C&F Financial 10-K 2008
Documents found in this filing:
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2007
For the transition period from to
Commission file number 000-23423
C&F FINANCIAL CORPORATION
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
802 Main Street
West Point, VA 23181
(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip Code)
Registrants telephone number, including area code: (804) 843-2360
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes ¨ No x
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes ¨ No x
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes x No ¨
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrants knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K. x
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of large accelerated filer, accelerated filer and smaller reporting company in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes ¨ No x
The aggregate market value of voting and non-voting common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant as of June 29, 2007 was $120,177,128.
There were 3,022,091 shares of common stock outstanding as of February 25, 2008.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the definitive Proxy Statement dated March 15, 2008 to be delivered to shareholders in connection with the Annual Meeting of Shareholders to be held April 15, 2008 are incorporated by reference in Part III of this report.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
C&F Financial Corporation (the Corporation) is a bank holding company that was incorporated in March 1994 under the laws of the Commonwealth of Virginia. The Corporation owns all of the stock of its sole operating subsidiary, C&F Bank (Citizens and Farmers Bank, or the Bank), which is an independent commercial bank chartered under the laws of the Commonwealth of Virginia. The Bank originally opened for business under the name Farmers and Mechanics Bank on January 22, 1927. The Bank has the following five wholly-owned subsidiaries, all incorporated under the laws of the Commonwealth of Virginia:
The Corporation operates in a decentralized manner in three principal business activities: (1) retail banking through C&F Bank, (2) mortgage banking through C&F Mortgage Corporation (C&F Mortgage) and (3) consumer finance through C&F Finance Company (C&F Finance). The following general business discussion focuses on the activities within each of these segments.
In addition, the Corporation conducts brokerage activities through C&F Investment Services, Inc., insurance activities through C&F Insurance Services, Inc. and title insurance services through C&F Title Agency, Inc. The financial position and operating results of any one of these subsidiaries are not significant to the Corporation as a whole and are not considered principal activities of the Corporation at this time.
The Corporation also owns two non-operating subsidiaries, C&F Financial Statutory Trust II formed in December 2007 and C&F Financial Statutory Trust I formed in July 2005. These trusts were formed for the purpose of issuing $10.0 million each of trust preferred capital securities in private placements to institutional investors. These trusts are unconsolidated subsidiaries of the Corporation and their principal assets are $10.3 million each of the Corporations junior subordinated debt securities (referred to herein as trust preferred capital notes,) that are reported as liabilities of the Corporation.
We provide retail banking services at the Banks main office in West Point, Virginia, and 17 Virginia branches located one each in Chester, Hampton, Mechanicsville, Midlothian, Newport News, Norge, Providence Forge, Quinton, Saluda, Sandston, Varina, West Point, Yorktown, and two each in Williamsburg and Richmond. These branches provide a wide range of banking services to individuals and businesses. These services include various types of checking and savings deposit accounts, as well as business, real estate, development, mortgage, home equity and installment loans. The Bank also offers ATMs, internet banking, credit card and trust services, as well as travelers checks, safe deposit box rentals, collection, notary public, wire service and other customary bank services to its customers. Revenues from retail banking operations consist primarily of interest earned on loans and investment securities and fees related to deposit services. At December 31, 2007, assets of the Retail Banking segment totaled $634.7 million. For the year ended December 31, 2007, income before income taxes for this segment totaled $4.3 million.
We conduct mortgage banking activities through C&F Mortgage, which was organized in September 1995. C&F Mortgage provides mortgage loan origination services through 14 locations in Virginia, three in Maryland, two in North Carolina and one each in Newport, Delaware and Moorestown, New Jersey. The Virginia offices are located one each in Charlottesville, Chester, Fairfax, Fishersville, Fredericksburg, Hanover, Harrisonburg, Lexington, Lynchburg, Midlothian, Newport News, Richmond, Roanoke and Virginia Beach. The Maryland offices are located in Annapolis, Ellicott City and Waldorf. The North Carolina offices are located in Charlotte and Gastonia. C&F Mortgage offers a wide variety of residential mortgage loans, which are originated for sale to numerous investors. C&F Mortgage does not securitize loans. Purchasers of loans include, but are not limited to, Countrywide Bank, FSB; Franklin American Mortgage Company; the Virginia Housing Development Authority; JPMorgan Chase Bank, N.A.; and Wells Fargo Home Mortgage. The Bank also purchases lot and permanent loans and home equity lines of credit from C&F Mortgage. C&F Mortgage originates conventional mortgage loans, mortgage loans insured by the Federal Housing Administration (the FHA), mortgage loans partially guaranteed by the Veterans Administration (the VA) and home equity loans. A majority of the conventional loans are conforming loans that qualify for purchase by the Federal National Mortgage Association (Fannie Mae) or the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (Freddie Mac). The remainder of the conventional loans are non-conforming loans that do not meet Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac guidelines, but are eligible for sale to various other investors. Through its subsidiaries, C&F Mortgage also provides ancillary mortgage loan origination services for loan settlement and residential appraisals. Revenues from mortgage banking operations consist principally of gains on sales of loans in the secondary mortgage market, loan origination fee income and interest earned on mortgage loans held for sale. At December 31, 2007, assets of the Mortgage Banking segment totaled $44.8 million. For the year ended December 31, 2007, income before income taxes for this segment totaled $2.8 million.
We conduct consumer finance activities through C&F Finance, which the Bank acquired on September 1, 2002. C&F Finance is a regional finance company providing automobile loans throughout Virginia and in portions of Kentucky, Maryland, North Carolina, Ohio, Tennessee and West Virginia through its offices in Richmond, Roanoke and Hampton, Virginia, in Nashville, Tennessee and in Towson, Maryland. C&F Finance is an indirect lender that provides automobile financing through lending programs that are designed to serve customers in the non-prime market who have limited access to traditional automobile financing. C&F Finance generally purchases installment contracts from manufacturer-franchised dealerships with used-car operations and through selected independent dealerships. C&F Finance selects these dealers based on the types of vehicles sold. Specifically, C&F Finance prefers to finance new vehicles and later model, low mileage used vehicles. C&F Finances typical borrowers have experienced prior credit difficulties. Because C&F Finance serves customers who are unable to meet the credit standards imposed by most traditional automobile financing sources, C&F Finance typically charges interest at higher rates than those charged by traditional financing sources. As C&F Finance provides financing in a relatively high-risk market, it expects to experience a higher level of credit losses than traditional automobile financing sources. Revenues from consumer finance operations consist principally of interest earned on automobile loans. At December 31, 2007, assets of the Consumer Finance segment totaled $167.4 million. For the year ended December 31, 2007, income before income taxes for this segment totaled $4.4 million.
At December 31, 2007, we employed 512 full-time equivalent employees. We consider relations with our employees to be excellent.
In the Banks market area, we compete with large national and regional financial institutions, savings associations and other independent community banks, as well as credit unions, mutual funds, brokerage firms and insurance companies. Increased competition has come from out-of-state banks through their acquisition of Virginia-based banks and expansion of community and regional banks into our service areas.
The banking business in Virginia, and in the Banks primary service area in the Hampton to Richmond corridor, is highly competitive for both loans and deposits, and is dominated by a relatively small number of large banks with many offices operating over a wide geographic area. Among the advantages such large banks have are their ability to finance wide-ranging advertising campaigns and, by virtue of their greater total capitalization, to have substantially higher lending limits than the Bank.
Factors such as interest rates offered, the number and location of branches and the types of products offered, as well as the reputation of the institution affect competition for deposits and loans. We compete by emphasizing customer service and technology, establishing long-term customer relationships, building customer loyalty, and providing products and services to address the specific needs of our customers. We target individual and small-to-medium size business customers.
No material part of the Banks business is dependent upon a single or a few customers, and the loss of any single customer would not have a materially adverse effect upon the Banks business.
Several factors caused rapid consolidation in the mortgage lending industry over the last decade. First, the continuing evolution of the secondary mortgage market led to more commodity-like mortgages. Second, increased regulation imposed on the industry resulted in significant costs and the need for higher levels of specialization. Third, interest rate volatility resulted in an increase in mortgagors propensity to refinance their mortgages. These factors, together with fluctuations in new home construction and sales, have caused relatively large swings in the volume of loans originated from year to year and dramatically increased complexity in the business. During 2007, there was significant contraction in both the volume of loans originated and the number of institutions and brokers providing mortgage loans for new and resale home sales and refinancings. This contraction accompanied a downturn in the housing markets related to declines in real estate values, coupled with increased payment defaults by borrowers and increased loan foreclosures. To operate profitably in this environment, lenders must have a high level of operational and risk management skills, as well as technological expertise. Our mortgage subsidiary competes by offering a wide selection of products; providing consistently high quality customer service; and pricing its products at competitive rates.
No material part of C&F Mortgages business is dependent upon a single or a few customers or investors, and the loss of any single customer or investor would not have a materially adverse effect upon C&F Mortgages business.
The non-prime automobile finance business is highly competitive. The automobile finance market is highly fragmented and is served by a variety of financial entities, including the captive finance affiliates of major automotive manufacturers, banks, savings associations, credit unions and independent finance companies. Many of these competitors have substantially greater financial resources and lower costs of funds than our finance subsidiary. In addition, competitors often provide financing on terms that are more favorable to automobile purchasers or dealers than the terms C&F Finance offers. Many of these competitors also have long-standing relationships with automobile dealerships and may offer dealerships or their customers other forms of financing, including dealer floor plan financing and leasing, which we do not.
Providers of automobile financing traditionally have competed on the basis of interest rates charged, the quality of credit accepted, the flexibility of loan terms offered and the quality of service provided to dealers and customers. To establish C&F Finance as one of the principal financing sources at the dealers it serves, we compete predominately through a high level of dealer service, strong dealer relationships and by offering flexible loan terms.
No material part of C&F Finances business is dependent upon any single dealer relationship, and the loss of any single dealer relationship would not have a materially adverse effect upon C&F Finances business.
Regulation and Supervision
Bank holding companies and banks are extensively regulated under both federal and state law. The following summary briefly describes the more significant provisions of applicable federal and state laws and certain regulations and the potential impact of such provisions on the Corporation and the Bank. This summary is not complete, and we refer you to the particular statutory or regulatory provisions or proposals for more information. Because federal regulation of financial institutions changes regularly and is the subject of constant legislative debate, we cannot forecast how federal regulation of financial institutions may change in the future and impact the Corporations and the Banks operations.
Regulation of the Corporation
The Corporation must file annual, quarterly and other periodic reports with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the SEC). The Corporation is directly affected by the corporate responsibility and accounting reform legislation signed into law on July 30, 2002, known as the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (the SOX Act), and the related rules and regulations. The SOX Act includes provisions that, among other things: (1) require that periodic reports containing financial statements that are filed with the SEC be accompanied by chief executive officer and chief financial officer certifications as to their accuracy and compliance with law; (2) prohibit public companies, with certain limited exceptions, from making personal loans to their directors or executive officers; (3) require chief executive officers and chief financial officers to forfeit bonuses and profits if company financial statements are restated due to misconduct; (4) require audit committees to pre-approve all audit and non-audit services provided by an issuers outside auditors, except for de minimis non-audit services; (5) protect employees of public companies who assist in investigations relating to violations of the federal securities laws from job discrimination; (6) require companies to disclose in plain English on a rapid and current basis material changes in their financial condition or operations, as well as certain other specified information; (7) require a public companys Section 16 insiders to make Form 4 filings with the SEC within two business days following the day on which purchases or sales of the
companys equity securities were made; and (8) increased penalties for existing crimes and created new criminal offenses. While the Corporation has incurred additional expenses and we expect to continue to incur additional expenses in complying with the requirements of the SOX Act and related regulations adopted by the SEC and the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board, we anticipate that those expenses will not have a material effect on the Corporations results of operations or financial condition.
The Corporation is also subject to regulation by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (the Federal Reserve Board). The Federal Reserve Board has jurisdiction to approve any bank or non-bank acquisition, merger or consolidation proposed by a bank holding company. The Bank Holding Company Act of 1956 (the BHCA) generally limits the activities of a bank holding company and its subsidiaries to that of banking, managing or controlling banks, or any other activity that is closely related to banking or to managing or controlling banks.
Since September 1995, the BHCA has permitted bank holding companies from any state to acquire banks and bank holding companies located in any other state, subject to certain conditions, including nationwide and state imposed concentration limits. Banks also are able to branch across state lines, provided certain conditions are met, including that applicable state laws expressly permit such interstate branching. Virginia permits branching across state lines, provided there is reciprocity with the state in which the out-of-state bank is based.
Federal law and regulatory policy impose a number of obligations and restrictions on bank holding companies and their depository institution subsidiaries to reduce potential loss exposure to the depositors and to the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (the FDIC) insurance funds. For example, a bank holding company must commit resources to support its subsidiary depository institutions. In addition, insured depository institutions under common control must reimburse the FDIC for any loss suffered or reasonably anticipated by the Deposit Insurance Fund (DIF) as a result of the default of a commonly controlled insured depository institution. The FDIC may decline to enforce the provisions if it determines that a waiver is in the best interest of the DIF. An FDIC claim for damage is superior to claims of stockholders of an insured depository institution or its holding company but is subordinate to claims of depositors, secured creditors and holders of subordinated debt, other than affiliates, of the commonly controlled insured depository institution.
