicare and Medicaid) claims for reimbursed drugs or services that are false or fraudulent, claims for items or services not provided as claimed, or claims for medically unnecessary items or services. Our activities relating to the sale and marketing of our products may be subject to scrutiny under these laws. Violations of fraud and abuse laws may be punishable by criminal and/or civil sanctions, including fines and civil monetary penalties, as well as the possibility of exclusion from federal health care programs (including Medicare and Medicaid). If the government were to allege or convict us of violating these laws, our business could be harmed. In addition, there is an ability for private individuals to bring similar actions. For a description of litigation in this area in which we are currently involved, see Item 3 Legal Proceedings.
Our activities could be subject to challenge for the reasons discussed above and due to the broad scope of these laws and the increasing attention being given to them by law enforcement authorities. Further, there are an increasing number of state laws that require manufacturers to make reports to states on pricing and marketing information. Many of these laws contain ambiguities as to what is required to comply with the laws. Given the lack of clarity in laws and their implementation, our reporting actions could be subject to the penalty provisions of the pertinent state authorities.
We are also subject to the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act which prohibits corporations and individuals from paying, offering to pay, or authorizing the payment of anything of value to any foreign government official, government staff member, political party, or political candidate in an attempt to obtain or retain business or to otherwise influence a person working in an official capacity.
We conduct relevant research at all of our research facilities in the U.S. in compliance with the current U.S. National Institutes of Health Guidelines for Research Involving Recombinant DNA Molecules, or the NIH Guidelines, and all other applicable federal and state regulations. By local ordinance, we are required to, among other things, comply with the NIH Guidelines in relation to our facilities in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and San Diego, California, and are required to operate pursuant to certain permits.
Our present and future business has been and will continue to be subject to various other laws and regulations. Various laws, regulations and recommendations relating to safe working conditions, laboratory practices, the experimental use of animals, and the purchase, storage, movement, import and export and use and disposal of hazardous or potentially hazardous substances, including radioactive compounds and infectious disease agents, used in connection with our research work are or may be applicable to our activities. Certain agreements entered into by us involving exclusive license rights may be subject to national or supranational antitrust regulatory control, the effect of which also cannot be predicted. The extent of government regulation, which might result from future legislation or administrative action, cannot accurately be predicted.
We currently produce all of our bulk AVONEX and TYSABRI, as well as AMEVIVE on a contract basis for Astellas, at our manufacturing facilities located in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina and Cambridge, Massachusetts. We manufacture the commercial requirements of the antibody for ZEVALIN at our manufacturing facilities in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Genentech is responsible for all worldwide manufacturing activities for bulk RITUXAN and has sourced the manufacturing of certain bulk RITUXAN requirements to an independent third party. We manufacture clinical products in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina and Cambridge, Massachusetts.
In August 2004, we restarted construction of our large-scale biologic manufacturing facility in Hillerod, Denmark to be used to manufacture TYSABRI and other products in our pipeline. After our voluntary suspension of TYSABRI, we reconsidered our construction plans and determined that we would proceed with the bulk manufacturing component of the large-scale biologic manufacturing facility and add a labeling and packaging component to the project. We decided not to proceed with the fill-finish component of the large-scale biological manufacturing facility. See Item 1A Risk Factors We are committing to a significant investment in the expansion of a manufacturing facility the success of which relies upon continued demand for our products.
We source all of our fill-finish and the majority of final product storage operations for our products, along with a substantial part of our packaging operations, to a concentrated group of third party contractors. Many of the raw materials and supplies required for the production of AVONEX, ZEVALIN, AMEVIVE and TYSABRI are available from various suppliers in quantities adequate to meet our needs. However, due to the unique nature of the production of our products, we do have several single source providers of raw materials. We make efforts to qualify new vendors and to develop contingency plans so that production is not impacted by short-term issues associated with single source providers. Each of our third party service providers, suppliers and manufacturers are subject to continuing inspection by the FDA or comparable agencies in other jurisdictions. Any delay, interruption or other issues that arise in the manufacture, fill-finish, packaging, or storage of our products, including as a result of a failure of our facilities or the facilities or operations of third parties to pass any regulatory agency inspection, could significantly impair our ability to sell our products. See the sections of Item 1A Risk Factors entitled Manufacturing problems could result in our inability to deliver products, inventory shortages, product recalls and increased costs, We rely on third parties to provide services in connection with the manufacture of our products and, in some instances, the manufacture of the product itself, and If we fail to meet the stringent requirements of governmental regulation in the manufacture of our products, we could incur substantial remedial costs and a reduction in sales.
We believe that our existing manufacturing facilities and outside sources will allow us to meet our near-term and long-term manufacturing needs for our current commercial products and our other products currently in clinical trials. Our existing licensed manufacturing facilities operate under multiple licenses from the FDA, regulatory authorities in the EU and other regulatory authorities. For a discussion of risks related to our ability to meet our manufacturing needs for our commercial products and our other products currently in clinical trials, see the sections of Item 1A Risk Factors entitled Manufacturing problems could result in our inability to deliver products, inventory shortages, product recalls and increased costs, We rely on third parties to provide services in connection with the manufacture of our products and, in some instances, the manufacture of the product itself, and If we fail to meet the stringent requirements of governmental regulation in the manufacture of our products, we could incur substantial remedial costs and a reduction in sales.
Additional manufacturing facilities and outside sources may be required to meet our long-term research, development and commercial production needs.
As of December 31, 2006, we had approximately 3,750 employees.
Our Executive Officers
The following is a list of our executive officers, their ages as of February 15, 2007 and their principal positions.
Reference to our or us in the following descriptions of the background of our executive officers include Biogen Idec and Idec Pharmaceuticals Corporation.
James C. Mullen is our Chief Executive Officer and President and has served in these positions since the merger in November 2003. Mr. Mullen was formerly Chairman of the Board and Chief Executive Officer of Biogen, Inc. He was named Chairman of the Board of Directors of Biogen, Inc. in July 2002, after being named President and Chief Executive Officer of Biogen, Inc. in June 2000. Mr. Mullen joined Biogen, Inc. in 1989 as Director, Facilities and Engineering. He was named Biogen, Inc.s Vice President, Operations, in 1992. From 1996 to 1999, Mr. Mullen served as Vice President, International, with responsibility for building all Biogen, Inc. operations outside North America. From 1984 to 1988, Mr. Mullen held various positions at SmithKline Beckman Corporation (now GlaxoSmithKline plc). Mr. Mullen is also a director of PerkinElmer, Inc. and serves as Chairman of the Board of Directors of the Biotechnology Industry Organization (BIO).
Cecil B. Pickett Ph. D. is our President, Research and Development and has served in that position since September 2006 and has served as one of our directors since September 2006. Prior to joining Biogen Idec, he was President, Schering-Plough Research Institute from March 2002 to September 2006, and before that he was Executive VP of Discovery Research at Schering-Plough Corporation from September 1993 to March 2002.
Burt A. Adelman M.D. is our Executive Vice President, Portfolio Strategy and has served in that position since September 2006. Previously, Dr. Adelman held the position of Executive Vice President, Development and served in that role since the merger in November 2003. Dr. Adelman was previously Executive Vice President, Research
and Development at Biogen, Inc., a position he attained in October 2001. Prior to that, he served as Vice President of Medical Research from January 1999 to October 2001 and Vice President of Development Operations from August 1996 to January 1999. He began his career with Biogen, Inc. in 1991, joining the company as Director of Medical Research, and has held positions of increasing responsibility including Vice President, Regulatory Affairs, and Vice President, Development Operations. In that role he oversaw the Preclinical Development, Medical Operations and Regulatory Affairs groups. Since 1992, Dr. Adelman has served as a lecturer at Harvard Medical School. He is a member of the Board of Directors for the New England Healthcare Institute and the New England Division of the American Cancer Society.
Susan H. Alexander is our Executive Vice President, General Counsel and Corporate Secretary and has served in these positions since January 2006. Prior to that, Ms. Alexander served as the Senior Vice President, General Counsel and Corporate Secretary of PAREXEL International Corporation, since September 2003. From June 2001 to September 2003, Ms. Alexander served as General Counsel of IONA Technologies. Prior to that, Ms. Alexander served as Counsel at Cabot Corporation from January 1995 to May 2001. Prior to that, Ms. Alexander was a partner of the law firms of Hinckley, Allen & Snyder and Fine & Ambrogne.
John M. Dunn is our Executive Vice President, New Ventures and has served in that position since the merger in November 2003. Mr. Dunn was our Senior Vice President, Legal and Compliance, and General Counsel from January 2002 to November 2003. Prior to that, he was a partner at the law firm of Pillsbury Winthrop LLP specializing in corporate and business representation of public and private companies.
Robert A. Hamm is our Senior Vice President, Neurology Strategic Business Unit and has served in that position since January 2006. Previously, Mr. Hamm served as Senior Vice President, Immunology Business Unit since the merger in November 2003 and in the same capacity with Biogen, Inc. from November 2002 to November 2003. Before that, he served as Senior Vice President Europe, Africa, Canada and Middle East from October 2001 to November 2002. Prior to that, Mr. Hamm served as Vice President Sales and Marketing of Biogen, Inc. from October 2000 to October 2001. Mr. Hamm previously served as Vice President Manufacturing from June 1999 to October 2000, Director, Northern Europe and Distributors from November 1996 until June 1999 and Associate Director, Logistics from April 1994 until November 1996. From 1987 until April 1994, Mr. Hamm held a variety of management positions at Syntex Laboratories Corporation, including Director of Operations and New Product Planning, and Manager of Materials, Logistics and Contract Manufacturing.
Hans Peter Hasler has served as our Senior Vice President, International Strategic Business Unit since February 2006 and has managed our international business since the merger. He served as Executive Vice President- International of Biogen, Inc. from July 2003 until the merger, and joined Biogen, Inc as Executive Vice President Commercial Operations in August 2001. Mr. Hasler joined Biogen, Inc. from Wyeth-Ayerst Pharmaceuticals, Inc., an affiliate of American Home Products, Inc. (AHP), where he served as Senior Vice President, Head of Global Strategic Marketing since 1998. Mr. Hasler was a member of the Wyeth/AHP Executive Committee and was chairman of the Commercial Council. From 1993 to 1998, Mr. Hasler served in a variety of senior management capacities for Wyeth-Ayerst Pharmaceuticals, including Managing Director of Wyeth Group, Germany, and General Manager of AHP/Wyeth in Switzerland and Central Eastern Europe. Prior to joining Wyeth-Ayerst Pharmaceuticals, Mr. Hasler served as the Head of Pharma Division at Abbott AG. Mr. Hasler is a member of the Board of Directors of Orexo AB and Santhera.
Faheem Hasnain has served as our Senior Vice President, Oncology Rheumatology Strategic Business Unit since February 2007 and, prior to that, served as Senior Vice President, Oncology Strategic Business Unit since October 2004. Prior to that, Mr. Hasnain served as President, Oncology Therapeutics Network at Bristol-Myers Squibb from March 2002 to September 2004. From January 2001 to February 2002, Mr. Hasnain served as Vice President, Global eBusiness at GlaxoSmithKline and prior to 2000 served in key commercial and entrepreneurial roles within GlaxoSmithKline and its predecessor organizations, spanning global eBusiness, international commercial operations, sales and marketing.
Peter N. Kellogg is our Executive Vice President, Finance and Chief Financial Officer and has served in that position since the merger in November 2003. Mr. Kellogg was formerly Executive Vice President, Finance and Chief Financial Officer of Biogen, Inc. after serving as Vice President Finance and Chief Financial Officer since July 2000. He joined Biogen, Inc. in 2000 from PepsiCo Inc., where he most recently served as Senior Vice
President, PepsiCo E-Commerce from March to July 2000 and as Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer, Frito-Lay International, from March 1998 to March 2000. From 1987 to 1998, he served in a variety of senior financial, international and general management positions at PepsiCo and the Pepsi-Cola International, Pepsi-Cola North America, and Frito-Lay International divisions. Prior to joining PepsiCo, Mr. Kellogg was a senior consultant with Arthur Andersen & Co. and Booz Allen & Hamilton.
Michael D. Kowolenko, Ph.D. is our Senior Vice President, Pharmaceutical Operations and Technology, and has served in that position since July 2004. Prior to that, he served as our Senior Vice President, Global Quality, from November 2003 to July 2004 and held a similar position with Biogen, Inc. from April 2002 until November 2003. Prior to joining Biogen, Inc., Dr. Kowolenko held several positions within Research, Development, and Operations at Bayer Corporation, including Vice President of Quality Assurance from January 2001 to April 2002.
Michael F. MacLean is our Senior Vice President, Chief Accounting Officer and Controller and has served in that position since December 6, 2006. Mr. MacLean joined the Company on October 2, 2006 as Senior Vice President. Prior to joining the Company, Mr. MacLean was a managing director of Huron Consulting, where he provided support regarding financial reporting to management and boards of directors of Fortune 500 companies. From June 2002 to October 2005, Mr. MacLean was a partner at KPMG and he was a partner of Arthur Andersen LLP from September 1999 to May 2002.
Craig Eric Schneier, Ph.D. is our Executive Vice President, Human Resources and has served in that position since the merger in November 2003. Dr. Schneier was previously Executive Vice President, Human Resources of Biogen, Inc., a position he held since January 2003. He joined Biogen, Inc. in 2001 as Senior Vice President, Strategic Organization Design and Effectiveness, after having served as an external consultant to the company for eight years. Prior to joining Biogen, Inc., Dr. Schneier was president of his own management consulting firm in Princeton, NJ, where he provided consulting services to over 70 of the Fortune 100 companies, as well as several of the largest European and Asian firms. Dr. Schneier held a tenured professorship at the University of Marylands Smith School of Business and has held teaching positions at the business schools of the University of Michigan, Columbia University, and at the Tuck School of Business, Dartmouth College.
