CBS 10-K 2010
Documents found in this filing:
Commission File Number 001-09553
51 W. 52nd Street
Securities Registered Pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Securities Registered Pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer (as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act of 1933). Yes ý No o
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Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ý No o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that registrant was required to submit and post such files). Yes ý No o
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of the registrant's knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K. ý
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer or a non-accelerated filer, or smaller reporting company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer" and "smaller reporting company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934). Yes o No ý
As of June 30, 2009, which was the last business day of the registrant's most recently completed second fiscal quarter, the aggregate market value of the shares of CBS Corporation Class A Common Stock, $0.001 par value ("Class A Common Stock"), held by non-affiliates was approximately $75,810,160 (based upon the closing price of $6.97 per share as reported by the New York Stock Exchange on that date) and the aggregate market value of the shares of CBS Corporation Class B Common Stock, $0.001 par value ("Class B Common Stock"), held by non-affiliates was approximately $4,098,144,782 (based upon the closing price of $6.92 per share as reported by the New York Stock Exchange on that date).
As of February 15, 2010, 51,540,350 shares of Class A Common Stock and 625,501,557 shares of Class B Common Stock were outstanding.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of CBS Corporation's Notice of 2010 Annual Meeting of Stockholders and Proxy Statement to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to Regulation 14A of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the "Proxy Statement") (Portion of Item 5; Part III).
CBS Corporation (together with its consolidated subsidiaries unless the context otherwise requires, the "Company" or "CBS Corp.") is a mass media company with operations in the following segments:
During the fourth quarter of 2009, the Company realigned its management structure to more effectively pursue its long-term strategy of investing in content businesses and capitalizing on its strong local presence. As a result, the Company realigned its operating segments as described above. Prior periods have been reclassified to conform to this presentation.
For the year ended December 31, 2009, contributions to the Company's consolidated revenues from its segments were as follows: Entertainment 54%, Cable Networks 10%, Publishing 6%, Local Broadcasting 18% and Outdoor 13%. The Company generated approximately 14% of its total revenues from international regions in 2009. For the year ended December 31, 2009, approximately 61% and 17% of total international revenues of approximately $1.86 billion were generated in Europe and Canada, respectively.
In March 2009, CBS Radio completed the sale of three of its radio stations in Denver to Wilks Broadcasting for $19.5 million. In April 2009, CBS Radio completed a transaction with Clear Channel Communications, Inc. to swap five of CBS Radio's mid-size market radio stations in Baltimore, Portland, Seattle and Sacramento for Clear Channel's two radio stations in Houston. In September 2009, the Company completed the sale of four of its radio stations in Portland, Oregon to Alpha Broadcasting for $40.0 million. On June 30, 2008, the Company completed the acquisition of CNET Networks, Inc. ("CNET") common stock for $11.50 per share, for a total of $1.8 billion. CNET has been included in the Company's results from the date of acquisition. In April 2008, the Company acquired International Outdoor Advertising Group, the leading out-of-home advertising company in South America, for $110.8 million. In January 2008, the Company completed the sale of seven of its owned television stations to Cerberus Capital Management, L.P. for $185.0 million. In November 2007, the Company completed the last of its sales of 39 radio stations in 10 of its smaller markets for $668.4 million in the aggregate.
As technologies for delivering content and services evolve, and as evidenced by its acquisition of CNET, the Company continues to pursue and expand upon opportunities to distribute content to consumers through various platforms, including the Internet, mobile devices and video-on-demand. The Company is focused on utilizing interactive features to deepen and broaden its relationship with audiences.
The Company has entered into various arrangements to extend the reach of its news, entertainment and other program content across a number of products and platforms with leading Internet, cable and mobile wireless companies, among others.
The Company competes with many different entities and media in various markets worldwide. In addition to competition in each of its businesses, the Company competes for opportunities in the entertainment business with other diversified international entertainment companies such as The Walt Disney Company, NBC Universal, Inc., News Corporation, Time Warner Inc., CC Media Holdings, Inc. and Clear Channel Outdoor Holdings, Inc.
As of December 31, 2009, National Amusements, Inc. ("NAI"), a closely held corporation that owns and operates approximately 1,030 movie screens in the U.S., the United Kingdom ("U.K.") and South America and manages 21 movie screens in the U.S. and the U.K., beneficially owned Class A Common Stock of the Company representing approximately 79% of the voting power of all classes of the Company's Common Stock, and approximately 6% of the Company's Class A Common Stock and Class B Common Stock on a combined basis. Owners of the Company's Class A Common Stock are entitled to one vote per share. The Company's Class B Common Stock does not have voting rights. NAI is not subject to the reporting requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. Sumner M. Redstone, the controlling shareholder of NAI, is the Executive Chairman of the Board of Directors and Founder of the Company.
The Company was organized in Delaware in 1986. The Company's principal offices are located at 51 W. 52nd Street, New York, New York 10019. Its telephone number is (212) 975-4321 and its Web site address is www.cbscorporation.com.
CBS CORP. BUSINESS SEGMENTS
Entertainment (54%, 49% and 47% of the Company's consolidated revenues in 2009, 2008 and 2007, respectively)
The Entertainment segment consists of the CBS Television Network; CBS Television Studios, CBS Studios International and CBS Television Distribution, the Company's television production and syndication operations; CBS Films, the Company's producer and distributor of theatrical motion pictures; and CBS Interactive, the Company's online content networks for information and entertainment.
Television Network. The CBS Television Network through CBS Entertainment, CBS News® and CBS Sports® distributes a comprehensive schedule of news and public affairs broadcasts, sports and entertainment programming to more than 200 domestic affiliates reaching throughout the U.S., including 16 of the Company's owned and operated television stations, and to affiliated stations in certain U.S. territories. The CBS Television Network primarily derives revenues from the sales of advertising time for its network broadcasts.
CBS Entertainment is responsible for acquiring or developing and scheduling the entertainment programming presented on the CBS Television Network, which includes primetime comedy and drama series, reality-based programming, specials, children's programs, daytime dramas, game shows and late-night programs. CBS News operates a worldwide news organization, providing the CBS Television Network and the CBS Radio Network with regularly scheduled news and public affairs broadcasts, including 60 Minutes®, CBS Evening News with Katie Couric and The Early Show, as well as special reports. CBS News Productions, the off-network production company created by CBS News, produces programming for domestic and international outlets, including the CBS Television Network, cable television, home video, audio-book and in-flight markets, as well as schools and libraries. CBS News also provides CBS Newspath®, a television news syndication service that offers daily news coverage, sports highlights and news features to the CBS Television Network affiliates and other subscribers worldwide. CBS Sports broadcasts include The NFL Today, certain NCAA championships, including the Final Four,
golf, including the Masters Tournament and the PGA Championship, the U.S. Open Tennis Championships, regular-season college football and basketball line-ups on network television, in addition to the NFL's American Football Conference regular season schedule, the Postseason Divisional Playoff games and the AFC championship game. CBS Sports has rights extensions with the NFL to broadcast the AFC through the 2013 season including the broadcast of the 2010 Super Bowl and the 2013 Super Bowl. CBS Home Entertainment licenses home video rights and CBS Consumer Products licenses merchandising rights.
The CW, a broadcast network and the Company's 50/50 joint venture with Warner Bros. Entertainment, was launched in Fall 2006. The CW's programming includes Gossip Girl, 90210, The Vampire Diaries and America's Next Top Model. Nine of the Company's owned television stations are affiliates of The CW.
In late September 2007, Nielsen Media Research introduced a television measurement system based on commercial viewership rather than program viewership. The new standard allows for the inclusion of both live and delayed viewing of commercials up to three days after live broadcasts and has become the industry standard for the buying and selling of television commercial time.
Television Production and Syndication. The Company, through CBS Television Studios, CBS Studios International and CBS Television Distribution, produces, acquires and/or distributes programming worldwide, including series, specials, news and public affairs. Such programming is produced primarily for broadcast on network television, exhibition on basic cable and premium subscription services or distribution via first-run syndication. First-run syndication is programming exhibited on television stations without prior exhibition on a network or cable service. The Company also distributes off-network syndicated programming, which is programming exhibited on television stations or cable networks following its exhibition on a network, basic cable network or premium subscription service.
Programming that was produced or co-produced by the Company's production group and is broadcast on network television includes, among others, CSI: Crime Scene Investigation (CBS), NCIS: Los Angeles (CBS), The Good Wife (CBS) and 90210 (The CW). Generally, a network will license a specified number of episodes for broadcast on the network in the U.S. during a license period. Remaining distribution rights, including foreign and/or off-network syndication rights, are typically retained by the Company or, in the case of co-productions, distribution rights are shared with the co-producer for U.S. or foreign markets. The network license fee for a series episode is normally lower than the costs of producing the episode; however, the Company's objective is to recoup its costs and earn a profit through domestic syndication of episodes after their network runs and/or by licensing international exhibitions of the episodes. International sales are generally made within one year of U.S. network runs. Generally, a series must have a network run of at least three or four years to be successfully sold in domestic syndication. In off-network syndication, the Company distributes series such as CSI:, CSI: Miami, CSI: NY, Everybody Hates Chris, Criminal Minds and Survivor as well as a library of older television programs. The Company also produces and/or distributes first-run syndicated series such as Jeopardy!, Entertainment Tonight, The Oprah Winfrey Show, Dr. Phil, Rachael Ray and Judge Judy. The Company also distributes syndicated programming internationally.
License fees for completed television programming in syndication and on cable are recorded as revenues in the period that the products are available for exhibition, which, among other reasons, may cause substantial fluctuation in the Entertainment segment's operating results. Unrecognized revenues attributable to such license agreements were approximately $387.0 million and $600.1 million at December 31, 2009 and December 31, 2008, respectively.
In November 2009, the Company entered into a joint venture with Chellozone (UK) Limited, a division of Liberty Global, Inc., to own and operate six television channels in the U.K. and Ireland, including CBS Action, CBS Drama and CBS Reality. In addition, the Company owns an approximately 33% equity interest in two pay television channels in Australia called TV1 and Sci Fi.
CBS Films. CBS Films was created in September 2007 to develop and produce a limited slate of theatrical motion pictures across all genres. The production cost of each motion picture is intended to be up to $50 million in addition to advertising and marketing costs for each picture at a level consistent with industry custom. CBS Films' current plan is to produce and release four to six motion pictures per year. All motion pictures produced or acquired by CBS Films are intended for a wide, commercial theatrical release, similar to motion pictures typically produced and released by major studios.
CBS Films' U.S. theatrical releases in 2010 include: Extraordinary Measures, an adult drama, released in January 2010; The Back-up Plan, a romantic comedy, expected to be released in Spring 2010; Beastly, a teen romantic drama, expected to be released in Summer 2010; and Faster, an action drama, which is a co-production by CBS Films and an affiliate of Sony Pictures Entertainment, expected to be released in Fall 2010.
In general, motion pictures produced or acquired by CBS Films are exhibited theatrically in the U.S. and internationally, followed by exploitation via home entertainment (including DVD and electronic sell-through), video-on-demand, pay-per-view, pay television, free television and basic cable, digital media outlets and, in some cases, other exhibitors such as airlines and hotels. CBS Films will exploit its motion pictures (including certain ancillary rights, such as licensing and merchandising) and generate revenues in all media in the relevant release windows worldwide either directly, through affiliated CBS entities or via multi-year third party distribution agreements.
CBS Interactive. CBS Interactive operates one of the leading online content networks for information and entertainment. In June 2008, the Company completed its acquisition of CNET Networks, Inc., which complements and expands the Company's interactive footprint. CBS Interactive was ranked among the top Internet properties in the world according to comScore Media Metrix, December 2009. CBS Interactive's leading brands, including CNET, CBS.com, CBSSports.com, GameSpot, TV.com and BNET, among others, serve targeted audiences with text, video, audio, and mobile content spanning technology, entertainment, sports, news, business, gaming and music categories. In addition to its U.S.-based business, CBS Interactive operates in Asia and Europe. CBS Interactive's worldwide brands reached approximately 226.0 million unique monthly visitors during December 2009.
CBS Interactive generates revenue principally from the sale of advertising and sponsorships, in addition to fees derived from search and commerce partners, licensing fees, subscriptions, e-commerce activities, and other paid services. Advertising spending on the Internet, as in traditional media, fluctuates significantly with economic conditions. In addition, online marketing spending follows seasonal consumer behavior throughout the calendar year to reflect trends during the calendar year.
CNET.com is one of the leading Web sites for technology and consumer electronics information. GameSpot is one of the leading gaming information Web sites according to comScore Media Metrix, December 2009. GameSpot's content includes video game reviews and previews, news, Webcasts, videos, online tournaments and game downloads. CBSSports.com provides Internet sports content, fantasy sports, community and e-commerce features. CBSSports.com owns and operates CBSCollegeSports.com and MaxPreps.com and hosts the NCAA March Madness on demand video player that provides live streaming video of the NCAA Division I Men's Basketball Championship. TV.com is a leading destination for entertainment and community around television where visitors can watch videos and discuss and obtain information about television shows across all networks. BNET is a top 10 business media site, offering award-winning original content, as well as one of the largest business libraries available on the Internet. Last.fm is a community-based, music discovery site, which reached approximately 26.4 million unique monthly visitors worldwide during December 2009 according to comScore Media Metrix, December 2009. CBS Interactive also operates CBS.com, the online destination for CBS Television Network programming. Through the CBS Audience Network, the Company delivers content from its Web sites and television, radio and affiliated stations, through new and existing advertiser-supported deals. The growing slate of
CBS entertainment, news and sports content available includes full episodes, clips and highlights based on CBS and Showtime Networks programming as well as original made-for-the-Web content.
Television Network. The television broadcast environment is highly competitive. The principal methods of competition in broadcast television are the development and acquisition of popular programming and the development of audience interest through programming and promotion, in order to sell advertising at profitable rates. Broadcast networks like CBS compete for audience, advertising revenues and programming with other broadcast networks such as ABC, FOX, NBC, The CW and MyNetworkTV, independent television stations, cable program services as well as other media, including DVDs, print and the Internet. In addition, the CBS Television Network competes with the other broadcast networks to secure affiliations with independently owned television stations in markets across the country, which are necessary to ensure the effective distribution of network programming to a nationwide audience. According to Nielsen Media Research, for the broadcast television primetime daypart for the period September 21, 2009 to February 7, 2010, the CBS Television Network secured the #1 position for total viewers and for key adult viewers ages 25-54 and the #2 position for key adult viewers ages 18-49.
Television Production and Syndication. As a producer and distributor of programming, the Company competes with studios, television production groups, and independent producers and syndicators such as Disney, Sony, NBC Universal, Warner Bros. and Fox to produce and sell programming both domestically and overseas. The Company also competes to obtain creative talent and story properties which are essential to the success of all of the Company's entertainment businesses.
CBS Films. Motion picture production and distribution is a highly competitive business. During the life cycle of the development and production of a motion picture project, CBS Films must compete for the rights to compelling underlying source material and talent such as writers, producers, directors, on screen performers and other creative personnel. Once a motion picture is completed, CBS Films must compete with numerous other motion pictures produced by various studios and independent producers including Paramount Pictures Corporation, Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures, Warner Bros. Entertainment, Inc., Lionsgate Entertainment, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Studios Inc., The Weinstein Company, Lakeshore Entertainment Group LLC and Morgan Creek Productions, among others, for audience acceptance as well as limited exhibition outlets across all of the relevant release windows. In addition, the ultimate consumer has many options for entertainment other than motion pictures including video games, sports, travel, outdoor recreation, the Internet, and other cultural and computer-related activities.
CBS Interactive. CBS Interactive competes with a variety of online properties for users, advertisers, and partners, including the following: general purpose portals such as AOL, MSN and Yahoo!, especially as these properties expand their content offerings; search engines such as Google, Yahoo! and MSN; online comparison shopping and retail properties, including Shopping.com, Amazon.com and eBay; vertical content sites in the categories that CBS Interactive's brands serve, such as technology, gaming, music, news, business, food, and lifestyle focused Web sites; and platforms such as blogs, podcasts and video properties. CBS Interactive also competes for users and advertisers with diversified media companies that provide both online and offline content, including magazines, cable television, network television, radio and newspapers.
Cable Networks (10%, 9% and 8% of the Company's consolidated revenues in 2009, 2008 and 2007, respectively)
The Cable Networks segment is composed of Showtime Networks, the Company's premium subscription television program services; and CBS College Sports Network, the Company's cable network devoted to college athletics.
Showtime Networks. Showtime Networks owns and operates three commercial-free, premium subscription television program services in the U.S.: Showtime, offering recently released theatrical feature films, original series, documentaries, boxing, mixed martial arts and other sports-related programming, and special events; The Movie Channel®, offering recently released theatrical feature films and related programming; and Flix®, offering theatrical feature films primarily from the last several decades, as well as selected other titles. At December 31, 2009, Showtime, The Movie Channel and Flix, in the aggregate, had approximately 61.3 million subscriptions in the U.S., certain U.S. territories and Bermuda.
Showtime Networks also owns and operates multiplexed channels of Showtime and The Movie Channel in the U.S. which offer additional and varied programming choices. In addition, Showtime Networks transmits high definition television feeds of Showtime, The Movie Channel and many of their multiplexed channels, and also makes versions of Showtime, The Movie Channel and Flix available "on demand," enabling subscribers to watch selected individual programs at their convenience (in both standard and high definition in the case of Showtime and The Movie Channel, and standard definition in the case of Flix). Showtime Networks also provides special events to licensees on a pay-per-view basis through Showtime PPV®. Showtime Networks also operates the Web site SHO.com which promotes Showtime, The Movie Channel and Flix programming, and provides information and entertainment and other services.