The Federal Deposit Insurance Act (the FDIA) provides that amounts received from the liquidation or other resolution of any insured depository institution must be distributed, after payment of secured claims, to pay the deposit liabilities of the institution before payment of any other general creditor or stockholder. This provision would give depositors a preference over general and subordinated creditors and stockholders if a receiver is appointed to distribute the assets of the Bank.
The Corporation also is subject to regulation and supervision by the State Corporation Commission of Virginia.
The Federal Reserve Board and the FDIC have issued substantially similar risk-based and leverage capital guidelines applicable to banking organizations they supervise. Under the risk-based capital requirements of these federal bank regulatory agencies, the Corporation and the Bank are required to maintain a minimum ratio of total capital to risk-weighted assets of at least 8.0 percent and a minimum ratio of Tier 1 capital to risk-weighted assets of at least 4.0 percent. At least half of the total capital must be Tier 1 capital, which includes common equity, retained earnings and qualifying perpetual preferred stock, less certain intangibles and other adjustments. The remainder may consist of Tier 2 capital, such as a limited amount of subordinated and other qualifying debt (including certain hybrid capital instruments), other qualifying preferred stock and a limited amount of the general loan loss allowance. For the Corporation only, Tier 1 and total capital include trust preferred securities. At December 31, 2007, the total capital to risk-weighted asset ratio of the Corporation was 12.8 percent and the ratio of the Bank was 12.1 percent. At December 31, 2007, the Tier 1 capital to risk-weighted asset ratio was 11.2 percent for the Corporation and 10.8 percent for the Bank.
In addition, each of the federal regulatory agencies has established leverage capital ratio guidelines for banking organizations. These guidelines provide for a minimum Tier l leverage ratio of 4.0 percent for banks and bank holding companies. At December 31, 2007, the Tier l leverage ratio was 9.4 percent for the Corporation and 9.0 percent for the Bank. The guidelines also provide that banking organizations experiencing internal growth or making acquisitions must maintain capital positions substantially above the minimum supervisory levels, without significant reliance on intangible assets.
Limits on Dividends
The Corporation is a legal entity, separate and distinct from the Bank. A significant portion of the revenues of the Corporation result from dividends paid to it by the Bank. Both the Corporation and the Bank are subject to laws and regulations that limit the payment of dividends, including requirements to maintain capital at or above regulatory minimums. Banking regulators have indicated that Virginia banking organizations should generally pay dividends only (1) from net undivided profits of the bank, after providing for all expenses, losses, interest and taxes accrued or due by the bank and only (2) if the prospective rate of earnings retention appears consistent with the organizations capital needs, asset quality and overall financial condition. In addition, the FDIA prohibits insured depository institutions such as the Bank from making capital distributions, including the payment of dividends, if, after making such distribution, the institution would become undercapitalized as defined in the statute.
We do not expect that any of these laws, regulations or policies will materially affect the ability of the Corporation or the Bank to pay dividends. During the year ended December 31, 2007, the Bank declared $19.4 million in dividends payable to the Corporation, which were used to fund the Corporations share purchases, debt service and $3.8 million in dividends payable to shareholders. The decline in the Banks capital attributable to dividends paid to the Corporation was offset in part by the Corporations additional investment in the Bank of the $10.0 million proceeds from the issuance of trust preferred securities in December 2007.
Regulation of the Bank and Other Subsidiaries
The Bank is subject to supervision, regulation and examination by the Virginia State Corporation Commission Bureau of Financial Institutions (VBFI) and the FDIC. The various laws and regulations administered by the regulatory agencies affect corporate practices, such as the payment of dividends, the incurrence of debt and the acquisition of financial institutions and other companies, and affect business practices, such as the payment of interest on deposits, the charging of interest on loans, the types of business conducted and the location of offices.
FDIA and Associated Regulations. Section 36 of the FDIA and associated regulations require management of every insured depository institution with total assets between $500 million and $1 billion at the beginning of a fiscal year to obtain an annual audit of its financial statements by an independent public accountant, report to the banking agencies on the institutions compliance with designated laws and regulations and establish an audit committee comprised of outside directors, at least a majority of whom must be independent of management. The Bank is subject to the annual audit, reporting and audit committee requirements of Section 36 of the FDIA.
Community Reinvestment Act. The Community Reinvestment Act (CRA) imposes on financial institutions an affirmative and ongoing obligation to meet the credit needs of their local communities, including low and moderate-income neighborhoods, consistent with the safe and sound operation of those institutions. A financial institutions efforts in meeting community credit needs are assessed based on specified factors. These factors also are considered in evaluating mergers, acquisitions and applications to open a branch or facility. Following the Banks most recent scheduled compliance examination in July 2006, it received a CRA performance evaluation of satisfactory.
Insurance of Accounts, Assessments and Regulation by the FDIC. The Banks deposits are insured up to applicable limits by the DIF of the FDIC. The DIF is the successor to the Bank Insurance Fund and the Savings Association Insurance Fund, which were merged in 2006. The FDIC recently amended its risk-based assessment system for 2007 to implement authority granted by the Federal Deposit Insurance Reform Act of 2005 (FDIRA). Under the revised system, insured institutions are assigned to one of four risk categories based on supervisory evaluations, regulatory capital levels and certain other factors. An institutions assessment rate depends upon the category to which it is assigned. Unlike the other categories, Risk Category I, which contains the least risky depository institutions, contains further risk differentiation based on the FDICs analysis of financial ratios, examination component ratings and other information. Assessment rates are determined by the FDIC and currently range from five to seven basis points for the healthiest institutions (Risk Category I) to 43 basis points of assessable deposits for the riskiest (Risk Category IV). The FDIC may adjust rates uniformly from one quarter to the next, except that no single adjustment can exceed three basis points.
FDIRA also provided for a one-time credit for eligible institutions based on their assessment base as of December 31, 1996. Subject to certain limitations with respect to institutions that are exhibiting weaknesses, credits can be used to offset assessments until exhausted. The Banks one-time credit was $297,000, of which $210,000 has been applied to offset assessments in 2007. FDIRA also provided for the possibility that the FDIC may pay dividends to insured institutions if the DIF reserve ratio equals or exceeds 1.35 percent of estimated insured deposits.
Federal Home Loan Bank of Atlanta. The Bank is a member of the Federal Home Loan Bank (FHLB) of Atlanta, which is one of 12 regional FHLBs that provide funding to their members for making housing loans as well as for affordable housing and community development loans. Each FHLB serves as a reserve, or central bank, for
the members within its assigned region. Each is funded primarily from proceeds derived from the sale of consolidated obligations of the FHLB System. Each FHLB makes loans to members in accordance with policies and procedures established by the Board of Directors of the FHLB. As a member, the Bank must purchase and maintain stock in the FHLB. In 2004, the FHLB converted to its new capital structure, which established the minimum capital stock requirement for member banks as an amount equal to the sum of a membership requirement and an activity-based requirement. At December 31, 2007, the Bank owned $4.4 million of FHLB stock.
USA Patriot Act. The USA Patriot Act, which became effective on October 26, 2001, amends the Bank Secrecy Act and is intended to facilitate information sharing among governmental entities and financial institutions for the purpose of combating terrorism and money laundering. Among other provisions, the USA Patriot Act permits financial institutions, upon providing notice to the United States Department of the Treasury (Treasury Department), to share information with one another in order to better identify and report to the federal government activities that may involve money laundering or terrorists activities. The USA Patriot Act is considered a significant banking law in terms of information disclosure regarding certain customer transactions. Certain provisions of the USA Patriot Act impose the obligation to establish anti-money laundering programs, including the development of a customer identification program, and the screening of all customers against any government lists of known or suspected terrorists. Although it does create a reporting obligation and there is a cost of compliance, the USA Patriot Act does not materially affect the Banks products, services or other business activities.
Reporting Terrorist Activities. The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) has sent, and will send, banking regulatory agencies lists of the names of persons suspected of involvement in terrorist activities. The Bank has been requested, and will be requested, to search its records for any relationships or transactions with persons on those lists. If the Bank finds any relationships or transactions, it must file a suspicious activity report with the Treasury Department and contact the FBI.
The Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC), which is a division of the Treasury Department, is responsible for helping to insure that United States entities do not engage in transactions with enemies of the United States, as defined by various Executive Orders and Acts of Congress. OFAC sends banking regulatory agencies lists of names of persons and organizations suspected of aiding, harboring or engaging in terrorist acts. If the Bank finds a name on any transaction, account or wire transfer that is on an OFAC list, it must freeze such account, file a suspicious activity report with the Treasury Department and notify the FBI. The Bank has appointed an OFAC compliance officer to oversee the inspection of its accounts and the filing of any notifications. The Bank actively checks high-risk areas such as new accounts, wire transfers and customer files. The Bank performs these checks utilizing software that is updated each time a modification is made to the lists of Specially Designated Nationals and Blocked Persons provided by OFAC and other agencies.
Mortgage Banking Regulation. In addition to certain of the Banks regulations, the Corporations Mortgage Banking segment is subject to the rules and regulations of, and examination by the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), the FHA, the VA and state regulatory authorities with respect to originating, processing and selling mortgage loans. Those rules and regulations, among other things, establish standards for loan origination, prohibit discrimination, provide for inspections and appraisals of property, require credit reports on prospective borrowers and, in some cases, restrict certain loan features and fix maximum interest rates and fees. In addition to other federal laws, mortgage origination activities are subject to the Equal Credit Opportunity Act, Truth-in-Lending Act, Home Mortgage Disclosure Act, Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act, and Home Ownership Equity Protection Act, and the regulations promulgated under these acts. These laws prohibit discrimination, require the disclosure of certain basic information to mortgagors concerning credit and settlement costs, limit payment for settlement services to the reasonable value of the services rendered and require the maintenance and disclosure of information regarding the disposition of mortgage applications based on race, gender, geographical distribution and income level.
Consumer Financing Regulation. The Corporations Consumer Finance segment also is regulated by the VBFI. The VBFI regulates and enforces laws relating to consumer lenders and sales finance agencies such as C&F Finance. Such rules and regulations generally provide for licensing of sales finance agencies; limitations on amounts, duration and charges, including interest rates, for various categories of loans; requirements as to the form and content of finance contracts and other documentation; and restrictions on collection practices and creditors rights.
Consumer Protection. The Fair and Accurate Credit Transactions Act of 2003, which amended the Fair Credit Reporting Act, requires financial institutions to implement policies and procedures that track identity theft incidents; provide identity-theft victims with evidence of fraudulent transactions upon request; block from reporting to consumer reporting agencies credit information resulting from identity theft; notify customers of adverse information concerning the customer in consumer reporting agency reports; and notify customers when reporting negative information concerning the customer to a consumer reporting agency.
Other Safety and Soundness Regulations
Prompt Correction Action. The federal banking agencies have broad powers under current federal law to take prompt corrective action to resolve problems of insured depository institutions. The extent of these powers depends upon whether the institution in question is well capitalized, adequately capitalized, undercapitalized, significantly undercapitalized or critically undercapitalized. These terms are defined under uniform regulations issued by each of the federal banking agencies regulating these institutions. An insured depository institution which is less than adequately capitalized must adopt an acceptable capital restoration plan, is subject to increased regulatory oversight and is increasingly restricted in the scope of its permissible activities. As of December 31, 2007, the Bank was considered well capitalized.
Check Clearing for the 21st Century Act (Check 21). Check 21 gives substitute checks, such as a digital image of a check and copies made from that image, the same legal standing as the original paper check. The major provisions of Check 21 include: allowing check truncation without making it mandatory; demanding that every financial institution communicate to account holders in writing a description of its substitute check processing program and their rights under the law; legalizing substitutions for and replacements of paper checks without agreement from consumers; retaining in place the previously-mandated electronic collection and return of checks between financial institutions only when individual agreements are in place; requiring that when account holders request verification, financial institutions produce the original check (or a copy that accurately represents the
original) and demonstrate that the account debit was accurate and valid; and requiring recrediting of funds to an individuals account on the next business day after a consumer proves that the financial institution has erred. This legislation has not significantly increased our capital spending.
Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act of 1999 (GLBA). The GLBA implemented major changes to the statutory framework for providing banking and other financial services in the United States. The GLBA, among other things, eliminated many of the restrictions on affiliations among banks and securities firms, insurance firms and other financial service providers. A bank holding company that qualifies and elects to be a financial holding company is permitted to engage in activities that are financial in nature or incident or complimentary to financial activities. The activities that the GLBA expressly lists as financial in nature include insurance underwriting, sales and brokerage activities, financial and investment advisory services, underwriting services and limited merchant banking activities.