Mark C. Wiggins is our Executive Vice President, Corporate and Business Development and has served in that capacity since July 2004. Prior to that, Mr. Wiggins served as our Senior Vice President, Business Development from November 2003 to July 2004, Vice President of Marketing and Business Development from November 2000 to November 2003, and Vice President of Business Development from May 1998 to November 2000. From 1996 to 1998, he was Vice President of Business Development and Marketing for Hybridon. From 1986 to 1996 he held various positions of increasing responsibility at Schering-Plough Corporation, including Director of Business Development.
Our current and future revenues depend substantially upon continued sales of our two principal products, AVONEX and RITUXAN, which represented approximately 94% of our total revenues in 2006. Any significant negative developments relating to these two products, such as safety or efficacy issues, the introduction or greater acceptance of competing products (including greater than anticipated substitution of TYSABRI for AVONEX) or adverse regulatory or legislative developments, would have a material adverse effect on our results of operations. Although we have developed and continue to develop additional products for commercial introduction, we expect to be substantially dependent on sales from these two products for many years. A decline in sales from either of these two products would adversely affect our business.
Our long-term success depends upon the successful development and commercialization of other products from our research and development activities
Our long-term viability and growth will depend upon the successful development and commercialization of other products from our research and development activities. We, along with Genentech, continue to expand our development efforts related to additional uses for RITUXAN and follow on anti-CD20 product candidates, and we are independently expanding development efforts around other potential products in our pipeline. Product development and commercialization are very expensive and involve a high degree of risk. Only a small number of research and development programs result in the commercialization of a product. Success in early stage clinical trials or preclinical work does not ensure that later stage or larger scale clinical trials will be successful. Even if later stage clinical trials are successful, the risk remains that unexpected concerns may arise from additional data or analysis or that obstacles may arise or issues may be identified in connection with review of clinical data with regulatory authorities or that regulatory authorities may disagree with our view of the data or require additional data or information or additional studies.
If we are unable to introduce new products to the market successfully or are unable to expand the indicated uses of approved products such as RITUXAN and TYSABRI, our results of operations would be adversely affected.
Adverse safety events can negatively affect our assets, product sales, operations and products in development
Even after we receive marketing approval for a product, adverse event reports may have a negative impact on our commercialization efforts. Our voluntary withdrawal of TYSABRI from the market in February 2005 following reports of cases of PML resulted in a significant reduction in expected revenues as well as significant expense and management time required to address the legal and regulatory issues arising from the withdrawal, including revised labeling and enhanced risk management programs. Later discovery of safety issues with our products that were not known at the time of their approval by the FDA could cause product liability events, additional regulatory scrutiny and requirements for additional labeling, withdrawal of products from the market and the imposition of fines or criminal penalties. Any of these actions could result in, among other things, material write-offs of inventory and impairments of intangible assets, goodwill and fixed assets.
Our near-term success depends on the market acceptance and successful launch of our third product TYSABRI
A substantial portion of our growth in the near-term is dependent on anticipated sales of TYSABRI. We received regulatory approval to market TYSABRI in the U.S. and the EU for relapsing forms of MS in June of 2006. We re-introduced TYSABRI in the U.S. and launched TYSABRI for the first time in Europe in the second half of 2006. TYSABRI is expected to meaningfully diversify our product offerings and revenues, and to drive additional revenue growth over the next several years. Failure to launch the drug successfully would result in a significant reduction in diversification and expected revenues, and adversely affect our business.
The success of the reintroduction of TYSABRI into the U.S. market and launch in the EU will depend upon its acceptance by the medical community and patients, which cannot be certain given the significant restrictions on use
and the significant safety warnings in the label. Additional cases of the known side effect PML at a higher rate than indicated in the prescribing information, or the occurrence of other unexpected side effects could harm acceptance and limit TYSABRI sales. Any significant lack of acceptance of TYSABRI by the medical community or patients would materially and adversely affect our growth and our plans for the future.
As a new entrant to a relatively mature MS market, TYSABRI sales may be more sensitive to additional new competing products. A number of such products are expected to be approved for use in MS in the coming years. If these products have a similar or more attractive overall profile in terms of efficacy, convenience and safety, future sales of TYSABRI could be limited.
If we do not successfully execute our strategy of growth through the acquisition, partnering and in-licensing of products, technologies or companies, our future performance could be adversely affected
In addition to the expansion of our pipeline through spending on internal development projects, we plan to grow through external growth opportunities, which include the acquisition, partnering and in-licensing of products, technologies and companies or the entry into strategic alliances and collaborations. If we are unable to complete or manage these external growth opportunities successfully, we will not be able to grow our business in the way that we currently expect. The availability of high quality opportunities is limited and we are not certain that we will be able to identify suitable candidates or complete transactions on terms that are acceptable to us. In addition, even if we are able to successfully identify and complete acquisitions, we may not be able to integrate them or take full advantage of them and therefore may not realize the benefits that we expect. If we are unsuccessful in our external growth program, we may not be able to grow our business significantly and we may incur asset impairment charges as a result of acquisitions that are not successful.
The biotechnology industry is intensely competitive. We compete in the marketing and sale of our products, the development of new products and processes, the acquisition of rights to new products with commercial potential and the hiring and retention of personnel. We compete with biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies that have a greater number of products on the market, greater financial and other resources and other technological or competitive advantages. We cannot be certain that one or more of our competitors will not receive patent protection that dominates, blocks or adversely affects our product development or business, will not benefit from significantly greater sales and marketing capabilities, or will not develop products that are accepted more widely than ours. The introduction of alternatives to our products that offer advantages in efficacy, safety or ease of use could negatively affect our revenues and reduce the value of our product development efforts. In addition, potential governmental action in the future could provide a means for competition from developers of follow-on biologics, which could compete on price and differentiation with products that we now or could in the future market.
In addition to competing directly with products that are marketed by substantial pharmaceutical competitors, both AVONEX and RITUXAN also face competition from off-label uses of drugs approved for other indications. Some of our current competitors are also working to develop alternative formulations for delivery of their products, which may in the future compete with ours.
We depend on collaborators for both product and royalty revenue and the clinical development of future collaboration products, two important parts of our business outside of our full control
Collaborations between companies on products or programs are a common business practice in the biotechnology industry. Out-licensing typically allows a partner to collect up front payments and future milestone payments, share the costs of clinical development and risk of failure at various points, and access sales and marketing infrastructure and expertise in exchange for certain financial rights to the product or program going to the in-licensing partner. In addition, the obligation of in-licensees to pay royalties or share profits generally terminates upon expiration of the related patents. We have a number of collaborators and partners, and have both in-licensed and out-licensed several products and programs. These collaborations include several risks:
In addition, the successful development and commercialization of new anti-CD20 product candidates in our collaboration with Genentech (which also includes RITUXAN) will decrease our participation in the operating profits from the collaboration (including as to RITUXAN).
We depend, to a significant extent, on reimbursement from third party payors and a reduction in the extent of reimbursement could negatively affect our product sales and revenue
Sales of our products are dependent, in large part, on the availability and extent of reimbursement from government health administration authorities, private health insurers and other organizations. U.S. and foreign government regulations mandating price controls and limitations on patient access to our products impact our business and our future results could be adversely affected by changes in such regulations. In addition, states may more aggressively seek Medicaid rebates as a result of legislation enacted in 2006, which rebate activity could adversely affect our results of operations.
In the U.S., many of our products are subject to increasing pricing pressures. Such pressures may increase as a result of the Medicare Prescription Drug Improvement and Modernization Act of 2003. Managed care organizations as well as Medicaid and other government health administration authorities continue to seek price discounts. Government efforts to reduce Medicaid expenses may continue to increase the use of managed care organizations. This may result in managed care organizations influencing prescription decisions for a larger segment of the population and a corresponding constraint on prices and reimbursement for our products. In addition, some states have implemented and other states are considering price controls or patient-access constraints under the Medicaid program and some states are considering price-control regimes that would apply to broader segments of their populations that are not Medicaid eligible. Other matters also could be the subject of U.S. federal or state legislative or regulatory action that could adversely affect our business, including the importation of prescription drugs that are marketed outside the U.S. and sold at lower prices as a result of drug price regulations by the governments of various foreign countries.
We encounter similar regulatory and legislative issues in most other countries. In the EU and some other international markets, the government provides health care at low cost to consumers and regulates pharmaceutical prices, patient eligibility or reimbursement levels to control costs for the government-sponsored health care system. This international patchwork of price regulations may lead to inconsistent prices. Within the EU and other countries some third party trade in our products occurs from markets with lower prices thereby undermining our sales in some markets with higher prices. Additionally, certain countries reference the prices in other countries where our products are marketed. Thus, inability to secure adequate prices in a particular country may also impair our ability to obtain acceptable prices in existing and potential new markets. This may create the opportunity for the third party cross border trade previously mentioned or our decision not to sell the product thus affecting our geographic expansion plans.
When a new medical product is approved, the availability of government and private reimbursement for that product is uncertain, as is the amount for which that product will be reimbursed. We cannot predict the availability or amount of reimbursement for our product candidates.
Our business is subject to extensive governmental regulation and oversight and changes in laws could adversely affect our revenues and profitability
Our business is in a highly regulated industry. As a result, governmental actions may adversely affect our business, operations or financial condition, including:
The enactment in the U.S. of the Medicare Prescription Drug Improvement and Modernization Act of 2003, possible legislation which could ease the entry of competing follow-on biologics in the marketplace, and importation of lower-cost competing drugs from other jurisdictions are examples of changes and possible changes in laws that could adversely affect our business.
If we fail to comply with the extensive legal and regulatory requirements affecting the healthcare industry, we could face increased costs, penalties and a loss of business
Our activities, including the sale and marketing of our products, are subject to extensive government regulation and oversight, including regulation under the U.S. Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act and other federal and state statutes and similar laws in foreign jurisdictions. Pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies have been the target of lawsuits and investigations alleging violations of government regulation, including claims asserting antitrust violations and violations of the Prescription Drug Marketing Act, or other violations related to environmental matters. Violations of governmental regulation may be punishable by criminal and civil sanctions, including fines and civil monetary penalties and exclusion from participation in government programs. Whether or not we have complied with the law, an investigation into alleged unlawful conduct could increase our expenses, damage our reputation, divert management time and attention and adversely affect our business.
The Medicare/Medicaid anti-kickback law, and several similar state laws, prohibit payments intended to induce physicians or others either to purchase or arrange for or recommend the purchase of healthcare products or services. These laws constrain the sales, marketing and other promotional activities of manufacturers of drugs and biologicals, such as us, by limiting the kinds of financial arrangements, including sales programs, with hospitals, physicians, and other potential purchasers of drugs and biologicals. Other federal and state laws generally prohibit individuals or entities from knowingly presenting, or causing to be presented, claims for payment from Medicare, Medicaid, or other third party payors that are false or fraudulent, or are for items or services that were not provided as claimed. Anti-kickback and false claims laws prescribe civil and criminal penalties for noncompliance that can be substantial, including the possibility of exclusion from federal healthcare programs (including Medicare and Medicaid).
Manufacturing problems could result in our inability to deliver products, inventory shortages, product recalls and increased costs
We manufacture and expect to continue to manufacture our own commercial requirements of bulk AVONEX and TYSABRI. Our products are difficult to manufacture and problems in our manufacturing processes can occur. Our inability to manufacture successfully bulk product and to maintain regulatory approvals of our manufacturing facilities would harm our ability to produce timely sufficient quantities of commercial supplies of AVONEX and TYSABRI to meet demand. Problems with manufacturing processes could result in product defects or manufacturing failures, which could require us to delay shipment of products, recall, or withdraw products previously
shipped, or impair our ability to expand into new markets or supply products in existing markets. In the past, we have had to write down and incur other charges and expenses for products that failed to meet specifications. Similar charges may occur in the future.
We currently manufacture TYSABRI at our manufacturing facility in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, or RTP. Although we are proceeding with construction of the bulk manufacturing component of our large-scale biologic manufacturing facility in Hillerod, Denmark and have added a labeling and packaging component to the project, we currently rely exclusively on our RTP facility for the manufacture of TYSABRI.
If we cannot produce sufficient commercial requirements of bulk product to meet demand, we would need to rely on third party contract manufacturers, of which there are only a limited number capable of manufacturing bulk products of the type we require. We cannot be certain that we could reach agreement on reasonable terms, if at all, with those manufacturers. Even if we were to reach agreement, the transition of the manufacturing process to a third party to enable commercial supplies could take a significant amount of time. Our ability to supply products in sufficient capacity to meet demand is also dependent upon third party contractors to fill-finish, package and store such products. Any prolonged interruption in the operations of our existing manufacturing facilities could result in cancellations of shipments or loss of product in the process of being manufactured. Because our manufacturing processes are highly complex and are subject to a lengthy FDA approval process, alternative qualified production capacity may not be available on a timely basis or at all.
We rely on third parties to provide services in connection with the manufacture of our products and, in some instances, the manufacture of the product itself
We rely on Genentech for all RITUXAN manufacturing. Genentech relies on a third party to manufacture certain bulk RITUXAN requirements. If Genentech or any third party upon which it relies does not manufacture or fill-finish RITUXAN in sufficient quantities and on a timely and cost-effective basis, or if Genentech or any third party does not obtain and maintain all required manufacturing approvals, our business could be harmed.
We also source all of our fill-finish and the majority of our final product storage operations, along with a substantial portion of our packaging operations of the components used with our products, to a concentrated group of third party contractors. The manufacture of products and product components, fill-finish, packaging and storage of our products require successful coordination among ourselves and multiple third party providers. Our inability to coordinate these efforts, the lack of capacity available at a third party contractor or any other problems with the operations of these third party contractors could require us to delay shipment of saleable products, recall products previously shipped or impair our ability to supply products at all. This could increase our costs, cause us to lose revenue or market share, and damage our reputation. Any third party we use to fill-finish, package or store our products to be sold in the U.S. must be licensed by the FDA. As a result, alternative third party providers may not be readily available on a timely basis.
Due to the unique nature of the production of our products, there are several single source providers of raw materials. We make every effort to qualify new vendors and to develop contingency plans so that production is not impacted by short-term issues associated with single source providers. Nonetheless, our business could be materially impacted by long term or chronic issues associated with single source providers.