Showtime Networks derives revenue principally from the license of its program services to cable television operators, direct broadcast satellite ("DBS") operators, telephone companies and other distributors. The costs of acquiring premium television rights to programming and producing original series are the principal expenses of Showtime Networks. Showtime Networks enters into commitments to acquire rights, with an emphasis on acquiring exclusive rights for Showtime and The Movie Channel, from major or independent motion picture producers and other distributors typically covering the U.S. and Bermuda for varying durations. For example, in addition to a motion picture output agreement with CBS Films, Showtime Networks has entered into motion picture output agreements with The Weinstein Company and Summit Entertainment for the exclusive U.S. premium subscription television rights for certain exhibition windows relating to feature films initially theatrically released in the U.S through December 2015 and December 2012, respectively. In addition to these exclusive output agreements, Showtime Networks has rights to exhibit motion pictures licensed under its exclusive output agreement with Paramount Pictures for feature films initially theatrically released in the U.S. through December 2007, and under its exclusive output agreements with each of MGM and Lionsgate for feature films initially theatrically released in the U.S. through December 2008. Showtime Networks also arranges for the development, production and acquisition of original programs, series and documentaries. Showtime Networks' original series include Dexter, Californication, The Tudors, Weeds, United States of Tara and Nurse Jackie, among others. Showtime Networks has entered into and may from time to time enter into co-financing, co-production and/or distribution arrangements with other parties to reduce the net cost to Showtime Networks for its original programming. In addition, Showtime Networks derives distribution revenue from the rights it retains in certain of its original programming. For example, Showtime Networks and its corporate affiliate(s) have entered into licenses with television networks in various foreign territories for exhibition of certain original series, as well as electronic sell-through arrangements with several Internet distributors, including iTunes and Amazon, among others, for certain Showtime programming. Showtime Networks derives a substantial amount of its revenues from three large distributors.
Showtime Networks also owns 90% of and manages Smithsonian Networks, a venture with Smithsonian Institution, which operates Smithsonian Channel, a basic cable service in the U.S., featuring programs of a cultural, historical, scientific and educational nature. Smithsonian Networks has launched both standard and high definition versions of Smithsonian Channel, as well as of its companion on demand version.
CBS College Sports Network. CBS College Sports Network is a 24-hour cable program service dedicated to college sports. The network features events from approximately 25 men's and women's college sports and provides coverage of over 250 live events each season in addition to live studio shows and original programming. CBS College Sports Network had approximately 34.8 million subscribers as of December 31, 2009. The network derives its revenues from subscription fees and the sale of advertising time on its cable program service. CBS College Sports Network and Comcast Corporation each owns a 50% interest in the mtn: MountainWest Sports Network, which exhibits Mountain West Conference athletics and is available to U.S. cable and satellite providers.
Showtime Networks. Showtime Networks primarily competes with other providers of premium subscription television program services in the U.S.: Home Box Office, Inc. and Starz Entertainment, LLC. Competition among premium subscription television program services in the U.S. is dependent on: (i) the production, acquisition and packaging of original series and other original programming and the acquisition and packaging of an adequate number of recently released theatrical motion pictures; and (ii) the offering of prices, marketing and advertising support and other incentives to cable operators, DBS operators, telephone companies and other distributors for carriage so as to favorably position and package Showtime Networks' premium subscription television program services to subscribers. Home Box Office, Inc. is the dominant company in the U.S. premium subscription television category, offering two premium subscription television program services, HBO and Cinemax. Showtime Networks competes with Home Box Office, Inc. and has a significantly smaller share of the premium subscription television category. Starz Entertainment, LLC owns Starz!, another premium subscription television program service, which primarily features recently released theatrical motion pictures and competes with Showtime Networks' and Home Box Office, Inc.'s premium program services. Showtime Networks also competes for programming, distribution and/or audiences with broadcast television, basic cable program services and other media, including DVDs, portable devices and the Internet.
The terms and favorable renewal of agreements with distributors for the distribution of the Company's subscription television program services are important to the Company. Consolidation among multichannel video programming distributors and other marketplace factors make it more difficult to reach favorable terms and could have an adverse effect on revenues. In addition, new entrants providing programming or other services for cable networks, cable operators and other platforms, including the Internet, could be competitive with and adversely affect the Company's media businesses, including Showtime Networks' subscription television business.
CBS College Sports Network. CBS College Sports Network's cable programming service principally competes with other sports-oriented cable programming services for cable and satellite distribution and related revenue, for viewership and for advertising revenue. Consolidation among cable operators has made it more difficult for newer channels to secure broad distribution. In addition, the largest cable providers have created sports tiers for newer sports programming services which have not, in many cases, achieved significant subscriber penetration or acceptance. CBS College Sports Network's television service also competes with other sports programming services, such as ESPNU, in acquiring the television and broadband rights to sporting events, resulting in increased rights fees and increased production expenses.
Publishing (6% of the Company's consolidated revenues in each of 2009, 2008 and 2007)
The Publishing segment consists of Simon & Schuster, which publishes and distributes consumer books in the U.S. and internationally.
Simon & Schuster publishes and distributes adult and children's consumer books in printed, audio and digital formats in the U.S. and internationally. Digital formats include audio downloads for the Apple iPod and MP3 players, electronic books for increasingly popular devices such as Amazon's Kindle and the Sony Reader Digital Book, stand-alone applications for the Apple iPod and iPhone, and new hybrid text and
video combinations. Simon & Schuster's major adult imprints include Simon & Schuster, Pocket Books, Scribner, Atria Books®, Gallery Books, and Free Press. Simon & Schuster's major children's imprints include Simon Spotlight®, Aladdin Paperbacks® and Simon & Schuster Books For Young Readers. Simon & Schuster also develops special imprints and publishes titles based on the CBS Television Network's and Showtime Networks' products as well as that of third parties and distributes products for other publishers. Simon & Schuster distributes its products directly and through third parties. Simon & Schuster also delivers content and promotes its products on general Internet sites as well as those linked to individual titles; its created assets include online videos showcasing Simon & Schuster authors and new releases on YouTube, Bookvideos.tv, SimonandSchuster.com and other sites. International publishing includes the international distribution of English-language titles through Simon & Schuster UK, Simon & Schuster Canada and Simon & Schuster Australia and other distributors, as well as the publication of local titles by Simon & Schuster UK.
In 2009, Simon & Schuster published 164 titles that were New York Times bestsellers, including 25 New York Times #1 bestsellers. Best-selling titles in 2009 include Arguing with Idiots by Glenn Beck and Kevin Balfe, Under the Dome by Stephen King, and Liberty and Tyranny by Mark Levin. Bestselling children's titles from Simon & Schuster include City of Glass by Cassandra Clare, Night World by L.J. Smith, and The Christmas Sweater by Glenn Beck. Simon & Schuster Digital, through SimonandSchuster.com, publishes original content, builds reader communities and promotes and sells Simon & Schuster's books over the Internet.
The consumer publishing marketplace is subject to increased periods of demand in the summer months and during the end-of-year holiday season. Major new title releases represent a significant portion of Simon & Schuster's sales throughout the year. Simon & Schuster's top 10 accounts drive a significant portion of its annual revenue. Consumer print books are generally sold on a fully returnable basis, resulting in the return of unsold books. In the domestic and international markets, the Company is subject to global trends and local economic conditions. Also, although electronic books represented less than 5% of the Company's book sales in 2009, they appear to be a growing factor in the market.
Publishing Competition. The consumer publishing business is highly competitive and has been affected over the years by consolidation trends. Mass merchandisers and on-line retailers are significant factors in the industry contributing to the general trend toward consolidation in the retail channel. There have also been a number of mergers completed in the distribution channel. The Company must compete with other larger publishers such as Random House, Penguin Group and Harper Collins for the rights to works by authors. Competition is particularly strong for well-known authors and public personalities. In addition, technological changes have made it increasingly possible for authors to self-publish and have led to the development of new digital distribution models in which the Company's books must compete with the availability of both a larger volume of books as well as non-book content. The Company must also contend with price pressure on new releases, for both printed and electronic formats, as a result of price competition among electronic book retailers.
Local Broadcasting (18%, 21% and 24% of the Company's consolidated revenues in each of 2009, 2008 and 2007, respectively)
The Local Broadcasting segment consists of CBS Television Stations, the Company's 30 owned broadcast television stations, and CBS Radio, through which the Company owns and operates 130 radio stations in 29 U.S. markets. The Company's various content and media businesses, which operate in local markets, enhance the Company's ability to provide comprehensive and strategic services in those markets.
CBS Television Stations. The Company owns 30 broadcast television stations through its CBS Television Stations group, all of which operate under licenses granted by the Federal Communications Commission ("FCC") pursuant to the Communications Act of 1934, as amended (the "Communications Act"). The licenses are renewable every eight years. The Company's television stations are located in the 8 largest, and 15 of the top 20, television markets in the U.S. The Company owns multiple television stations
within the same designated market area ("DMA") in 9 major markets. These multiple station markets are: Los Angeles (market #2), Philadelphia (market #4), Dallas-Fort Worth (market #5), San Francisco-Oakland-San Jose (market #6), Boston (market #7), Detroit (market #11), Miami-Ft. Lauderdale (market #17), Sacramento-Stockton-Modesto (market #20), and Pittsburgh (market #23). This group of television stations enables the Company to reach a wide audience within and across geographically diverse markets in the U.S. The stations produce news and broadcast public affairs, sports and other programming to serve their local markets and offer CBS, The CW or MyNetworkTV programming and syndicated programming. The CBS Television Stations group principally derives its revenues from the sale of advertising time on its television stations. Substantially all of the Company's television stations operate Web sites, which promote the stations' programming, and provide news, information and entertainment, as well as other services. These Web sites principally derive revenues from the sale of advertising.
Every three years, each television station must elect, with respect to its retransmission by DBS and cable television operators within its DMA, either "must carry" status, pursuant to which the cable system's carriage of the station is mandatory, or "retransmission consent," pursuant to which the station gives up its right to mandatory carriage and secures instead the right to negotiate consideration in return for consenting to carriage. The Company has elected the retransmission consent option in substantially all cases for the period beginning January 1, 2009, and, since 2006, has implemented a systematic process of seeking monetary consideration for its retransmission consent.
The Company's owned and operated television stations reach approximately 38% of all U.S. television households. The FCC's ownership rules limit the Company's national audience reach to 39% of all U.S. television households. Using the FCC's measurement methodology in which a UHF television station is deemed to reach only 50% of the television households in its market, the Company is below the 39% limit. (See "CBS Corp. Business SegmentsRegulationBroadcastingOwnership Regulation").
The table below sets forth the broadcast television stations owned by the Company as of February 20, 2010.
CBS Radio. The Company's radio broadcasting business operates through CBS Radio, one of the largest operators of radio stations in the U.S. CBS Radio owns and operates 130 radio stations serving 29 U.S. markets as of February 20, 2010. Virtually all of the Company's owned and operated radio stations are located in the 50 largest U.S. radio markets and approximately 75% in the 25 largest U.S. radio markets. The Company's strategy generally is to operate radio stations in the largest markets and take advantage of the Company's ability to sell advertising across multiple markets and formats. In March 2009, CBS Radio completed the sale of three of its radio stations in Denver for $19.5 million. In April 2009, CBS Radio completed the exchange of five of its mid-size market radio stations in Baltimore, Portland, Sacramento and Seattle for two radio stations in Houston (market #6). In September 2009, the Company completed the sale of four of its radio stations in Portland for $40.0 million. The Company believes that it is favorably impacted by offering radio, television and outdoor advertising platforms in large markets. The "Radio Stations, Television Stations and Outdoor Advertising Displays" table below includes information with respect to the Company's radio stations in the top 25 U.S. radio markets.
CBS Radio's geographically dispersed stations serve diverse target demographics through a broad range of formats such as rock, classic hits/oldies, all-news, talk, Spanish language, adult contemporary, top 40/contemporary hit radio, urban, sports and country, and CBS Radio has established leading franchises in news, sports and personality programming. This diversity provides advertisers with the convenience of selecting stations to reach a targeted demographic or of selecting groups of stations to reach broad groups of consumers within and across markets and also reduces the Company's dependence on any single station, local economy, format or advertiser. At the same time, CBS Radio maintains substantial diversity in each market where its stations operate so that its stations can appeal to several demographic groups. CBS Radio's general programming strategies include employing popular on-air talent, some of whose broadcasts may be syndicated by CBS Radio using the services of a third party syndicator, broadcasting programming syndicated to it by others, acquiring the rights to broadcast sports play-by-play and producing and acquiring news content for its radio stations. The overall mix of each radio station's programming lineup is designed to fit the station's specific format and serve its local community. The Company also has agreements with Westwood One, Inc. involving compensation to the Company, the provision of radio programming to CBS Radio and the distribution by Westwood One of CBS Radio News programming
Arbitron's Portable People Meter ("PPM"), an electronic audience measurement technology, has been adopted in 23 of the 29 markets in which CBS Radio owns and operates radio stations. The Company continues to monitor the effects of PPM on the ratings of the Company's radio stations and advertising sales and has not been adversely affected by the transition to PPM.
The majority of CBS Radio's revenues are generated from the sale of local, regional and national advertising. The major categories of radio advertisers include: automotive, retail, healthcare, telecommunications, fast food, beverage, movies and entertainment. CBS Radio is able to use the reach, diversity and branding of its radio stations to create unique division-wide marketing and promotional initiatives for major national advertisers of products and services. The success and reputation of CBS Radio and its stations allow the Company to attract the participation of major artists in these national campaigns. Advertising expenditures by local advertisers fluctuate, which has an effect on CBS Radio's revenues.
CBS Radio continues to extend its station brands online through efforts that include streaming, on-demand audio and video, podcasting, and widgets. CBS Radio programs 245 channels of audio content available online including CBS Radio stations top brands such as 1010 WINS and WFAN(AM), both in New York, and KROQ-FM in Los Angeles, and custom channels such as The Sky (Psychic Radio) and K-Rock (Alternative Rock). Additionally, CBS Radio station programming is streamed through AOL and Yahoo Internet services. CBS Radio is one of the most listened to online radio providers according to Ando Media's monthly Top 20 Ranker for December 2009.
Local Broadcasting Competition.
CBS Television Stations. Television stations compete for programming, on-air talent, audiences and advertising revenues with other stations and cable networks in their respective coverage areas and, in some cases, with respect to programming, with other station groups, and, in the case of advertising revenues, with other local and national media. The owned and operated television stations' competitive position is largely influenced by the quality of the syndicated programs and local news programs in time periods not programmed by the network; the strength of the CBS Television Network programming and, in particular, the viewership of the CBS Television Network in the time period immediately prior to the late evening news; and in some cases, by the quality of the broadcast signal.
CBS Radio. The Company's radio stations directly compete within their respective markets for audience, advertising revenues and programming with other radio stations, including those owned by other group owners such as Clear Channel Communications, Citadel Broadcasting, Cumulus Media, Inc., Emmis Communications, Entercom Communications Corporation and Radio One. The Company's radio stations, including its Internet and streaming activities, also compete with other media, such as broadcast, cable and DBS television, other radio stations, newspapers, magazines, direct mail, the Internet, including Internet radio services such as Pandora, Live 365 and Rhapsody. The radio industry is also subject to competition from Sirius XM Radio Inc., which provides digital audio services to subscribers.
The Company's radio stations face increasing competition from newer technologies, including audio programming delivered via the Internet, which create new ways for individuals to listen to music and other content of their choosing while avoiding traditional commercial advertisements. Also, an increasingly broad adoption by consumers of portable digital audio players could affect the ability of the Company's radio stations to attract listeners and advertisers.
The radio broadcast industry continues to implement digital broadcasts. Because there is no FCC deadline for radio stations to cease broadcasting in an analog mode, radio stations that have implemented digital broadcasting transmit both digitally and in analog. As of February 1, 2010, 105 of the Company's owned radio stations have commenced digital broadcasts. The Company believes that digital transmissions will provide listeners with improved sound quality and new programming channels and should facilitate the convergence of radio with other digital media. It is too early to predict the full effect that the implementation of digital broadcasts will have on the Company's radio businesses or on competition generally.
Aggregate spot advertising sales revenues for the Company's radio stations for 2009 were ranked #1 in four of the top five U.S. markets by metro area population (New York, Chicago, San Francisco (tied), and Dallas-Fort Worth), according to the 2009 Market Total Spot Performance Summary of Miller, Kaplan, Arase & Co., LLP.
The following table sets forth information with regard to the Company's radio stations, television stations and outdoor advertising displays as of February 20, 2010 in the top 25 U.S. radio markets:
Outdoor (13%, 16% and 16% of the Company's consolidated revenues in 2009, 2008 and 2007, respectively)
The Company sells, through its Outdoor businesses, advertising space on various media, including billboards, transit shelters, buses, rail systems (in-car, station platform and terminal), mall kiosks and stadium signage and in retail stores. It has outdoor advertising operations in more than 100 markets in North America, including all 50 of the largest metropolitan markets in the U.S., 19 of the 20 largest metropolitan markets in Canada and all 45 of the largest metropolitan markets in Mexico. Additionally, Outdoor has the exclusive rights to manage advertising space on approximately 90% of the total bus fleet in the U.K. and has a variety of outdoor advertising displays in the Netherlands, France, Italy, Puerto Rico, the Republic of Ireland, Spain, Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay, Chile and China. The Company operates its Outdoor businesses through CBS Outdoor in the U.S., Canada and Europe, CBS Outernet® in the U.S. and Vendor® in Mexico. In April 2008, the Company acquired International Outdoor Advertising Group, the leading out-of-home advertising company in South America. The "Radio Stations, Television Stations and Outdoor Advertising Displays" table above includes information with regard to the Company's outdoor advertising properties in the top 25 U.S. radio markets.
The substantial majority of Outdoor's revenues are generated from the sale of local, regional and national advertising. Advertising rates are based on supply and demand for the particular locations, which are influenced by a particular display's exposure known as "impressions" delivered in relation to the demographics of the particular market and its location within that market. Currently, these impressions are not measured by independent third parties. The Company cannot predict the impact, if any, on the Outdoor business should impressions become measured independently. The major categories of out-of-home advertisers include: entertainment, media, automotive, beverage, financial, real estate, retail, healthcare, telecommunications, restaurants, health and beauty aids, hotels and professional services. Out-of-home media industry advertising expenditures by retailers and the entertainment industry fluctuate, which has an effect on Outdoor's revenues.
Outdoor generally operates in the billboard, transit, street furniture and retail store advertising markets. Outdoor primarily operates two types of billboard advertising displays, commonly referred to as "bulletins" and "posters."