To become eligible for these expanded activities, a bank holding company must qualify as a financial holding company. To qualify as a financial holding company, each insured depository institution controlled by the bank holding company must be well-capitalized, well-managed and have at least a satisfactory rating under the CRA. In addition, the bank holding company must file with the Federal Reserve a declaration of its intention to become a financial holding company. While the Corporation satisfies these requirements, the Corporation has not elected to be treated as a financial holding company under the GLBA.
The GLBA has not had a material adverse impact on the Corporations or the Banks operations. To the extent that it allows banks, securities firms and insurance firms to affiliate, the financial services industry may experience further consolidation. The GLBA may have the result of increasing competition that we face from larger institutions and other companies that offer financial products and services and that may have substantially greater financial resources than the Corporation or the Bank.
The GLBA and certain regulations issued by federal banking agencies also provide protections against the transfer and use by financial institutions of consumer nonpublic personal information. A financial institution must provide to its customers, at the beginning of the customer relationship and annually thereafter, the institutions policies and procedures regarding the handling of customers nonpublic personal financial information. These privacy provisions generally prohibit a financial institution from providing a customers personal financial information to unaffiliated third parties unless the institution discloses to the customer that the information may be so provided and the customer is given the opportunity to opt out of such disclosure.
The Corporations SEC filings are filed electronically and are available to the public over the Internet at the SECs web site at http://www.sec.gov. In addition, any document filed by the Corporation with the SEC can be read and copied at the SECs public reference facilities at 100 F Street, N.E., Room 1580, Washington, D.C. 20549. Copies of documents can be obtained at prescribed rates by writing to the Public Reference Section of the SEC at 100 F Street, N.E., Washington, D.C. 20549. The public may obtain information on the operation of the Public Reference Room by calling the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330. The Corporations SEC filings also are available through our web site at http://www.cffc.com under About C&F/C&F Financial Corporation/SEC Filings as of the day they are filed with the SEC. Copies of documents also can be obtained free of charge by writing to the Corporations secretary at P.O. Box 391, West Point, VA 23181 or by calling 804-843-2360.
We are subject to interest rate risk and fluctuations in interest rates may negatively affect our financial performance.
Our profitability depends in substantial part on our net interest margin, which is the difference between the interest earned on loans, securities and other interest-earning assets, and interest paid on deposits and borrowings. Changes in interest rates will affect our net interest margin in diverse ways, including the pricing of loans and deposits, the levels of prepayments and asset quality. We are unable to predict actual fluctuations of market interest rates because many factors influencing interest rates are beyond our control. We attempt to minimize our exposure to interest rate risk, but we are unable to eliminate it. Based on our asset/liability position at December 31, 2007, we are vulnerable to continued decreases in short-term interest rates because of our asset-sensitive balance sheet profile. We believe that our current interest rate exposure is manageable and does not indicate any significant exposure to interest rate changes. However, the interest rate cuts made by the Federal Reserve Bank since September 2007 have immediately reduced our yield on variable-rate loans without a corresponding reduction in deposit costs, which will result in a decline in our net interest margin. We expect more pronounced net interest margin compression in 2008 if interest rates on our variable-rate loans continue to decline while competition for deposits hinders a decline in rates paid for deposits.
Periods of rising interest rates or a decline in real estate values in our market will adversely affect our income from our mortgage company.
One of the components of our strategic plan is to generate significant noninterest income from our mortgage company, C&F Mortgage. In periods of rising interest rates, consumer demand for new mortgages and refinancings may decrease, which in turn could adversely impact our mortgage company. In addition, rising interest rates could create higher debt burden and default risk for borrowers who have adjustable-rate mortgage loans that reset at higher interest rates. Because interest rates depend on factors outside of our control, we cannot eliminate the interest rate risk associated with our mortgage operations.
Certain credit markets have experienced difficult conditions and volatility during 2007 and there has been an increase in mortgage loan foreclosures throughout the United States. The majority of these foreclosures appear to involve borrowers who had financed home purchases or refinanced existing home mortgage loans with so-called subprime mortgage loans or alternative loan products. Mortgage loan foreclosures can result in increases in loan losses and require mortgage lenders to take ownership of the foreclosed real properties in order to mitigate potential loan losses, which can result in increased noninterest expenses.
The Corporation originates a variety of residential loan products for sale into the secondary market through C&F Mortgage. These products include conventional residential mortgages, which are generally considered prime loans, and alternative loan products. This latter category of loans includes loans with higher loan to value ratios and loans with no or limited verification of a borrowers income or assets stated on the loan application. The general market for these alternative loan products across the country has declined as a result of moderating real estate prices, increased payment defaults by borrowers and increased loan foreclosures. These factors may result in potential repurchase liability to our mortgage company on residential mortgage loans originated and sold into the secondary market. While we mitigate the risk of repurchase liability by underwriting to the purchasers guidelines and do not believe that our exposure to this liability is significant at this time, we cannot be assured that a prolonged period of payment defaults and foreclosures will not result in an increase in requests for repurchases, which would adversely affect the Corporations net income.
Our business is subject to various lending and other economic risks that could adversely impact our results of operations and financial condition.
Changes in economic conditions, particularly an economic slowdown, could hurt our business. Our business is directly affected by general economic and market conditions; broad trends in industry and finance; legislative and regulatory changes; changes in governmental monetary and fiscal policies; and inflation, all of which are beyond our control. A deterioration in economic conditions, in particular an economic slowdown within our geographic region, could result in the following consequences, any of which could hurt our business materially: an increase in loan delinquencies; an increase in problem assets and foreclosures; a decline in demand for our products and services; and a deterioration in the value of collateral for loans made by our various business segments.
Our level of credit risk is increasing due to the concentration of our loan portfolio in commercial loans and in consumer finance loans.
At December 31, 2007, 43 percent of our loan portfolio consisted of commercial, financial and agricultural loans. These loans generally carry larger loan balances and involve a greater degree of financial and credit risk than home equity and residential loans. The increased financial and credit risk associated with these types of loans is a result of several factors, including the concentration of principal in a limited number of loans and to borrowers in similar lines of business, the size of loan balances, the effects of general economic conditions on income-producing properties and the increased difficulty of evaluating and monitoring these types of loans.
At December 31, 2007, 27 percent of our loan portfolio consisted of consumer finance loans that provide automobile financing for customers in the non-prime market. During periods of economic slowdown or recession, delinquencies, defaults, repossessions and losses generally increase in this portfolio. Significant increases in the inventory of used automobiles during periods of economic recession may also depress the prices at which we may sell repossessed automobiles or delay the timing of these sales. Because we focus on non-prime borrowers, the actual rates of delinquencies, defaults, repossessions and losses on these loans are higher than those experienced in the general automobile finance industry and could be dramatically affected by a general economic downturn. In addition, our servicing costs may increase without a corresponding increase in our finance charge income. While we manage the higher risk inherent in loans made to non-prime borrowers through our underwriting criteria and collection methods, we cannot guarantee that these criteria or methods will ultimately provide adequate protection against these risks.
If our allowance for loan losses becomes inadequate, the results of our operations may be adversely affected.
Making loans is an essential element of our business. The risk of nonpayment is affected by a number of factors, including but not limited to: the duration of the credit; credit risks of a particular customer; changes in economic and industry conditions; and, in the case of a collateralized loan, risks resulting from uncertainties about the future value of the collateral. Although we seek to mitigate risks inherent in lending by adhering to specific underwriting practices, our loans may not be repaid. We attempt to maintain an appropriate allowance for loan losses to provide for potential losses in our loan portfolio. Our allowance for loan losses is determined by analyzing historical loan losses, current trends in delinquencies and charge-offs, plans for problem loan resolution, the opinions of our regulators, changes in the size and composition of the loan portfolio and industry information. Also included in our estimates for loan losses are considerations with respect to the impact of economic events, the outcome of which are uncertain. Because any estimate of loan losses is necessarily subjective and the accuracy of
any estimate depends on the outcome of future events, we face the risk that charge-offs in future periods will exceed our allowance for loan losses and that additional increases in the allowance for loan losses will be required. Additions to the allowance for loan losses would result in a decrease of our net income. Although we believe our allowance for loan losses is adequate to absorb probable losses in our loan portfolio, we cannot predict such losses or that our allowance will be adequate in the future.
Competition from other financial institutions and financial intermediaries may adversely affect our profitability.
We face substantial competition in originating loans and in attracting deposits. Our competition in originating loans and attracting deposits comes principally from other banks, mortgage banking companies, consumer finance companies, savings associations, credit unions, brokerage firms, insurance companies and other institutional lenders and purchasers of loans. Additionally, banks and other financial institutions with larger capitalization and financial intermediaries not subject to bank regulatory restrictions have larger lending limits and are thereby able to serve the credit needs of larger clients. These institutions may be able to offer the same loan products and services that we offer at more competitive rates and prices. Increased competition could require us to increase the rates we pay on deposits or lower the rates we offer on loans, which could adversely affect our profitability.
We rely heavily on our management team and the unexpected loss of key officers may adversely affect our operations.
We believe that our growth and future success will depend in large part on the skills of our executive officers. We also depend upon the experience of the officers of our subsidiaries and on their relationships with the communities they serve. The loss of the services of one or more of these officers could disrupt our operations and impair our ability to implement our business strategy, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. While the Corporations Chief Operating Officer resigned effective February 29, 2008 because of family health considerations, he has agreed to assist management to assure a smooth transition.
The success of our growth strategy depends on our ability to identify and recruit individuals with experience and relationships in our primary markets.
The successful implementation of our business strategy will require us to continue to attract, hire, motivate and retain skilled personnel to develop new customer relationships as well as new financial products and services. The market for qualified management personnel is competitive. In addition, the process of identifying and recruiting individuals with the combination of skills and attributes required to carry out our strategy is often lengthy. Our inability to identify, recruit and retain talented personnel to manage new offices effectively and in a timely manner would limit our growth, which could materially adversely affect our business.
Our corporate culture has contributed to our success, and if we cannot maintain this culture as we grow, we could lose the beneficial aspects fostered by our culture, which could harm our business.
We believe that a critical contributor to our success has been our corporate culture, which focuses on building personal relationships with our customers. As our organization grows, and we are required to implement more complex organizational management structures, we may find it increasingly difficult to maintain the beneficial aspects of our corporate culture. This could negatively impact our future success.
The Corporation has no unresolved comments from the SEC staff.
The following describes the location and general character of the principal offices and other materially important physical properties of the Corporation.
The Corporation owns a building located at Eighth and Main Streets in the business district of West Point, Virginia. The building, originally constructed in 1923, has three floors totaling 15,000 square feet. This building houses the Banks Main Office, the main office of C&F Investment Services and office space for certain of the Banks administrative personnel.
The Corporation owns a building located at 3600 LaGrange Parkway in Toano, Virginia. The building was acquired in 2004 and has 85,000 square feet. Approximately 30,000 square feet were renovated in 2005 in order to house the Banks operations center, which consists of the Banks loan, deposit and administrative functions and staff.
The building owned by the Corporation and previously used for the Banks deposit operations at Seventh & Main Streets in West Point Virginia, which is a 14,000 square foot building remodeled by the Corporation in 1991, has been leased to the Economic Development Authority of the Town of West Point, Virginia (Development Authority) for the purpose of housing and operating incubator businesses under the supervision of the Development Authority. The building owned by the Corporation and previously used for the Banks loan operations at Sixth and Main Streets in West Point, Virginia, which is a 5,000 square foot building acquired and remodeled by the Corporation in 1998, has been retained as back-up facilities for the new operations center. Management has not yet determined the long-term utilization of these properties.
The Corporation owns a building located at 1400 Alverser Drive in Midlothian, Virginia. The building provides space for a branch office of the Bank and for a C&F Mortgage branch office, as well as C&F Mortgages main administrative offices. This two-story building has 25,000 square feet and was constructed in 2001. Also at the Midlothian location, the Corporation owns an office condominium that houses a regional commercial lending office.
The Corporation owns 15 other Bank branch locations and leases one Bank branch location and one regional commercial lending office in Virginia. Rental expense for these leased locations totaled $94,000 for the year ended December 31, 2007.
In connection with the opening of the Banks Newport News branch in 2007, C&F Mortgage relocated from a leased facility to the second floor of the Bank branch building. The Corporation has 19 leased loan production offices, 12 in Virginia, three in Maryland, two in North Carolina and one each in Delaware and New Jersey, for C&F Mortgage. Rental expense for these leased locations totaled $1.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2007.
The Corporation owns a building located at 4660 South Laburnum Avenue in Richmond, Virginia. The building was acquired in June 2005 and has approximately 8,800 square feet. The building houses C&F Finances headquarters and provides space for its loan and administrative functions and staff. In connection with the opening of the Banks Hampton branch in 2006, the Hampton office of C&F Finance was relocated from a leased facility to the second floor of the Bank branch building. The Corporation has four leased offices, two in Virginia and one each in Maryland and Tennessee, for C&F Finance. Rental expense for these leased locations totaled $54,000 for the year ended December 31, 2007.