If we fail to meet the stringent requirements of governmental regulation in the manufacture of our products, we could incur substantial remedial costs and a reduction in sales
We and our third party providers are generally required to maintain compliance with current Good Manufacturing Practice, or cGMP, and are subject to inspections by the FDA or comparable agencies in other jurisdictions to confirm such compliance. Any changes of suppliers or modifications of methods of manufacturing require amending our application to the FDA and acceptance of the change by the FDA prior to release of product to the marketplace. Our inability, or the inability of our third party service providers, to demonstrate ongoing cGMP compliance could require us to withdraw or recall product and interrupt commercial supply of our products. Any delay, interruption or other issues that arise in the manufacture, fill-finish, packaging, or storage of our products as a result of a failure of our facilities or the facilities or operations of third parties to pass any regulatory agency
inspection could significantly impair our ability to develop and commercialize our products. This non-compliance could increase our costs, cause us to lose revenue or market share and damage our reputation.
We are committing to a significant investment in the expansion of a manufacturing facility the success of which relies upon continued demand for our products
We are proceeding with the second phase of our large-scale biologic manufacturing facility in Hillerod, Denmark and our Board of Directors has authorized an additional $225 million to be spent on the project in addition to the $275 million we have spent to date. In the event that we fail to manage the projects, or other unforeseen events occur, we may incur additional costs to complete the project. Additionally, any costs incurred may not be recoverable in the event that projection of the demand for future manufacturing volumes, including the demand for TYSABRI, are not achieved.
If we are unable to attract and retain qualified personnel and key relationships, the growth of our business could be harmed
Our success will depend, to a great extent, upon our ability to attract and retain qualified scientific, manufacturing, sales and marketing and executive personnel and our ability to develop and maintain relationships with qualified clinical researchers and key distributors. Competition for these people and relationships is intense and we compete with numerous pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies as well as with universities and non-profit research organizations. Any inability we experience to continue to attract and retain qualified personnel or develop and maintain key relationships could have an adverse effect on our ability to accomplish our research, development and external growth objectives.
Our quarterly revenues, expenses and net income (loss) have fluctuated in the past and are likely to fluctuate significantly in the future due to the timing of charges and expenses that we may take. In recent periods, for instance, we have recorded charges that include:
Additionally, net income may fluctuate due to the impact of charges we may be required to take with respect to foreign currency hedge transactions. In particular, we may incur higher charges from hedge ineffectiveness than we expect or from the termination of a hedge relationship.
These examples are only illustrative and other risks, including those discussed in these Risk Factors, could also cause fluctuations in our reported earnings. In addition, our operating results during any one quarter do not necessarily suggest the anticipated results of future quarters.
If we are unable to adequately protect and enforce our intellectual property rights, our competitors may take advantage of our development efforts or our acquired technology
We have filed numerous patent applications in the U.S. and various other countries seeking protection of inventions originating from our research and development, including a number of our processes and products. Patents have been issued on many of these applications. We have also obtained rights to various patents and patent applications under licenses with third parties, which provide for the payment of royalties by us. The ultimate degree of patent protection that will be afforded to biotechnology products and processes, including ours, in the U.S. and in other important markets remains uncertain and is dependent upon the scope of protection decided upon by the patent offices, courts and lawmakers in these countries. Our patents may not afford us substantial protection or commercial benefit. Similarly, our pending patent applications or patent applications licensed from third parties may not
ultimately be granted as patents and we may not prevail if patents that have been issued to us are challenged in court. If we are unable to protect our intellectual property rights and prevent others from exploiting our inventions, we will not derive the benefit from them that we currently expect.
If our products infringe the intellectual property rights of others, we may incur damages and be required to incur the expense of obtaining a license
A substantial number of patents have already been issued to other biotechnology and biopharmaceutical companies. Competitors may have filed applications for, or have been issued patents and may obtain additional patents and proprietary rights that may relate to products or processes competitive with or similar to our products and processes. Moreover, the patent laws of the U.S. and foreign countries are distinct and decisions as to patenting, validity of patents and infringement of patents may be resolved differently in different countries. In general, we obtain licenses to third party patents that we deem necessary or desirable for the manufacture, use and sale of our products. We are currently unable to assess the extent to which we may wish or be required to acquire rights under such patents and the availability and cost of acquiring such rights, or whether a license to such patents will be available on acceptable terms or at all. There may be patents in the U.S. or in foreign countries or patents issued in the future that are unavailable to license on acceptable terms. Our inability to obtain such licenses may hinder our ability to market our products.
Uncertainty over intellectual property in the biotechnology industry has been the source of litigation, which is inherently costly and unpredictable
We are aware that others, including various universities and companies working in the biotechnology field, have filed patent applications and have been granted patents in the U.S. and in other countries claiming subject matter potentially useful to our business. Some of those patents and patent applications claim only specific products or methods of making such products, while others claim more general processes or techniques useful or now used in the biotechnology industry. There is considerable uncertainty within the biotechnology industry about the validity, scope and enforceability of many issued patents in the U.S. and elsewhere in the world, and, to date, there is no consistent policy regarding the breadth of claims allowed in biotechnology patents. We cannot currently determine the ultimate scope and validity of patents which may be granted to third parties in the future or which patents might be asserted to be infringed by the manufacture, use and sale of our products.
There has been, and we expect that there may continue to be significant litigation in the industry regarding patents and other intellectual property rights. Litigation and administrative proceedings concerning patents and other intellectual property rights may be protracted, expensive and distracting to management. Competitors may sue us as a way of delaying the introduction of our products. Any litigation, including any interference proceedings to determine priority of inventions, oppositions to patents in foreign countries or litigation against our partners, may be costly and time consuming and could harm our business. We expect that litigation may be necessary in some instances to determine the validity and scope of certain of our proprietary rights. Litigation may be necessary in other instances to determine the validity, scope and/or noninfringement of certain patent rights claimed by third parties to be pertinent to the manufacture, use or sale of our products. Ultimately, the outcome of such litigation could adversely affect the validity and scope of our patent or other proprietary rights, or, conversely, hinder our ability to market our products.
The administration of drugs in humans, whether in clinical studies or commercially, carries the inherent risk of product liability claims whether or not the drugs are actually the cause of an injury. Our products or product candidates may cause, or may appear to have caused, injury or dangerous drug interactions and we may not learn about or understand those effects until the product or product candidate has been administered to patients for a prolonged period of time. For example, we may face lawsuits with product liability and other related claims by patients treated with TYSABRI or related to TYSABRI, including lawsuits already filed by patients who have had serious adverse events while using TYSABRI.
We cannot predict with certainty the eventual outcome of any pending or future litigation. We may not be successful in defending ourselves in the litigation and, as a result, our business could be materially harmed. These lawsuits may result in large judgments or settlements against us, any of which could have a negative effect on our financial condition and business. Additionally, lawsuits can be expensive to defend, whether or not they have merit, and the defense of these actions may divert the attention of our management and other resources that would otherwise be engaged in running our business.
Our business involves environmental risks, which include the cost of compliance and the risk of contamination or injury
Our business and the business of several of our strategic partners, including Genentech and Elan, involve the controlled use of hazardous materials, chemicals, biologics and radioactive compounds. Biologics manufacturing is extremely susceptible to product loss due to microbial or viral contamination, material equipment failure, or vendor or operator error. Although we believe that our safety procedures for handling and disposing of such materials comply with state and federal standards, there will always be the risk of accidental contamination or injury. In addition, microbial or viral contamination may cause the closure of a manufacturing facility for an extended period of time. By law, radioactive materials may only be disposed of at state-approved facilities. We currently store radioactive materials from our California operation on-site because the approval of a disposal site in California for all California-based companies has been delayed indefinitely. If and when a disposal site is approved, we may incur substantial costs related to the disposal of these materials. If we were to become liable for an accident, or if we were to suffer an extended facility shutdown, we could incur significant costs, damages and penalties that could harm our business.
We are increasing our presence in international markets, which subjects us to many risks, such as:
Our operations and marketing practices are also subject to regulation and scrutiny by the governments of the other countries in which we operate. In addition, the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, or FCPA, prohibits U.S. companies and their representatives from offering, promising, authorizing or making payments to foreign officials for the purpose of obtaining or retaining business abroad. In many countries, the healthcare professionals we regularly interact with meet the definition of a foreign official for purposes of the FCPA. Additionally, we are subject to other U.S. laws in our international operations. Failure to comply with domestic or foreign laws could result in various adverse consequences, including possible delay in approval or refusal to approve a product, recalls, seizures, withdrawal of an approved product from the market, and/or the imposition of civil or criminal sanctions.
A portion of our business is conducted in currencies other than our reporting currency, the U.S. dollar. We recognize foreign currency gains or losses arising from our operations in the period in which we incur those gains or losses. As a result, currency fluctuations among the U.S. dollar and the currencies in which we do business have caused foreign currency transaction gains and losses in the past and will likely do so in the future. Because of the number of currencies involved, the variability of currency exposures and the potential volatility of currency exchange rates, we may suffer significant foreign currency transaction losses in the future due to the effect of exchange rate fluctuations.
Our investments in marketable securities are significant and are subject to interest and credit risk that may reduce their value
We maintain a significant portfolio of investments in marketable securities. Our earnings may be adversely affected by changes in the value of this portfolio. In particular, the value of our investments may be adversely affected by increases in interest rates, downgrades in the corporate bonds included in the portfolio and by other than temporary declines in value. Each of these events may cause us to record charges to reduce the carrying value of our investment portfolio.
The preparation of our financial statements requires estimates of the amount of tax that will become payable in each of the jurisdictions in which we operate. Accordingly, we determine our estimated liability for Federal, state and local taxes (in the U.S.) and in connection with our tax liability in several overseas jurisdictions. We may be challenged by any of these taxing authorities and, in the event that we are not able to defend our position, we may incur liabilities with respect to the taxing authority and such amounts could be significant.
Several aspects of our corporate governance and our collaboration agreements may discourage a third party from attempting to acquire us
Several factors might discourage a takeover attempt that could be viewed as beneficial to stockholders who wish to receive a premium for their shares from a potential bidder. For example:
Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments
Our principal executive offices are located in Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Cambridge, we own approximately 510,000 square feet of real estate space, consisting of a 250,000 square foot building that houses research laboratory and office spaces; and an approximately 260,000 square foot building that contains research, development and quality laboratories. We also have development options for additional property in Cambridge. We lease a total of approximately 280,000 square feet, consisting of additional office and manufacturing space, in all or part of three other buildings in Cambridge. In addition, we lease approximately 36,000 square feet of warehouse space in Somerville, Massachusetts, and approximately 53,000 square feet of office space in Wellesley, Massachusetts. The lease expiration dates for our leased sites in Massachusetts range from 2008 to 2015.
In San Diego, California, we own approximately 43 acres of land upon which we have our oncology research and development campus. The campus consists of five interconnected buildings, which primarily contain laboratory and office space, totaling approximately 350,000 square feet. We also have two lots in Oceanside, California, totaling approximately 27 acres of land, which are held for sale.
In Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, we own approximately 530,000 square feet of real estate space. This includes a 108,000 square foot biologics manufacturing facility, a 232,000 square foot large scale manufacturing plant, a second large-scale purification facility of 42,000 square feet, and a 150,000 square foot laboratory office building. We manufacture bulk AVONEX at the biologics manufacturing facility. We manufacture bulk TYSABRI at the large scale manufacturing facility. We plan to use this facility to manufacture other products in our pipeline and to meet any obligation to manufacture AMEVIVE resulting from our sale of that product to Astellas. We are continuing further expansion in Research Triangle Park with ongoing construction of several projects to increase our manufacturing flexibility. In addition, we lease approximately 45,000 square feet of office space in Durham, North Carolina.
We lease space in Zug, Switzerland, our international headquarters, the United Kingdom, Germany, Austria, France, Belgium, Spain, Portugal, Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Norway, Japan, Australia, Brazil and Canada. In addition, we lease approximately 40,000 square feet of real estate in Hoofddorp, The Netherlands, which consists of office space, a storage facility, a packaging facility where we perform some of our AVONEX packaging operations, and quality control operations. We also lease approximately 47,000 square feet of real estate space in Lijnden, The Netherlands, consisting of office space and warehouse space, and approximately 8,000 square feet of real estate space in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, for our QC Laboratory. In addition, we own approximately 60 acres of property in Hillerod, Denmark. In August 2004, we restarted construction of our large-scale biologic manufacturing facility in Hillerod, Denmark to be used to manufacture TYSABRI and other products in our pipeline. After our voluntary suspension of TYSABRI, we reconsidered our construction plans and determined that we would proceed with the bulk manufacturing component of the large-scale biologic manufacturing facility and add a labeling and packaging component to the project. We decided not to proceed with the fill-finish component of the large-scale biological manufacturing facility. For a discussion of our plans for the Hillerod, Denmark large-scale manufacturing facility, see Item 1A Risk Factors We are committing to a significant investment in the expansion of a manufacturing facility the success of which relies upon continued demand for our products.