Billboard space is generally sold for periods ranging from 4 weeks to 12 months. Billboards are generally mounted on structures owned by Outdoor located on leased real property. Lease agreements are negotiated with both public and private landowners for varying terms ranging from month-to-month to year-to-year, can be for terms of 10 years or longer and may provide for renewal options. There is no significant concentration of billboards under any one lease or subject to negotiation with any one landlord.
Transit advertising includes advertising on or in transit systems, including the interiors and exteriors of buses, trains and trams and at rail stations. Transit advertising contracts are negotiated with public transit authorities and private transit operators and generally provide for payment to the transit authority of a percentage of the revenues, a fixed payment, or the greater of a percentage of the revenues or a fixed payment. Where revenues are lower than anticipated, the minimum amount required to be paid to a transit authority may exceed, or be a high percentage of, the advertising revenues received by Outdoor under that advertising contract. Due to the difficult advertising marketplace worldwide, certain transit contracts, including the London Underground contract which also has reduced revenues due to project delays, are operating at their minimum guarantee levels.
Street furniture displays, the most common of which are bus shelters, reach both vehicular and pedestrian audiences. Bus shelters are usually constructed, installed and maintained by Outdoor. Most of Outdoor's bus shelter contracts include revenue-sharing arrangements with a municipality or transit authority and often include minimum required payments. Street furniture contracts usually involve a competitive bidding process and contracts typically are for a term of from 10 to 20 years. Contracts are awarded on the basis of projected revenues to the municipality, including minimum payments, and Outdoor's willingness to construct public facilities, such as bus shelters, public toilets and information kiosks. In both its transit and street furniture negotiations, Outdoor seeks to reduce minimum payment obligations on new agreements and on renewal of existing agreements. There is no assurance that Outdoor will be successful in reducing its minimum payments, entering into new agreements or renewing certain existing agreements and any such agreements may provide a lesser return to the Company.
Newer technologies for outdoor advertising displays, such as changeable message displays and digital billboards using light-emitting diode and liquid crystal display technology, continue to evolve. The Company keeps apprised of and has adopted such new technologies as they evolve and mature. For example, Outdoor is utilizing digital technology containing moving images in the London Underground, New York City subways and in retail outlets through CBS Outernet. In July 2006, Outdoor reached an 8.5 year agreement to sell advertising on the London Underground and to perform certain construction and installation work. CBS Outernet, a leading distributor of video programming and advertising content to retail stores, enables customized messaging by region and retail environment. Generally, CBS Outernet enters into revenue-sharing arrangements with retailers based on advertising sales.
Outdoor's business strategy involves expanding its presence in major selected markets, to grow its revenues and cash flow by being a leading provider of out-of-home advertising services in the markets it serves, controlling costs, developing and entering into new markets and using advanced technologies to build greater awareness and promote tactical advertising. In addition, the Company purchases outdoor advertising assets within its existing markets or in contiguous markets. The Company believes that there will be continuing opportunities for implementing its acquisition and development strategies given the outdoor advertising industry's fragmentation. This is particularly true in the international markets where there are opportunities for Outdoor to increase profitability both from acquiring additional assets in or near its existing operations and from future acquisitions in new markets.
Outdoor Competition. The outdoor advertising industry is fragmented, consisting of several large companies involved in outdoor advertising such as Clear Channel Outdoor Holdings, Inc., JC Decaux S.A., Cemusa Inc. and Lamar Advertising Company as well as hundreds of smaller regional and local companies operating a limited number of display faces in a single or a few local markets. The Company also competes with other media, including broadcast and cable television, radio, print media, the Internet and direct mail marketers, within their respective markets. In addition, it competes with a wide variety of out-of-home media, including advertising in shopping centers, airports, movie theaters, supermarkets and taxis. Advertisers compare relative costs of available media and cost-per-thousand impressions, particularly when delivering a message to customers with distinct demographic characteristics. In competing with other media, the outdoor advertising industry relies on its relative cost efficiency and its ability to reach a broad segment in a specific market or to target a particular geographic area or population with a particular
demographic within that market. The Company keeps apprised of the evolution of new technologies in the industry. As new technologies such as digital billboards prove desirable to Outdoor's customers and deliver appropriate returns on investment, the Company's costs could increase.
The Company believes that its strong emphasis in sales and customer service and its position as a leading provider of advertising services in each of its primary markets as well as its international inventory enables it to compete effectively with the other outdoor advertising companies, as well as other media, within those markets.
The Company's businesses are either subject to or affected by regulations of federal, state and local governmental authorities. The rules, regulations, policies and procedures affecting these businesses are subject to change. The descriptions which follow are summaries and should be read in conjunction with the texts of the statutes, rules and regulations described herein. The descriptions do not purport to describe all present and proposed statutes, rules and regulations affecting the Company's businesses.
Laws affecting intellectual property are of significant importance to the Company. (See "Intellectual Property" on page I-23).
Copyright Law and Content. In the U.S., the copyright term for authored works is the life of the author plus 70 years. For works made-for-hire, the copyright term is the shorter of 95 years from the first publication or 120 years from creation.
Unauthorized Distribution and Piracy. Unauthorized distribution of copyrighted material over the Internet and through physical devices without regard to content owners' copyright rights in television programming, motion pictures and clips, such as through pirated DVDs, user-generated content, file "sharing" and peer-to-peer services, is a threat to copyright owners' ability to protect and exploit their property. The Company is engaged in enforcement and other activities to protect its intellectual property and has participated in various litigations, educational and public relations programs and legislative activity. In addition to these efforts, the Company continues to enter into and explore possibilities for commercial arrangements with various online providers to further protect and exploit its content.
Privacy. The laws and regulations governing the collection, use and transfer of consumer information are complex and rapidly evolving, particularly as they relate to the Company's interactive businesses. The Company monitors and considers these laws and regulations in the design and operation of its legal and regulatory compliance programs.
General. Television and radio broadcasting are subject to the jurisdiction of the FCC pursuant to the Communications Act. The Communications Act empowers the FCC, among other actions, to issue, renew, revoke and modify broadcasting licenses; determine stations' frequencies, locations and operating power; regulate some of the equipment used by stations; adopt other regulations to carry out the provisions of the Communications Act and other laws, including requirements affecting the content of broadcasts; and to impose penalties for violation of its regulations, including monetary forfeitures, short-term renewal of licenses and, in egregious cases, license revocation or denial of license renewals.
Under the Communications Act, the FCC also regulates certain aspects of the operation of cable and DBS systems and certain other electronic media that compete with broadcast stations.
Indecency and Profanity Regulation. The FCC's rules prohibit the broadcast of obscene material at any time and indecent or profane material between the hours of 6 a.m. and 10 p.m. Broadcasters risk
violating the prohibition against broadcasting indecent or profane material because the vagueness of the FCC's indecency/profanity definition makes it difficult to apply, particularly with respect to spontaneous, live programming. The FCC in the last decade has stepped up its enforcement efforts as they apply to indecency and profanity, and has threatened to initiate license revocation proceedings against broadcast licensees for "serious" indecency or profanity violations. The FCC's maximum forfeiture penalty for broadcasting indecent or profane programming is $325,000 per indecent or profane utterance with a maximum forfeiture exposure of $3.0 million for any continuing violation arising from a single act or failure to act. The Company is and has been involved in litigation and, from time to time, has received and may receive in the future letters of inquiry from the FCC prompted by complaints alleging that certain programming on its broadcast stations included indecent or profane material. The Company entered into a Consent Decree with the FCC in November 2004 pursuant to which the Company made a $3.5 million voluntary contribution to the U.S. Treasury and agreed to provide training with respect to FCC indecency regulation to programming-related personnel at its broadcast television and radio operations and to implement other measures to reduce the risk of broadcasting indecent or profane material. The Company also entered into a Consent Decree with the FCC in 2007, pursuant to which the Company made a $300,000 voluntary contribution to the U.S. Treasury and the FCC and the Company settled certain disputes pertaining to the 2004 Consent Decree. (See Item 7. "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Results of Operations and Financial ConditionLegal MattersIndecency Regulation" on page II-33).
License Renewals. Radio and television broadcast licenses are typically granted for standard terms of eight years. The Communications Act requires the FCC to renew a broadcast license if the FCC finds that the station has served the public interest, convenience and necessity and, with respect to the station, there have been no serious violations by the licensee of either the Communications Act or the FCC's rules and regulations and there have been no other violations by the licensee of the Communications Act or the FCC's rules and regulations that, taken together, constitute a pattern of abuse. The Company has a number of pending renewal applications, seven of which have been opposed by third parties (there are two opposed renewal applications for Radio and five opposed renewal applications for Television Stations).
License Assignments. The Communications Act requires prior FCC approval for the assignment of a license or transfer of control of an FCC licensee. Third parties may oppose the Company's applications to transfer or acquire additional broadcast licenses.
Ownership Regulation. The Communications Act and FCC rules and regulations limit the ability of individuals and entities to have an official position or ownership interest, known as an "attributable" interest, above specific levels in broadcast stations as well as in other specified mass media entities. In seeking FCC approval for the acquisition of a broadcast radio or television station license, the acquiring person or entity must demonstrate that the acquisition complies with the FCC's ownership rules or that a waiver of the rules is in the public interest. In December 2007, the FCC concluded a proceeding which examined whether to modify its various ownership rules, but with the exception of the newspaper-broadcast cross-ownership rule, the FCC declined to do so. The FCC's action has been appealed to the United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit by the Company and other interested parties.
The FCC's ownership rules are briefly summarized below.
Local Radio Ownership. The FCC's local radio ownership rule applies in all markets where the Company owns radio stations. Under that rule, one party may own up to eight radio stations in the largest markets, no more than five of which may be either AM or FM. With a few exceptions, the rule permits the common ownership of 8 radio stations in the top 50 markets, where CBS Radio has significant holdings. The Company's FM radio portfolio exceeds the FCC's numerical limit in one market, West Palm Beach, which is grandfathered. While the rules do not require the divestiture of any existing radio ownership combinations, the Company is not permitted to transfer its radio portfolio in that market intact, except to qualified small businesses.
Local Television Ownership. Under the FCC's local television ownership rule, one party may own up to two television stations in the same DMA, so long as at least one of the two stations is not among the top four-ranked stations in the market based on audience share as of the date an application for approval of an acquisition is filed with the FCC, and at least eight independently owned and operating full-power television stations remain in the market following the acquisition. Further, without regard to the number of remaining independently owned television stations, the rule permits the ownership of more than one television station within the same DMA so long as certain signal contours of the stations involved do not overlap. Satellite television stations that simply rebroadcast the programming of a "parent" television station are exempt from the local television ownership rule if located in the same DMA as the "parent" station.
Television National Audience Reach Limitation. Under the national television ownership rule, one party may not own television stations which reach more than 39% of all U.S. television households. For purposes of calculating the total number of television households reached by a station, the FCC attributes a UHF television station with only 50% of the television households in its market. The Company currently owns and operates television stations that reach approximately 38% of all U.S. television households but for purposes of the national ownership limitation, the Company's reach is less than this amount applying the UHF discount in accordance with the FCC's methodology.
Radio-Television Cross-Ownership Rule. The radio-television cross-ownership rule limits the common ownership of radio and television stations in the same market. The numeric limit varies according to the number of independent media voices in the market. The Company owns a combination of radio and television stations in the Los Angeles market in excess of the limit. The FCC has granted an application permitting the Company to assign radio station KFWB-AM in Los Angeles to a divestiture trust, the closing of which would bring the Company into compliance with the rule.
Newspaper-Broadcast Cross-Ownership. The newspaper-broadcast cross-ownership rule prohibits the common ownership of a broadcast station and daily newspaper in the same market. The FCC modified the newspaper-broadcast cross-ownership rule by establishing a presumption in favor of permitting cross-ownership of a daily newspaper and one broadcast station (but not one of the "top four" television stations) in the top 20 markets under certain circumstances and establishing a waiver procedure for such combinations in smaller markets. However, the United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit has stayed the effectiveness of this rule change. The rule in effect continues to prohibit the cross-ownership of daily newspapers and broadcast stations in all markets absent a waiver by the FCC.
Dual Network Rule. The dual network rule prohibits any of the four major networks, ABC, CBS, FOX and NBC, from combining.
Attribution of Ownership. Under the FCC's attribution rules, a direct or indirect purchaser of various types of securities of an entity which holds FCC licenses, such as the Company, could violate the foregoing FCC ownership regulations or policies if that purchaser owned or acquired an "attributable" interest in other media properties. Under the FCC's rules, an "attributable" interest for purposes of the FCC's broadcast ownership rules generally includes: equity and debt interests which combined exceed 33% of a licensee's total assets, if the interest holder supplies more than 15% of the licensee's total weekly programming, or has an attributable same-market media interest, whether television, radio, cable or newspaper; a 5% or greater direct or indirect voting stock interest, including certain interests held in trust, unless the holder is a qualified passive investor in which case the threshold is a 20% or greater voting stock interest; any equity interest in a limited liability company or a partnership, including a limited partnership, unless
properly "insulated" from management activities; and any position as an officer or director of a licensee or of its direct or indirect parent. The FCC is currently reviewing its single majority voting shareholder attribution exemption, which renders as non-attributable voting interests up to 49% in a licensee controlled by a single majority voting shareholder. Because NAI holds an attributable interest in both the Company and Viacom Inc., the business of each company is attributable to the other for certain FCC purposes, which may have the effect of limiting and affecting the activities, strategic business alternatives and business terms available to the Company. (See Item 1A. "Risk FactorsThe Businesses of the Company and Viacom Inc. Will Be Attributable to the Other Company for Certain Regulatory Purposes").
Alien Ownership. In general, the Communications Act prohibits foreign individuals or entities from owning more than 20% of the voting power or equity of the Company.
Analog to Digital Transition. As of June 12, 2009, all full-power broadcast television stations were required to cease broadcasting analog programming and convert to all digital broadcasts. Digital broadcasting permits stations to offer digital channels for a wide variety of services such as high definition video programming, multiple channels of standard definition video programming, audio, data, and other types of communications, subject to the requirement that each broadcaster provide at least one free over-the-air video program signal at least comparable in resolution to the station's former analog programming transmissions.
Cable and Satellite Carriage of Television Broadcast Stations. The 1992 Cable Act and implementing FCC regulations govern the retransmission of commercial television stations by cable television operators. Every three years, each station must elect, with respect to cable systems within its DMA, either "must carry" status, pursuant to which the cable system's carriage of the station is mandatory, or "retransmission consent," pursuant to which the station gives up its right to mandatory carriage and secures instead the right to negotiate consideration in return for consenting to carriage. The Company has elected the retransmission consent option in substantially all cases for the period beginning January 1, 2009, and, since 2006, has implemented a systematic process of seeking monetary consideration for its retransmission consent.
Similarly, federal legislation and FCC rules govern the retransmission of broadcast television stations by DBS operators. DBS operators are required to carry the signals of all local television broadcast stations requesting carriage in local markets in which the DBS operator carries at least one signal pursuant to the statutory local-to-local compulsory copyright license. Every three years, each television station in such markets must elect "must carry" or "retransmission consent" status, in a manner similar to that described above with respect to cable systems. Substantially all of the Company's owned and operated television stations are being transmitted into their local markets by the two major DBS operators pursuant to retransmission consent agreements.
Since the broadcast television transition from analog to digital in June 2009, cable television systems are required for a three-year period to carry must-carry signals in an analog format or in the case of all-digital cable systems to provide equipment to convert must-carry digital signals for viewing on analog television sets. Cable television systems, with some exceptions, are also required to carry such stations' high definition signals. DBS operators are also required, over a four-year phase-in period, to carry the high definition signals of must-carry stations. Neither cable systems nor DBS operators are required to carry more than a station's primary video programming channel. The Company has agreements with a number of multiple system operators that require carriage of the analog, digital and high-definition signals of the Company-owned television stations before and after the transition (including multiple streams of digital programming).
Children's Television Programming. Federal legislation and FCC rules limit the amount and content of commercial matter that may be shown on television stations during programming designed for children
12 years of age and younger, and require stations to broadcast on their main program stream three hours per week of educational and informational programming ("E/I programming") designed for children 16 years of age and younger. FCC rules also impose E/I programming requirements on each additional digital multicast program stream transmitted by television stations, with the requirement increasing in proportion to the additional hours of free programming offered on multicast channels. These rules also limit the display during children's programming of Internet addresses of Web sites that contain or link to commercial material or that use program characters to sell products.
Program Access. Under the Communications Act, vertically integrated cable programmers (more fully described below) are generally prohibited from offering different prices, terms or conditions to competing multichannel video programming distributors unless the differential is justified by certain permissible factors set forth in the FCC's regulations. The FCC's "program access" rules also limit the ability of a vertically integrated cable programmer to enter into exclusive distribution arrangements with cable operators. A cable programmer is considered to be vertically integrated under the FCC's program access attribution rules if it owns or is owned by a cable operator in whole or in part. Cable operators for this purpose may include telephone companies that provide video programming directly to subscribers.
The Company's wholly owned program services are not currently subject to the program access rules. The Company's flexibility to negotiate the most favorable terms available for carriage of these services and its ability to offer cable operators exclusive programming could be adversely affected if it were to become subject to the program access rules. Because of NAI's interest in both the Company and Viacom Inc., Viacom Inc.'s businesses could be attributable to the Company for purposes of the FCC's program access rules. (See Item 1A. "Risk FactorsThe Businesses of the Company and Viacom Inc. Will Be Attributable to the Other Company for Certain Regulatory Purposes").
Digital Radio. For a number of years, the FCC has been developing rules that would permit existing AM and FM radio broadcast stations to broadcast digitally in order both to improve sound quality and to provide spectrum for enhanced data services to complement the existing programming service and provide new business opportunities for radio broadcasters, including multicasting opportunities. The FCC has authorized AM and FM radio stations to broadcast digital signals using excess spectrum within the same allotted bandwidth used for analog transmissions. As of February 1, 2010, 105 of the Company's radio stations had commenced digital broadcasts. The FCC recently increased the maximum allowable power for digital broadcasts, which will improve the robustness and geographic coverage of digital transmissions.