All of the Corporations properties are in good operating condition and are adequate for the Corporations present and anticipated future needs.
There are no material pending legal proceedings to which the Corporation or any of its subsidiaries is a party or to which the property of the Corporation or any of its subsidiaries is subject.
No matters were submitted during the fourth quarter of the fiscal year covered by this report to a vote of security holders of the Corporation through a solicitation of proxies or otherwise.
EXECUTIVE OFFICERS OF THE REGISTRANT
The Corporations common stock is traded on the over-the-counter market and is listed for trading on the NASDAQ Global Select Market of the NASDAQ Stock Market under the symbol CFFI. As of February 25, 2008, there were approximately 2,000 shareholders of record. As of that date, the closing price of our common stock on the NASDAQ Global Select Stock Market was $31.37. Following are the high and low sales prices as reported by the NASDAQ Stock Market, along with the dividends that were paid quarterly in 2007 and 2006.
Payment of dividends is at the discretion of the Corporations board of directors and is subject to various federal and state regulatory limitations. For further information regarding payment of dividends, refer to Item 1, Business, under the heading Limits on Dividends and Item 8, Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, under the heading Note 13: Regulatory Requirements and Restrictions.
Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
For the Quarter Ended December 31, 2007
FIVE YEAR FINANCIAL SUMMARY
CAUTIONARY STATEMENT REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This report contains statements concerning the Corporations expectations, plans, objectives, future financial performance and other statements that are not historical facts. These statements may constitute forward-looking statements as defined by federal securities laws. These statements may address issues that involve estimates and assumptions made by management and risks and uncertainties. Actual results could differ materially from historical results or those anticipated by such statements. Factors that could have a material adverse effect on the operations and future prospects of the Corporation include, but are not limited to, changes in:
These risks and uncertainties should be considered in evaluating the forward-looking statements contained herein. We caution readers not to place undue reliance on those statements, which speak only as of the date of this report.
The following discussion supplements and provides information about the major components of the results of operations, financial condition, liquidity and capital resources of the Corporation. This discussion and analysis should be read in conjunction with the accompanying consolidated financial statements.
CRITICAL ACCOUNTING POLICIES
The preparation of financial statements requires us to make estimates and assumptions. Those accounting policies with the greatest uncertainty and that require our most difficult, subjective or complex judgments affecting the application of these policies, and the likelihood that materially different amounts would be reported under different conditions, or using different assumptions, are described below.
Allowance for Loan Losses: We establish the allowance for loan losses through charges to earnings in the form of a provision for loan losses. Loan losses are charged against the allowance when we believe that the collection of the principal is unlikely. Subsequent recoveries of losses previously charged against the allowance are credited to the allowance. The allowance represents an amount that, in our judgment, will be appropriate to absorb any losses on existing loans that may become uncollectible. Our judgment in determining the level of the allowance is based on evaluations of the collectibility of loans while taking into consideration such factors as trends in
delinquencies and charge-offs, changes in the nature and volume of the loan portfolio, current economic conditions that may affect a borrowers ability to repay, overall portfolio quality and specific potential losses. This evaluation is inherently subjective because it requires estimates that are susceptible to significant revision as more information becomes available.
Impairment of Loans: We measure impaired loans based on the present value of expected future cash flows discounted at the effective interest rate of the loan (or, as a practical expedient, at the loans observable market price) or the fair value of the collateral if the loan is collateral dependent. We consider a loan impaired when it is probable that the Corporation will be unable to collect all interest and principal payments as scheduled in the loan agreement. We do not consider a loan impaired during a period of delay in payment if we expect the ultimate collection of all amounts due. We maintain a valuation allowance to the extent that the measure of the impaired loan is less than the recorded investment.
Impairment of Securities: Impairment of investment securities results in a write-down that must be included in net income when a market decline below cost is other-than-temporary. We regularly review each investment security for impairment based on criteria that include the extent to which cost exceeds market price, the duration of that market decline, the financial health of and specific prospects for the issuer and our ability and intention with regard to holding the security to maturity.
Goodwill: Goodwill is no longer subject to amortization over its estimated useful life, but is subject to at least an annual assessment for impairment using a two-step process that begins with an estimation of the fair value of the reporting unit. In assessing the recoverability of the Corporations goodwill, all of which was recognized in connection with the Banks acquisition of C&F Finance in September 2002, we must make assumptions in order to determine the fair value of the respective assets. Major assumptions used in determining impairment were increases in future income, sales multiples in determining terminal value and the discount rate applied to future cash flows. As part of the impairment test, we performed sensitivity analysis by increasing the discount rate, lowering sales multiples and reducing increases in future income. We completed the annual test for impairment during the fourth quarter of 2007 and determined there was no impairment to be recognized in 2007. If the underlying estimates and related assumptions change in the future, we may be required to record impairment charges.
Defined Benefit Pension Plan: The Bank maintains a non-contributory, defined benefit pension plan for eligible full-time employees as specified by the plan. Plan assets, which consist primarily of marketable equity securities and corporate and government fixed income securities, are valued using market quotations. The Banks actuary determines plan obligations and annual pension expense using a number of key assumptions. Key assumptions include the discount rate, the estimated future return on plan assets and the anticipated rate of future salary increases. Changes in these assumptions in the future, if any, may impact pension assets, liabilities or expense.
Accounting for Income Taxes: Determining the Corporations effective tax rate requires judgment. In the ordinary course of business, there are transactions and calculations for which the ultimate tax outcomes are uncertain. In addition, the Corporations tax returns are subject to audit by various tax authorities. Although we believe that the estimates are reasonable, no assurance can be given that the final tax outcome will not be materially different than that which is reflected in the income tax provision and accrual.
For further information concerning accounting policies, refer to Item 8, Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, under the heading Note 1: Summary of Significant Accounting Policies.
Our primary financial goals are to maximize the Corporations earnings and to deploy capital in profitable growth initiatives that will enhance long-term shareholder value. We track three primary financial performance measures in order to assess the level of success in achieving these goals:
1) return on average assets (ROA)
2) return on average equity (ROE)
3) growth in earnings
In addition to these financial performance measures, we track the performance of the Corporations three principal business activities:
1) retail banking
2) mortgage banking
3) consumer finance
We also actively manage our capital through:
2) stock purchases
Financial Performance Measures
Net income for the Corporation decreased 30.1 percent to $8.5 million in fiscal 2007. Earnings per share assuming dilution decreased 27.8 percent to $2.68 in the same period. Net income for 2006 included $728,000, after taxes, attributable to the recovery of past due interest and a reduction in the Corporations loan loss allowance in connection with the pay-off of previously nonperforming loans of one commercial relationship. Excluding the after-tax effect of this loan pay-off, the Corporations 2007 net income decreased 25.6 percent and earnings per share assuming dilution decreased 23.0 percent from 2006. Significant factors influencing 2007 earnings included interest rate fluctuations, loan growth, higher loan charge-offs, a decline in mortgage loan production and higher operating expenses associated with expansion initiatives. The degree to which these and other factors impacted each of our business segments varied and is discussed in Principal Business Activities below.
The Corporations ROE and ROA were 13.03 percent and 1.13 percent, respectively, for the year ended December 31, 2007, compared to 18.97 percent and 1.75 percent, respective, for the year ended December 31, 2006 (17.83 percent and 1.64 percent, adjusted to exclude the effect of the commercial loan pay-off). The decline in these measures resulted from lower earnings in 2007 coupled with asset growth. We have continued to make significant investments in our retail branch network, operations facilities, technology and personnel in order to accommodate our strategic growth initiatives. These investments have increased our operating assets and expenses. However, we expect them to enhance long-term earnings, thus increasing shareholder value.
We expect the following factors to influence the Corporations financial performance in 2008:
Principal Business Activities
An overview of the financial results for each of the Corporations principal segments is presented below. A more detailed discussion is included in the section Results of Operations.
Retail Banking: Pretax earnings for the Retail Banking segment were $4.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2007, compared with $8.7 million in 2006 ($7.6 million, adjusted to exclude the effect of the commercial loan pay-off in 2006). The decline in earnings for 2007 included (1) the effects of margin compression and competition on net interest income, (2) a higher provision for loan losses attributable to loan growth, (3) the effects on operating expenses of the Peninsula and Richmond branch openings and the operations center relocation, (4) higher operational and administrative personnel costs to support growth and (5) the recognition of compensation expense, in accordance with accounting principles effective beginning in 2006, in connection with the Corporations issuance of stock options to directors and the issuance of restricted stock to employees under existing plans. Net interest margin compression occurred at the Retail Banking segment as the cost of deposits continued to rise throughout most of 2007, while rates on interest-earning assets remained level through the third quarter of 2007 and began to decline in the fourth quarter of 2007. Approximately half of the Banks loans are indexed to the prime interest rate. Therefore, interest income is immediately negatively affected when this index declines. However, the source of funding for these loans, primarily deposits, does not reprice simultaneously with the decline in loan interest rates. Compounding the effect of the deposit repricing disparity is the increased competition for deposits,
which has prevented the cost of funds from falling as quickly as the drop in the prime rate index. Growth in the Retail Banking segments operations and infrastructure have increased operating expenses, but over time we expect these expenditures will improve efficiency and enhance customer service. C&F Bank opened four new branches within a 15-month period beginning in January 2006. As a result, the Retail Banking segment is incurring operating expenses for these branches before they have generated sufficient new loan and deposit growth to become profitable. Even though these costs will affect the Corporations short-term profits, we expect these branches will contribute to the Corporations long-term profitability.
Mortgage Banking: Pretax earnings for the Mortgage Banking segment, which consists solely of C&F Mortgage Corporation and its subsidiaries, were $2.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2007, compared with $3.8 million in 2006. The decline in earnings for 2007 included (1) the effects of the downturn in the housing market on loan origination volume, which declined 12.3 percent in 2007, (2) an increase in the provision for loan losses as a result of three loans being placed on nonaccrual status and (3) higher operating expenses in 2007 related to new offices and higher business development costs in order to generate loan production. Gains on loan sales declined during 2007 due to lower volumes of loan sales accompanying the reduced origination volume. For 2007, loan originations at C&F Mortgage for refinancings declined to $215 million from $283 million in 2006. Loans originated for new and resale home purchases declined to $613 million in 2007 from $661 million in 2006. In addition to the decrease in loan volume, the Mortgage Banking segment experienced a decrease in net interest income resulting from a lower average balance of loans held for sale. We expect that future earnings for the Mortgage Banking segment may continue to be negatively affected if the overall condition of the housing market results in fewer new and resale home sales and loan refinancings. However, we plan to continue to look for expansion opportunities in new and existing markets that provide the potential for increased loan production.
Consumer Finance: Pretax earnings for the Consumer Finance segment, which consists solely of C&F Finance, totaled $4.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2007, compared with pre-tax earnings of $5.0 million in 2006. Earnings of the Consumer Finance segment have benefited from an increase in net interest income resulting from average loan growth of 22.6 percent in 2007. However, the Consumer Finance segments net interest margin for 2007 declined as a result of an increase in the cost of variable-rate borrowings throughout most of 2007, without a corresponding increase in the fixed-rate loan portfolio. In addition, C&F Finance has entered into new markets and strengthened its position in existing markets in 2007 resulting in an increase in overhead expenses. We believe that the investments in new markets, technology and people at the Consumer Finance segment have established a platform with the capacity to support current operations and future growth. The provision for loan losses increased in 2007 as a result of higher charge-offs attributable to an increase in the number of vehicles repossessed in 2007, which was largely a result of a weaker economy, coupled with an increasing average balance per loan originated over the last several years. Future earnings at the Consumer Finance segment will be impacted by economic conditions including, but not limited to, the employment market, interest rate levels and the resale market for used automobiles.
We have managed our capital through growth in assets, stock purchases and increases in dividends as evidenced by the decline in the ratio of average equity to average total assets over the past three years. Total shareholders equity decreased $2.8 million to $65.2 million at December 31, 2007, compared to $68.0 million at December 31, 2006. This decline was attributable to dividends to shareholders of $3.8 million and the purchase of 204,520 shares of the Corporations common stock totaling $8.4 million during 2007, the effects of which were offset in part by earnings in 2007. The board of directors maintained the quarterly dividend level at 31 cents per share during 2007 despite the decline in earnings, resulting in a dividend payout ratio of 44.5 percent for 2007 compared to 30.2 percent for 2006. The share purchases were made under a board authorization on November 4, 2006 to purchase up to 150,000 shares over the twelve months ending November 3, 2007, which was terminated and replaced by an authorization on July 17, 2007 to purchase up to 150,000 shares of the Corporations common stock over the twelve months ending July 16, 2008.
RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
NET INTEREST INCOME
The following table shows the average balance sheets for each of the years ended December 31, 2007, 2006 and 2005. The table also shows the amounts of interest earned on earning assets, with related yields, and interest expense on interest-bearing liabilities, with related rates. Loans include loans held for sale. Loans placed on a nonaccrual status are included in the balances and are included in the computation of yields, but had no material effect. Interest on tax-exempt loans and securities is presented on a taxable-equivalent basis (which converts the income on loans and investments for which no income taxes are paid to the equivalent yield if income taxes were paid using the federal corporate income tax rate of 35 percent in all three years presented).