On March 2, 2005, we, along with William H. Rastetter, our former Executive Chairman, and James C. Mullen, our Chief Executive Officer, were named as defendants in a purported class action lawsuit, captioned Brown v. Biogen Idec Inc., et al. (Brown), filed in the U.S. District Court for the District of Massachusetts (the Court). The complaint alleges violations of Sections 10(b) and 20(a) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 and Rule 10b-5
promulgated thereunder. The action is purportedly brought on behalf of all purchasers of our publicly-traded securities between February 18, 2004 and February 25, 2005. The plaintiff alleges that the defendants made materially false and misleading statements regarding potentially serious side effects of TYSABRI in order to gain accelerated approval from the FDA for the products distribution and sale. The plaintiff alleges that these materially false and misleading statements harmed the purported class by artificially inflating our stock price during the purported class period and that company insiders benefited personally from the inflated price by selling our stock. The plaintiff seeks unspecified damages, as well as interest, costs and attorneys fees. Substantially similar actions, captioned Grill v. Biogen Idec Inc., et al. and Lobel v. Biogen Idec Inc., et al., were filed on March 10, 2005 and April 21, 2005, respectively, in the same court by other purported class representatives. Those actions have been consolidated with the Brown case. On October 13, 2006, the plaintiffs filed an amended consolidated complaint which, among other amendments to the allegations, adds as defendants Peter N. Kellogg, our Chief Financial Officer, William R. Rohn, our former Chief Operating Officer, Burt A. Adelman, our Executive Vice President, Portfolio Strategy, and Thomas J. Bucknum, our former General Counsel. On November 15, 2006, we and all the other defendants who had been served as of that date filed a motion to dismiss the amended consolidated complaint. The plaintiffs opposition to our Motion to Dismiss was filed on December 18, 2006. We believe that the actions are without merit and intend to contest them vigorously. At this early stage of litigation, we cannot make any estimate of a potential loss or range of loss.
On March 9, 2005, two purported shareholder derivative actions, captioned Carmona v. Mullen, et al. (Carmona) and Fink v. Mullen, et al. (Fink), were brought in the Superior Court of the State of California, County of San Diego (the California Court), on our behalf, against us as nominal defendant, our Board of Directors and our chief financial officer. The plaintiffs derivatively claim breach of fiduciary duties, abuse of control, gross mismanagement, waste of corporate assets and unjust enrichment against all defendants. The plaintiffs also derivatively claim insider selling in violation of California Corporations Code § 25402 and breach of fiduciary duty and misappropriation of information against certain defendants who sold our securities during the period of February 18, 2004 to the date of the complaints. The plaintiffs seek unspecified damages, treble damages for the purported insider trading in violation of California Corporate Code § 25402, equitable relief including restriction of the defendants trading proceeds or other assets, restitution, disgorgement and costs, including attorneys fees and expenses. On May 9, 2006, final judgment was entered in favor of the defendants. On July 17, 2006, Plaintiffs filed a notice of appeal in the California Court to the Court of Appeal, Fourth Appellate District, Division 1 (the Court of Appeal). On November 8, 2006, the plaintiffs filed a request for dismissal of the appeal, which the Court of Appeal allowed on November 13, 2006. Since this matter is now concluded, we will no longer include disclosure of this case in future reports.
On April 21, 2005, we received a formal order of investigation from the Boston District Office of the SEC. The SEC is investigating whether any violations of the federal securities laws occurred in connection with the suspension of marketing and commercial distribution of TYSABRI. We have cooperated fully with the SEC in this investigation. We are unable to predict the outcome of this investigation or the timing of its resolution at this time.
On June 9, 2005, we, along with numerous other companies, received a request for information from the U.S. Senate Committee on Finance, or the Committee, concerning the Committees review of issues relating to the Medicare and Medicaid programs coverage of prescription drug benefits. On January 9, 2006, we, along with numerous other companies, received a further request for information from the Committee. We filed a timely response to the request on March 6, 2006 and are cooperating fully with the Committees information requests. We are unable to predict the outcome of this review or the timing of its resolution at this time.
On October 4, 2004, Genentech Inc. received a subpoena from the U.S. Department of Justice requesting documents related to the promotion of RITUXAN. We market RITUXAN in the U.S. in collaboration with Genentech. Genentech has disclosed that it is cooperating with the associated investigation which they disclosed that they have been advised is both civil and criminal in nature. Genentech has reported further that the government has called and is expected to call former and current Genentech employees to appear before a grand jury in connection with this investigation. We are cooperating with the U.S. Department of Justice in its investigation of Genentech. The potential outcome of this matter and its impact on us cannot be determined at this time.
Along with several other major pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies, Biogen, Inc. (now Biogen Idec MA, Inc., one of our wholly-owned subsidiaries) or, in certain cases, Biogen Idec Inc., was named as a defendant in lawsuits filed by the City of New York and numerous Counties of the State of New York. All of the cases, except for the County of Erie, County of Nassau, County of Oswego and County of Schenectady, are the subject of a Consolidated Complaint (Consolidated Complaint), which was filed on June 15, 2005 in U.S. District Court for the District of Massachusetts in Multi-District Litigation No. 1456. The County of Nassau, which originally filed its complaint on November 24, 2004, filed an amended complaint on March 24, 2005 and that case is also pending in the U.S. District Court for the District of Massachusetts. The County of Erie, County of Oswego and County of Schenectady cases have been removed and conditionally transferred to the U.S. District Court for the District of Massachusetts, and are currently subject to motions to remand and oppositions to the conditional transfer.
All of the complaints allege that the defendants (i) fraudulently reported the Average Wholesale Price for certain drugs for which Medicaid provides reimbursement, also referred to as Covered Drugs; (ii) marketed and promoted the sale of Covered Drugs to providers based on the providers ability to collect inflated payments from the government and Medicaid beneficiaries that exceeded payments possible for competing drugs; (iii) provided financing incentives to providers to over-prescribe Covered Drugs or to prescribe Covered Drugs in place of competing drugs; and (iv) overcharged Medicaid for illegally inflated Covered Drugs reimbursements. The complaints allege violations of New York state law and advance common law claims for unfair trade practices, fraud, and unjust enrichment. In addition, the Consolidated Complaint and County of Nassau complaint allege that the defendants failed to accurately report the best price on the Covered Drugs to the Secretary of Health and Human Services pursuant to rebate agreements entered into with the Secretary of Health and Human Services, and excluded from their reporting certain drugs offered at discounts and other rebates that would have reduced the best price. We, along with the other defendants, have filed motions to dismiss the Consolidated Complaint and the complaint by the County of Nassau. These motions are currently pending. Biogen Idec has answered the complaints filed by the Counties of Erie, Oswego and Schenectady. Biogen Idec intends to defend itself vigorously against all of the allegations and claims in these lawsuits. At this stage of the litigation, we cannot make any estimate of a potential loss or range of loss.
We, along with several other major pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies, were also named as a defendant in a lawsuit filed by the Attorney General of Arizona. The lawsuit was filed in the Superior Court of the State of Arizona on December 6, 2005. The complaint alleges that the defendants fraudulently reported the Average Wholesale Price for certain drugs covered by the State of Arizonas Medicare and Medicaid programs, and marketed these drugs to providers based on the providers ability to collect inflated payments from the government and other third-party payors. The complaint alleges violations of Arizona state law based on consumer fraud and racketeering. The defendants have removed this case to federal court and the Joint Panel on Multi-District Litigation has transferred the case to Multi-District Litigation No. 1456 pending in the U.S. District Court for the District of Massachusetts. The parties have stipulated that defendants motions to dismiss will be briefed in February and March 2007. We intend to defend ourselves vigorously against all of the allegations and claims in this lawsuit. At this stage of the litigation, we cannot make any estimate of a potential loss or range of loss.
On January 6, 2006, we were served with a lawsuit, captioned United States of America ex rel. Paul P. McDermott v. Genentech, Inc. and Biogen Idec Inc., filed in the United States District Court of the District of Maine (Court). The lawsuit was filed under seal on July 29, 2005 by a former employee of our co-defendant Genentech pursuant to the False Claims Act, 31 U.S.C. section 3729 et. seq. On December 20, 2005, the U.S. government elected not to intervene, and the complaint was subsequently unsealed and served. On April 4, 2006, the plaintiff filed his first amended complaint alleging, among other things, that we directly solicited physicians and their staff members to illegally market off-label uses of RITUXAN for treating rheumatoid arthritis, provided illegal kickbacks to physicians to promote off-label uses, trained our employees in methods of avoiding the detection of these off-label sales and marketing activities, formed a network of employees whose assigned duties involved off-label promotion of RITUXAN, intended and caused the off-label promotion of RITUXAN to result in the submission of false claims to the government, and conspired with Genentech to defraud the government. The plaintiff seeks entry of judgment on behalf of the United States of America against the defendants, an award to the plaintiff as relator, and all costs, expenses, attorneys fees, interest and other appropriate relief. On May 4, 2006, we filed a motion to dismiss the first amended complaint on the grounds that the Court lacks subject matter jurisdiction, the complaint fails to state a claim and the claims were not pleaded with particularity. On December 14, 2006, the Magistrate Judge recommended that the Court dismiss the case based on our and Genentechs Motion to Dismiss. The Plaintiff filed objections to this recommendation and the matter awaits decision by the District Court Judge. At this stage of the litigation, we cannot make any estimate of a potential loss or range of loss.
On June 17, 2006, Biogen Idec filed a Demand for Arbitration against Genentech, Inc. with the American Arbitration Association (AAA). In the Demand for Arbitration, Biogen Idec alleged that Genentech breached the parties Amended and Restated Collaboration Agreement dated June 19, 2003 (the Collaboration Agreement), by failing to honor Biogen Idecs contractual right to participate in strategic decisions affecting the parties joint development and commercialization of certain pharmaceutical products, including humanized anti-CD20 antibodies. The original Demand for Arbitration filed by Biogen Idec focused primarily on Genentechs unilateral development of an anti-CD20 product known as a second generation anti-CD20 molecule to treat Neuromyelitis Optica (NMO), a relatively rare disorder of the central nervous system. Genentech filed an Answering Statement in response to Biogen Idecs Demand in which Genentech denied that it had breached the Collaboration Agreement and alleged that Biogen Idec had breached the Collaboration Agreement. Genentech also asserted for the first time that the November 2003 transaction in which Idec acquired Biogen and became Biogen Idec was a change of control of our company under the Collaboration Agreement, a position with which we disagree strongly. It is our position that the Biogen Idec merger did not constitute a change of control under the Collaboration Agreement and that, even if it did, Genentechs rights under the change of control provision, which must be asserted within ninety (90) days of the change of control event, have long since expired. We intend to vigorously assert that position if Genentech persists in making this claim. On December 5, 2006, Biogen Idec filed an Amended Demand for Arbitration with the AAA to make clear that the parties dispute also includes a disagreement over Genentechs unilateral development of another collaboration product a third generation anti-CD20 molecule to treat certain oncology indications. A three-member arbitration panel has been selected to decide this matter. The arbitration is in a very early stage and we cannot make a determination as to the likely outcome.
On August 10, 2004, Classen Immunotherapies, Inc. filed suit against us, GlaxoSmithKline, Chiron Corporation, Merck & Co., Inc., and Kaiser-Permanente, Inc. in the U.S. District Court for the District of Maryland contending that we induced infringement of U.S. Patent Nos, 6,420,139, 6,638,739, 5,728,383, and 5,723,283, all of which are directed to various methods of immunization or determination of immunization schedules. All Counts asserted against us by Classen were dismissed by the Court upon various motions filed by the Parties. In early December, Classen filed its initial appeal brief with the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit. In that brief, Classen argues for the first time that Biogen has no reporting duties and no activities related to FDA reporting regarding Hepatitis B vaccines and hence can have no claim to a safe harbor protection under Section 271(e)1. Classen asserts, however, that we are inducing infringement by having users consider risk prior to choosing an immunization schedule. Although our opposing brief will not be filed for several months, we will likely argue that Classen has waived this argument by not raising it in the district court and, moreover, that the argument lacks merit because we cannot induce infringement if there has been no actual infringement. We are unable, however, to predict the outcome of this appeal.
On January, 30, 2007, the Estate of Thaddeus Leoniak commenced a civil lawsuit in the Court of Common Pleas, Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania, against Biogen Idec, the Fox Chase Cancer Center and three physicians. The Complaint alleges that Thaddeus Leoniak died as a result of taking the drug ZEVALIN, and seeks to hold Biogen Idec strictly liable for placing an allegedly unreasonably dangerous product in the stream of commerce without proper warnings. The Complaint also seeks to hold the Company liable for alleged negligence in the design, manufacture, advertising, marketing, promoting, distributing, supplying and selling of ZEVALIN. The lawsuit seeks damages for pecuniary losses suffered by the decedents survivors and for compensatory damages for decedents pain and suffering, loss of earnings and deprivation of normal activities, all in an amount in excess of $50,000. On January 31, 2007, the Plaintiffs counsel demanded $7.0 million to settle the lawsuit. Biogen Idec has not formed an opinion that an unfavorable outcome is either probable or remote and does not express an opinion at this time as to the likely outcome of the matter or as to the magnitude or range of any potential loss. The Company believes that it has good and valid defenses to the Complaint and intends to vigorously defend the case.
In addition, we are involved in product liability claims and other legal proceedings generally incidental to our normal business activities. While the outcome of any of these proceedings cannot be accurately predicted, we do not believe the ultimate resolution of any of these existing matters would have a material adverse effect on our business or financial condition.
Item 5. Market for Registrants Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Our common stock trades on The NASDAQ Stock Market under the symbol BIIB. The following table shows the high and low sales price for our common stock as reported by The NASDAQ Stock Market for each quarter in the years ended December 31, 2006 and 2005.
As of February 15, 2007, there were approximately 4,400 stockholders of record of our common stock. In addition, as of February 15, 2007, 755 stockholders of record of Biogen, Inc. common stock have yet to exchange their shares of Biogen common stock for our common stock as contemplated by the merger.
We have not paid cash dividends since our inception. We currently intend to retain all earnings, if any, for use in the expansion of our business and, therefore, do not anticipate paying any cash dividends in the foreseeable future.
Recent Sales of Unregistered Securities
Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
A summary of issuer repurchase activity for 2006 is as follows:
The following financial data should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and related notes appearing elsewhere in this Form 10-K, beginning on page F-1.
BIOGEN IDEC INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA
Item 7. Managements Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.