The outdoor advertising industry is subject to extensive governmental regulation at the federal, state and local levels in the U.S. and to national, regional and local restrictions in foreign countries. These regulations can affect the operation of advertising displays and include restrictions on the construction, repair, upgrading, height, size and location of outdoor advertising structures and, in some instances, the content of advertising copy that can be displayed on these structures. In addition, outdoor advertising is the subject of targeted state and municipal taxes and fees. These laws may affect competitive conditions in various markets in various ways. Such laws may reduce the Company's expansion opportunities, or may increase or reduce competitive pressure from others. No assurance can be given that existing or future laws or regulations and the enforcement thereof will not materially and adversely affect the Outdoor business.
Under U.S. law, principally the Highway Beautification Act of 1965 (the "HBA"), outdoor advertising is controlled on primary and interstate highways built with federal financial assistance. As a condition to federal highway assistance, the HBA requires states to restrict billboards on such highways to commercial and industrial areas, and imposes certain additional size, spacing and other requirements associated with the installation and operation of billboards. Outdoor is not aware of any states which have passed laws and adopted regulations which are less restrictive than the federal requirements, including the obligation on the part of the billboard owner to remove, at the owner's expense and without compensation, any
non-grandfathered signs on such highways that do not comply with such requirements. Outdoor does not believe that the number of its billboards that may be subject to removal under these regulations is material. No state in which Outdoor operates has banned billboards, but some have adopted standards more restrictive than the federal requirements. Municipal and county governments generally also have sign controls as part of their zoning laws and building codes. Some state and local governments prohibit construction of new billboards and some allow new construction only to replace existing structures, although most allow construction of billboards subject to restrictions on zoning, size, spacing, height and type of construction. In some cases, the construction of new billboards or the relocation or modification of existing billboards is prohibited. A number of cities including New York City, Los Angeles, Philadelphia and Miami have implemented or initiated legislative billboard controls, including imposing taxes, fees and/or registration requirements in an effort to decrease or restrict the number of outdoor signs and/or to raise revenue. The Company contests such laws and regulations that it believes unlawfully restrict its constitutional or other legal rights and may adversely impact the growth of its outdoor advertising business.
U.S. law neither requires nor prohibits removal of existing lawful billboards, but it does require payment of compensation if a state or political subdivision compels the removal of a lawful billboard along a primary or interstate highway that was built with federal financial assistance. State governments have purchased and removed legal billboards for beautification objectives in the past using federal funding for transportation enhancement programs, and may do so in the future. State government authorities from time to time use the power of eminent domain to remove billboards. Thus far, Outdoor has been able to obtain satisfactory compensation for its billboards purchased or removed as a result of this type of governmental action, although there is no assurance that this will continue to be the case in the future. Local governments do not generally purchase billboards for beautification, but some have attempted to force removal of legal but nonconforming billboards (billboards which conformed with applicable zoning regulations when built but which do not conform to current zoning regulations) after a period of years under a concept called amortization. Under this concept the governmental body asserts that just compensation is earned by continued operation of the billboard over time. Although there is some question as to the legality of amortization under federal and many state laws, amortization has been upheld in some instances. Outdoor generally has been successful in negotiating settlements with municipalities for billboards required to be removed. Restrictive regulations also limit Outdoor's ability to rebuild or replace nonconforming billboards.
As the owner or operator of various real properties and facilities in outdoor advertising operations, the Company must comply with various U.S. federal, state and local and foreign environmental, health, safety and land use laws and regulations. The Company and its properties are subject to such laws and regulations relating to the use, storage, disposal, emission and release of hazardous and non-hazardous substances and employee health and safety, as well as zoning and other land use restrictions which may affect, among other things, the hours of operation and illumination as well as methods and conditions of maintenance of facilities and advertising installation. Historically, the Company has not incurred significant expenditures to comply with these laws. However, future laws or a finding of a violation of or liability under existing laws could require the Company to make significant expenditures and otherwise limit or restrict its ability to use or operate some of its displays.
Out-of-court settlements between the major U.S. tobacco companies, the U.S. government, and all 50 states include a ban on the outdoor advertising of tobacco products. State and local governments continue to initiate proposals designed to limit outdoor advertising of alcohol. Other products, services and types of displays may be targeted in the future. Legislation regulating alcohol-related advertising due to content-related restrictions could cause a reduction in Outdoor's direct revenue from such advertisements and a simultaneous increase in the available space on the existing inventory of billboards in the outdoor advertising industry.
The Company creates, owns, distributes and exploits under licenses intellectual property worldwide. It is the Company's practice to protect its products, including its television, radio and motion picture products, characters, publications and other original and acquired works and audiovisual works made for digital exploitation. The following logos, trade names, trademarks and related trademark families are among those strongly identified with the product lines they represent and are significant assets of the Company: CBS®, CBS Entertainment, CBS News®, CBS Sports®, CBSSports.com®, CNET®, CBS Radio®, Showtime®, The Movie Channel®, Flix®, CBS Outdoor®, CBS Films®, CBS Outernet®, CBS Audience Network, BNET®, CHOW, TV.com, Last.fm®, Spelling Television®, CSI:®, Entertainment Tonight®, Star Trek®, Simon & Schuster®, CBS College Sports Network®,CBS Interactive and all the call letters for the Company's television and radio stations. As a result, domestic and foreign laws protecting intellectual property rights are important to the Company and the Company actively enforces its intellectual property rights against infringements.
At December 31, 2009, the Company employed approximately 25,580 people including full-time and part-time salaried employees.
FINANCIAL INFORMATION ABOUT SEGMENTS AND FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC OPERATIONS
Financial and other information by segment and relating to foreign and domestic operations for each of the last three years ending December 31 is set forth in Note 15 to the Consolidated Financial Statements.
CBS Corp. makes available free of charge on or through the Investor Relations section of its Web site, www.cbscorporation.com, its Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K, and any amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. Such material is made available through the Company's Web site as soon as reasonably practicable after such material is electronically filed with or furnished to the Securities and Exchange Commission.
CAUTIONARY STATEMENT CONCERNING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This document, including "Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Results of Operations and Financial Condition," and the documents incorporated by reference into this Annual Report on Form 10-K, contain both historical and forward-looking statements. All statements other than statements of historical fact are, or may be deemed to be, forward-looking statements within the meaning of section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933 and section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. These forward-looking statements are not based on historical facts, but rather reflect the Company's current expectations concerning future results and events. These forward-looking statements generally can be identified by the use of statements that include phrases such as "believe," "expect," "anticipate," "intend," "plan," "foresee," "likely," "will" or other similar words or phrases. Similarly, statements that describe the Company's objectives, plans or goals are or may be forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that are difficult to predict and which may cause the actual results, performance or achievements of the Company to be different from any future results, performance and achievements expressed or implied by these statements. More information about these risks, uncertainties and other factors is set forth below. Additional risks, uncertainties and other factors may be described in the Company's news releases and other filings made
under the securities laws. There may be additional risks, uncertainties and factors that the Company does not currently view as material or that are not necessarily known. The forward-looking statements included in this document are only made as of the date of this document and the Company does not have any obligation to publicly update any forward-looking statements to reflect subsequent events or circumstances.
For an enterprise as large and complex as the Company, a wide range of factors could affect our business and financial results. The factors described below are considered to be the most significant. There may be other currently unknown or unpredictable economic, business, competitive, regulatory or other factors that could have material adverse effects on the Company's future results. Past financial performance may not be a reliable indicator of future performance and historical trends should not be used to anticipate results or trends in future periods. The following discussion of risk factors should be read in conjunction with "Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Results of Operations and Financial Condition" and the consolidated financial statements and related notes in "Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data" of this Form 10-K.
A Decline in Advertising Expenditures Could Cause the Company's Revenues and Operating Results to Decline Significantly in Any Given Period or in Specific Markets
The Company derives substantial revenues from the sale of advertising on its broadcast and basic cable networks, television stations, radio stations, outdoor media and syndicated programming. A decline in the economic prospects of advertisers, the economy in general or the economy of any individual geographic market, particularly a major market such as Los Angeles, New York or Chicago, in which the Company owns and operates sizeable businesses, could alter current or prospective advertisers' spending priorities. Disasters, acts of terrorism, political uncertainty or hostilities could lead to a reduction in advertising expenditures as a result of uninterrupted news coverage and economic uncertainty. Advertising expenditures may also be affected by increasing competition for the leisure time of audiences. In addition, advertising expenditures by companies in certain sectors of the economy, including the automotive, financial and pharmaceutical segments, represent a significant portion of the Company's advertising revenues. Any political, economic, social or technological change resulting in a reduction in these sectors' advertising expenditures may adversely affect the Company's revenue. Advertisers' willingness to purchase advertising from the Company may also be affected by a decline in audience ratings for the Company's programming, the inability of the Company to retain the rights to popular programming, increasing audience fragmentation caused by the proliferation of new media formats, including cable networks, the Internet and video-on-demand and the deployment of portable digital devices and new technologies which allow consumers to time shift programming, make and store digital copies and skip or fast-forward through advertisements. The Company's revenues from outdoor advertising also depend on the Company's continued ability to obtain the right to use effective outdoor advertising space. Any reduction in advertising expenditures could have an adverse effect on the Company's revenues and results of operations.
The Company's Success Is Dependent Upon Audience Acceptance of Its Content, Particularly Its Television and Radio Programs and Motion Pictures, Which Is Difficult to Predict
Television, radio and motion picture content production and distribution are inherently risky businesses because the revenues derived from the production and distribution of a television or radio program or motion picture, and the licensing of rights to the associated intellectual property, depend primarily upon their acceptance by the public, which is difficult to predict. The commercial success of a television or radio program or motion picture also depends upon the quality and acceptance of other competing programs and motion pictures released into the marketplace at or near the same time, the availability of alternative forms of entertainment and leisure time activities, general economic conditions
and other tangible and intangible factors, all of which are difficult to predict. Rating points are also factors that are weighed when determining the advertising rates that the Company receives. The use of new ratings technologies and measurements could have an impact on the Company's program ratings. Poor ratings can lead to a reduction in pricing and advertising spending. For example, there can be no assurance that any replacement programming on the Company's radio or television stations will generate the same level of revenues or profitability of previous programming. In addition, the success of the Company's cable networks and Simon & Schuster is similarly dependent on audience acceptance of its programming and publications, respectively. The theatrical success of a motion picture, based in large part upon audience acceptance, is a significant factor in determining the revenues it is likely to generate in home entertainment sales, licensing fees and other exploitation during the various other distribution windows. Consequently, low public acceptance of the Company's content, particularly its television and radio programs and motion pictures, will have an adverse effect on the Company's results of operations.
Failure by the Company to Obtain, Create and Retain the Rights in Popular Programming Could Adversely Affect the Company's Revenues
Operating results from the Company's programming (including motion pictures) businesses fluctuate primarily with the acceptance of such programming by the public, which is difficult to predict. The Company's revenue from its television, radio and motion picture business is therefore partially dependent on the Company's continued ability to anticipate and adapt to changes in consumer tastes and behavior on a timely basis. Moreover, the Company derives a portion of its revenues from the exploitation of its extensive library of television programming. Generally, a television series must have a network run of at least three or four years to be successfully sold in domestic syndication. If the content of its television programming library ceases to be widely accepted by audiences or is not continuously replenished with popular content, the Company's revenues could be adversely affected. The Company obtains a significant portion of its popular programming from third parties. For example, some of CBS Television Network's most widely viewed broadcasts, including certain NCAA championships, golf's Masters Tournament and PGA Championship, and NFL games, are made available based upon programming rights of varying duration that the Company has negotiated with third parties. In addition, Showtime Networks enters into commitments to acquire rights to certain programming for Showtime, The Movie Channel and Flix from motion picture producers and other suppliers for varying durations, and CBS Radio acquires the broadcast rights to syndicated shows and to various programs, such as sports events from third parties. CBS Films competes for compelling source material for and the talent necessary to produce motion pictures. Competition for popular programming that is licensed from third parties is intense, and the Company may be outbid by its competitors for the rights to new, popular programming or in connection with the renewal of popular programming currently licensed by the Company. The Company's failure to obtain or retain rights to popular content could adversely affect the Company's revenues.
Any Decrease in Popularity of the Programming for Which the Company Has Incurred Significant Commitments Could Have an Adverse Effect on Its Profitability
Programming and talent commitments of the Company, estimated to aggregate approximately $10.28 billion as of December 31, 2009, primarily included $6.63 billion for sports programming rights, $2.74 billion relating to television, radio and film production and licensing and $906.3 million for talent contracts, with $706.6 million of these amounts payable in and after 2015. A shortfall, now or in the future, in the expected popularity of the sports events for which the Company has acquired rights, or in the television and radio programming the Company expects to air, could lead to decreased profitability or losses for a significant period of time.
Economic Conditions May Adversely Affect the Company's Businesses and Customers
The U.S. and other countries where the Company operates have experienced slowdowns and volatilities in their economies. This downturn could lead to lower consumer and business spending for the Company's products and services, particularly if customers, including advertisers, subscribers, licensees, retailers, theater operators and other consumers of the Company's content offerings and services, reduce demands for the Company's products and services. In addition, in unfavorable economic environments, the Company's customers may have difficulties obtaining capital at adequate or historical levels to finance their ongoing business and operations and may face insolvency, all of which could impair their ability to make timely payments and continue operations. The Company is unable to predict the duration and severity of weakened economic conditions and such conditions and resultant effects could adversely impact the Company's businesses, operating results, and financial condition.
Volatility and Weakness in Capital Markets May Adversely Affect Credit Availability and Related Financing Costs for the Company
Bank and capital markets can experience periods of volatility and disruption. If the disruption in these markets is prolonged, the Company's ability to refinance, and the related cost of refinancing, some or all of its debt could be adversely affected. Although the Company can currently access the bank and capital markets, there is no assurance that such markets will continue to be a reliable source of financing for the Company. In addition, the Company's access to and cost of borrowing can be affected by the Company's short- and long-term debt ratings assigned by ratings agencies. These factors, including the tightening of credit markets, or a decrease in the Company's debt ratings, could adversely affect the Company's ability to obtain cost-effective financing.
The Company's Operating Results Are Subject to Seasonal Variations and Other Factors
The Company's business has experienced and is expected to continue to experience seasonality due to, among other things, seasonal advertising patterns and seasonal influences on people's viewing, reading, attendance and listening habits. Typically, the Company's revenue from advertising increases in the fourth quarter, Simon & Schuster generates a substantial portion of its revenues in the fourth quarter, and CBS Films' revenue from motion pictures is dependent on the timing, mix, number and availability of its pictures and will generally experience increases in the summer around holidays and in the fourth quarter. In addition, advertising revenues in even-numbered years benefit from advertising placed by candidates for political offices. The effects of such seasonality make it difficult to estimate future operating results based on the previous results of any specific quarter and may adversely affect operating results.
The Company's Businesses Operate in Highly Competitive Industries
The Company competes with other media companies for high quality content and attractive outdoor advertising space to achieve large audiences and to generate advertising revenue. The Company also competes for distribution on various cable, DBS and other platforms. The Company's ability to attract audiences and advertisers and obtain favorable distribution depends in part on its ability to provide popular television, syndicated programming and radio programming, motion pictures and books, as well as well-placed outdoor advertising faces. In addition, the consolidation of advertising agencies, distributors and television service providers has made competition for audiences, advertising revenue, and distribution more intense. In addition, consolidation among book retailers and the growth of on-line sales have resulted in increased competition for limited physical shelf space for the Company's publications and for the attention of consumers on-line. Competition for audiences and advertising comes from: broadcast television stations and networks; cable television systems and networks; motion picture studios; the Internet; terrestrial and satellite radio and portable digital audio players; outdoor advertisers; local, regional and national newspapers; direct mail; and other communications and advertising media that operate in these markets. Other television and radio stations or cable networks may change their formats
or programming, a new station or new network may adopt a format to compete directly with the Company's stations or networks, or stations or networks might engage in aggressive promotional campaigns. In book publishing, price competition among electronic and print book retailers could decrease the prices for new releases and the outlets available for book sales. This competition could result in lower ratings and advertising and subscription and other revenues or increased promotional and other expenses and, consequently, lower earnings and cash flow for the Company. The Company cannot be assured that it will be able to compete successfully in the future against existing or potential competitors, or that competition will not have a material adverse effect on its business, financial condition or results of operations.
The Company Must Respond to Rapid Changes in Technology, Content Creation, Services and Standards in Order to Remain Competitive
Video, telecommunications, radio and data services technologies used in the entertainment industry are changing rapidly as are the digital distribution models for books. Advances in technologies or alternative methods of product delivery or storage, or certain changes in consumer behavior driven by these or other technologies and methods of delivery and storage, could have a negative effect on the Company's businesses. Examples of the foregoing include video-on-demand, satellite radio, new video and electronic book formats, user-generated content sites, the convergence of television broadcasts and online delivery of programming to televisions, Internet and mobile distribution of video content, streaming and downloading from the Internet and digital outdoor displays. For example, devices that allow users to view or listen to television or radio programs on a time-delayed basis and technologies that enable users to fast-forward or skip advertisements, such as DVRs and portable digital devices and systems that enable users to store programming, may cause changes in consumer behavior that could affect the attractiveness of the Company's offerings to advertisers and could therefore adversely affect its revenues. Also, the growing uses of new, user-generated content sites, including those emanating from other countries in various languages, may adversely impact the Company's businesses. In addition, further increases in the use of digital devices which allow users to view or listen to content of their own choosing, in their own time, while avoiding traditional commercial advertisements, could adversely affect the Company's radio and television broadcasting advertising and subscription revenues. Cable providers and DBS operators are developing new techniques that allow them to transmit more channels on their existing equipment to highly targeted audiences, reducing the cost of creating channels and potentially leading to the division of the television marketplace into more specialized niche audiences. More television options increase competition for viewers and competitors targeting programming to narrowly defined audiences may gain an advantage over the Company for television advertising and subscription revenues. In publishing, the growing eBook market threatens to impose pressure on the price consumers are willing to pay for new releases, disproportionate to any cost savings presented by the new technologies. Generally, changing consumer behavior may impact the Company's traditional distribution methods, for example, by reducing viewership of its programming (including motion pictures), the demand for DVD product and/or the desire to see motion pictures in theaters, which could have an adverse impact on the Company's revenues and profitability. The ability to anticipate and adapt to changes in technology on a timely basis and exploit new sources of revenue from these changes will affect the Company's ability to continue to grow and increase its revenue.