TABLE 1: Average Balances, Income and Expense, Yields and Rates
Interest income and expense are affected by fluctuations in interest rates, by changes in the volume of earning assets and interest-bearing liabilities, and by the interaction of rate and volume factors. The following table shows the direct causes of the year-to-year changes in the components of net interest income on a taxable-equivalent basis. We calculated the rate and volume variances using a formula prescribed by the SEC. Rate/volume variances, the third element in the calculation, are not shown separately in the table, but are allocated to the rate and volume variances in proportion to the relationship of the absolute dollar amounts of the change in each. Loans include both nonaccrual loans and loans held for sale.
TABLE 2: Rate-Volume Recap
2007 Compared to 2006
Net interest income, on a taxable-equivalent basis, for the year ended December 31, 2007 was $42.9 million, compared to $41.5 million for 2006. The net interest margin, on a taxable-equivalent basis, for the year ended December 31, 2007 was 6.27 percent, compared to 6.56 percent for 2006. The net interest margin of 6.56 percent for 2006 included $870,000 of nonaccrued and default interest attributable to the repayment of previously nonperforming loans of one commercial relationship. Excluding the effect of the commercial loan pay-off, the adjusted net interest margin was 6.43 percent for 2006. An increase of 33 basis points in the adjusted yield on interest-earning assets during 2007 was offset by an increase of 54 basis points in the rate on interest-bearing liabilities.
Average loans held for investment increased $55.8 million during 2007. The Retail Banking segments average loan portfolio increased $26.5 million compared to 2006. This increase was mainly attributable to commercial loan growth. The Consumer Finance segments average loan portfolio increased $27.3 million during 2007. This increase was attributable to overall growth at existing locations and expansion into new markets. The Mortgage Banking segments average loan portfolio increased $2.0 million during 2007. This increase was
attributable to short-term bridge loans, a new product introduced in 2007. Average loans held for sale at the Mortgage Banking segment decreased $9.6 million during 2007. The decrease in the average balances of loans held for sale occurred in response to loan demand, coupled with fluctuations in the timing of loan originations and sales within the periods. The overall yield on loans held for investment and loans held for sale increased as a result of a general increase in interest rates and an increase in higher-yielding Consumer Finance average loans relative to the overall loan portfolio.
Average securities available for sale increased $7.7 million during 2007 and their average yield increased 16 basis points. The increase in securities available for sale occurred predominantly in the Retail Banking segments municipal portfolio. Additions during 2007 focused on longer-term municipal securities. Yields for 2007 included the receipt of dividends from one preferred stock holding, for which dividend payments had been suspended throughout 2006.
Average interest-bearing deposits at other banks, primarily the FHLB, decreased $1.0 million during 2007. Fluctuations in the average balance of these low-yielding deposits occurred in response to loan demand and an increase in the securities portfolio. The average yield on interest-earning deposits at other banks increased 35 basis points during 2007. The higher yields were due to increases in short-term interest rates through mid-2006.
Average interest-bearing deposits increased $34.0 million during 2007. However, the increase in interest on deposits was influenced to a greater extent by the increase in deposit rates. The average cost of deposits increased 64 basis points due to the increase in short-term interest rates through mid-2006, coupled with the repricing of maturing certificates of deposit at higher interest rates, a decrease in the proportion of transaction accounts relative to total interest-bearing deposits, and the general competitive environment for core deposit growth.
Average borrowings increased $16.4 million during 2007 primarily from increased use of the third-party line of credit by the Consumer Finance segment to fund loan growth and from increased use of short-term and long-term borrowings from the FHLB by the Retail Banking segment to fund subsidiaries. These borrowings are primarily indexed to short-term interest rates and reprice as short-term interest rates change. Accordingly, the average cost of borrowings increased 11 basis points for 2007 as the impact of rising short-term interest rates through mid-2006 more than offset the decline in rates in the fourth quarter of 2007. In addition, unpredictable fluctuations in LIBOR, which are believed to have been triggered in part by the funding crisis caused by the housing markets, temporarily increased the Consumer Finance segments variable-rate borrowings during the third quarter of 2007.
Interest rates will continue to be a significant factor influencing the performance of all of the Corporations business segments. We expect that net interest margin compression in the Retail Segment is likely to occur if interest rates continue to decline as variable rate loans reprice faster than core deposits. We also expect that declining economic conditions and the deteriorating housing and mortgage markets may result in lower overall loan growth and increased yield pressure.
2006 Compared to 2005
Net interest income, on a taxable-equivalent basis, for the year ended December 31, 2006 was $41.5 million, compared to $38.2 million for 2005. The net interest margin of 6.56 percent for 2006 included $870,000 of nonaccrued and default interest attributable to the repayment of previously nonperforming loans of one commercial relationship. Excluding the effect of the commercial loan pay-off, the adjusted net interest margin was 6.43 percent for 2006, which was level with the net interest margin for 2005. An increase of 103 basis points in the yield on interest-earning assets during 2006 was offset by an increase of 99 basis points in the rate on interest-bearing liabilities.
Average loans held for investment increased $62.7 million during 2006. The Retail Banking segments average loan portfolio increased $46.2 million compared to 2005. This increase was mainly attributable to higher loan production in the Virginia Peninsula market and residential construction loan growth. The Consumer Finance segments average loan portfolio increased $16.5 million during 2006. This increase was attributable to overall growth at existing locations and the expansion into new markets in late 2006. Average loans held for sale at the Mortgage Banking segment decreased $14.6 million during 2006. Mortgage interest rate trends during 2006 resulted in a 10.8 percent decline in 2006 loan origination volume at the Mortgage Banking segment. The yield on loans held for investment and loans held for sale increased as a result of a general increase in interest rates since mid-2004.
Average securities available for sale decreased $1.8 million during 2006. In addition, their average yield declined 21 basis points. The decline in the average balance resulted from the utilization of proceeds from maturities and calls to partially fund the increase in loan demand. The yield decreases reflected the impact of the flat yield curve on long-term interest rates and thus the yield on securities purchased throughout 2006.
Average interest-bearing deposits at other banks, primarily the FHLB, decreased $7.9 million during 2006. Fluctuations in the average balance of these low-yielding deposits occurred in response to loan demand. The average yield on interest-earning deposits at other banks increased 185 basis points during 2006. The higher yields were due to increases beginning in mid-2004 in short-term interest rates.
Although average time and savings deposits increased $27.6 million during 2006, the increase in interest on deposits was influenced to a greater extent by the increase in deposit rates. The average cost of deposits increased 81 basis points for 2006 due to the increase in short-term interest rates, coupled with the repricing of maturing deposits at higher interest rates.
Average borrowings increased $19.1 million during 2006 partially due to a new line of credit and the issuance of trust preferred capital securities in the third quarter of 2005 to fund the Corporations purchase of 427,186 shares of its common stock in mid-2005. The increase in average borrowings during 2006 was also attributable to loan growth at the Consumer Finance segment, which was funded in part by a line of credit. The increase in interest on borrowings was influenced to a greater extent by a higher cost of funds, which increased 141 basis points during 2006. The majority of the Corporations borrowings during 2006 were indexed to short-term interest rates and repriced as short-term interest rates changed.
TABLE 3: Noninterest Income
2007 Compared to 2006
Total noninterest income declined 5.5 percent to $25.9 million in 2007. The decrease in noninterest income at the Mortgage Banking segment was attributable to lower gains on loan sales and lower ancillary fees due to the ongoing effects of lower demand for home mortgage loans, tightening secondary market underwriting criteria and increased competition. The decline in noninterest income at the Mortgage Banking segment was offset in part by an increase in noninterest income at (1) the Retail Banking segment attributable to higher service charges and fees on deposit accounts resulting from deposit account growth and the expansion of our overdraft protection services and (2) the Consumer Finance segment attributable to activity-based fees and service charges. Increased revenue from brokerage services further offset the decline in the Mortgage Banking segment.
2006 Compared to 2005
Total noninterest income declined slightly to $27.4 million during 2006. The factors affecting the change in noninterest income during 2006 were essentially the same as those described above for 2007, albeit less pronounced. Namely, lower loan demand at the Mortgage Banking segment, which resulted in a decline in gains on loan sales, was offset in part by higher noninterest income at the Retail Banking and Consumer Finance segments. The expansion of our overdraft protection services began in mid-2006 at the Retail Banking segment and higher service charges and fees generated from loan processing and collections were recognized at the Consumer Finance segment.
TABLE 4: Noninterest Expense
2007 Compared to 2006
Total noninterest expense increased 6.7 percent to $48.4 million in 2007. The Retail Banking and the Consumer Finance segments reported increases in total noninterest expense that were primarily attributable to higher personnel and operating expenses to support growth and technology enhancements at both segments. Noninterest expense of the Retail Banking segment included operating expenses associated with our new Patterson Avenue and Chester retail banking branches in the Richmond, Virginia area, which opened in the first quarter of 2007, our Hampton and Yorktown retail banking branches on the Virginia Peninsula, which opened in 2006, and our new operations center, which opened in late 2005. Noninterest expenses of the Consumer Finance segment included costs associated with building depth in our sales force, entering new markets and increasing the administrative staff to support the increase in the loan portfolio. Total noninterest expense decreased at the Mortgage Banking segment because of lower production-based personnel expenses as a result of the decline in loan production.
2006 Compared to 2005
Total noninterest expense increased $3.5 million, or 8.3 percent, to $45.3 million during 2006. The factors affecting the change in noninterest expense during 2006 were essentially the same as those described above for 2007. The Retail Banking and the Consumer Finance segments reported increases in total noninterest expense that were primarily attributable to higher personnel and operating expenses to support growth and technology enhancements at both segments. Total noninterest expense declined during 2006 for the Mortgage Banking segment because production-based costs decreased in tandem with lower origination volume. However, the decline was offset in part by higher overhead associated with opening new loan production offices in 2006 and 2005. Noninterest expenses of the Mortgage Banking segment in 2006 included $108,000 of expenses, in excess of the Corporations insurance coverage, associated with a $2.2 million embezzlement perpetrated by two former employees of C&F Mortgage.
Applicable income taxes on 2007 earnings amounted to $3.3 million, resulting in an effective tax rate of 28.3 percent, compared with $5.4 million, or 30.9 percent, in 2006 and $5.2 million, or 30.5 percent, in 2005. The decline in the effective tax rate during 2007 resulted from higher tax-exempt income on securities and loans as a percentage of pretax income.
Allowance and Provision for Loan Losses
The allowance for loan losses represents an amount that, in our judgment, will be adequate to absorb any losses on existing loans that may become uncollectible. The provision for loan losses increases the allowance, and loans charged off, net of recoveries, reduce the allowance. The following table presents the Corporations loan loss experience for the periods indicated:
TABLE 5: Allowance for Loan Losses
During 2007, there was a $417,000 increase in the allowance for loan losses at the combined Retail Banking and Mortgage Banking segments compared to December 31, 2006. This increase was attributable to loan growth at C&F Bank and an increase in nonaccrual loans at C&F Mortgage. The Mortgage Banking segment has a $4.5 million portfolio of loans held for investment. Three loans totaling $732,000 in this portfolio were on nonaccrual status at December 31, 2007. There were no nonaccrual loans at the Mortgage Banking segment at December 31, 2006. Therefore, the Mortgage Banking segment provided for a $120,000 loan loss allowance in 2007. We believe that the current level of the allowance for loan losses at the combined Retail and Mortgage Banking segments is appropriate to absorb any losses on existing loans that may become uncollectible.
The Consumer Finance segment, consisting solely of C&F Finance, accounted for the majority of the activity in the allowance for loan losses during 2007. C&F Finances allowance for loan losses increased to $11.2 million at December 31, 2007 from $9.9 million at December 31, 2006, and its provision for loan losses increased $1.9 million. The increase in the provision for loan losses was primarily attributable to higher net charge-offs in 2007 resulting
from an increase in the number of vehicles repossessed in 2007, coupled with an increasing average balance per loan originated over the last several years. We believe that the current level of the allowance for loan losses at the Consumer Finance segment is appropriate to absorb any losses on existing loans that may become uncollectible.
Loan Loss Allowance Methodology-Retail and Mortgage Banking. We conduct an analysis of the loan portfolio on a regular basis. We use this analysis to assess the sufficiency of the allowance for loan losses and to determine the necessary provision for loan losses. The review process generally begins with loan officers identifying problem loans to be reviewed on an individual basis for impairment. In addition to these loans, all commercial loans are considered for individual impairment testing. Impairment testing includes consideration of the current collateral value for each loan, as well as any known internal or external factors that may affect collectibility. When we identify a loan as impaired, we may establish a specific allowance based on the difference between the carrying value of the loan and its computed fair value. We segregate the loans meeting the criteria for special mention, substandard, doubtful and loss, as well as impaired loans, from performing loans within the portfolio. We then group loans by loan type (e.g., commercial, consumer) and by risk rating (e.g., substandard, doubtful). We assign each loan type an allowance factor based on the associated risk, complexity and size of the individual loans within the particular loan category. We assign classified loans a higher allowance factor than non-rated loans within a particular loan type based on our concerns regarding collectibility or our knowledge of particular elements surrounding the borrower. Our allowance factors increase with the severity of classification. Allowance factors used for unclassified loans are based on our analysis of charge-off history and our judgment based on the overall analysis of the lending environment including the general economic conditions. The allowance for loan losses is the aggregate of specific allowances, the calculated allowance required for classified loans by category and the general allowance for each portfolio type.