In addition to historical information, this report contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties that could cause our actual results to differ materially from those reflected in our forward-looking statements. You can identify our forward-looking statements by our use of words such as anticipate, believe, estimate, expect, forecast, intend, plan, project, target, will and other words and terms of similar meaning. You also can identify them by the fact that they do not relate strictly to historical or current facts. Reference is made in particular to forward-looking statements regarding the anticipated level of future product sales, royalty revenues, expenses and profits, regulatory approvals, our long-term growth, the development and marketing of additional products, the impact of competitive products, the anticipated outcome of pending or anticipated litigation and patent-related proceedings, our ability to meet our manufacturing needs, the value of investments in certain marketable securities, and our plans to spend additional capital on external business development and research opportunities. Risk factors which could cause actual results to differ from our expectations and which could negatively impact our financial condition and results of operations are discussed in the section entitled Risk Factors in Part I of this report and elsewhere in this report. Unless required by law, we do not undertake any obligation to publicly update any forward-looking statements.
The following discussion should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and related notes appearing elsewhere in this Form 10-K, beginning on page F-1.
Biogen Idec Inc. was formed in 2003 upon the acquisition of Biogen, Inc. by IDEC Pharmaceutical Corporation in a merger transaction, or the Merger. Biogen Idec Inc. is an international biotechnology company that creates new standards of care in oncology, neurology, immunology and other specialty areas of unmet medical need.
We currently have five products:
Additionally, through April 2006, we recorded product revenues from sales of AMEVIVE® (alefacept). In April 2006, we sold the worldwide rights to this product to Astellas Pharma US, Inc., or Astellas. We will continue to manufacture and supply this product to Astellas for a period of up to 11 years. Under the terms of the supply agreement, we charge Astellas fixed amounts based on volume. Such amounts will be recognized as corporate partner revenue and are not expected to be significant.
The significant events that occurred during 2006 were as follows:
Most of our revenues are currently dependent on two products: AVONEX and RITUXAN. In the near term, we are dependent on the successful reintroduction of TYSABRI to grow our overall revenues and diversify our product offerings. In the longer term, our revenue growth is dependent on the successful clinical development, regulatory approval and launch of current pipeline products and in-licensed or acquired products and programs.
We expect to use our cash, cash equivalents and investments for working capital and general corporate purposes, including the acquisition of businesses, products, product rights, or technologies. At this time, we cannot accurately predict the effect of certain developments on the rate of revenue growth in 2007 and beyond, such as the degree of market acceptance, the impact of competition, the effectiveness of our sales and marketing efforts and the outcome of our current efforts to develop, receive approval for and successfully launch our near-term product candidates.
Continued growth of global AVONEX sales is dependent on maintaining AVONEXs position as the most prescribed multiple sclerosis, or MS, therapy in the U.S. and growing AVONEX market share outside the U.S. In both the U.S. and globally, we face increasing competition in the MS market from currently marketed products and future products in late stage development. We continue to generate data showing AVONEX to be an effective and safe choice for MS patients and physicians.
The majority of RITUXAN sales are currently from use in the oncology setting. We believe there is additional room for RITUXAN sales growth in oncology, particularly in the so-called maintenance setting of Non-Hodgkins Lymphoma, or NHL, approved in 2006. However, we believe a more significant driver of revenue growth in the future will be the immunology setting, where RITUXAN is currently indicated for anti-TNF (tumor necrosis factor), refractory rheumatoid arthritis, or RA, patients. Additional immunology indications for RITUXAN we are investigating include earlier stage disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs RA, or DMARD refractory RA, MS and lupus.
The U.S. and European TYSABRI launches are underway. After establishing the TOUCH risk minimization action plan, or RiskMAP, program in the U.S. and providing extensive safety education in the U.S. and Europe, we are now positioned to deliver the strong efficacy message to the market. Successful reintroduction and sales growth will be dependent on acceptance by physicians and MS patients.
Over the past few years, we have incurred significant expenditures related to conducting clinical studies to develop new pharmaceutical products and exploring the utility of our existing products in treating disorders beyond those currently approved in their respective labels. For 2007, we expect to continue to incur significant levels of research and development expenditures. Three pipeline products have advanced to late stage registrational trials:
In addition to the expense associated with these late stage trials, other pipeline products are expected to enter proof of concept trials in 2007, driving additional research and development expense.
In 2007, we expect to incur significant expenditures associated with manufacturing, selling and marketing our products. The aggregate amount of our sales and marketing expenses in 2007 will likely be higher than that incurred in 2006, primarily as a result of higher expenses for the ongoing TYSABRI launch in the U.S. and Europe.
As part of our business strategy, we plan to consider and, as appropriate, make acquisitions of other businesses, products, product rights or technologies. Our cash reserves and other liquid assets may be inadequate to consummate such acquisitions, and it may be necessary for us to raise substantial additional funds in the future to complete future transactions. In addition, as a result of our acquisition efforts, we are likely to experience significant charges to earnings for merger and related expenses (whether or not our efforts are successful) that may include transaction costs, closure costs or acquired in-process research and development charges.
We may experience significant fluctuations in quarterly results based primarily on the level and timing of:
Results of Operations
Revenues for the years ended December 31, 2006, 2005, and 2004 were as follows (in thousands):
Revenues by product for the years ended December 31, 2006, 2005, and 2004 were as follows (in thousands):
Revenues from AVONEX for the years ended December 31, 2006, 2005, and 2004 were as follows (in thousands):
For 2006 compared to 2005, U.S. sales of AVONEX increased $83.5 million, or 8.9%, due principally to the impact of price increases and a reduction in discounts associated with the introduction of the Medicare Part D prescription drug benefit. These increases were offset by lower volume. For 2006 compared to 2005, international sales of AVONEX increased $80.1 million, or 13.3%, primarily due to increases in volume and price, including the impact of patient mix. Foreign exchange accounted for a 0.6% increase in reported revenues; on a local currency basis, international sales increased 12.7%.
For 2005 compared to 2004, U.S. sales of AVONEX increased $16.1 million, or 1.7%, due to price increases, offset by lower volume. For 2005 compared to 2004, international sales of AVONEX increased $109.8 million, or 22.2%, primarily due to increases in volume and price, including the impact of patient mix. Foreign exchange accounted for a 2.1% increase in reported revenues; on a local currency basis, international sales increased 20.1%.
We expect to face increasing competition in the MS marketplace in and outside the U.S. from existing and new MS treatments, including TYSABRI, which may impact sales of AVONEX. We expect future sales of AVONEX to be dependent to a large extent on our ability to compete successfully with the products of our competitors.
Revenues from TYSABRI for the years ended December 31, 2006, 2005, and 2004 were as follows (in thousands):
Under the terms of a collaboration agreement with Elan Corporation plc, or Elan, we manufacture TYSABRI and collaborate with Elan on the products marketing, commercial distribution and on-going development activities. We recognize revenue for sales of TYSABRI in the U.S. upon Elans shipment of the product to third party distributors. We recognize revenue for sales of TYSABRI outside the U.S. at the time of product delivery to our customers.
In November 2004, TYSABRI was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, or FDA, as a treatment for relapsing forms of MS to reduce the frequency of clinical relapses. In February 2005, in consultation with the FDA, we and Elan voluntarily suspended the marketing and commercial distribution of TYSABRI, and we informed physicians that they should suspend dosing of TYSABRI until further notification. In 2005, our net revenue associated with sales of TYSABRI was $4.7 million, which consisted of revenue of $15.1 million from sales that occurred prior to our voluntary suspension, offset by an allowance for sales returns of $10.4 million related to returns of product sold prior to the suspension.
On June 5, 2006, the FDA approved a supplemental Biologics License Application, or sBLA, for the reintroduction of TYSABRI as a monotherapy treatment for relapsing forms of MS to slow the progression of disability and reduce the frequency of clinical relapses. On June 29, 2006, we and Elan announced that the European Medicines Agency, or EMEA, had approved TYSABRI as a similar treatment. In July 2006, we began to ship TYSABRI in both the United States and Europe. In 2006, we have recorded revenue on sales of TYSABRI in the U.S. and Europe relating to current activity of $11.9 million and $10.0 million, respectively. Prior to the suspension of TYSABRI in 2005, we shipped product to Elan in the U.S. and recognized revenue in accordance with the policy described above. As a result of the suspension of TYSABRI, we had deferred $14.0 million in revenue related to TYSABRI product that remained in Elans ending inventory. This amount was paid by Elan during 2005 and was subsequently recognized as revenue during 2006, as the uncertainty about the ultimate disposition of the product was eliminated.
In 2006, 2005 and 2004, sales of AMEVIVE were $11.5 million, $48.5 million, and $43.0 million, respectively, of which $5.0 million, $34.9 million, and $41.6 million, respectively, was generated in the U.S. The decrease in total AMEVIVE sales for 2006 compared to 2005 was due to the sale, in April 2006, of our worldwide rights and infrastructure related to sales, production, and marketing of AMEVIVE. The increase in sales in 2005 compared to 2004 was due to higher sales volumes.
Although we sold the rights to this product, we continue to report a small amount of product revenues related to shipments made by certain of our overseas joint ventures.
In 2006, 2005, and 2004 sales of ZEVALIN were $17.8 million, $20.8 million, and $23.0 million, respectively, of which $16.4 million, $19.4 million and $18.7 million, respectively, were generated in the U.S.
FUMADERM is a new product being sold by us for the first time beginning in the third quarter of 2006. This product line was acquired in our acquisition of Fumapharm in June 2006. Sales for 2006 were $9.5 million, all of which were generated in Germany.
Revenues from product sales are recognized when product is shipped and title and risk of loss has passed to the customer, typically upon delivery. Revenues are recorded net of applicable allowances for trade term discounts, wholesaler incentives, Medicaid rebates, Veterans Administration, or VA, rebates, managed care, patient assistance, product returns and other applicable allowances. The estimates we make with respect to these allowances represent significant judgments that we make with regard to revenue recognition.
Provisions for discounts and allowances reduced gross product revenues as follows (in millions):
Our product revenue reserves are based on estimates of the amounts earned or to be claimed on the related sales. These estimates take into consideration our historical experience, current contractual and statutory requirements, specific known market events and trends and forecasted customer buying patterns. If actual results vary, we may need to adjust these estimates, which could have an effect on earnings in the period of the adjustment.
Product revenue reserves are categorized as follows: discounts, contractual adjustments and returns.
Discount reserves include trade term discounts, wholesaler incentives and patient assistance. For 2006 compared to 2005, discounts decreased $3.6 million, or 3.4%, reflecting lower amounts of AVONEX distributed through our patient assistance program. For 2005 compared to 2004, discounts increased $28.5 million, or 36.5%, due, principally, to patient assistance providing AVONEX at higher levels for patients that had been using TYSABRI prior to its suspension.
Contractual adjustment reserves relate to Medicaid rebates, VA rebates and managed care. For 2006 compared to 2005, contractual adjustments were constant reflecting more activity in the managed care markets, offset by a reduction in Medicaid activity due to the introduction of Medicare Part D, the expanded prescription drug benefit program. For 2005 compared to 2004, contractual adjustments increased $18.5 million, or 24.6% due, principally, to the impact of higher reserves for managed care (associated with higher level of activity with respect to rebates) and Medicaid programs (associated with price increases).
Product return reserves are established for returns made by wholesalers and patients. In accordance with contractual terms, wholesalers are permitted to return product for reasons such as damaged or expired product. We also accept returns from our patients for various reasons. For 2006 compared to 2005, returns increased $12.7 million, or 48.8%, as a result of an adjustment of $6.9 million to increase reserve levels to correct prior period errors, and higher return experience in 2006. These increases were offset by the impact of returns made in connection with the suspension of TYSABRI in 2005. For 2005 compared to 2004, returns increased $7.3 million, or 39.0%, due, principally, to the expense of $9.7 million recorded in 2005 related to the suspension of TYSABRI.
Reserves for product returns are recorded in the period the related revenue is recognized, resulting in a reduction to product sales. The majority of wholesaler returns are due to product expiration. Expired product return reserves are estimated through a comparison of historical return data to their related sales on a production lot basis. Historical rates of return are determined for each product and are adjusted for known or expected changes in the marketplace specific to each product.
During the second quarter of 2006, we recorded an increase in our allowance for expired products of $12.3 million to correct for prior period errors. This increase in the allowance was recorded through an out of period reduction in net product revenue of $6.9 million and an increase in goodwill of $5.4 million. We identified and quantified the errors through an analysis of the historical rate for returns based on volumes of returns and the amount of credit granted to the returning distributors in past periods. At the time of Merger with Biogen, Inc. in 2003, Biogen, Inc. had understated its allowance for expired product by an estimated $5.4 million due to an incorrect methodology applied in calculating its reserve balance. Had we identified this error at the time of the Merger, the recorded goodwill would have been approximately $5.4 million higher than has been previously reflected. Biogen, Inc.s methodology was in error because it did not utilize known information in determining critical assumptions used in the basis of calculation. Our application of this incorrect methodology in the post-Merger period resulted in understating this reserve by an additional $6.9 million. In all cases, the correctly calculated rate of return is less than one percent of related gross product revenues. We have determined that the out of period correction of this error in 2006 is not material to our reported results. Additionally, we have determined that the error at the merger date is not material to any prior period balance sheet amounts and the error in the post-merger period is not material to any prior period reported results.
Unconsolidated Joint Business Revenues
We copromote RITUXAN in the U.S. in collaboration with Genentech, Inc., or Genentech, under a collaboration agreement between the parties. Under the collaboration agreement, we granted Genentech a worldwide license to develop, commercialize and market RITUXAN in multiple indications. In exchange for these worldwide rights, we have copromotion rights in the U.S. and a contractual arrangement under which Genentech shares a portion of the pretax U.S. copromotion profits of RITUXAN with us. This collaboration was created through a contractual arrangement, not through a joint venture or other legal entity. In June 2003, we amended and restated our collaboration agreement with Genentech to include the development and commercialization of one or more anti-CD20 antibodies targeting B-cell disorders, in addition to RITUXAN, for a broad range of indications.
In the U.S., we contribute resources to selling and the continued development of RITUXAN. Genentech is responsible for worldwide manufacturing of RITUXAN. Genentech also is responsible for the primary support functions for the commercialization of RITUXAN in the U.S. including selling and marketing, customer service, order entry, distribution, shipping and billing. Genentech also incurs the majority of continuing development costs for RITUXAN. Under the arrangement, we have a limited sales force as well as limited development activity.