Increased Programming and Content Costs May Adversely Affect the Company's Profits
The Company produces and acquires programming (including motion pictures) and content and incurs costs for all types of creative talent, including actors, authors, writers and producers as well as marketing and distribution. An increase in any of these costs may lead to decreased profitability.
Piracy of the Company's Programming and Other Content, Including Digital and Internet Piracy, May Decrease Revenue Received from the Exploitation of the Company's Programming and Other Content and Adversely Affect Its Businesses and Profitability
Piracy of programming (including motion pictures) is prevalent in many parts of the world and is made easier by the availability of digital copies of content and technological advances allowing conversion of such programming and other content into digital formats, which facilitates the creation, transmission and sharing of high quality unauthorized copies of the Company's content. The proliferation of unauthorized copies and piracy of these products has an adverse effect on the Company's businesses and profitability because these products reduce the revenue that the Company potentially could receive from the legitimate sale and distribution of its products and services. In addition, if piracy were to increase, it would have an adverse effect on the Company's businesses and profitability.
Changes in U.S. Communications Laws or Other Regulations May Have an Adverse Effect on the Company's Business
The television and radio broadcasting and distribution industries in the U.S. are highly regulated by U.S. federal laws and regulations issued and administered by various federal agencies, including the FCC. The television and radio broadcasting industry is subject to extensive regulation by the FCC under the Communications Act. For example, the Company is required to obtain licenses from the FCC to operate its radio and television stations. The Company cannot be assured that the FCC will approve its future renewal applications or that the renewals will be for full terms or will not include conditions or qualifications. The non-renewal, or renewal with substantial conditions or modifications, of one or more of the Company's licenses could have a material adverse effect on the Company's revenues. The Company must also comply with extensive FCC regulations and policies in the ownership and operation of its television and radio stations and its television networks. FCC regulations prohibit the ownership of more than one of the top four networks, ABC, CBS, FOX and NBC, and limit the number of television and radio stations that a licensee can own in a market and the number of television stations that can be owned nationwide, which could restrict the Company's ability to consummate future transactions and in certain circumstances could require it to divest some television or radio stations. The U.S. Congress and the FCC currently have under consideration, and may in the future adopt, new laws, regulations, and policies regarding a wide variety of matters that could, directly or indirectly, affect the operation and ownership of the Company's radio and television properties. For example, from time to time, proposals have been advanced in the U.S. Congress and at the FCC to require radio and television broadcast stations to provide advertising time to political candidates for free or at a reduced charge. Any restrictions on political advertising may adversely affect the Company's advertising revenues. The FCC has initiated a proceeding to examine and potentially regulate more closely embedded advertising such as product placement and product integration. Enhanced restrictions affecting these means of delivering advertising messages may adversely affect the Company's advertising revenues. Changes to the media ownership and other FCC rules may affect the competitive landscape in ways that could increase the competition faced by the Company. Proposals have also been advanced from time to time before the U.S. Congress and the FCC to extend the program access rules (currently applicable only to those cable program services which also own or are owned by cable distribution systems) to all cable program services. The Company's ability to obtain the most favorable terms available for its content could be adversely affected should such an extension be enacted into law. There is legislation currently pending in the U.S. Congress which could remove over-the-air broadcasters' existing exemption from payment of a performance royalty to record companies and performers of music which is broadcast on radio stations. This proposal could have an adverse impact on the cost of music programming for the Company. In addition, changes in international laws may have an adverse impact on the Company's international businesses. The Company is unable to predict the effect that any such laws, regulations or policies may have on its operations.
Vigorous Enforcement or Enhancement of FCC Indecency and Other Program Content Rules Against the Broadcast and Cable Industries Could Have an Adverse Effect on the Company's Businesses and Results of Operations
The FCC's rules prohibit the broadcast of obscene material at any time and indecent or profane material on television or radio broadcast stations between the hours of 6 a.m. and 10 p.m. Broadcasters risk violating the prohibition against broadcasting indecent material because of the vagueness of the FCC's indecency/profanity definition, coupled with the spontaneity of live programming. The FCC vigorously enforces its indecency rules against the broadcasting industry. The FCC has stepped up its enforcement activities as they apply to indecency and has threatened to initiate license revocation proceedings against broadcast licensees for "serious" indecency violations. The FCC has found on a number of occasions that the content of radio and television broadcasts has contained indecent material. In such instances, the FCC issued fines or advisory warnings to the offending licensees. Moreover, the FCC has in some instances imposed separate fines for each allegedly indecent "utterance," in contrast with its previous policy, which generally considered all indecent words or phrases within a given program as constituting a single violation. The fines for broadcasting indecent material are a maximum of $325,000 per utterance. If the FCC denied a license renewal or revoked the license for one of the Company's broadcast radio or television stations, the Company would lose its authority to operate the station. The determination of whether content is indecent is inherently subjective and, as such, it can be difficult to predict whether particular content could violate indecency standards. The difficulty in predicting whether individual programs, words or phrases may violate the FCC's indecency rules adds significant uncertainty to the Company's ability to comply with the rules. Violation of the indecency rules could lead to sanctions which may adversely affect the Company's businesses and results of operations. Some policymakers support the extension of the indecency rules that are applicable to over-the-air broadcasters to cover cable and satellite programming and/or attempts to increase enforcement of or otherwise expand existing laws and rules. If such an extension, attempt to increase enforcement or other expansion took place and were found to be constitutional, some of the Company's cable content could be subject to additional regulation and might not be able to attract the same subscription and viewership levels.
The Loss of Affiliation Agreements or Retransmission Agreements Could Materially Adversely Affect the Company's Results of Operations
The CBS Television Network provides its affiliates with up to 98 hours of programming per week. In return, the CBS Television Network's affiliated stations broadcast network-inserted commercials during that programming. Loss of network affiliation agreements of the CBS Television Network could adversely affect the Company's results of operations by reducing the reach of the Company's programming and therefore its attractiveness to advertisers, and renewal on less favorable terms may also adversely affect the Company's results of operations. The non-renewal or termination of retransmission agreements with cable, DBS and other distributors or continued distribution on less favorable terms, could also adversely affect the Company's ability to distribute its network programming to a nationwide audience and affect the Company's ability to sell advertising, which could have a material adverse effect on the Company's results of operations. Showtime Networks and the CBS College Sports Network are also dependent upon the maintenance of affiliation agreements with cable, DBS and other distributors, and there can be no assurance that these agreements will be renewed in the future on terms acceptable to such programmers. The loss of one or more of these arrangements could reduce the distribution of Showtime Networks' and CBS College Sports Network's program services and reduce revenues from subscriber fees and advertising, as applicable. Further, the loss of favorable packaging, positioning, pricing or other marketing opportunities with any distributor could reduce revenues from subscriber fees. In addition, consolidation among cable and DBS distributors and increased vertical integration of such distributors into the cable or broadcast network business have provided more leverage to these distributors and could adversely affect the Company's ability to maintain or obtain distribution for its network programming or distribution
and/or marketing of its subscription program services on favorable or commercially reasonable terms, or at all.
The Failure or Destruction of Satellites and Transmitter Facilities that the Company Depends Upon to Distribute Its Programming Could Materially Adversely Affect the Company's Businesses and Results of Operations
The Company uses satellite systems to transmit its broadcast and cable networks to affiliates. The distribution facilities include uplinks, communications satellites and downlinks. Transmissions may be disrupted as a result of local disasters including extreme weather that impair on-ground uplinks or downlinks, or as a result of an impairment of a satellite. Currently, there are a limited number of communications satellites available for the transmission of programming. If a disruption occurs, the Company may not be able to secure alternate distribution facilities in a timely manner. Failure to secure alternate distribution facilities in a timely manner could have a material adverse effect on the Company's businesses and results of operations. In addition, each of the Company's television and radio stations and cable networks uses studio and transmitter facilities that are subject to damage or destruction. Failure to restore such facilities in a timely manner could have a material adverse effect on the Company's businesses and results of operations.
The Company Could Suffer Losses Due to Asset Impairment Charges for Goodwill, Intangible Assets, FCC Licenses and Programming
The Company will test goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets, including FCC licenses, for impairment during the fourth quarter of each year and between annual tests if events or circumstances require an interim impairment assessment. A downward revision in the estimated fair value of a reporting unit or intangible assets, including FCC licenses, could result in a non-cash impairment charge. Also, any significant shortfall, now or in the future, in the expected popularity of the programming for which the Company has acquired rights could lead to a downward revision in the fair value of such assets. Any such impairment charge for goodwill, intangible assets and/or programming could have a material adverse effect on the Company's reported net earnings.
Dividends and Dividend Rates Cannot Be Guaranteed
The overall weakened economy and turmoil in the credit and capital markets may cause companies to recalibrate their business plans with a renewed focus on liquidity and maintenance of a strong balance sheet. The Company's Board of Directors assesses relevant factors when considering the declaration of a dividend on the Company's common stock. The Company cannot guarantee that it will continue to declare dividends, including at the same or similar rates.
The Loss of Key Personnel, Including Talent, Could Disrupt the Management or Operations of the Company's Business and Adversely Affect Its Revenues
The Company's business depends upon the continued efforts, abilities and expertise of its chief executive officer and other key employees and entertainment personalities. The Company believes that the unique combination of skills and experience possessed by its executive officers would be difficult to replace, and that the loss of its executive officers could have a material adverse effect on the Company, including the impairment of the Company's ability to execute its business strategy. Additionally, the Company employs or independently contracts with several entertainment personalities and authors with significant loyal audiences. Entertainment personalities are sometimes significantly responsible for the ranking of a television or radio station and, therefore, the ability of the station to sell advertising, and an author's popularity can be significantly responsible for the success of a particular book. CBS Films produces motion pictures with highly regarded directors, actors and other talent who are important to achieving audience endorsement of its motion pictures. There can be no assurance that these entertainment personalities, authors and talent will remain with or be drawn to the Company or will retain their current audiences or readership. If the Company fails to retain or attract these entertainment personalities, authors and talent or they lose their current audiences or readership, the Company's revenues could be adversely affected.
Regulation of the Outdoor Advertising Industry Could Materially Adversely Affect the Company's Outdoor Business
The outdoor advertising industry is subject to extensive governmental regulation and enforcement at the federal, state and local levels in the U.S. and to national, regional and local restrictions in foreign countries. These regulations and enforcement actions can affect the operation and continuance of operations of advertising displays and include restrictions on the construction, repair, upgrading, height, size and location of outdoor advertising structures and, in some instances, the content of advertising copy that can be displayed on these structures. In addition, outdoor advertising is the subject of targeted state and municipal taxes. Such laws may reduce the Company's expansion opportunities or may increase competitive pressure from others. The Company cannot give any assurance that existing or future laws or regulations will not materially and adversely affect its outdoor business.
Fluctuations in Foreign Exchange Rates Could Have an Adverse Effect on the Company's Results of Operations
Certain of the Company's revenues are earned and expenses are incurred in foreign currencies. The value of these currencies fluctuates relative to the U.S. dollar. As a result, the Company is exposed to exchange rate fluctuations, which could have an adverse effect on its results of operations.
The Company's Liabilities Related to Discontinued Operations and Former Businesses Could Adversely Impact Its Financial Condition
The Company has both recognized and potential liabilities and costs related to discontinued operations and former businesses, certain of which are unrelated to the media business, including leases, guarantees, environmental liabilities, liabilities related to the pensions and medical expenses of retirees, asbestos liabilities, contractual disputes and other pending and threatened litigation. The Company cannot be assured that its reserves are sufficient to cover these liabilities in their entirety or any one of these liabilities when it becomes due or at what point any of these liabilities may come due. Therefore, there can be no assurances that these liabilities will not have a material adverse effect on the Company's financial position, operating performance or cash flow.
The Company Could Be Adversely Affected by Strikes and Other Union Activity
The Company and its suppliers engage the services of writers, directors, actors and other talent, trade employees and others who are subject to collective bargaining agreements. If the Company or its suppliers are unable to renew expiring collective bargaining agreements, it is possible that the affected unions could take action in the form of strikes or work stoppages. Such actions, higher costs in connection with these agreements or a significant labor dispute could adversely affect the Company's television, radio and motion picture businesses by causing delays in the production of the Company's television or radio programming, motion pictures or the Company's outdoor business by disrupting its ability to place advertising on outdoor faces. Depending on their duration, strikes or work stoppages could have an adverse effect on the Company's revenues and operating income.
Political and Economic Risks Associated with the Company's International Businesses Could Harm the Company's Financial Condition or Results of Operations
The Company's businesses operate and have customers worldwide. Inherent risks of doing business in international markets include, among other risks, changes in the economic environment, export restrictions, exchange controls, tariffs and other trade barriers and longer payment cycles. The Company may incur substantial expense as a result of the imposition of new restrictions or changes in the existing economic environment in the regions where it does business. In addition, acts of terrorism or other hostilities, or other future financial, political, economic or other uncertainties, could lead to a reduction in
advertising expenditures, which could materially adversely affect the Company's business, financial condition or results of operations.
NAI, Through Its Voting Control of the Company, Is in a Position to Control Actions that Require Stockholder Approval
NAI, through its beneficial ownership of the Company's Class A Common Stock, has voting control of the Company. Mr. Sumner M. Redstone, the controlling stockholder, chairman of the board of directors and chief executive officer of NAI, serves as Executive Chairman of the Company's Board of Directors, and Ms. Shari Redstone, the president and a director of NAI, serves as Vice Chair of the Company's Board of Directors. In addition, Mr. David R. Andelman is a director of NAI and serves as a director of the Company. NAI is in a position to control the outcome of corporate actions that require stockholder approval, including the election of directors and transactions involving a change of control. Other stockholders are unable to affect the outcome of the corporate actions of the Company for so long as NAI retains voting control.
Sales of Additional Shares of Common Stock by NAI Could Adversely Affect the Stock Price
NAI, through its beneficial ownership of the Company's Class A Common Stock, has voting control of the Company. In connection with meeting requirements under NAI's credit facilities, in October 2009, NAI sold approximately $343 million of the Company's non-voting Class B Common Stock; and, in October 2008, NAI sold approximately $119 million of the Company's non-voting Class B Common Stock. There can be no assurance that NAI at some future time will not sell additional shares of the Company's stock, which could adversely affect the Company's share price.
Also as part of a restructuring of NAI's credit facilities, in May 2009, NAI advised the Company that NAI had pledged substantially all of its assets, including the shares of the Company's voting Class A Common Stock and non-voting Class B Common Stock that NAI owns, to secure those obligations. If NAI defaults on its obligations and the creditors foreclose on the collateral, the creditors or anyone to whom the creditors transfer such shares could convert those shares of voting Class A Common Stock into shares of non-voting Class B Common Stock and sell such shares, which could adversely affect the Company's share price. Additionally, if the creditors foreclose on the pledged shares of voting Class A Common Stock, NAI will no longer own those shares and will therefore no longer have voting control of the Company.
Many Factors May Cause the Stock Price of the Company's Class A Common Stock and Class B Common Stock to Fluctuate
The stock price of Class A Common Stock and Class B Common Stock may fluctuate significantly as a result of many factors. These factors, some or all of which are beyond the Company's control, include:
In addition, the stock market has experienced volatility that often has been unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of particular companies. These broad market and industry fluctuations may
adversely affect the trading prices of the Company's common stock, regardless of the Company's actual operating performance.
Risks Related to the Separation
The Businesses of the Company and Viacom Inc. Will Be Attributable to the Other Company for Certain Regulatory Purposes
So long as the Company and Viacom Inc. are under common control, each company's businesses, as well as the businesses of any other commonly controlled company, will be attributable to the other company for purposes of certain rules and regulations of the FCC and certain rules regarding political campaign contributions in the U.S., among others potentially. The businesses of one company will continue to be attributable to the other company for certain FCC purposes even after the two companies cease to be commonly controlled, if the two companies share common officers, directors, or attributable stockholders. As a result, the businesses and conduct of Viacom Inc. may have the effect of limiting and affecting the activities, strategic business alternatives and business terms available to the Company.
The Separation Agreement Prohibits the Company from Engaging in Certain Types of Businesses
Under the terms of the Separation Agreement entered into between the Company and Viacom Inc. in connection with the Separation, the Company may not make acquisitions, enter into agreements or accept or agree to any condition that purports to bind Viacom Inc. or subjects Viacom Inc. to restrictions it is not otherwise subject to by legal order without Viacom Inc.'s consent. These restrictions could limit and affect the activities, strategic business alternatives and business terms available to the Company.
In Connection with the Separation, Each Company Will Rely on the Other Company's Performance Under Various Agreements Between the Companies
In connection with the Separation, the Company and Viacom Inc. entered into various agreements, including the Separation Agreement, a tax matters agreement dated December 30, 2005, which is filed as an exhibit to this report, effective as of the Separation (the "Tax Matters Agreement") and certain related party arrangements pursuant to which the Company and Viacom Inc. will provide services and products to each other from and after the Separation. The Separation Agreement sets forth the allocation of assets, liabilities, rights and obligations of the Company and Viacom Inc. following the Separation, and includes indemnification obligations for such liabilities and obligations. In addition, pursuant to the Tax Matters Agreement, certain income tax liabilities and related responsibilities are allocated between, and indemnification obligations are assumed by, each of the Company and New Viacom. Each company will rely on the other to satisfy its performance and payment obligations under these agreements. Certain of the liabilities to be assumed or indemnified by the Company or Viacom Inc. under these agreements are legal or contractual liabilities of the other company. If Viacom Inc. were to breach or be unable to satisfy its material obligations under these agreements, including a failure to satisfy its indemnification obligations, the Company could suffer operational difficulties or significant losses.