In conjunction with the methodology described above, we consider the following risk elements that are inherent in the loan portfolio:
Loan Loss Allowance Methodology Consumer Finance. The Consumer Finance segments loans consist of non-prime automobile loans. These loans carry risks associated with (1) the continued credit-worthiness of borrowers who may be unable to meet the credit standards imposed by most traditional automobile financing sources and (2) the value of rapidly-depreciating collateral. These loans do not lend themselves to a classification process because of the short duration of time between delinquency and repossession. Therefore, the loan loss allowance review process generally focuses on the rates of delinquencies, defaults, repossessions and losses. Allowance factors also include an analysis of charge-off history and our judgment based on the overall analysis of the lending environment.
The allocation of the allowance at December 31 for the years indicated and the ratio of related outstanding loan balances to total loans are as follows:
TABLE 6: Allocation of Allowance for Loan Losses
Table 7 summarizes nonperforming assets at December 31, of each of the past five years.
TABLE 7: Nonperforming Assets
Retail and Mortgage Banking
Nonperforming assets of the combined Retail and Mortgage Banking segments at December 31, 2007 included $732,000 of nonaccrual loans at the Mortgage Banking segment, which accounted for the increase in nonperforming assets. However, the ratio of nonperforming assets to total loans remains below one percent and we believe that the ratio of the allowance for loan losses to total loans and the coverage ratio are indicative of an appropriate reserve level at December 31, 2007.
Although increasing, nonaccrual loans of the Consumer Finance segment as a percentage of total consumer finance loans remains less than one percent at December 31, 2007. While the ratio of the allowance for loan losses to total loans declined 44 basis points since December 31, 2006, the overall allowance for loan losses increased to $11.2 million at December 31, 2007 from $9.9 million at December 31, 2006. A decline in the loan loss allowance ratio can occur during periods of significant loan growth, such as 2007, because the purchase of a contract does not necessarily simultaneously give rise to an allowance. We use historical charge-off experience factors, such as delinquency status when each charge-off occurs, to determine the amount of losses inherent in the portfolio at the reporting date. These assumptions are revised periodically and may be affected by actual performance of the loans or other factors. Based on our experience since acquiring C&F Finance, we believe the level of the allowance for loan losses is appropriate to cover probable losses currently inherent in our consumer finance portfolio. However, because the allowance for loan losses is based on estimates, there can be no assurance that actual charge-off amounts will not vary from such estimates.
In accordance with its policies and guidelines and consistent with industry practices, C&F Finance, at times, offers payment deferrals to borrowers, whereby the borrower is allowed to move up to two payments within a twelve-month rolling period to the end of the loan, generally by paying a fee. An account for which all delinquent
payments are deferred is classified as current at the time the deferment is granted and therefore is not included as a delinquent account. Thereafter, such an account is aged based on the timely payment of future installments in the same manner as any other account. We evaluate the results of this deferment strategy based upon the amount of cash installments that are collected on accounts after they have been deferred versus the extent to which the collateral underlying the deferred accounts has depreciated over the same period of time. Based on this evaluation, we believe that payment deferrals granted according to our policies and guidelines are an effective portfolio management technique and result in higher ultimate cash collections from the portfolio. Payment deferrals may affect the ultimate timing of when an account is charged off. Increased use of deferrals may result in a lengthening of the loss confirmation period, which would increase expectations of credit losses inherent in the portfolio and therefore increase the allowance for loan losses and related provision for loan losses.
During periods of economic slowdown or recession, delinquencies, defaults, repossessions and losses generally increase at the Consumer Finance segment. These periods also may be accompanied by decreased consumer demand for automobiles and declining values of automobiles securing outstanding loans, which weakens collateral coverage and increases the amount of a loss in the event of default. Significant increases in the inventory of used automobiles during periods of economic recession may also depress the prices at which we may sell repossessed automobiles or delay the timing of these sales. Because C&F Finance focuses on non-prime borrowers, the actual rates of delinquencies, defaults, repossessions and losses on these loans are higher than those experienced in the general automobile finance industry and could be more dramatically affected by a general economic downturn. While we manage the higher risk inherent in loans made to non-prime borrowers through the underwriting criteria and collection methods employed by C&F Finance, we cannot guarantee that these criteria or methods will afford adequate protection against these risks. However, we believe that the current allowance for loan losses is appropriate to absorb any losses on existing Consumer Finance segment loans that may become uncollectible.
We generally place loans at the Retail Banking, Mortgage Banking and Consumer Finance segments on nonaccrual status when the collection of principal or interest is 90 days or more past due, or earlier, if collection is uncertain based on an evaluation of the net realizable value of the collateral and the financial strength of the borrower. Loans greater than 90 days past due may remain on accrual status if we determine we have adequate collateral to cover the principal and interest. For those loans that are carried on nonaccrual status, payments are first applied to principal outstanding. We would have recorded additional gross interest income of $56,000 for 2007, $70,000 for 2006 and $270,000 for 2005 if nonaccrual loans had been current throughout these periods. Interest received on nonaccrual loans was $219,000 in 2007, $41,000 in 2006 (adjusted to exclude $870,000 of nonaccrued and default interest collected on the commercial loan pay-off) and $193,000 in 2005.
At the Consumer Finance segment, automobiles securing the loans are generally repossessed after a loan becomes more than 60 days delinquent. Repossessions are handled by independent repossession firms engaged by C&F Finance and must be approved by a collections representative. After the prescribed waiting period, the repossessed automobile is sold in a third-party auction. We credit the proceeds from the sale of the automobile, and any other recoveries, against the balance of the loan. Proceeds from the sale of the repossessed vehicle and other recoveries are usually not sufficient to cover the outstanding balance of the loan, and the resulting deficiency is charged off. The charge-off represents the difference between the actual net sale proceeds minus collections and repossession expenses and the principal balance of the delinquent loan. C&F Finance pursues collection of deficiencies when it deems such action to be appropriate.
We measure impaired loans based on the present value of expected future cash flows discounted at the effective interest rate of the loan or, as a practical expedient, at the loans observable market price or the fair value of the collateral if the loan is collateral dependent. We consider a loan impaired when it is probable that we will be unable to collect all interest and principal payments as scheduled in the loan agreement. We do not consider a loan impaired during a period of delay in payment if we expect the ultimate collectibility of all amounts due. We maintain a valuation allowance to the extent that the measure of the impaired loan is less than the recorded investment. The balance of impaired loans was $291,000 and $781,000 at December 31, 2007 and 2006, respectively, for which no specific valuation allowance was deemed necessary. The average balance of impaired loans was $557,000 for 2007, $2.24 million for 2006 and $4.2 million for 2005.
A financial institutions primary sources of revenue are generated by its earning assets, while its major expenses are produced by the funding of those assets with interest-bearing liabilities. Effective management of these sources and uses of funds is essential in attaining a financial institutions maximum profitability while maintaining an acceptable level of risk.
At December 31, 2007, the Corporation had total assets of $785.6 million compared to $734.5 million at December 31, 2006. The increase was principally a result of an increase in loans held for investment at the Retail Banking and Consumer Finance segments and an increase in investment securities at the Retail Banking segment, which were offset in part by a decline in interest-bearing deposits in other banks used to partially fund loan growth and a decline in loans held for sale. Asset growth was primarily funded with increased borrowings.
Through the Retail Banking segment, we engage in a wide range of lending activities, which include the origination, primarily in the Banking segments market area, of (1) one-to-four family and multi-family residential mortgage loans, (2) commercial real estate loans, (3) construction loans, (4) land acquisition and development loans, (5) consumer loans and (6) commercial business loans. We engage in non-prime automobile lending through the Consumer Finance segment and in residential mortgage lending through the Mortgage Banking segment with loans sold to third-party investors. At December 31, 2007, the Corporations loans held for investment in all categories totaled $601.8 million and loans held for sale totaled $34.1 million.
Tables 8 and 9 present information pertaining to the composition of loans and maturity/repricing of loans.
TABLE 8: Summary of Loans Held for Investment
TABLE 9: Maturity/Repricing Schedule of Loans
The increase in loans held for investment occurred predominantly in (1) the variable-rate categories of real estate and commercial loans and (2) the fixed-rate category of consumer loans at C&F Finance. Typically, growth in the variable-rate categories will negatively affect net interest margin in a declining rate environment. Fixed-rate consumer loans at C&F Finance are predominantly funded by variable rate borrowings; therefore, net interest margin will be favorably impacted in a declining interest rate environment.
The Corporations credit policy establishes minimum requirements and provides for appropriate limitations on overall concentration of credit within the Corporation. The policy provides guidance in general credit policies, underwriting policies and risk management, credit approval, and administrative and problem asset management policies. The overall goal of the Corporations credit policy is to ensure that loan growth is accompanied by acceptable asset quality with uniform and consistently applied approval, administration, and documentation practices and standards.
Residential Mortgage Lending Held for Sale
The Mortgage Banking segments guidelines for underwriting conventional conforming loans comply with the underwriting criteria established by Fannie Mae and/or Freddie Mac. The guidelines for non-conforming conventional loans are based on the requirements of private investors and information provided by third-party investors. The guidelines used by C&F Mortgage to originate FHA-insured and VA-guaranteed loans comply with
the criteria established by HUD and the VA. The conventional loans that C&F Mortgage originates or purchases that have loan-to-value ratios greater than 80 percent at origination are generally insured by private mortgage insurance. The borrower pays the cost of the insurance.
Residential Mortgage Lending Held for Investment
The Retail Banking segment originates residential mortgage loans secured by properties located in its primary market area in southeastern and central Virginia. The Bank offers various types of residential mortgage loans in addition to traditional long-term, fixed-rate loans. The majority of such loans include 10 and 15 year amortizing mortgage loans with fixed rates of interest and fixed-rate mortgage loans with terms of 20, 25 and 30 years but subject to call after five years at the option of the Bank.
Loans associated with residential mortgage lending are included in the real estateresidential mortgage category in Table 8.
The Retail Banking segment has an active construction lending program. The Bank makes loans primarily for the construction of one-to-four family residences and, to a lesser extent, multi-family dwellings. The Bank also makes construction loans for office and warehouse facilities and other nonresidential projects, generally limited to borrowers that present other business opportunities for the Bank.
The amounts, interest rates and terms for construction loans vary, depending upon market conditions, the size and complexity of the project, and the financial strength of the borrower and any guarantors of the loan. The term for the Banks typical construction loan ranges from nine months to 15 months for the construction of an individual residence and from 15 months to a maximum of three years for larger residential or commercial projects. The Bank does not typically amortize its construction loans, and the borrower pays interest monthly on the outstanding principal balance of the loan. The interest rates on the Banks construction loans are fixed and variable. The Bank does not generally finance the construction of commercial real estate projects built on a speculative basis. For residential builder loans, the Bank limits the number of models and/or speculative units allowed depending on market conditions, the builders financial strength and track record and other factors. Generally, the maximum loan-to-value ratio for one-to-four family residential construction loans is 80 percent of the propertys fair market value, or 85 percent of the propertys fair market value if the property will be the borrowers primary residence. The fair market value of a project is determined on the basis of an appraisal of the project conducted by an appraiser acceptable to the Bank. For larger projects where unit absorption or leasing is a concern, the Bank may also obtain a feasibility study or other acceptable information from the borrower or other sources about the likely disposition of the property following the completion of construction.
Construction loans for nonresidential projects and multi-unit residential projects are generally larger and involve a greater degree of risk to the Bank than residential mortgage loans. The Bank attempts to minimize such risks (1) by making construction loans in accordance with the Banks underwriting standards and to established customers in its primary market area and (2) by monitoring the quality, progress and cost of construction. Generally, the maximum loan-to-value ratio established by the Bank for non-residential projects and multi-unit residential projects is 80 percent; however, this maximum can be waived for particularly strong borrowers on an exception basis.
Loans associated with construction lending are included in the real estateconstruction category in Table 8.
Consumer Lot Lending
Consumer lot loans are loans made to individuals for the purpose of acquiring an unimproved building site for the construction of a residence that generally will be occupied by the borrower. Consumer lot loans are made only to individual borrowers, and each borrower generally must certify to the Bank his intention to build and occupy a single-family residence on the lot generally within three or five years of the date of origination of the loan. These loans typically have a maximum term of either three or five years with a balloon payment of the entire balance of the loan being due in full at the end of the initial term. The interest rate for these loans is fixed or variable at a rate that is slightly higher than prevailing rates for one-to-four family residential mortgage loans. We do not believe consumer lot loans bear as much risk as land acquisition and development loans because such loans are not made for the construction of residences for immediate resale, are not made to developers and builders, and are not concentrated in any one subdivision or community. The Bank also purchases lot loans originated by C&F Mortgage. These loans must satisfy the Banks underwriting criteria, including loan-to-value and credit score guidelines.