Under the terms of separate sublicense agreements between Genentech and F. Hoffman-La Roche Ltd., or Roche, commercialization of RITUXAN outside the U.S. is the responsibility of Roche, except in Japan where Roche copromotes RITUXAN in collaboration with Zenyaku Kogyo Co Ltd., or Zenyaku. There is no direct contractual arrangement between us and Roche or Zenyaku.
Revenue from unconsolidated joint business consists of our share of pretax copromotion profits, which is calculated by Genentech, and includes consideration of our RITUXAN-related sales force and development expenses, and royalty revenue from sales of RITUXAN outside the U.S. by Roche and Zenyaku. Pre-tax copromotion profit consists of U.S. sales of RITUXAN to third-party customers net of discounts and allowances and less the cost to manufacture RITUXAN, third-party royalty expenses, distribution, selling and marketing expenses, and joint development expenses incurred by Genentech and us.
Under the amended and restated collaboration agreement, our current pretax copromotion profit-sharing formula, which resets annually, is as follows:
In 2006, 2005, and 2004, the 40% threshold was met during the first quarter.
For each calendar year or portion thereof following the approval date of the first new anti-CD20 product, the pretax copromotion profit-sharing formula for RITUXAN and other anti-CD20 products sold by us and Genentech will change. (See Note 16 to the consolidated financial statements for further detail).
Copromotion profits for the years ended December 31, 2006, 2005 and 2004, consist of the following (in thousands):
Net sales of RITUXAN to third-party customers in the U.S. recorded by Genentech for 2006 were approximately $2.1 billion compared to $1.8 billion in 2005 and $1.6 billion in 2004. The increase in 2006 is due, principally, to the approval by the FDA of RITUXAN for two new indications, RA, and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, and an increase in wholesale prices. The increase in 2005 from 2004 was due, principally, to increased market penetration in treatments of B-cell NHLs and chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and increases in the wholesale price of RITUXAN.
Revenues from unconsolidated joint business for the years ended December 31, 2006, 2005 and 2004, consist of the following (in thousands):
For 2006 compared to 2005, reimbursement of selling and development expenses increased $13.5 million, or 28.3%. For 2005 compared to 2004, such reimbursements increased $9.9 million, or 26.2%. In both cases the increase was due, principally, to the expansion of the oncology sales force and development costs we incurred related to the development of RITUXAN for RA.
Our royalty revenue on sales of RITUXAN outside the U.S. is based on Roche and Zenyakus net sales to third-party customers and is recorded on a cash basis. Royalty revenues in 2006 compared to 2005 increased $46.5 million, or 31.5%, due to increased market penetration and increase in prices. Royalty revenues in 2005 compared to 2004 increased $26.5 million, or 21.9% due to increased sales of RITUXAN outside the U.S, offset by a $11.3 million royalty credit to Genentech in 2005. The royalty period with respect to all products is 11 years from the first commercial sale of such product on a country by country basis. RITUXAN was launched in 1998 in most European countries and in 2001 in Japan.
Under the amended and restated collaboration agreement, we will receive lower royalty revenue from Genentech on sales by Roche and Zenyaku of new anti-CD20 products, if and when commercially available, as compared to royalty revenue received on sales of RITUXAN.
Other revenues consist of the following (in thousands):
We receive revenues from royalties on sales by our licensees of a number of products covered under patents that we control. Our royalty revenues on sales of RITUXAN outside the U.S. are included in revenues from unconsolidated joint business in the accompanying consolidated statements of income.
For 2006 compared to 2005, royalty revenue decreased $7.0 million, or 7.5%. For 2005 compared to 2004, royalty revenues decreased $5.8 million, or 5.8%. In both cases the decreases were due, principally, to decreases in sales levels of products under license and to the expiration of certain contracts.
We receive royalties from Schering-Plough Corporation, or Schering-Plough, on sales of its alpha interferon products in the U.S. under an exclusive license to our alpha interferon patents and patent applications. Schering-Plough sells its INTRON® A (interferon alfa-2b) brand of alpha interferon in the U.S. for a number of indications, including the treatment of chronic hepatitis B and hepatitis C. Schering-Plough also sells other alpha interferon products for the treatment of hepatitis C, including REBETRON® Combination Therapy containing INTRON A and REBETOL® (ribavirin, USP), PEG-INTRON® (peginterferon alfa-2b), a pegylated form of alpha interferon, and PEG-INTRON in combination with REBETOL. Beginning in 2006, we no longer receive royalties on sales that are made in Italy.
We hold several patents related to hepatitis B antigens produced by genetic engineering techniques. These antigens are used in recombinant hepatitis B vaccines and in diagnostic test kits used to detect hepatitis B infection. We receive royalties from sales of hepatitis B vaccines in several countries, including the U.S., from GlaxoSmithKline plc and Merck and Co. Inc. We have also licensed our proprietary hepatitis B rights, on an antigen-by-antigen and nonexclusive basis, to several diagnostic kit manufacturers, including Abbott Laboratories, the major worldwide marketer of hepatitis B diagnostic kits.
We receive ongoing royalties on sales of ANGIOMAX® (bivalirudin) by The Medicines Company, or TMC. TMC sells ANGIOMAX in the U.S. for use as an anticoagulant in combination with aspirin in patients with unstable angina undergoing percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. TMC sells ANGIOMAX through distributors in Europe, Canada and Latin America. Sales levels, and accordingly, royalty revenues, increased during 2006.
Finally, we hold several patents in Japan and Taiwan related to the production of synthetic Interleukin 2. Interleukin 2 is a substance made in the human body that stimulates the proliferation of suppressor cells and is used in the treatment of several types of cancer and chronic viral infections. Shionogi & Co., Ltd. pays us royalties for use of these patented production techniques.
We anticipate that total royalty revenues in future years will continue to represent a lower proportion of our total revenues. Royalty revenues may fluctuate as a result of fluctuations in sales levels of products sold by our licensees from quarter to quarter due to the timing and extent of major events such as new indication approvals or government-sponsored programs.
Corporate partner revenues represent contract revenues and license fees.
In 2004, we received a $10.0 million payment from Schering AG for the EMEA grant of marketing approval of ZEVALIN in the EU. The payment represented, in part, a milestone payment to compensate us for preparing, generating, and collecting data that was critical to the EMEA marketing approval process as to which we have no continuing involvement.
Costs and expenses are as follows (in thousands):
Cost of Sales
Cost of sales includes the following (in thousands):
Cost of product revenues, included in cost of sales, by product are as follows (in thousands):
For 2006 compared to 2005, cost of product revenue for AVONEX increased $6.2 million, or 2.7%, in line with increased sales levels but slightly lower as a percent of revenue due to lower costs associated with failures of quality specifications in 2006 compared to 2005. For 2005 compared to 2004, cost of product revenue decreased
$251.5 million, or 52.4%, due, principally, to the 2004 impact of the difference between the cost of AVONEX inventory recorded at the Merger date and its historical manufacturing cost. A substantial portion of this amount, $277.5 million, was recognized as cost of sales when the acquired inventory was sold or written-down in 2004. All of the AVONEX inventory acquired in the Merger was sold or written off by December 31, 2004.
Sales of TYSABRI resumed in July 2006 following FDA approval to reintroduce the product for certain indications. Because of the suspension in 2005, no product was shipped in 2005 subsequent to February 2005. The cost of product revenues for 2005 is due, principally, to write-offs of inventory associated with the suspension of TYSABRI in 2005. The cost of goods sold in 2006 represents, principally, the cost of shipments made since July 2006 in the U.S. and Europe.
We manufactured TYSABRI during the first and second quarter of 2005 and completed our scheduled production of TYSABRI during July 2005. Because of the uncertain future commercial availability of TYSABRI at the time, and our inability to predict to the required degree of certainty that TYSABRI inventory would be realized in commercial sales prior to the expiration of its shelf life, we expensed $23.2 million of costs related to the manufacture of TYSABRI in the first quarter of 2005 to cost of product revenues. At the time of production, the inventory was believed to be commercially saleable. Beginning in the second quarter of 2005, as we worked with clinical investigators to understand the possible risks of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, or PML, we charged the costs related to the manufacture of TYSABRI to research and development expense. As a result, we expensed $21.5 million related to the manufacture of TYSABRI to research and development expense during 2005. At December 31, 2005, there was no carrying value of TYSABRI inventory on our consolidated balance sheet.
As of December 31, 2006, $41.3 million and $0.6 million of TYSABRI inventory value is included in work in process and finished goods, respectively. In addition, we have product on hand that was written-down due to the uncertainties surrounding the TYSABRI suspension but which is available to fill future orders. The approximate value of such product, based on its cost of manufacture, was $36.9 million. As we sell TYSABRI, we are realizing lower than normal cost of sales and, therefore, higher margins, as we ship the inventory that was previously written down. For 2006, cost of sales was approximately $2.6 million lower due to the sale of TYSABRI that had been previously written-off.
For 2006 compared to 2005, cost of product revenue for AMEVIVE decreased $84.0 million, or 89.4%, due to the disposition of our worldwide rights to the product in April 2006. For 2005 compared to 2004, cost of product revenue increased $66.2 million, or 238.1%. Of this increase, approximately $66.0 million represented the difference between the cost of AMEVIVE inventory recorded at the time of the Merger and its historical cost which was recognized as cost of product revenues when the inventory was sold or written-off in 2005. Additionally, in connection with the divestiture of AMEVIVE we recorded charges of $31.8 million to write-down AMEVIVE inventory to its net realizable value. This amount was entirely related to the inventory step-up recorded at the time of the Merger.
For 2006 compared to 2005, cost of product revenue for ZEVALIN decreased $6.7 million, or 29.2%, due, principally, to the impairment of certain capitalized patents in 2005 and decline in sales volumes. For 2005 compared to 2004, cost of product revenue for ZEVALIN increased $3.8 million, or 20.0%, due to inventory write-offs and impairments.
Cost of product revenues for FUMADERM was $3.2 million, which includes the impact of an inventory fair value step up adjustment of $2.9 million in connection with purchase accounting for the Fumapharm acquisition during 2006.
We periodically review our inventories for excess or obsolete inventory and write-down obsolete or otherwise unmarketable inventory to its estimated net realizable value. If the actual net realizable value is less than that estimated by us, or if there are further determinations that inventory will not be marketable based on estimates of demand, additional inventory write-downs may be required. Additionally, our products are subject to strict quality control and monitoring which we perform throughout the manufacturing process. Periodically, certain batches or units of product may no longer meet quality specifications or may expire. As a result, included in product cost of revenues were write-downs of commercial inventory that did not meet quality specifications or that became obsolete due to dating expiration. In all cases this product inventory was written-down to its net realizable value.
Included in cost of product revenues are inventory write-downs as follows (in thousands):
The write-downs were the result of the following (in thousands):
In 2005, write-downs of AVONEX inventory included $8.4 million for remaining supplies of the alternative presentations of AVONEX that were no longer needed after the FDA approved a new component for the pre-filled syringe formulation of AVONEX in March 2005. The ZEVALIN inventory was written-down when it was determined that it would not be marketable based on estimates of demand. Additionally, in the third quarter of 2005, we recorded a charge of $5.7 million to cost of product revenues related to an impairment of certain capitalized ZEVALIN patents, to reflect the adjustment to net realizable value.
For 2006, 2005 and 2004, cost of royalty revenues were $4.4 million, $4.4 million, and $5.6 million, respectively. Gross margin on royalty revenues were approximately 95%, 95%, and 94%, respectively. We expect that gross margins on royalty revenues will fluctuate in the future based on changes in sales volumes for specific products from which we receive royalties.
Research and development expenses totaled $718.4 million in 2006 compared to $747.7 million in 2005 and $685.9 million in 2004.
For 2006 compared to 2005, research and development expenses decreased $29.3 million, or 3.9%, due, principally, to: reductions in salary and benefit expense arising from headcount reductions in 2005 ($61.5 million); the elimination of costs related to the NIMO facility that was sold in the second quarter of 2005 ($20.0 million); and lower expenses for clinical trials, primarily related to TYSABRI and AMEVIVE ($23.0 million). These decreases were offset by an increase in expenses for new collaborations during the year ($11.2 million); higher clinical manufacturing expense ($10.8 million); and the impact of share-based compensation recognized under SFAS 123(R) in 2006 ($51.5 million).
For 2006, share-based compensation expense included in research and development, computed under APB 25, would have been $32.9 million.
For 2005 compared to 2004, research and development expenses increased $61.8 million, or 9.0%, due, principally, to: upfront licensing fee and milestones related to a collaboration with PDL BioPharma, Inc., or PDL ($50.0 million); biopharmaceutical operations and global quality initiatives for our manufacturing activities, including expenses related to the manufacture of TYSABRI ($11.1 million); increased depreciation and infrastructure expenses ($16.7 million); discovery research initiatives ($7.1 million); and increased pre-clinical research activities ($9.4 million). These increases were offset by a decrease in expenses for our ongoing clinical trials, primarily related to lower than expected clinical trial expenses for TYSABRI and AMEVIVE ($31.4 million).
We expect that research and development expenses will increase in 2007 for a number of reasons, including our plans to commit significant additional investments in business development and research opportunities.
During the quarter ended June 30, 2006, we recorded expense related to IPR&D of $330.5 million. Of this amount, $207.4 million related to acquired IPR&D from the acquisition of Fumapharm and $123.1 million related to acquired IPR&D from the acquisition of Conforma. See Note 2, Acquisitions and Other Agreements, of the consolidated financial statements for details on future expenditures with respect to IPR&D.
Since completing these acquisitions in the second quarter of 2006, we have spent $17.0 million related to the Fumapharm IPR&D, and $4.2 million on the Conforma IPR&D.
The major risks and uncertainties associated with the timely and successful completion of these projects are that we will not be able to confirm the safety and efficacy of the technology with data from clinical trials and that we will not be able to obtain necessary regulatory approvals. No assurance can be given that the underlying assumptions used to forecast the cash flows or the timely and successful completion of such projects will materialize, as estimated. For these reasons, among others, actual results may vary significantly from estimated results.