Certain Members of Management, Directors and Stockholders May Face Actual or Potential Conflicts of Interest
The management and directors of the Company may own both CBS Corp. common stock and Viacom Inc. common stock, and both the Company and Viacom Inc. are controlled by NAI. Mr. Redstone, the controlling stockholder, chairman of the board of directors and chief executive officer of NAI, serves as Executive Chairman of the Company's Board of Directors and executive chairman of Viacom Inc.'s board of directors. Ms. Redstone, the president and a director of NAI, serves as Vice Chair of the Board of Directors of each of the Company and Viacom Inc. Mr. David R. Andelman is a director of NAI and serves as a director of the Company. Mr. Frederic V. Salerno is a director of Viacom Inc. and serves as a
director of the Company. This ownership overlap and these common directors could create, or appear to create, potential conflicts of interest when the Company's and Viacom Inc.'s management, directors and controlling stockholder face decisions that could have different implications for the Company and Viacom Inc. For example, potential conflicts of interest could arise in connection with the resolution of any dispute between the Company and Viacom Inc. regarding the terms of the agreements governing the Separation and the relationship between the Company and Viacom Inc. thereafter. These agreements include, among others, the Separation Agreement, the Tax Matters Agreement and any commercial agreements between the parties or their affiliates. On occasion, the Company and Viacom Inc. may compete with each other in various commercial enterprises. Potential conflicts of interest could also arise if the Company and Viacom Inc. enter into any commercial arrangements with each other in the future. Each of Mr. Redstone and Ms. Redstone may also face conflicts of interest with regard to the allocation of his or her time between the Company and Viacom Inc. CBS Corp.'s certificate of incorporation contains provisions related to corporate opportunities that may be of interest to both the Company and Viacom Inc. CBS Corp.'s certificate of incorporation provides that in the event that a director, officer or controlling stockholder of the Company who is also a director, officer or controlling stockholder of Viacom Inc. acquires knowledge of a potential corporate opportunity for both the Company and Viacom Inc., such director, officer or controlling stockholder may present such opportunity to the Company or Viacom Inc. or both, as such director, officer or controlling stockholder deems appropriate in his or her sole discretion, and that by doing so such person will have satisfied his or her fiduciary duties to the Company and its stockholders. In addition, CBS Corp.'s certificate of incorporation provides that the Company renounces any interest in any such opportunity presented to Viacom Inc. These provisions create the possibility that a corporate opportunity of one of such companies may be used for the benefit of the other company.
The Company maintains its world headquarters at 51 West 52nd Street, New York, New York, where it owns a building containing approximately 900,000 square feet of space, 831,000 square feet of which is office space. The Company occupies approximately 276,000 square feet of the office space and leases the balance to third parties. The Company owns the CBS Broadcast Center complex located on approximately 3.7 acres at 524 West 57th Street, New York, New York, which consists of approximately 860,000 square feet of office and studio space. The Company also owns two studio facilities in California: (a) the CBS Studio Center at 4024 Radford Avenue, Studio City, California, located on approximately 40 acres, and (b) CBS Television City at 7800 Beverly Boulevard, Los Angeles, California, located on approximately 25 acres. Showtime Networks occupies approximately 230,000 square feet at 1633 Broadway, New York, New York under a lease which expires May 31, 2010. Showtime Networks has entered into a lease for approximately 200,000 square feet of this space, which lease commences on June 1, 2010 and runs to 2026. Simon & Schuster leases approximately 290,000 square feet of office space at 1230 Avenue of the Americas, New York, New York, which lease runs to 2019. As part of the CNET acquisition, the Company acquired a lease for approximately 400,000 square feet of space at 28 East 28th Street (also known as 63 Madison Avenue), New York, New York, approximately 56,000 square feet of which is occupied by CBS Interactive and the Company subleases the balance to third parties. This lease expires in 2019. Also as part of the CNET acquisition, the Company acquired CNET's headquarters lease for approximately 280,000 square feet of space at 235 2nd Street, San Francisco, California. This lease runs through 2016. The Company and its subsidiaries also own and lease office, studio and warehouse space, broadcast, antenna and satellite transmission facilities and outdoor advertising properties throughout the U.S., Canada and several countries around the world for its businesses. The Company considers its properties adequate for its present needs.
Securities and Derivative Actions. On December 12, 2008, the City of Pontiac General Employees' Retirement System filed a self-styled class action complaint in the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York against the Company and its Chief Executive Officer, Chief Financial Officer, Chief Accounting Officer, and Treasurer, alleging violations of federal securities law. The complaint, which was filed on behalf of a putative class of purchasers of the Company's common stock between February 26, 2008 and October 10, 2008 (the "Class Period"), alleges that, among other things, the Company's failure to timely write down the value of certain assets caused the Company's reported operating results during the Class Period to be materially inflated. The plaintiffs seek unspecified compensatory damages. On February 11, 2009, a motion was filed in the case on behalf of The City of Omaha, Nebraska Civilian Employees' Retirement System, and The City of Omaha Police and Fire Retirement System (collectively, the "Omaha Funds") seeking to appoint the Omaha Funds as the lead plaintiffs in this case; on March 5, 2009, the court granted that motion. On May 4, 2009, the plaintiffs filed an Amended Complaint, which removes the Treasurer as a defendant and adds the Executive Chairman. On July 13, 2009, the defendants filed a motion to dismiss this action, which is pending. The Company believes that the plaintiffs' claims are without merit and intends to vigorously defend itself in the litigation.
On October 2, 2009, a shareholder derivative complaint, Hatcher v. Moonves, et al., was filed in the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York naming the Company, as a nominal defendant, members of its board of directors and its Chief Executive Officer, Chief Financial Officer and Chief Accounting Officer as defendants. The complaint alleges that the defendants breached fiduciary duties by failing to timely write down the value of certain of the Company's assets and relates to the same or similar allegations in the Omaha Funds case. The complaint seeks, among other things, unspecified compensatory damages, restitution from the defendants with respect to compensation, benefits and profits obtained and the institution of certain reforms to the Company's internal control functions. On December 11, 2009, another shareholder derivative complaint, Iron Workers v. Redstone, et al., was filed in the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York naming the same defendants as the Hatcher action, and making similar claims and demands. On December 28, 2009, the Hatcher and Iron Workers actions were consolidated and, on February 16, 2010, the plaintiffs filed a consolidated amended complaint in the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York. The Company intends to ask the court to dismiss the consolidated complaint on various grounds.
On December 22, 2009, another shareholder derivative complaint, Gray v. Redstone, et al., was filed in the Supreme Court, New York County, naming the same defendants as the Hatcher and Iron Workers actions, and making similar claims and demands. The Company intends to ask the court to dismiss the complaint on various grounds.
Claims Related to Former Businesses: Asbestos, Environmental and Other. The Company is a defendant in lawsuits claiming various personal injuries related to asbestos and other materials, which allegedly occurred principally as a result of exposure caused by various products manufactured by Westinghouse, a predecessor, generally prior to the early 1970s. Westinghouse was neither a producer nor a manufacturer of asbestos. The Company is typically named as one of a large number of defendants in both state and federal cases. In the majority of asbestos lawsuits, the plaintiffs have not identified which of the Company's products is the basis of a claim. Claims against the Company in which a product has been identified principally relate to exposures allegedly caused by asbestos-containing insulating material in turbines sold for power-generation, industrial and marine use, or by asbestos containing grades of decorative micarta, a laminate used in commercial ships.
Claims are frequently filed and/or settled in groups, which may make the amount and timing of settlements, and the number of pending claims, subject to significant fluctuation from period to period. The Company does not report as pending those claims on inactive, stayed, deferred or similar dockets which some jurisdictions have established for claimants who allege minimal or no impairment. As of
December 31, 2009, the Company had pending approximately 62,360 asbestos claims, as compared with approximately 68,520 as of December 31, 2008 and 72,120 as of December 31, 2007. During 2009, the Company received approximately 4,200 new claims and closed or moved to an inactive docket approximately 10,370 claims. The Company reports claims as closed when it becomes aware that a dismissal order has been entered by a court or when the Company has reached agreement with the claimants on the material terms of a settlement. Settlement costs depend on the seriousness of the injuries that form the basis of the claim, the quality of evidence supporting the claims and other factors. The Company's total costs for the years 2009 and 2008 for settlement and defense of asbestos claims after insurance recoveries and net of tax benefits were approximately $17.8 million and $15.0 million, respectively. The Company's costs for settlement and defense of asbestos claims may vary year to year as insurance proceeds are not always recovered in the same period as the insured portion of the expenses.
Filings include claims for individuals suffering from mesothelioma, a rare cancer, the risk of which is allegedly increased by exposure to asbestos; lung cancer, a cancer which may be caused by various factors, one of which is alleged to be asbestos exposure; other cancers, and conditions that are substantially less serious, including claims brought on behalf of individuals who are asymptomatic as to an allegedly asbestos-related disease. The predominant number of claims against the Company are non-cancer claims. In a substantial number of the pending claims, the plaintiff has not yet identified the claimed injury. The Company believes that its reserves and insurance are adequate to cover its asbestos liabilities. This belief is based upon many factors and assumptions, including the number of outstanding claims, estimated average cost per claim, the breakdown of claims by disease type, historic claim filings, costs per claim of resolution and the filing of new claims. While the number of asbestos claims filed against the Company has trended down in recent years, it is difficult to predict future asbestos liabilities, as events and circumstances may occur including, among others, the number and types of claims and average cost to resolve such claims, which could affect the Company's estimate of its asbestos liabilities.
The Company from time to time receives claims from federal and state environmental regulatory agencies and other entities asserting that it is or may be liable for environmental cleanup costs and related damages principally relating to historical and predecessor operations of the Company. In addition, the Company from time to time receives personal injury claims including toxic tort and product liability claims (other than asbestos) arising from historical operations of the Company and its predecessors.
General. On an ongoing basis, the Company defends itself in numerous lawsuits and proceedings and responds to various investigations and inquiries from federal, state and local authorities (collectively, "litigation"). Litigation is inherently uncertain and always difficult to predict. However, based on its understanding and evaluation of the relevant facts and circumstances, the Company believes that the above-described legal matters and other litigation to which it is a party are not likely, in the aggregate, to have a material adverse effect on its results of operations, financial position or cash flows. Under the Separation Agreement between the Company and Viacom Inc., the Company and Viacom Inc. have agreed to defend and indemnify the other in certain litigation in which the Company and/or Viacom Inc. is named.
EXECUTIVE OFFICERS OF THE COMPANY
Set forth below is certain information concerning the executive officers of the Company as of February 20, 2010.
None of the executive officers of the Company is related to any other executive officer or director by blood, marriage or adoption except that Shari Redstone, Vice Chair of the Board of Directors of the Company, is the daughter of Sumner M. Redstone. The separation of former Viacom Inc. ("Former Viacom") into two publicly traded entities, CBS Corporation and new Viacom Inc., was completed on December 31, 2005 (the "Separation").
Mr. Redstone is the Company's Founder and has been Executive Chairman of the Board of the Company since the Separation. He was Chairman of the Board of Former Viacom from 1987 until the Separation and served as Chief Executive Officer of Former Viacom since 1996 through the Separation. Mr. Redstone has also served as Chairman of the Board of NAI since 1986 and Chief Executive Officer of NAI since 1967. He served as President of NAI from 1967 through 1999. Mr. Redstone served as the first Chairman of the Board of the National Association of Theatre Owners and is currently a member of its Executive Committee. Mr. Redstone has lectured at a variety of universities, including Harvard Law School, Brandeis University, and in 1982 joined the faculty of the Boston University School of Law. Mr. Redstone graduated from Harvard University in 1944 and received a LL.B. from Harvard University School of Law in 1947. Upon graduation, Mr. Redstone served as Law Secretary with the United States Court of Appeals and then as a Special Assistant to the United States Attorney General. Mr. Redstone served in the Military Intelligence Division during World War II. While a student at Harvard, he was selected to join a special intelligence group whose mission was to break Japan's high-level military and diplomatic codes. Mr. Redstone received, among other honors, two commendations from the Military Intelligence Division in recognition of his service, contribution and devotion to duty. He is also a recipient of the Army Commendation Award. Mr. Redstone also serves as Executive Chairman of the Board of Directors and Founder of Viacom Inc.
Mr. Moonves has been President and Chief Executive Officer and a Director of the Company since the Separation. Previously, Mr. Moonves served as Co-President and Co-Chief Operating Officer of Former Viacom since June 2004. Prior to that, Mr. Moonves served as Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of CBS since 2003 and as its President and Chief Executive Officer since 1998. Mr. Moonves joined former CBS Corporation in 1995 as President, CBS Entertainment. Prior to that, Mr. Moonves was President of Warner Bros. Television since July 1993.
Mr. Ambrosio has been Executive Vice President, Human Resources and Administration of the Company since the Separation. Previously, he served as Co-Executive Vice President, Human Resources of Former Viacom since September 2005 and as Senior Vice President, Human Resources and
Administration of the CBS, Infinity and Viacom Outdoor businesses since 2000. Prior to that, Mr. Ambrosio served as Vice President, Corporate Human Resources of the former CBS Corporation from 1999 to 2000, as Vice President, Benefits of the former CBS Corporation from 1995 to November 1999 and as Director, Personnel of the former CBS Corporation in 1995. He joined the former CBS Corporation in 1985 and held various positions in the human resources area since that time.
Mr. Briskman has been Executive Vice President and General Counsel of the Company since the Separation. Previously, since September 2005, he served as Executive Vice President and General Counsel of the businesses that comprise the Company after the Separation. Prior to that, Mr. Briskman served as Senior Vice President and General Counsel of Aetna Inc. since April 2004 and as Executive Vice President and General Counsel for CBS Television from 2000 to 2002. From 1993 to 2000, Mr. Briskman served as General Counsel of the former CBS Corporation and its predecessor, Westinghouse Electric Corporation. He joined Westinghouse Electric Corporation in 1975 and became its General Counsel in 1993 after serving as General Counsel of its Group W division beginning in 1983.
Mr. Franks has been Executive Vice President, Planning, Policy and Government Affairs of the Company since the Separation. Previously, he served as Executive Vice President, CBS Television since 2000 and was also Senior Vice President of Former Viacom from 2000 to 2005. Prior to that, Mr. Franks served as Senior Vice President of the former CBS Corporation from 1997 to 2000, as Senior Vice President, Washington of the former CBS Corporation from 1994 to 1997, and as Vice President, Washington of the former CBS Corporation from 1988 to 1994.
Mr. Ianniello has been Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer since August 2009. Prior to that, Mr. Ianniello served as Deputy Chief Financial Officer of the Company since November 2008, as Senior Vice President, Chief Development Officer and Treasurer of the Company since September 2007, as Senior Vice President, Finance and Treasurer of the Company since the Separation, as Senior Vice President and Treasurer of Former Viacom since July 2005, as Vice President, Corporate Development of Former Viacom from 2000 to 2005.
Mr. Jones has been Senior Vice President and General Tax Counsel of the Company since the Separation and for Former Viacom in December 2005. Previously, he served as Vice President of Tax, Assistant Treasurer and Tax Counsel for NBC Universal, Inc. since 2003. Prior to that, he spent 13 years with Ernst & Young in their media & entertainment and transaction advisory services practices. Mr. Jones also served honorably as a non-commissioned officer in the U.S. Army's 75th Ranger Regiment.
Mr. Schwartz has been Executive Vice President and Chief Communications Officer of the Company since the Separation. Previously, he was Executive Vice President of CBS Communications Group, which served the Company's broadcast and local television, syndication, radio and outdoor operations, among others, from 2004 until the Separation. He was Senior Vice President, Communications of CBS from 2000 to 2004, and Senior Vice President, Communications of the former CBS Corporation from 1996 to 2000. Mr. Schwartz served as Vice President, Corporate Communications of Westinghouse Broadcasting from 1995 to 1996. Prior to that, Mr. Schwartz served as Vice President, Communications for Westinghouse Broadcasting's Group W Television Stations from 1989 to 1995. Mr. Schwartz joined Westinghouse Broadcasting in 1981.
Ms. Straka has been Senior Vice President, Deputy General Counsel and Secretary of the Company since the Separation. Prior to that, Ms. Straka served as Vice President and Associate General Counsel and Co-Head of the Corporate, Transactions and Securities practice group in the corporate law department of Former Viacom. Prior to joining the Former Viacom corporate law department in February 2001, Ms. Straka served as Senior Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary of Infinity Broadcasting Corporation, then a majority-owned public subsidiary of Former Viacom, from May 2000. Ms. Straka was Vice President, Deputy General Counsel and Secretary of the former CBS Corporation and its predecessor, Westinghouse Electric Corporation, since 1992 and up to the time of the May 2000 merger of Former Viacom and the former CBS Corporation.
CBS Corporation (the "Company" or "CBS Corp.") voting Class A Common Stock and CBS Corporation non-voting Class B Common Stock are listed and traded on the New York Stock Exchange ("NYSE") under the symbols "CBS.A" and "CBS", respectively.
The following table sets forth, for the calendar periods indicated, the per share range of high and low sales prices for CBS Corporation's Class A and Class B Common Stock, as reported on the NYSE.
On February 23, 2010, the Company announced a quarterly cash dividend of $.05 per share on its Class A and Class B Common Stock, payable on April 1, 2010. The Company declared a quarterly cash dividend on its Class A and Class B Common Stock during each of the four quarters of 2009 and 2008, for a total of $135.8 million and $725.9 million, respectively. CBS Corp. currently expects to continue to pay a regular cash dividend to its stockholders.
During 2009, the Company did not purchase any shares under its publicly announced share purchase programs which have remaining authorization of $649.4 million.
As of February 15, 2010, there were approximately 2,260 record holders of CBS Corp. Class A Common Stock and approximately 33,484 record holders of CBS Corp. Class B Common Stock.
Information required by this item is also contained in the CBS Corp. Proxy Statement for the Company's 2010 Annual Meeting of Stockholders under the heading "Equity Compensation Plan Information," which information is incorporated herein by reference.
The following graph compares the cumulative total stockholder return on CBS Corp. Class A and Class B Common Stock with the cumulative total return on the companies listed in the Standard & Poor's 500 Stock Index ("S&P 500") and a Peer Group of companies identified below.
The performance graph assumes $100 invested on December 31, 2004 in each of the Class A and Class B Common Stock of CBS Corp., the S&P 500 and the Peer Group identified below including reinvestment of dividends, through the calendar year ended December 31, 2009.
Total Cumulative Stockholder Return
CBS CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
Management's discussion and analysis of the results of operations and financial condition of CBS Corporation (together with its consolidated subsidiaries, unless the context otherwise requires, the "Company" or "CBS Corp.") should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and related notes. Descriptions of all documents incorporated by reference herein or included as exhibits hereto are qualified in their entirety by reference to the full text of such documents so incorporated or included. Please see Item 1A. "Risk Factors" in Part I of this report for the Cautionary Statement Concerning Forward-Looking Statements.