Loans associated with consumer lot lending are included in the real estateconstruction category in Table 8.
Commercial Real Estate Lending
The Banks commercial real estate loans are primarily secured by the value of real property and the income arising from such property. The proceeds of commercial real estate loans are generally used by the borrower to finance or refinance the cost of acquiring and/or improving a commercial property. The properties that typically secure these loans are office and warehouse facilities, hotels, retail facilities, restaurants and other commercial properties. The Banks present policy is generally to restrict the making of commercial real estate loans to borrowers who will occupy or use the financed property in connection with their normal business operations. However, the Bank also will consider making commercial real estate loans under the following two conditions. First, the Bank will consider making commercial real estate loans for other purposes if the borrower is in strong financial condition and presents a substantial business opportunity for the Bank. Second, the Bank will consider making commercial real estate loans to creditworthy borrowers who have substantially pre-leased the improvements to high-caliber tenants.
The Banks commercial real estate loans are usually amortized over a period of time ranging from 15 years to 25 years and usually have a term to maturity ranging from five years to 15 years. These loans normally have provisions for interest rate adjustments after the loan is three to five years old. The Banks maximum loan-to-value ratio for a commercial real estate loan is 80 percent; however, this maximum can be waived for particularly strong borrowers on an exception basis. Most commercial real estate loans are further secured by one or more unconditional personal guarantees.
In recent years, the Bank has structured some of its commercial real estate loans as mini-permanent loans. The amortization period, term and interest rates for these loans vary based on borrower preferences and the Banks assessment of the loan and the degree of risk involved. If the borrower prefers a fixed rate of interest, the Bank usually offers a loan with a fixed rate of interest for a term of three to five years with an amortization period of up to 25 years. The remaining balance of the loan is due and payable in a single balloon payment at the end of the initial term. We believe that shorter maturities for commercial real estate loans are necessary to give the Bank some
protection from changes in the borrowers business and income as well as changes in general economic conditions. In the case of fixed-rate commercial real estate loans, shorter maturities also provide the Bank with an opportunity to adjust the interest rate on this type of interest-earning asset in accordance with the Banks asset and liability management strategies.
Loans secured by commercial real estate are generally larger and involve a greater degree of risk than residential mortgage loans. Because payments on loans secured by commercial real estate are usually dependent on successful operation or management of the properties securing such loans, repayment of such loans is subject to changes in both general and local economic conditions and the borrowers business and income. As a result, events beyond the control of the Bank, such as a downturn in the local economy, could adversely affect the performance of the Banks commercial real estate loan portfolio. The Bank seeks to minimize these risks by lending to established customers and generally restricting its commercial real estate loans to its primary market area. Emphasis is placed on the income producing characteristics and capacity of the collateral.
Loans associated with commercial real estate lending are included in the commercial, financial and agricultural category in Table 8.
Land Acquisition and Development Lending
Land acquisition and development loans are made to builders and developers for the purpose of acquiring unimproved land to be developed for residential building sites, residential housing subdivisions, multi-family dwellings and a variety of commercial uses. The Banks policy is to make land acquisition loans to borrowers for the purpose of acquiring developed lots for single-family, townhouse or condominium construction. The Bank will make both land acquisition and development loans to residential builders, experienced developers and others in strong financial condition to provide additional construction and mortgage lending opportunities for the Bank.
The Bank underwrites and processes land acquisition and development loans in much the same manner as commercial construction loans and commercial real estate loans. For land acquisition and development loans, the Bank uses lower loan-to-value ratios, which are a maximum of 65 percent for raw land, 75 percent for land development and improved lots and 80 percent of the discounted appraised value of the property as determined in accordance with the Banks appraisal policies for developed lots for single-family or townhouse construction. The Bank can waive the maximum loan-to-value ratio for particularly strong borrowers on an exception basis. The term of land acquisition and development loans ranges from a maximum of two years for loans relating to the acquisition of unimproved land to, generally, a maximum of three years for other types of projects. All land acquisition and development loans generally are further secured by one or more unconditional personal guarantees. Because these loans are usually in a larger amount and involve more risk than consumer lot loans, the Bank carefully evaluates the borrowers assumptions and projections about market conditions and absorption rates in the community in which the property is located and the borrowers ability to carry the loan if the borrowers assumptions prove inaccurate.
Loans associated with land acquisition and development lending are included in the commercial, financial and agricultural category in Table 8.
Commercial Business Lending
Commercial business loan products include revolving lines of credit to provide working capital, term loans to finance the purchase of vehicles and equipment, letters of credit to guarantee payment and performance, and other commercial loans. In general, these credit facilities carry the unconditional guaranty of the owners and/or stockholders.
Revolving and operating lines of credit are typically secured by all current assets of the borrower, provide for the acceleration of repayment upon any event of default, are monitored monthly or quarterly to ensure compliance with loan covenants, and are re-underwritten or renewed annually. Interest rates generally will float at a spread tied to the Banks prime lending rate. Term loans are generally advanced for the purchase of, and are secured by, vehicles and equipment and are normally fully amortized over a term of two to five years, on either a fixed or floating rate basis.
Loans associated with commercial business lending are included in the commercial, financial and agricultural category in Table 8.
Home Equity and Second Mortgage Lending
The Bank offers its customers home equity lines of credit and second mortgage loans that enable customers to borrow funds secured by the equity in their homes. Currently, home equity lines of credit are offered with adjustable rates of interest that are generally priced at a spread to the prime lending rate. Second mortgage loans are offered with fixed and adjustable rates. Call option provisions are included in the loan documents for some longer-term, fixed-rate second mortgage loans, and these provisions allow the Bank to make interest rate adjustments for such loans. Second mortgage loans are granted for a fixed period of time, usually between five and 20 years, and home equity lines of credit are made on an open-end, revolving basis. Home equity loans, second mortgage loans and other consumer loans secured by a personal residence generally do not present as much risk to the Bank as other types of consumer loans. The Bank also purchases home equity lines of credit and second mortgage loans originated by C&F Mortgage. These loans must satisfy the Banks underwriting criteria, including loan-to-value and credit score guidelines.
Loans associated with home equity and second mortgage lending are included in the equity lines category in Table 8.
The Bank offers a variety of consumer loans, including automobile, personal secured and personal unsecured, credit card, and loans secured by savings accounts or certificates of deposit. The shorter terms and generally higher interest rates on consumer loans help the Bank maintain a profitable spread between its average loan yield and its cost of funds. Consumer loans secured by collateral other than a personal residence generally involve more credit risk than residential mortgage loans because of the type and nature of the collateral or, in certain cases, the absence of collateral. However, the Bank believes the higher yields generally earned on such loans compensate for the increased credit risk associated with such loans.
Loans associated with consumer lending are included in the consumer category in Table 8.
Automobile Sales Finance
C&F Finance has an extensive automobile dealer network through which it purchases installment contracts throughout its markets. Branch personnel have a specific credit authority based upon their experience and historical loan portfolio results, as well as established underwriting criteria. Although the credit approval process is decentralized, C&F Finances application processing system includes controls designed to ensure that credit decisions comply with its underwriting policies and procedures.
Finance contract application packages completed by prospective borrowers are submitted by the automobile dealers electronically through a third-party online automotive sales and finance platform to C&F Finances automated origination and application scoring system, which processes the credit bureau report, generates all relevant loan calculations and recommends the contract structure. C&F Finance personnel with credit authority review the system-generated recommendations and determine whether to approve or deny the application. The credit decision is based primarily on the applicants credit history with emphasis on prior auto loan history, current employment status, income, collateral type and mileage, and the contract-to-value ratio.
C&F Finances underwriting and collateral guidelines form the basis for the credit decision. Exceptions to credit policies and authorities must be approved by a designated credit officer. C&F Finances typical borrowers have experienced prior credit difficulties. Because C&F Finance serves customers who are unable to meet the credit standards imposed by most traditional automobile financing sources, we expect C&F Finance to sustain a higher level of credit losses than traditional automobile financing sources. However, C&F Finance generally charges interest at higher rates than those charged by traditional financing sources. These higher rates should more than offset the increase in the provision for loan losses for this segment of the Corporations loan portfolio.
Loans associated with automobile sales finance are included in the consumer finance category in Table 8.
The investment portfolio plays a primary role in the management of the Corporations interest rate sensitivity and generates substantial interest income. In addition, the portfolio serves as a source of liquidity and is used as needed to meet collateral requirements. The investment portfolio consists of securities available for sale, which may be sold in response to changes in market interest rates, changes in prepayment risk, increases in loan demand, general liquidity needs and other similar factors. These securities are carried at estimated fair value.
The following table sets forth the composition of the Corporations securities available for sale in dollar amounts at fair value and as a percentage of the Corporations total securities available for sale at the dates indicated:
The increase in securities available for sale occurred predominantly in the municipal portfolio. Additions since December 31, 2006 focused on longer-term municipal securities.
Table 10 presents additional information pertaining to the composition of the securities portfolio by contractual maturity.
TABLE 10: Maturity of Securities
The Corporations predominant source of funds is depository accounts, which are comprised of demand deposits, savings and money market accounts, and time deposits. The Corporations deposits are principally provided by individuals and businesses located within the communities served.
Deposits totaled $527.6 million at December 31, 2007, compared to $532.8 million at December 31, 2006. This decrease was primarily attributable to (1) the decrease in noninterest-bearing demand deposits, which totaled $80.0 million at December 31, 2007, compared to $90.3 million at December 31, 2006 and (2) the decrease in savings and interest-bearing demand deposits, which totaled $184.6 million at December 31, 2007, compared to $188.5 million at December 31, 2006, which were offset in part by the increase in time deposits to $262.9 million at December 31, 2007 from $254.1 million at December 31, 2006. The decrease in savings and interest-bearing demand deposits resulted primarily from a decrease in municipal deposit accounts, which was partially offset by strong money market deposit growth in the four new branches opened in 2006 and 2007. The increase in time deposits
resulted from the effect of our competitive rate-setting strategies and the issuance of $3.0 million of brokered certificates of deposit. Total deposits at December 31, 2006 increased $37.4 million, or 7.5 percent, over December 31, 2005. Deposit growth in 2006 occurred in all of the Banks market regions in 2006.
Table 11 presents the average deposit balances and average rates paid for the years 2007, 2006 and 2005.
TABLE 11: Average Deposits and Rates Paid
Table 12 details maturities of certificates of deposit with balances of $100,000 or more at December 31, 2007.
TABLE 12: Maturities of Certificates of Deposit with Balances of $100,000 or More
In addition to deposits, the Corporation utilizes short-term borrowings from the FHLB to fund its day-to-day operations. Short-term borrowings also include securities sold under agreements to repurchase, which are secured transactions with customers and generally mature the day following the day sold, an overnight fed funds line with a regional correspondent bank, as well as a short-term line of credit with a third-party lender for general corporate purposes. Long-term borrowings consist of advances from the FHLB and advances under a non-recourse revolving bank line of credit. All FHLB advances are secured by a blanket floating lien on all qualifying real estate loans. The bank line of credit is non-recourse and is secured by loans at C&F Finance.
In December, 2007, C&F Financial Statutory Trust II (Trust II), a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Corporation, was formed for the purpose of issuing trust preferred capital securities for general corporate purposes including the refinancing of existing debt. On December 14, 2007, Trust II issued $10.0 million of trust preferred capital securities in a private placement to an institutional investor and $310,000 in common equity to the Corporation. The principal asset of Trust II is $10.3 million of the Corporations trust preferred capital notes. In July 2005, C&F Financial Statutory Trust I (Trust I), a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Corporation, was formed for the purpose of issuing trust preferred capital securities to partially fund the Corporations purchase of 427,186
shares of its common stock. On July 21, 2005, Trust I issued $10.0 million of trust preferred capital securities in a private placement to an institutional investor and $310,000 in common equity to the Corporation. The principal asset of Trust I is $10.3 million of the Corporations trust preferred capital notes. For further information concerning the Corporations borrowings, refer to Item 8, Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, under the heading Note 7: Borrowings.
To meet the financing needs of customers, the Corporation is a party, in the normal course of business, to financial instruments with off-balance-sheet risk. These financial instruments include commitments to extend credit, commitments to sell loans and standby letters of credit. These instruments involve elements of credit and interest rate risk in addition to the amount on the balance sheet. The Corporations exposure to credit loss in the event of nonperformance by the other party to the financial instrument for commitments to extend credit and standby letters of credit written is represented by the contractual amount of these instruments. We use the same credit policies in making these commitments and conditional obligations as we do for on-balance-sheet instruments. We obtain collateral based on our credit assessment of the customer in each circumstance.