Selling, general and administrative expenses totaled $685.1 million in 2006 compared to $644.8 million in 2005 and $580.3 million in 2004.
For 2006 compared to 2005, selling, general and administrative expenses increased $40.3 million, or 6.3%, due, principally, to: higher expenses related to RITUXAN in RA ($21.5 million); increased expenses for the re-launch of TYSABRI ($20.3 million); lower reimbursements of costs related to collaboration agreements ($4.3 million); and higher costs related to share-based compensation recognized under SFAS 123(R) in 2006 ($45.2 million). These increases were offset by: lower expenses for AMEVIVE due to its divestiture ($31.0 million); a decrease in expenses for ZEVALIN ($20.0 million), due in part to the planned divestiture, and also due to the impact of a charge taken in 2005 related to a write-down of remaining prepaid expense associated with our arrangement with MDS (Canada).
For 2006, approximately $80.8 million of share-based compensation is included in selling, general and administrative expenses in connection with the adoption of SFAS 123(R) in 2006.
For 2006, share-based compensation expense included in selling, general and administrative expense, computed under APB 25 would have been $51.5 million.
For 2005 compared to 2004, selling, general and administrative expenses increased $64.5 million, or 11.1%, due, principally, to: the neurology sales force expansion in the U.S. ($8.0 million); increased international neurology sales activities primarily in the EU ($10.6 million); customer service initiatives ($7.2 million); oncology sales and marketing initiatives primarily due to a charge of $12.9 million related to a write-down of remaining prepaid expense associated with our arrangement with MDS (Canada) ($19.7 million). These increases were partially offset by a decrease in our immunology sales and marketing programs largely due to the pending AMEVIVE divestiture ($7.4 million). Included in the increase of selling, general and administrative fees for 2005
were administrative expenses, primarily related to consulting fees and grants ($15.7 million), information technology primarily compensation and consulting costs ($8.6 million), and compensation and other costs associated with the retirement of our former Executive Chairman in December 2005 ($7.1 million).
We anticipate that total selling, general, and administrative expenses in 2007 will be higher than 2006 due to sales and marketing and other general and administrative expenses to primarily support AVONEX and TYSABRI.
Our share-based compensation programs consist of share-based awards granted to employees including stock options, restricted stock, performance share units and restricted stock units, or RSUs, as well as our employee stock purchase plan, or ESPP.
Effective January 1, 2006, we adopted Statement of Financial Accounting Standards No. 123 (revised 2004) Share-based Payment, or SFAS 123(R). This Statement requires compensation cost relating to share-based awards to be recognized in the financial statements using a fair-value measurement method. Under the fair value method, the estimated fair value of awards is charged against income over the requisite service period, which is generally the vesting period. We selected the modified prospective method as prescribed in SFAS 123(R) and, therefore, prior periods were not restated. Under the modified prospective method, this Statement was applied to new awards granted in 2006, as well as to the unvested portion of previously granted equity-based awards for which the requisite service had not been rendered as of December 31, 2005.
The fair value of performance based stock units is based on the market price of our stock on the date of grant and assumes that the performance criteria will be met and the target payout level will be achieved. Compensation expense is adjusted for subsequent changes in the outcome of performance-related conditions until the vesting date. In the year ended December 31, 2006, we recorded share-based compensation expense of $126.8 million associated with the SFAS 123(R) adoption. This expense is net of a cumulative effect pre-tax adjustment of $5.6 million, or $3.8 million after-tax. The cumulative effect results from the application of an estimated forfeiture rate for current and prior period unvested restricted stock awards. In the year ended December 31, 2005, we recorded share-based compensation expense of $36.9 million.
In September 2005, we began implementing a comprehensive strategic plan, or the 2005 Strategic Plan, in conjunction with which we consolidated or eliminated certain internal management layers and staff functions, resulting in the reduction of our workforce that represented approximately 17%, or approximately 650 positions worldwide at that time. These adjustments took place across company functions, departments and sites, and were substantially implemented by the end of 2005. We recorded restructuring charges of $31.4 million in connection with these activities, of which $28.3 million related to severance and other employee termination costs, including health benefits, outplacement and bonuses. Other costs were $3.1 million and included write-downs of certain research assets that will no longer be utilized, consulting costs in connection with the restructuring effort, and costs related to the acceleration of restricted stock, offset by the reversal of previously recognized compensation due to unvested restricted stock cancellations.
During 2006, we incurred additional restructuring costs associated with acquisitions and planned dispositions. We incurred $1.2 million in severance costs associated with the acquisition of Conforma during 2006 and $1.7 million related in headcount reductions related to the planned disposition of our ZEVALIN product line.
For 2006, $3.6 million of restructuring charges are included in selling, general and administrative expenses. Costs not yet paid as of December 31, 2006, were $2.1 million, and are included in accrued expenses and other on our consolidated balance sheet. See Note 21, Severance and Other Restructuring Costs, of the consolidated financial statements, for details on the change in reserve levels related to severance.
We may have additional charges in future periods. The amount of those future charges cannot be determined at this time.
On December 16, 2005, Dr. William H. Rastetter, our former Executive Chairman, entered into a letter agreement confirming Dr. Rastetters retirement as Executive Chairman and Chairman of the Board and his resignation from the Board, all effective as of December 30, 2005. As a result, Dr. Rastetter was entitled to, among other things, payments equal to his 2005 target bonus and three times the sum of his annual salary and target bonus, immediate vesting of his unvested stock options and restricted stock awards. These charges related to Dr. Rastetters retirement amounted to $7.1 million, and no liability related to Dr. Rastetters retirement remains.
In 2004, we recorded charges of $4.4 million related to severance obligations for certain employees affected by the Merger in our San Diego facilities, $2.3 million of restructuring costs related to the relocation of our European headquarters, and $1.0 million related to severance obligations for certain employees affected by the Merger in our Cambridge facilities. At December 31, 2006, we have no significant remaining liabilities related to the 2004 obligations.
As of March 31, 2005, after our voluntary suspension of TYSABRI, we reconsidered our construction plans and determined that we would proceed with the bulk manufacturing component of our large-scale biologic manufacturing facility in Hillerod, Denmark. Additionally, we added a labeling and packaging component to the project, but determined that we would no longer proceed with the fill-finish component of the large-scale biological manufacturing facility. As a result, we recorded an impairment charge of approximately $6.2 million in 2005 related to the fill-finish component that had previously been capitalized.
In June 2005, we sold our large-scale biologics manufacturing facility in Oceanside, California, known as NIMO, along with approximately 60 acres of real property located in Oceanside, California upon which NIMO is located, together with improvements, related property rights, and certain personal property intangibles and contracts at or related to the real property. Total consideration for the sale was $408.1 million. The loss from this transaction was $83.5 million which consisted primarily of the write-down of NIMO to net selling price, sales and transfer taxes, and other associated transaction costs.
In February 2006, we sold our clinical manufacturing facility in Oceanside, California, known as NICO. The assets associated with the facility were included in assets held for sale on our consolidated balance sheet as of December 31, 2005. Total consideration was $29.0 million. In 2005, we recorded impairment charges totaling $28.0 million to reduce the carrying value of NICO to its net realizable value. No additional loss resulted from completion of the sale.
In December 2006, we completed the sale of one of the buildings in our Cambridge, Massachusetts facility, known as Bio 1. Proceeds from the sale were approximately $39.5 million. We recorded a pre-tax gain of approximately $15.6 million on the sale. We will continue to occupy a minor portion of the building through December 31, 2007 under a leasing arrangement and have recorded prepaid rent of approximately $0.7 million at December 31, 2006, representing our future commitment under the leaseback arrangement.
During 2006, we recorded a gain of $34.2 million coincident with the acquisition of Fumapharm in accordance with EITF 04-1, Accounting for Preexisting Relationships between the Parties to a Business Combination. The gain related to the settlement of a preexisting collaboration agreement between Fumapharm and us. The collaboration agreement had been entered into in October 2003 and required payments to Fumapharm of certain royalty amounts. The market rate for such payments was determined to have been higher at the acquisition date due, principally, to the increased technical feasibility of BG-12. The gain relates to the difference between the royalty rates at the time
the agreement was entered into as compared to the rates at the time the agreement was effectively settled by virtue of our acquisition of Fumapharm.
During 2006, we recorded a charge of $28.1 million in connection with a settlement agreement with Fumedica. The charge related to the settlement of the agreement with Fumedica under which we were contingently obligated to make royalty payments with respect to a successful launch of BG-12 for psoriasis in Germany. Under the terms of the settlement agreement, we will not be required to make any royalty payments to Fumedica if BG-12 is successfully launched for psoriasis in Germany. The $28.1 million amount has been expensed as it relates to a product that has not reached technological feasibility.
Other income (expense), net, is as follows (in thousands):
For 2006 compared to 2005, interest income increased $38.5 million, or 61.3%, due, principally to higher levels of cash and marketable securities. For 2005 compared to 2004, interest income increased $5.5 million, or 9.7% due, principally, to higher yields.
For 2006 compared to 2005, interest expense decreased $8.8 million, or 91.0%, due to the repurchase of our senior notes due in 2032 in the second quarter of 2005. For 2005 compared to 2004, interest expense decreased $9.3 million, or 49.0%, due to the repurchase of our senior notes in the second quarter of 2005 and lower amortization of the issuance costs related to the senior notes.
Other income (expense), net, included the following (in thousands):
The impairment of investment is due, principally, to the other than temporary impairments in our strategic investments portfolio. We may incur additional charges on these investments in the future.
For 2006, 2005 and 2004, amortization expense was $267.0 million, $302.3 million and $347.7 million, respectively.
For 2006 compared to 2005, amortization expense decreased $35.3 million, or 11.7%, due, principally, to the impact of a change in amortization for core technology in accordance with our policy from economic consumption in 2005 to the straight-line method in the third quarter of 2006. This change accounted for a decrease of approximately $18 million. Additionally, approximately $5 million of the decrease relates to the impact of lower amortization as a result of the revised economic consumption forecast for 2006 versus 2005 that impacted the first six months of 2006. Additionally, in 2005, a charge of $7.9 million had been recorded to write-down certain core technology intangible assets to net realizable value.
As of September 30, 2006, in connection with the establishment of our annual Long Range Plan, we reforecasted the economic consumption of AVONEX, based on our revised forecasts of future sales. Additionally, based on our policy, we began to calculate amortization under the straight-line method as it resulted in a greater amount than the amount computed under the economic use method. The straight-line calculation will be applied until our remeasurement in conjunction with the 2008 Long Range Plan in the third quarter of 2007.
For 2005 compared to 2004, amortization expense decreased $45.4 million, or 13.1%, due, principally, to a change in estimate in the calculation of economic consumption for core technology, offset by a $8.0 million charge to write-down certain core technology intangible assets to net realizable value in 2005.
In the third quarter of 2005, we completed a review of our business opportunities in each of the relevant commercial markets in which our products are sold and determined their expected profitability. As a result of this review, in the third quarter of 2005, management determined that certain clinical trials would not continue which indicated that the carrying value of certain technology intangible assets related to future sales of AVONEX in Japan may not be recoverable. As a result, we recorded a charge of approximately $7.9 million to amortization of acquired intangible assets, which reflects the adjustment to net realizable value of technology intangible assets related to AVONEX.
In the third quarter of 2004, management determined that certain clinical trials would not continue which indicated that the carrying value of certain core technology intangible assets related to AMEVIVE may not be recoverable. As a result, in the third quarter of 2004, we recorded an impairment charge of approximately $27.8 million to amortization of acquired intangible assets, which reflects the adjustment to net realizable value of core technology intangible assets related to AMEVIVE.
We review our intangible assets for impairment periodically and whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value of an asset may not be recoverable. If future events or circumstances indicate that the carrying value of these assets may not be recoverable, we may be required to record additional charges to our results of operations.
A reconciliation of the U.S. federal statutory tax rate to the effective tax rate for the periods ending December 31 is as follows:
Our effective tax rate varied from the U.S. federal statutory rate due, principally, to the impact of foreign taxes, fair value adjustments, and IPR&D. The fair value adjustments relate to the impact of the tax treatment of the amortization of acquired intangible assets in foreign jurisdictions. Foreign taxes adjustments relate, principally, to the impact of significantly lower tax rates in foreign jurisdictions. The impact of IPR&D relate to the write-off of IPR&D in connection with the acquisitions of Conforma and Fumapharm, which was non-deductible for income tax purposes.
We have tax credit carryforwards for federal and state income tax purposes available to offset future taxable income. The utilization of our tax credits may be subject to an annual limitation under the Internal Revenue Code due to a cumulative change of ownership of more than 50% in prior years. However, we anticipate that this annual limitation will result only in a slight deferral in the utilization of our net tax credits. Based upon the level of historical taxable income and income tax liabilities and projections for future taxable income over the periods that our deferred tax assets are either tax deductible or to which our tax credits may be carried, we believe it is more likely than not that we will realize the entire benefits of our deferred tax assets. In the event that actual results differ from our estimates of future taxable income or we adjust our estimates in future periods, we may need to establish a valuation allowance, which could materially impact our financial position and results of operations in that period.
On October 22, 2004, the American Jobs Creation Act of 2004, or the Act, was signed into law. The Act created a temporary incentive, which expired on December 31, 2005, for U.S. multinationals to repatriate accumulated income earned outside the U.S. at an effective tax rate that could be as low as 5.25%. On December 21, 2004, the Financial Accounting Standards Board, or FASB issued FASB staff position 109-2, Accounting and Disclosure Guidance for the Foreign Earnings Repatriation Provision within the American Jobs Creation Act of 2004, or FSP 109-2. FSP 109-2 allowed companies additional time to evaluate the effect of the law on whether unrepatriated foreign earnings continue to qualify for SFAS 109s exception to recognizing deferred tax liabilities. We completed our evaluation during the fourth quarter of 2005 and decided to take advantage of this temporary tax incentive. A total distribution of $196.0 million was made by one of our foreign subsidiaries to one of our U.S. subsidiaries in December 2005. We incurred a charge to our consolidated results of operations of $11.0 million in the fourth quarter of 2005 for the tax cost related to the distribution. The Act also provides a deduction for domestic manufacturing, which reduced our effective tax rate by approximately 1.3% for 2005. We estimate that the deduction will reduce our effective tax rate by a higher amount in future years, as the deduction is phased-in.