For 2009, CBS Corp. reported revenues of $13.01 billion, down 7% from $13.95 billion in 2008 primarily driven by lower local advertising revenues, including lower political advertising. Advertising sales during 2009 continued to be impacted by softness in the worldwide advertising marketplace resulting from the economic recession; however, advertising comparisons improved during the latter part of the year. For the year, advertising revenues decreased 12% while fourth quarter was down only 1%. Revenues for 2009 also benefited from increased domestic syndication availabilities over 2008 and growth in affiliate and subscription fees, reflecting subscriber growth, rate increases, and higher retransmission revenues.
The Company reported operating income of $1.01 billion for 2009 versus an operating loss of $12.16 billion for 2008 and net earnings of $226.5 million, or $.33 per diluted share, for 2009 versus a net loss of $11.67 billion, or a loss of $17.43 per diluted share, for 2008. Results included pre-tax non-cash impairment charges of $210.0 million ($131.2 million, net of tax), or $.19 per diluted share, in 2009 and $14.18 billion ($12.73 billion, net of tax), or $19.00 per diluted share, in 2008 to reduce the carrying value of goodwill and intangible assets. Operating income and net earnings for 2009 compared to 2008 also reflect lower revenues, as discussed above, and higher investment in content, partially offset by lower employee-related costs and other expenses resulting from cost-savings initiatives, and lower restructuring charges.
The Company generated cash flow from operating activities of $939.4 million for 2009 versus $2.15 billion for 2008 principally reflecting lower revenues, higher investment in content and a $150.0 million reduction to amounts outstanding under the revolving accounts receivable securitization program, partially offset by the impact of cost-savings initiatives and lower cash taxes. Capital expenditures of $261.6 million for 2009 decreased $212.5 million from $474.1 million for 2008.
For 2009, free cash flow was $827.8 million versus $1.67 billion for 2008. Free cash flow, a non-GAAP financial measure, reflects the Company's net cash flow provided by operating activities before increases and decreases to the accounts receivable securitization program and operating cash flow from discontinued operations, and less capital expenditures. See "Reconciliation of Non-GAAP Financial Information" on pages II13 and II-14 for a reconciliation of net cash flow provided by operating activities, the most directly comparable financial measure in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America ("GAAP"), to free cash flow.
In the fourth quarter of 2009, the Company realigned its management structure to more effectively pursue its long-term strategy of investing in content businesses and capitalizing on its strong local presence. As a result, the Company realigned its operating segments. Prior period results have been reclassified to conform to this presentation.
CBS Corp. operates in the following segments:
ENTERTAINMENT: The Entertainment segment consists of CBS Television Network, CBS Television Studios, CBS Studios International, CBS Television Distribution, CBS Films and CBS Interactive. Entertainment revenues are generated primarily from advertising sales, content licensing and distribution, and affiliate and subscription fees. Entertainment contributed 54%, 49% and 47% to consolidated revenues for the years ended December 31, 2009, 2008 and 2007, respectively.
CABLE NETWORKS: The Cable Networks segment consists of Showtime Networks and CBS College Sports Network. Cable Networks revenues are generated primarily from affiliate fees, and content licensing and distribution. Cable Networks contributed 10%, 9% and 8% to consolidated revenues for the years ended December 31, 2009, 2008 and 2007, respectively.
PUBLISHING: The Publishing segment consists of Simon & Schuster's consumer book publishing business with imprints such as Simon & Schuster, Pocket Books, Scribner and Free Press. Publishing contributed 6% to consolidated revenues for each of the years ended December 31, 2009, 2008 and 2007.
LOCAL BROADCASTING: The Local Broadcasting segment consists of CBS Television Stations and CBS Radio, with revenues generated primarily from advertising sales. Local Broadcasting contributed 18%, 21% and 24% to consolidated revenues for the years ended December 31, 2009, 2008 and 2007, respectively.
OUTDOOR: The Outdoor segment, principally through CBS Outdoor, displays advertising on media including billboards, transit shelters, buses, rail systems (in-car, station platforms and terminals), mall kiosks, stadium signage and in retail stores with revenues generated primarily from advertising sales. Outdoor contributed 13% to consolidated revenues for the year ended December 31, 2009 and 16% for each of the years ended December 31, 2008 and 2007.
Consolidated Results of Operations2009 vs. 2008 and 2008 vs. 2007
The following tables present the Company's consolidated revenues by type for each of the years ended December 31, 2009, 2008 and 2007.
Advertising sales decreased 12% to $8.17 billion in 2009 from $9.24 billion in 2008 principally reflecting softness in the advertising marketplace resulting from the weak economic environment, the unfavorable impact of foreign exchange rate changes and lower political advertising sales, partially offset by the impact of the acquisition of CNET Networks, Inc. ("CNET") in June 2008. For 2009, national television advertising sales decreased 2% and local advertising sales decreased 20%. Advertising trends during 2009 showed improvement each quarter. For 2009, as compared to the same prior-year period, national television advertising sales increased 8% in the fourth quarter and 1% in the third quarter, and declined 6% and 9% in the second and first quarters, respectively; local advertising revenues decreased 8% for the fourth quarter, 20% for the third quarter and 26% for each of the second and first quarters of 2009. In 2010, the Company's advertising revenues will benefit from the telecast of Super Bowl XLIV on the CBS Television Network and higher expected political advertising sales from mid-term political elections. Advertising revenues are affected by the health of the economy and accordingly, the Company's advertising sales growth during 2010 will vary based on the extent of the economic recovery. In 2008, advertising sales decreased 8% to $9.24 billion from $10.06 billion in 2007 reflecting weakness in the television and radio advertising markets, the absence of the 2007 telecast of Super Bowl XLI on the CBS Television Network, lower primetime ratings for the 2007/2008 broadcast season, partly as a result of the Writers Guild of America ("WGA") strike, and the impact of television and radio station divestitures. These decreases were partially offset by the acquisition of CNET and higher political advertising sales due to the 2008 presidential election.
Content licensing and distribution revenues are principally comprised of fees from the licensing of internally produced programming to television and digital mediums as well as from retail merchandising, including home entertainment; fees from the distribution of third party programming; and revenues from the publishing and distribution of consumer books. Content licensing and distribution revenues decreased 1% to $3.12 billion in 2009 from $3.16 billion in 2008 principally reflecting 7% lower publishing revenues due to the soft retail market and the unfavorable impact of foreign exchange rate changes, and 16% lower home entertainment revenues. Syndication revenues increased in 2009 reflecting five major domestic syndication availabilities, Medium, Criminal Minds, Ghost Whisperer, Everybody Hates Chris and Numb3rs and higher international syndication sales, partially offset by the 2008 domestic syndication sale of CSI: NY and the initial impact of a new international syndication arrangement for the CSI: franchise in 2008. Content licensing and distribution revenues increased 23% to $3.16 billion in 2008 from $2.57 billion in 2007 primarily reflecting higher syndication revenues due to the domestic syndication sale of CSI: NY, the impact of a new international syndication arrangement for the CSI: franchise and 16% higher home entertainment revenues, reflecting the mix of available DVD releases. These increases were partially offset by 3% lower publishing revenues.
Affiliate and subscription fees are principally comprised of affiliate fees received from cable television operators, direct broadcast satellite ("DBS") operators, telephone companies ("Telcos") and other distributors of cable program services; retransmission revenues from the carriage of the CBS Television
Network and CBS Television Stations; subscriber fees for online content; and fees received from television stations affiliated with the CBS Television Network. Affiliate and subscription fees increased 13% to $1.46 billion in 2009 from $1.29 billion in 2008 and increased 8% to $1.29 billion in 2008 from $1.19 billion in 2007 principally reflecting growth in subscriptions and rate increases at Showtime Networks and CBS College Sports Network, higher retransmission revenues and the impact of the acquisition of CNET in June 2008.
Other revenues, which include ancillary fees for Entertainment, Cable Networks, Local Broadcasting and Outdoor operations, decreased 1% to $260.5 million in 2009 from $263.5 million in 2008 primarily reflecting the absence of 2008 revenues associated with certain of the Company's former agreements with Westwood One, Inc., which were concluded during the first quarter of 2008, partially offset by the impact of the acquisition of CNET in June 2008. For 2008, other revenues increased 6% to $263.5 million from $249.5 million in 2007 primarily reflecting the impact of the acquisition of CNET partially offset by lower revenues associated with certain of the Company's former agreements with Westwood One, Inc.
The Company generated approximately 14% of its total revenues from international regions in 2009, 16% in 2008 and 12% in 2007. International revenues for 2008 reflected the initial impact of a new international syndication arrangement for the CSI: franchise.
For 2009, operating expenses of $8.70 billion increased 1% from $8.65 billion in 2008 principally reflecting the acquisition of CNET in June 2008 and higher television programming costs partially offset by lower employee-related and other operating costs resulting from cost-savings initiatives, and the impact of foreign exchange rate changes. For 2008, operating expenses of $8.65 billion increased 4% from $8.33 billion in 2007 principally reflecting higher television production costs, the acquisition of CNET and increased outdoor operations expenses partially offset by lower television programming costs.
The table below presents the Company's consolidated operating expenses by type for each of the years ended December 31, 2009, 2008 and 2007.
Programming expenses represented 38% of total operating expenses in 2009 and 2008, and 41% in 2007, and reflect the amortization of acquired rights of programs exhibited on the broadcast and cable networks, and television and radio stations. Programming expenses increased 1% to $3.34 billion in 2009 from $3.29 billion in 2008 reflecting higher television series costs, principally from the impact of the WGA strike which reduced programming costs for the 2007/2008 broadcast season, partially offset by lower costs from more internally produced series airing on the CBS Television Network for the 2009/2010 broadcast season. Programming expenses decreased 3% to $3.29 billion in 2008 from $3.39 billion in 2007 principally reflecting lower sports programming costs from the absence of the 2007 telecast of Super Bowl XLI on the CBS Television Network and lower costs in 2008 due to the impact of the WGA strike, partially offset by higher cable programming costs.
Production expenses represented 30% of total operating expenses in 2009 and 2008, and 28% in 2007, and reflect the costs of internally developed television and theatrical film content, including direct production costs, residuals and participation expenses, and production overhead, as well as television and radio costs, including on-air talent and other production costs. Production expenses increased $9.6 million to $2.58 billion in 2009 from $2.57 billion in 2008 reflecting higher costs associated with higher syndication sales and costs for new television series partially offset by the initial impact of a new international syndication arrangement for the CSI: franchise in 2008, and lower radio talent costs. Production expenses increased 10% to $2.57 billion in 2008 from $2.33 billion in 2007 primarily reflecting higher costs associated with higher syndication sales, principally for the CSI: series, partially offset by lower costs due to the impact of the WGA strike, which resulted in fewer episodes and pilots produced in 2008, and the cancellation of certain television series.
Outdoor operations expenses represented 13% of total operating expenses in 2009, 15% in 2008 and 14% in 2007, and reflect transit, billboard lease, maintenance, posting and rotation expenses. Outdoor operations expenses decreased 8% to $1.17 billion in 2009 from $1.27 billion in 2008 primarily due to the impact of foreign exchange rate changes, lower employee-related costs resulting from restructuring and cost-savings initiatives, and lower billboard lease costs in Europe. Outdoor operations expenses increased 8% to $1.27 billion in 2008 from $1.18 billion in 2007 primarily due to contractual increases in billboard lease and transit costs and the impact of acquisitions.
Publishing operations expenses, which represented 6% of total operating expenses for 2009 and 7% for each of 2008 and 2007, reflect the cost of book sales, royalties and other costs incurred with respect to publishing operations. Publishing operations expenses decreased $1.2 million to $565.3 million in 2009 from $566.5 million in 2008 principally reflecting lower production expenses driven by the decrease in revenues, and lower freight and delivery costs, partially offset by higher royalty expenses. Publishing
operations expenses decreased 4% to $566.5 million in 2008 from $590.1 million in 2007 reflecting lower royalty and production expenses driven by the decrease in revenues, which was largely due to lower sales of the best-selling title The Secret by Rhonda Byrne.
Other operating expenses, which represented 12% of total operating expenses in 2009, 11% in 2008 and 10% in 2007, primarily include distribution expenses incurred with respect to television product, costs associated with digital media, and compensation costs. Other operating expenses increased 11% to $1.05 billion in 2009 from $948.4 million in 2008 primarily reflecting increased costs associated with digital media, including the impact of the acquisition of CNET in June 2008, partially offset by lower employee-related costs due to restructuring and cost-savings initiatives. Other operating expenses increased 14% to $948.4 million in 2008 from $835.0 million in 2007 due to increased costs associated with digital media, including the impact of the acquisition of CNET, and higher television distribution costs.
Selling, General and Administrative Expenses
Selling, general and administrative ("SG&A") expenses, which include expenses incurred for selling and marketing costs, occupancy and back office support, represented 19% of revenues for each of the years 2009, 2008 and 2007. SG&A expenses decreased $120.3 million, or 5%, to $2.49 billion in 2009 from $2.61 billion in 2008, primarily due to lower employee-related costs resulting from restructuring and cost-savings initiatives implemented across the Company's segments, lower selling expenses driven by the revenue decline, lower advertising expenses, the favorable impact from the termination of a real estate lease arrangement and gains on the sale and exchange of certain long-lived assets. These decreases were partially offset by increased pension costs and the impact of the acquisition of CNET. In 2009, pension and postretirement benefits expenses increased $91.0 million from 2008 due to pension plan asset performance in 2008.
For 2008, SG&A expenses decreased $57.4 million, or 2%, to $2.61 billion from $2.67 billion in 2007, primarily reflecting lower costs resulting from cost-savings initiatives, the settlement of an international receivable claim, lower postretirement benefits expenses, and lower expenses due to the divestitures of television and radio stations, partially offset by the impact of acquisitions and higher stock-based compensation expense. In 2008, pension and postretirement benefits expenses decreased $15.2 million from 2007 due to higher actuarial gains related to postretirement plans.
During the year ended December 31, 2009, in a continued effort to reduce its cost structure, the Company recorded restructuring charges of $22.8 million, reflecting $20.8 million of severance costs associated with the elimination of positions and $6.7 million of contract termination and other associated costs, partially offset by the reversal of $4.7 million as a result of changes in estimates of previously established restructuring accruals. During the year ended December 31, 2008, the Company recorded restructuring charges of $136.7 million, which reflected $127.5 million of severance costs and $9.2 million of contract termination and other associated costs. As of December 31, 2009, the Company paid $115.2 million of the severance costs and $4.5 million of the contract termination and other associated costs. The Company expects to substantially utilize these reserves by the end of 2010.
The following tables set forth the 2009 and 2008 activity for the restructuring charges by segment.
The Company performs an annual fair value-based impairment test of goodwill and intangible assets with indefinite lives, primarily comprised of FCC licenses, during the fourth quarter and also between annual tests if an event occurs or if circumstances change that would more likely than not reduce the fair value of a reporting unit or an indefinite-lived intangible asset below its book value.
Based on the 2009 annual impairment test, the estimated fair value of each of the Company's reporting units is greater than its carrying value. The estimated fair value of each reporting unit is computed principally based upon the present value of future cash flows (Discounted Cash Flow Method) and both the traded and transaction values of comparable businesses (Market Comparable Method). The Discounted Cash Flow Method and Market Comparable Method resulted in substantially equal fair values. The Discounted Cash Flow Method is based on the Company's estimated long-range growth rates for the projection period plus the residual value of the business at the end of the projection period. The residual value is estimated based on a perpetual nominal growth rate between 2.0% and 3.5%. The present value of the future cash flows during the projection period and the estimated residual value is discounted using the average of the weighted average cost of capital of comparable entities. These discount rates range from 8.5% to 11%. The individual carrying values of certain reporting units are within 10% of their respective estimated fair values, primarily reflecting the 2008 impairment charge which reduced goodwill to the then current estimated fair value. The aggregate carrying value of goodwill at these reporting units was $5.01 billion at December 31, 2009.
As a result of the Company's annual impairment test of FCC licenses, the Company recorded a pre-tax non-cash impairment charge of $178.3 million at the Local Broadcasting segment to reduce the carrying value of FCC licenses in certain radio markets. This impairment resulted from reductions in
projections for advertising revenues due to a weakened radio advertising marketplace. FCC licenses are tested for impairment at the geographic market level by comparing the fair value of the intangible asset by market with its book value. The estimated fair value of FCC licenses is computed using the Greenfield Discounted Cash Flow Method ("Greenfield Method"), which attempts to isolate the income that is attributable to the license alone. The Greenfield Method is based upon modeling a hypothetical start-up and building it up to a normalized operation that, by design, lacks inherent goodwill and whose other assets have essentially been added as part of the build-up process. In order to estimate the revenues of a start-up operation, the total market advertising revenue trend in the subject market is estimated based on recent industry projections.
Also in 2009, in connection with the sale of certain of its radio stations, the Company recorded a pre-tax non-cash impairment charge of $31.7 million to reduce the carrying value of FCC licenses by $20.7 million and the allocated goodwill by $11.0 million.
During the third quarter of 2008, the Company performed an interim impairment test as a result of its assessment of factors, including the continuation of adverse market conditions, which affected the Company's market value and trading multiples for entities within the Company's industry, as well as the continued economic slowdown which adversely affected the Company's advertising revenues, primarily at the Company's local businesses. As a result of this interim impairment test, the Company recorded a non-cash impairment charge of $14.12 billion to reduce the carrying value of goodwill by $10.99 billion and intangible assets by $3.13 billion. The charge was reflected as a reduction to goodwill at the Entertainment segment of $3.80 billion, the Local Broadcasting segment of $4.34 billion and the Outdoor segment of $2.85 billion as well as a reduction to the carrying value of intangible assets related to FCC licenses at the Local Broadcasting segment of $3.12 billion and franchise agreements at the Outdoor segment of $8.2 million.
Also in 2008, in connection with the sale of certain of its radio stations, the Company recorded a pre-tax non-cash impairment charge of $62.0 million to reduce the carrying value of FCC licenses by $30.4 million and the allocated goodwill by $31.6 million.