Loan commitments are agreements to extend credit to a customer provided that there are no violations of the terms of the contract prior to funding. Commitments have fixed expiration dates or other termination clauses and may require payment of a fee by the customer. Since many of the commitments may expire without being completely drawn upon, the total commitment amounts do not necessarily represent future cash requirements. The total amount of unused loan commitments was $98.0 million at December 31, 2007 and $93.3 million at December 31, 2006.
Standby letters of credit are written conditional commitments issued by the Bank to guarantee the performance of a customer to a third party. The credit risk involved in issuing letters of credit is essentially the same as that involved in extending loans to customers. The total contract amount of standby letters of credit, whose contract amounts represent credit risk, was $7.1 million at December 31, 2007 and $8.8 million at December 31, 2006.
At December 31, 2007, C&F Mortgage had rate lock commitments to originate mortgage loans aggregating $22.8 million and loans held for sale of $34.1 million. C&F Mortgage has entered into corresponding commitments with third party investors to sell loans of approximately $56.9 million. Under the contractual relationship with these investors, C&F Mortgage is obligated to sell the loans only if the loans close. No other obligation exists. As a result of these contractual relationships with these investors, C&F Mortgage is not exposed to losses, nor will it realize gains, related to its rate lock commitments due to changes in interest rates.
C&F Mortgage sells substantially all of the residential mortgage loans it originates to third-party investors, some of whom require the repurchase of loans in the event of early default or faulty documentation. Mortgage loans and their related servicing rights are sold under agreements that define certain eligibility criteria for the mortgage loans. Recourse periods vary from 90 days up to one year and conditions for repurchase vary with the investor. We include recourse considerations in our calculation of the Corporations capital adequacy. Payments made under these recourse provisions were $84,000 in 2007, $62,000 in 2006 and $29,000 in 2005. Risks also arise from the possible inability of counterparties to meet the terms of their contracts. C&F Mortgage has procedures in place to evaluate the credit risk of investors and does not expect any counterparty to fail to meet its obligations.
The objective of the Corporations liquidity management is to ensure the continuous availability of funds to satisfy the credit needs of our customers and the demands of our depositors, creditors and investors. Stable core deposits and a strong capital position are the components of a solid foundation for the Corporations liquidity position. Additional sources of liquidity available to the Corporation include cash flows from operations, loan payments and payoffs, deposit growth, sales of securities, the issuance of brokered certificates of deposit and the capacity to borrow additional funds.
Liquid assets, which include cash and due from banks, interest-bearing deposits at other banks, federal funds sold and nonpledged securities available for sale, totaled $58.5 million at December 31, 2007. The Corporations funding sources consist of (1) an established federal funds line with a regional correspondent bank that had no outstanding balance under a total line of $14.0 million as of December 31, 2007, (2) an established line with the FHLB that had $66.9 million outstanding under a total line of $124.6 million as of December 31, 2007, (3) a revolving line of credit with a third-party bank that had $86.0 million outstanding under a total line of $100.0 million as of December 31, 2007 and (4) a revolving line of credit with a third-party bank that had no outstanding balance under a total line of $7.0 million as of December 31, 2007. We have no reason to believe these arrangements will not be renewed at maturity.
Certificates of deposit of $100,000 or more maturing in less than a year totaled $81.0 million at December 31, 2007; certificates of deposit of $100,000 or more maturing in more than one year totaled $16.0 million. The following table presents the Corporations contractual obligations and scheduled payment amounts due at various intervals over the next five years and beyond as of December 31, 2007:
As a result of the Corporations management of liquid assets and the ability to generate liquidity through liability funding, we believe that we maintain overall liquidity sufficient to satisfy the Corporations operational requirements and contractual obligations.
The assessment of capital adequacy depends on such factors as asset quality, liquidity, earnings performance, and changing competitive conditions and economic forces. We regularly review the adequacy of the Corporations capital. We maintain a structure that will assure an adequate level of capital to support anticipated asset growth and to absorb potential losses.
During 2007, the Corporation purchased 54,800 shares of its common stock in negotiated and open-market transactions at prices ranging between $32.50 and $43.20 in accordance with a board-approved stock purchase program that will expire in July 2008. Purchases of 149,720 shares at prices between $37.25 and $45.07 per share were made in accordance with a board-approved stock purchase program, which was terminated in July 2007. The board of directors authorized these stock purchases because the Corporations capital level exceeded its ongoing operational needs and regulatory requirements. While we will continue to look for opportunities to invest capital in profitable growth, share purchases are another tool that facilitates improving shareholder return, as measured by ROE and earnings per share.
The Corporations capital position continues to exceed regulatory minimum requirements. The primary indicators relied on by bank regulators in measuring the capital position are the Tier 1 capital, total risk-based capital, and leverage ratios, as previously described in the Regulation and Supervision section of Item 1. The Corporations Tier 1 capital to risk-weighted asset ratio was 11.2 percent at December 31, 2007, compared with 11.3 percent at December 31, 2006. The total capital to risk-weighted asset ratio was 12.8 percent at December 31, 2007, compared with 12.6 percent at December 31, 2006. The Tier 1 leverage ratio was 9.4 percent at December 31, 2007, compared with 9.6 percent at December 31, 2006. These ratios are in excess of the mandated minimum requirements. A portion of the trust preferred securities issued in December 2007 and July 2005 are treated as Tier 1 capital for regulatory capital adequacy determination purposes.
Shareholders equity was $65.2 million at year-end 2007 compared with $68.0 million at year-end 2006. The dividend payout ratio was 44.5 percent in 2007, 30.2 percent in 2006 and 28.3 percent in 2005. During 2007, the Corporation declared dividends of $1.24 per share, up 6.9 percent from $1.16 per share per share in 2006.
We are not aware of any current recommendations by any regulatory authorities that, if implemented, would have a material effect on the Corporations liquidity, capital resources or results of operations.
RECENT ACCOUNTING PRONOUNCEMENTS
Recent accounting pronouncements affecting the Corporation are described in Item 8, Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, under the heading Note 1: Summary of Significant Accounting Policies-Recent Accounting Pronouncements.
EFFECTS OF INFLATION
The effect of changing prices is typically different for financial institutions than for other entities because a financial institutions assets and liabilities are monetary in nature. Interest rates are significantly impacted by inflation, but neither the timing nor the magnitude of the changes is directly related to price-level indices. The consolidated financial statements reflect the impacts of inflation on interest rates, loan demands and deposits.
USE OF CERTAIN NON-GAAP FINANCIAL MEASURES
In addition to results presented in accordance with United States generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP), we have presented certain non-GAAP financial measures for the year ended December 31, 2006 throughout this Form 10-K, which are reconciled to GAAP financial measures below. We believe these non-GAAP financial measures provide information useful to investors in understanding the Corporations performance trends and facilitate comparisons with its peers. Specifically, we believe the exclusion of a significant recovery of income recognized in a single accounting period permits a comparison of results for ongoing business operations, and it is on this basis that we internally assess the Corporations performance for 2006 and establish goals for future periods. Although we believe the non-GAAP financial measures presented in this Form 10-K enhance investors understandings of the Corporations performance, these non-GAAP financial measures should not be considered a substitute for GAAP financial measures.
Reconciliation of Certain Non-GAAP Financial Measures
Reconciliation of Certain Non-GAAP Financial Measures (Continued)
The Corporations primary component of market risk is interest rate volatility. Fluctuations in interest rates will impact the amount of interest income and expense the Corporation receives or pays on a significant portion of its assets and liabilities and the market value of its interest-earning assets and interest-bearing liabilities, excluding those which have a very short term until maturity. The Corporation does not subject itself to foreign currency exchange rate risk or commodity price risk due to the current nature of its operations. The Corporation did not have any outstanding hedging transactions, such as interest rate swaps, floors or caps, at December 31, 2007.
The primary objective of the Corporations asset/liability management process is to maximize current and future net interest income within acceptable levels of interest rate risk while satisfying liquidity and capital requirements. Management recognizes that a certain amount of interest rate risk is inherent and appropriate. Thus the goal of interest rate risk management is to maintain a balance between risk and reward such that net interest income is maximized while risk is maintained at an acceptable level.
The Corporation assumes interest rate risk as a result of its normal operations. The fair values of most of the Corporations financial instruments will change when interest rates change and that change may be either favorable or unfavorable to the Corporation. Management attempts to match maturities of assets and liabilities to the extent believed necessary to minimize interest rate risk. However, borrowers with fixed rate obligations are less likely to prepay in a rising rate environment and more likely to prepay in a falling rate environment. Conversely, depositors who are receiving fixed rates are more likely to withdraw funds before maturity in a rising rate environment and less likely to do so in a falling rate environment. Management monitors rates and maturities of assets and liabilities and attempts to minimize interest rate risk by adjusting terms of new loans and deposits and by investing in securities with terms that mitigate the Corporations overall interest rate risk.
We use simulation analysis to assess earnings at risk and economic value of equity (EVE) analysis to assess economic value at risk. These methods allow management to regularly monitor both the direction and magnitude of the Corporations interest rate risk exposure. These modeling techniques involve assumptions and estimates that inherently cannot be measured with complete precision. Key assumptions in the analyses include maturity and repricing characteristics of both assets and liabilities, prepayments on amortizing assets, other embedded options, non-maturity deposit sensitivity and loan and deposit pricing. These assumptions are inherently uncertain due to the timing, magnitude and frequency of rate changes and changes in market conditions and management strategies, among other factors. However, the analyses are useful in quantifying risk and provide a relative gauge of the Corporations interest rate risk position over time.
Simulation analysis evaluates the potential effect of upward and downward changes in market interest rates on future net interest income. The analysis involves changing the interest rates used in determining net interest income over the next twelve months. The resulting percentage change in net interest income in various rate scenarios is an indication of the Corporations shorter-term interest rate risk. The analysis utilizes a static balance sheet approach, which assumes changes in interest rates without any management response to change the composition of the balance sheet. The measurement date balance sheet composition is maintained over the simulation time period with maturing and repayment dollars being rolled back into like instruments for new terms at current market rates. Additional assumptions are applied to modify volumes and pricing under the various rate scenarios. These include prepayment assumptions on mortgage assets, the sensitivity of non-maturity deposit rates, and other factors that management deems significant.
The simulation analysis results are presented in the table below. These results, based on a measurement date balance sheet as of December 31, 2007, indicate that the Corporation would expect net interest income to decrease over the next twelve months 1.48 percent assuming an immediate downward shift in market interest rates of 200 basis points (BP) and to decrease 1.22 percent if rates shifted upward in the same manner.
1-Year Net Interest Income Simulation (dollars in thousands)
The EVE analysis provides information on the risk inherent in the balance sheet that might not be taken into account in the simulation analysis due to the shorter time horizon used in that analysis. The EVE of the balance sheet is defined as the discounted present value of expected asset cash flows minus the discounted present value of the expected liability cash flows. The analysis involves changing the interest rates used in determining the expected cash flows and in discounting the cash flows. The resulting percentage change in net present value in various rate scenarios is an indication of the longer term repricing risk and options embedded in the balance sheet.
The EVE analysis results are presented in the table below. These results as of December 31, 2007 indicate that the EVE would decrease 7.06 percent assuming an immediate downward shift in market interest rates of 200 BP and would decrease 7.07 percent if rates shifted upward in the same manner.
Static EVE Change (dollars in thousands)
In the analyses above, net interest income and the EVE decline in both an immediate downward and upward shift in interest rates. In a rising rate environment, the Corporations assets would take longer to reprice than what the Corporation pays on its borrowings and deposits primarily due to the longer maturity or repricing dates of its investment and loan portfolios. However, in a falling rate environment the analyses assume that adjustable-rate assets will continue to reprice downward and fixed-rate assets with prepayment or callable options will reprice at lower rates while certain deposits can not reprice any lower.
At C&F Mortgage, we enter into commitments to originate residential mortgage loans whereby the interest rate on the loan is determined prior to funding (i.e., rate lock commitments). The period of time between issuance of a loan commitment and closing and sale of the loan generally ranges from 15 days to 90 days. The Corporation protects itself from changes in interest rates by entering into loan purchase agreements with third party investors that provide for the investor to purchase loans at the same terms (including interest rate) as committed to the borrower. Under the contractual relationship with the purchaser of each loan, the Corporation is obligated to sell the loan to the purchaser only if the loan closes. No other obligation exists. As a result of these contractual relationships with purchasers of loans, the Corporation is not exposed to losses nor will it realize gains related to its rate lock commitments due to changes in interest rates.
We believe that our current interest rate exposure is manageable and does not indicate any significant exposure to interest rate changes.
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(Dollars in thousands, except for share and per share amounts)
See notes to consolidated financial statements.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF INCOME
(Dollars in thousands, except per share amounts)
See notes to consolidated financial statements.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF SHAREHOLDERS EQUITY
(Dollars in thousands, except per share amounts)
Disclosure of reclassification amount for the year ended December 31:
See notes to consolidated financial statements.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
(Dollars in thousands)