During the fourth quarter of 2005, the Internal Revenue Service, or IRS, completed its examination of legacy Biogen, Inc.s, now Biogen Idec MA, Inc.s, consolidated federal income tax returns for the fiscal years 2001 and 2002 and issued an assessment. We subsequently paid the majority of the amounts assessed and are appealing one issue. As a result of this and other income tax audit activity, Biogen Idec MA, Inc. reassessed its liability for income
tax contingencies to reflect the IRS findings and recorded a $13.8 million reduction in these liabilities during the fourth quarter of 2005. The corresponding effects of the adjustments to the liability for income tax contingencies through 2004 resulted in a reduction in goodwill of $20.7 million for amounts related to periods prior to the Merger and an increase in income tax expense associated with continuing operations of $6.9 million in 2005.
On September 12, 2006, we received a Notice of Assessment from the Massachusetts Department of Revenue for $38.9 million, including penalties and interest, with respect to the 2001, 2002 and 2003 tax years. We believe that we have meritorious defenses to the proposed adjustment and will vigorously oppose the assessment. We believe that the assessment does not impact the level of our liabilities for income taxes. However, there is a possibility that we may not prevail in all of our assertions. If this is resolved unfavorably in the future based on facts and conditions currently not available to us, this could have a material impact on our future effective tax rate and our results of operations in the period, or periods, in which an event would occur.
We are currently evaluating the impact of FIN 48, Accounting for Uncertainty in Income Taxes an interpretation of FASB Statement No. 109, on our financial statements.
We have financed our operating and investing activities principally through cash flows from our operations. We expect to finance our current and planned operating requirements principally through cash from operations, as well as existing cash resources. We believe that these funds will be sufficient to meet our operating requirements for the foreseeable future. However, we may, from time to time, seek additional funding through a combination of new collaborative agreements, strategic alliances and additional equity and debt financings or from other sources. Our working capital and capital requirements will depend upon numerous factors, including:
In connection with the strategic plan that we announced in September 2005, we intend to commit significant additional capital to external research and development opportunities. To date, we have financed our external growth initiatives through existing cash resources. We expect to finance our future growth initiative requirements either through existing cash resources or a combination of existing cash resources and debt financings.
Until required for operations, we invest our cash reserves in bank deposits, certificates of deposit, commercial paper, corporate notes, foreign and U.S. government instruments and other readily marketable debt instruments in accordance with our investment policy.
Cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities available-for-sale were as follows (in thousands):
In 2006, 2005, and 2004, net cash provided by operations was $841.3 million, $889.5 million, $728.0 million, respectively.
For 2006 compared to 2005, net cash provided by operations decreased $48.2 million or 5.4%. The decrease in cash provided by operations is primarily attributable to increases in asset accounts and reduction in liabilities, offset by higher earnings. Specifically, cash used to finance movements in working capital accounts gave rise to a use of funds in the current year of $96.5 million as compared to a source of funds of $139.8 million in the prior year. The current year includes higher non-cash expenses in 2006 as compared to 2005. The principal components of the increase in non-cash charges were acquired in-process research and development of $330.5 million related to the 2006 acquisitions of Fumapharm and Conforma, offset by a decrease in impairments expense of $134.6 million for 2006 as compared to 2005.
For 2005 compared to 2004, net cash provided by operations increased $161.5 million or 22.2%. The increase is primarily attributable to increases in non-cash impairment expense of $115.5 million offset by increases in asset accounts and reduction in liabilities. Specifically, cash used to finance movements in working capital asset and liability accounts gave rise to a source of funds in 2005 of $139.8 million as compared to a source of funds in 2004 of $258.7 million.
In 2006, 2005, and 2004 investing activities were a net source (use) of cash of ($599.8) million, $417.7 million and ($382.4) million, respectively.
In 2006, our major uses of cash for investing activities were for the acquisitions of Fumapharm and Conforma of approximately $363.3 million, net purchases of marketable securities of $162.8 million, and net property, plant and equipment additions of $124.1 million offset by proceeds from the disposition of AMEVIVE of $59.8 million. In 2005, our major sources of cash consisted of $408.1 million of proceeds from the sale of our Oceanside, California manufacturing facility. Additionally, approximately $447.9 million of net cash was provided from proceeds from sales of marketable securities. We sold marketable securities in the second quarter of 2005 to fund the repurchase of our senior notes, discussed below. Cash used for investing activities consisted of $318.4 million to fund construction projects and purchase property and equipment, including our research and development and administration campus in San Diego and manufacturing facility in Oceanside, and $119.9 million for investments in marketable securities of PDL, Sunesis Pharmaceuticals, Inc., or Sunesis, and other strategic investments. In 2004, the major use of cash was acquisitions of property plant and equipment of $361.0 million.
In 2006, 2005, and 2004, net cash used in financing activities was $148.4 million, $948.5, and $451.0 million, respectively.
In 2006, the primary use of cash was $320.3 million for repurchase of common stock under our stock repurchase program, offset by $147.0 million in proceeds from the issuance of treasury stock in connection with stock based compensation arrangements. The primary uses of cash in 2005 were for the repurchase of senior notes
of $746.4 million and $322.6 million for repurchase of common stock under our stock repurchase program, offset by $119.6 million for issuance of treasury stock in connection with stock based compensation arrangements.
In 2004, the major use of cash was for the purchase of treasury stock of $734.4 million offset by cash inflows from the issuance of both common and treasury stock for stock based compensation arrangements of $273.5 million.
In April and May 2002, we raised approximately $696 million through the issuance of our senior notes, net of underwriting commissions and expenses of $18.4 million. The senior notes are zero coupon and were priced with a yield to maturity of 1.75% annually. On April 29, 2005, holders of 99.2% of the outstanding senior notes exercised their right under the indenture governing the senior notes to require us to repurchase their senior notes. On May 2, 2005, we paid $746.4 million in cash to repurchase those senior notes with an aggregate principal amount at maturity of approximately $1.2 billion. The purchase price for the senior notes was $624.73 in cash per $1,000 principal amount at maturity, and was based on the requirements of the indenture and the senior notes. Additionally, we made a cash payment in 2005 of approximately $62 million for the payment of tax related to additional deductible interest expense for which deferred tax liabilities had been previously established. As of December 31, 2006, our remaining indebtedness under the senior notes was approximately $10.2 million at maturity.
In February 1999, we raised approximately $113 million through the issuance of our subordinated notes, net of underwriting commissions and expenses of $3.9 million. The subordinated notes are zero coupon and were priced with a yield to maturity of 5.5% annually. Upon maturity, the subordinated notes would have had an aggregate principal face value of $345.0 million. As of December 31, 2006, our remaining indebtedness under the subordinated notes was approximately $75.4 million at maturity, due to conversion of subordinated notes into common stock.
Each $1,000 aggregate principal face value subordinated note is convertible at the holders option at any time through maturity into 40.404 shares of our common stock at an initial conversion price of $8.36 per share. During 2005, holders of the subordinated notes with a face value of approximately $143.8 million elected to convert their subordinated notes to approximately 5.8 million shares of our common stock. The remaining holders of the subordinated notes may require us to purchase the subordinated notes on February 16, 2009 or 2014 at a price equal to the issue price plus accrued original issue discount to the date of purchase with us having the option to repay the subordinated notes plus accrued original issue discount in cash, common stock or a combination of cash and stock.
In October 2006, Biogen-Dompe SRL, or the joint venture, a consolidated joint venture in which we are a 50% partner, obtained a 24 million Euros line of credit from us and Dompé Farmaceutici SpA, or Dompé, at a rate of 3 month LIBOR plus 25 basis points. The interest rate is reset quarterly and payable quarterly in arrears. As of December 31, 2006, the balance of the joint venture loan was 18 million Euros ($23.8 million), half of which has been eliminated as it is an intercompany loan for purposes of presenting our consolidated financial position. Borrowings are to be made equally between the partners, and any repayments are to be paid in a similar manner. The loan replaced a previous advance that had been made by Dompe. Any borrowings on the line of credit are due June 1, 2009.
In December 2006, in connection with the settlement of various agreements associated with Fumedica, we entered into two notes payable, the aggregate amount of which, at present value, was 47.7 million Swiss Francs ($39.2 million). The notes are non-interest bearing, are being accreted at a rate of 5.75% and are payable in a series of payments over the period from 2008 to 2018. (See Note 2, Acquisitions and Other Agreements, of the consolidated financial statements).
In August 2004, we restarted construction of our large-scale biologic manufacturing facility in Hillerod, Denmark. In March 2005, after our voluntary suspension of TYSABRI, we reconsidered our construction plans and determined that we would proceed with the bulk-manufacturing component of our large-scale biologic manufacturing facility in Hillerod, Denmark. Additionally, we added a labeling and packaging component to the project. We
also determined that we would no longer proceed with the fill-finish component of that facility. The original cost of the revised project was expected to be $372.0 million. As of December 31, 2006, we had committed approximately $304.4 million to the project, of which $275.3 million had been paid. The administrative building is already in use. The lab facility and the label and packaging facility were substantially completed in 2006 and will be licensed for operation in 2007. The second phase of the project, a large-scale manufacturing facility, is expected to be completed in 2008. In October 2006, our Board of Directors approved the second phase of the project, which is expected to cost an additional $225.0 million.
In October 2004, our Board of Directors authorized the repurchase of up to 20.0 million shares of our common stock. This repurchase program expired October 4, 2006. During 2006, we repurchased 7.5 million shares at a cost of $320.3 million. During 2005, we repurchased 7.5 million shares at a cost of $324.3 million.
In October 2006, our Board of Directors authorized the repurchase of up to an additional 20.0 million shares of our common stock. The repurchased stock will provide us with treasury shares for general corporate purposes, such as common stock to be issued under our employee equity and stock purchase plans. This repurchase program does not have an expiration date. No shares have been repurchased under the program as of December 31, 2006.
The following summarizes our contractual obligations (excluding contingent milestone payments totaling $1.5 billion under our collaboration and license agreements, and construction commitments disclosed separately under Financial Condition) at December 31, 2006, and the effects such obligations are expected to have on our liquidity and cash flows in future periods (in thousands):
All material intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated. We do not have any other significant relationships with unconsolidated entities or financial partnerships, such as entities often referred to as structured finance or special purpose entities, which would have been established for the purpose of facilitating off-balance sheet arrangements or other contractually narrow or limited purposes. As such, we are not exposed to any financing, liquidity, market or credit risk that could arise if we had engaged in such relationships. Additionally, holders of our subordinated notes may elect to convert their notes into shares of our common stock at any time.
In connection with our research and development efforts, we have entered into various collaboration arrangements which provide us with rights to develop, produce and market products using certain know-how, technology and patent rights maintained by the parties. Terms of the various license agreements may require us to make milestone payments upon the achievement of certain product development objectives and pay royalties on future sales, if any, of commercial products resulting from the collaboration.
See Note 15, Research Collaborations and Strategic Investments, to the consolidated financial statements.
See Note 18, Litigation, to the consolidated financial statements for a discussion of legal matters as of December 31, 2006.
See Note 26, Subsequent Events, to the consolidated financial statements.
The preparation of our consolidated financial statements requires us to make estimates and judgments that may affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses, and related disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities. On an on-going basis, we evaluate our estimates, including those related to:
We base our estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that we believe are reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about revenue and expense recognition and carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results may differ from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions.
We believe the following critical accounting estimates affect our more significant judgments and estimates used in the preparation of our consolidated financial statements:
We recognize revenue when all of the following criteria are met: persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists; delivery has occurred or services have been rendered; the sellers price to the buyer is fixed or determinable; collectibility is reasonably assured; and title and the risk and rewards of ownership have transferred to the buyer.
Except for revenues from sales of TYSABRI in the U.S., revenues from product sales are recognized when title and risk of loss have passed to the customer, which is typically upon delivery. Sales of TYSABRI in the U.S. are recognized on the sell-through model, that is, upon shipment of the product by Elan to its third party distributors.
Revenues are recorded net of applicable reserves for trade term discounts, wholesaler incentives, Medicaid rebates, Veterans Administration, or VA rebates, managed care, patient assistance, product returns and other applicable allowances and the estimates we make with respect to these allowances represent the most significant judgments that we make with regard to revenue recognition.
Provisions for discounts and allowances reduced gross product revenues were as follows (in million):
An analysis of the amount of, and change in, reserves is as follows (in millions):
Our product revenue reserves are based on estimates of the amounts earned or to be claimed on the related sales. These estimates take into consideration our historical experience, current contractual and statutory requirements, specific known market events and trends and forecasted customer buying patterns. If actual results vary, we may need to adjust these estimates, which could have an effect on earnings in the period of the adjustment.
Product revenue reserves are categorized as follows: discounts, contractual adjustments and returns.
Discount reserves include trade term discounts, wholesaler incentives and patient assistance.
Trade term discounts and wholesaler incentive reserves primarily relate to estimated obligations for credits to be granted to wholesalers for remitting payment on their purchases within established incentive periods and credits to be granted to wholesalers for compliance with various contractually-defined inventory management practices, respectively. We determine these reserves based on our experience, including the timing of customer payments.
Patient assistance reserves are established to cover no-charge product that we distribute to qualifying patients under our indigent program, Patient Access. The program is administered through one of our distribution partners, who ship product for qualifying patients from their own inventory that was purchased from us. The distributor receives a credit at the end of each period for product that was administered during the period, and an accrual is established through a reduction of product revenues for sales made to the distributor which may be used to administer our patient assistance program. We determine this reserve based on our experience with the amount of activity under the program.
Contractual adjustment reserves relate to M