Depreciation and Amortization
Depreciation and amortization increased $50.7 million, or 10%, to $582.3 million for 2009 from $531.6 million for 2008 and increased $75.9 million, or 17%, to $531.6 million for 2008 from $455.7 million in 2007, in both cases principally reflecting higher depreciation and amortization associated with fixed assets and intangible assets acquired in June 2008 in connection with CNET and higher depreciation resulting from capital expenditures at Outdoor.
For 2009, interest expense decreased $4.6 million to $542.0 million from $546.6 million in 2008. For 2008, interest expense decreased $24.3 million to $546.6 million from $570.9 million in 2007 principally due to lower interest rates. The Company had $7.00 billion of principal amounts of debt outstanding (including current maturities) at both December 31, 2009 and December 31, 2008, at a weighted average interest rate of 7.2% and 7.1%, respectively.
Interest income decreased $36.2 million to $6.0 million for 2009 from $42.2 million for 2008 and decreased $73.9 million to $42.2 million for 2008 from $116.1 million for 2007, in both cases reflecting lower interest rates and lower average cash balances.
Gain (Loss) on Early Extinguishment of Debt
For 2009, the loss on early extinguishment of debt of $29.8 million reflected a pre-tax loss associated with the repurchase of $978.3 million of the Company's 7.70% senior notes due 2010.
For 2008, the gain on early extinguishment of debt of $8.4 million reflected the pre-tax gain recognized upon the repurchase of $191.8 million of the Company's 7.70% senior notes due 2010.
Other Items, Net
For 2009, "Other items, net" reflected a net loss of $2.6 million principally consisting of foreign exchange gains of $11.1 million, $6.7 million of losses associated with securitizing accounts receivables and a non-cash charge of $7.7 million associated with other-than-temporary declines in the market value of the Company's investments.
For 2008, "Other items, net" of $79.6 million principally consisted of foreign exchange gains of $32.3 million, $15.4 million of losses associated with securitizing accounts receivables, a gain of $129.8 million on the sale of the Company's investment in Sundance Channel, a non-cash charge of $71.1 million associated with other-than-temporary declines in the market value of the Company's investments and a gain of $3.7 million relating to radio station divestitures.
For 2007, "Other items, net" reflected a net loss of $34.0 million principally consisting of foreign exchange gains of $8.0 million, $32.0 million of losses associated with securitizing accounts receivables, a non-cash charge of $24.8 million associated with an other-than-temporary decline in the market value of one of the Company's investments, a net gain of $10.0 million on television and radio station divestitures and gains of $3.9 million on the sale of investments.
(Provision) Benefit for Income Taxes
The provision for income taxes represents federal, state and local, and foreign income taxes on earnings (loss) from continuing operations before income taxes and equity in loss of investee companies. The Company reported an income tax provision of $182.8 million in 2009 versus an income tax benefit of $919.3 million in 2008 and an income tax provision of $821.5 million in 2007, reflecting an effective income tax rate of 41.3% in 2009, 7.3% in 2008 and 38.5% in 2007.
Included in the income tax rate were benefits of $78.8 million in 2009 and $1.45 billion in 2008 associated with the non-cash impairment charges to reduce the carrying value of goodwill and intangible assets. The tax rate also included tax benefits of $47.0 million in 2009, $39.6 million in 2008 and $8.0 million in 2007, from the net impact of tax audit settlements, provisions of $54.7 million in 2008 and $68.5 million in 2007, relating to gains on divestitures, and reductions of deferred tax assets associated with stock-based compensation of $42.6 million in 2009 and $7.2 million in 2008. This reduction reflects the difference between the estimated tax benefit recognized based on the grant date fair value of the stock-based compensation award versus the actual tax benefit realized based on the market value on the date of vest.
For 2010, the Company's annual effective tax rate is expected to be approximately 40%.
Equity in Loss of Investee Companies, Net of Tax
Equity in loss of investee companies, net of tax, was $33.7 million for 2009, $17.6 million for 2008 and $80.7 million for 2007 reflecting the Company's share of the operating results of its equity investments. The net loss in 2007 also reflected non-cash charges of $62.9 million associated with other-than-temporary declines in the market value of the Company's equity investments.
Net Earnings from Discontinued Operations
For the year ended December 31, 2007, net earnings from discontinued operations of $16.2 million principally reflected adjustments to the gain on the 2006 sale of Paramount Parks.
Net Earnings (Loss)
For 2009, the Company reported net earnings of $226.5 million versus a net loss of $11.67 billion in 2008 and net earnings of $1.25 billion in 2007. Comparability of net earnings in 2009 and 2008 was impacted by several large discrete items, including non-cash impairment charges of $210.0 million ($131.2 million, net of tax) in 2009 and $14.18 billion ($12.73 billion, net of tax) in 2008, a gain on the sale of the Company's investment in Sundance Channel of $129.8 million ($79.9 million, net of tax) in 2008 and the net impact of tax audit settlements and reductions of deferred tax assets associated with stock-based compensation of $4.4 million in 2009 and $32.4 million in 2008.
Reconciliation of Non-GAAP Financial Information
Free cash flow is a non-GAAP financial measure. Free cash flow reflects the Company's net cash flow provided by operating activities before increases and decreases to the accounts receivable securitization program and operating cash flow from discontinued operations, and less capital expenditures. The Company's net cash flow provided by operating activities is the most directly comparable GAAP financial measure.
The Company's calculation of free cash flow does not include increases and decreases to the accounts receivable securitization program because the Company does not consider the cash flow from this program to be indicative of the cash generated by the underlying operating performance of the Company. Accordingly, the Company considers its decision to increase or decrease its accounts receivable securitization program a financing decision. Also, the Company's calculation of free cash flow includes capital expenditures since investment in capital expenditures is a use of cash that is directly related to the Company's operations.
Management believes free cash flow provides investors with an important perspective on the cash available to the Company to service debt, make strategic acquisitions and investments, maintain its capital assets, satisfy its tax obligations and fund ongoing operations and working capital needs. As a result, free cash flow is a significant measure of the Company's ability to generate long-term value. It is useful for investors to know whether this ability is being enhanced or degraded as a result of the Company's operating performance. The Company believes the presentation of free cash flow is relevant and useful for investors because it allows investors to evaluate the cash generated from the Company's underlying operations in a manner similar to the method used by management. Free cash flow is one of several components of incentive compensation targets for certain management personnel. In addition, free cash flow is also a primary measure used externally by the Company's investors, analysts and peers in its industry for purposes of valuation and comparing the operating performance of the Company to other companies in its industry.
As free cash flow is not a measure calculated in accordance with GAAP, free cash flow should not be considered in isolation of, or as a substitute for, either net cash flow provided by operating activities as a measure of liquidity or net earnings (loss) as a measure of operating performance. Free cash flow, as the Company calculates it, may not be comparable to similarly titled measures employed by other companies. In addition, free cash flow as a measure of liquidity has certain limitations, and does not necessarily represent funds available for discretionary use and is not necessarily a measure of the Company's ability to fund its cash needs. When comparing free cash flow to net cash flow provided by operating activities, the
most directly comparable GAAP financial measure, users of this financial information should consider the types of events and transactions which are not reflected in free cash flow.
The following table presents a reconciliation of the Company's net cash flow provided by operating activities, the most directly comparable GAAP financial measure, to free cash flow.
Segment Results of OperationsFor the Years Ended December 31, 2009, 2008 and 2007
In the fourth quarter of 2009, the Company realigned its management structure to more effectively pursue its long-term strategy of investing in content businesses and capitalizing on its strong local presence. As a result, the Company realigned its operating segments. Prior period results have been reclassified to conform to this presentation.
The following tables present the Company's revenues, segment operating income (loss) before depreciation and amortization and impairment charges ("Segment OIBDA before Impairment Charges"), operating income (loss), depreciation and amortization and impairment charges by segment, for each of the years ended December 31, 2009, 2008 and 2007. The Company presents Segment OIBDA before Impairment Charges as the primary measure of profit and loss for its operating segments in accordance with Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") guidance for segment reporting. The Company believes the presentation of Segment OIBDA before Impairment Charges is relevant and useful for investors because it allows investors to view segment performance in a manner similar to the primary method used by the Company's management and enhances their ability to understand the Company's operating performance. The reconciliation of Segment OIBDA before Impairment Charges to the Company's consolidated Net earnings (loss) is presented in Note 15 (Reportable Segments) to the consolidated financial statements.
Segment Results of Operations2009 vs. 2008 and 2008 vs. 2007
Entertainment (CBS Television Network, CBS Television Studios, CBS Studios International, CBS Television Distribution, CBS Films and CBS Interactive)
(Contributed 54%, 49% and 47% to consolidated revenues for the years ended December 31, 2009, 2008 and 2007, respectively.)
2009 vs. 2008
For 2009, Entertainment revenues increased 1% to $6.98 billion from $6.88 billion in 2008 primarily reflecting higher content licensing and distribution revenues and the impact of the acquisition of CNET in June 2008 partially offset by lower advertising sales. Revenues from content licensing and distribution increased 1% primarily due to higher domestic syndication sales in 2009, which included the first cycle sales of Medium, Criminal Minds, Ghost Whisperer, Everybody Hates Chris and Numb3rs, compared to 2008, which included the domestic syndication sale of CSI: NY, and higher international syndication sales. These increases were partially offset by the initial impact of a new international syndication arrangement for the CSI: franchise in 2008 and lower home entertainment sales, as higher sales of certain titles in 2009 including Gossip Girl and NCIS were more than offset by prior year sales of Charmed and other library titles. Advertising sales decreased slightly reflecting 2% lower national television advertising sales as a result of softness in the advertising marketplace during the first half of 2009, partially offset by the impact of the acquisition of CNET. CBS Interactive revenues increased 30% to $550.3 million in 2009 from $421.7 million in 2008, as CBS Interactive results for the first half of 2008 did not include $188.8 million of 2008 revenues generated from CNET, which was acquired in June 2008. CBS Interactive revenues also reflected lower display advertising due to the soft advertising marketplace resulting from the weak economic environment.
For 2009, Entertainment reported operating income of $699.9 million compared to an operating loss of $2.91 billion in 2008, which included non-cash impairment charges of $3.80 billion to reduce the carrying value of goodwill. Entertainment OIBDA before impairment charges decreased 14% to $875.9 million in 2009 from $1.02 billion in 2008 primarily due to lower advertising sales, higher investment in programming, including the impact of the WGA strike which reduced programming costs for the 2007/2008 broadcast season, partially offset by higher profits from syndication sales and the absence of $22.9 million of restructuring charges incurred in 2008. Restructuring charges in 2008 reflected severance costs associated
with the elimination of positions and 2009 reflected the reversal of $.6 million due to changes in estimates of previously established restructuring accruals. Entertainment results included stock-based compensation expense of $44.2 million for 2009 and $47.4 million for 2008.
Capital expenditures decreased $53.4 million to $72.4 million in 2009 from $125.8 million in 2008 primarily due to 2008 spending for broadcast facilities and high-definition television upgrades.
License fees for completed television programming in syndication and on cable are recorded as revenues in the period that the products are available for exhibition, which, among other reasons, may cause substantial fluctuations in operating results. Unrecognized revenues attributable to such license agreements were $387.0 million and $600.1 million at December 31, 2009 and 2008, respectively.
2008 vs. 2007
For 2008, Entertainment revenues increased 5% to $6.88 billion from $6.57 billion in 2007 primarily reflecting higher revenues from content licensing and distribution and the impact of the acquisition of CNET partially offset by lower advertising sales. Content licensing and distribution revenues increased 34% principally reflecting higher domestic and international sales of the CSI: series, including the impact of a new international syndication arrangement for the CSI: franchise in 2008. Advertising sales decreased 8% reflecting the absence of the 2007 telecast of Super Bowl XLI on the CBS Television Network and lower primetime ratings during the 2007/2008 broadcast season, partly as a result of the WGA strike which was settled in February 2008, partially offset by the impact of the acquisition of CNET. CBS Interactive revenues increased $255.6 million to $421.7 million in 2008 from $166.1 million in 2007, reflecting the impact of the acquisition of CNET in June 2008 and higher advertising sales.
For 2008, Entertainment reported an operating loss of $2.91 billion, which included non-cash impairment charges of $3.80 billion principally to reduce the carrying value of goodwill, compared with operating income of $959.0 million for 2007. Entertainment OIBDA before impairment charges decreased 3% to $1.02 billion in 2008 from $1.05 billion in 2007 primarily due to restructuring charges of $22.9 million incurred in 2008. Results also reflect lower advertising sales primarily offset by higher profits from syndication sales, principally from the CSI: series, lower sports programming costs associated with the absence of the 2007 telecast of Super Bowl XLI, lower television series costs reflecting the impact of the WGA strike and the impact of the acquisition of CNET. Entertainment results included stock-based compensation expense of $47.4 million for 2008 and $33.0 million for 2007.
During June 2008, the Company completed the acquisition of CNET for $1.8 billion.
Cable Networks (Showtime Networks and CBS College Sports Network)
(Contributed 10%, 9% and 8% to consolidated revenues for the years ended December 31, 2009, 2008 and 2007, respectively.)
2009 vs. 2008
For 2009, Cable Networks revenues increased 7% to $1.35 billion from $1.26 billion in 2008 primarily due to 7% higher affiliate fees reflecting growth in subscriptions and rate increases at Showtime Networks and CBS College Sports Network. At December 31, 2009, Showtime Networks, including Showtime, The Movie Channel and Flix, in the aggregate, had 61.3 million subscriptions, up by 2.6 million, or 4%, from December 31, 2008, reflecting increased DBS and Telco subscriptions partially offset by a decline in cable subscriptions. At December 31, 2009, CBS College Sports Network subscriptions of 34.8 million were up by 9.5 million, or 38%, from December 31, 2008, reflecting increased carriage across all platforms.
For 2009, Cable Networks operating income increased 20% to $437.4 million from $364.3 million for 2008 and OIBDA increased 18% to $461.0 million from $389.5 million for the same prior-year period primarily reflecting higher affiliate fees, partially offset by higher affiliate marketing and advertising costs for new Showtime original series. Cable Networks results included stock-based compensation expense of $6.3 million for 2009 and $8.6 million for 2008.
2008 vs. 2007
For 2008, Cable Networks revenues increased 9% to $1.26 billion from $1.16 billion in 2007 reflecting higher affiliate fees and higher international syndication and home entertainment revenues for Showtime original series. Affiliate fees increased 6% in 2008 primarily due to growth in subscriptions and rate increases at Showtime Networks and CBS College Sports Network. At December 31, 2008, Showtime Networks, in the aggregate, had 58.7 million subscriptions, up by 3.9 million, or 7%, from December 31, 2007, reflecting increased cable and Telco subscriptions. CBS College Sports Network subscriptions of 25.3 million at December 31, 2008 were up by 3.9 million, or 18%, from December 31, 2007, reflecting growth in cable subscriptions.
For 2008, Cable Networks operating income increased 21% to $364.3 million from $300.5 million in 2007 and OIBDA increased 19% to $389.5 million from $326.3 million for 2007, primarily due to higher affiliate fees, partially offset by higher theatrical programming costs and restructuring charges of $2.9 million incurred in 2008. The restructuring charges in 2008 reflected severance costs associated with
the elimination of positions. Cable Networks results included stock-based compensation expense of $8.6 million for 2008 and $6.6 million for 2007.
Publishing (Simon & Schuster)
(Contributed 6% to consolidated revenues for each of the years ended December 31, 2009, 2008 and 2007.)
2009 vs. 2008
For 2009, Publishing revenues decreased 7% to $793.5 million from $857.7 million in 2008, principally reflecting a soft retail market and the unfavorable impact of foreign exchange rate changes partially offset by growth of $16.1 million in digital sales of Publishing content. In constant dollars, Publishing revenues decreased 6% from 2008. Best-selling titles in 2009 included Arguing with Idiots by Glenn Beck and Kevin Balfe and Under the Dome by Stephen King.
For 2009, Publishing operating income decreased 46% to $42.5 million from $78.7 million in 2008 and OIBDA decreased 43% to $50.2 million from $88.2 million in 2008 primarily driven by the revenue decline and higher royalty expenses, partially offset by lower production and delivery costs resulting from the revenue decrease, and lower selling, advertising and employee-related costs due to restructuring and cost-savings initiatives. Restructuring charges of $3.8 million in 2009 reflected severance costs associated with the elimination of positions. Publishing results included stock-based compensation expense of $3.5 million for 2009 and $4.2 million for 2008.
2008 vs. 2007
For 2008, Publishing revenues decreased 3% to $857.7 million from $886.1 million for 2007, principally reflecting lower book sales due to difficult comparisons with 2007, which included the release of the best-seller The Secret by Rhonda Byrne. Best-selling titles in 2008 included YOU: Being Beautiful by Michael F. Roizen and Mehmet C. Oz, The Purpose of Christmas by Rick Warren, Duma Key by Stephen King and The War Within by Bob Woodward.
For 2008, Publishing operating income decreased 11% to $78.7 million from $88.1 million in 2007 and OIBDA decreased 9% to $88.2 million from $97.2 million in 2007. These decreases reflected the revenue decline, restructuring charges of $4.2 million incurred during 2008 and higher bad debt expense, partially offset by lower royalty expenses and production costs, resulting from the revenue decline and the mix of titles, and a decline in employee-related expenses. The restructuring charges in 2008 principally consisted
of severance costs associated with the elimination of positions. Publishing results included stock-based compensation expense of $4.2 million for 2008 and $3.5 million for 2007.
Local Broadcasting (CBS Television Stations and CBS Radio)
(Contributed 18%, 21% and 24% to consolidated revenues for the years ended December 31, 2009, 2008 and 2007, respectively.)
2009 vs. 2008
For 2009, Local Broadcasting revenues decreased 20% to $2.36 billion from $2.95 billion for 2008 primarily reflecting lower advertising sales from the impact of the economic recession and lower political advertising sales. Revenues for CBS Television Stations decreased 20% to $1.14 billion for 2009 from $1.41 billion for 2008, reflecting lower non-political advertising during the first three quarters of 2009 and lower political advertising sales for the year due to the 2008 presidential election, partially offset by higher non-political advertising sales in the fourth quarter of 2009. CBS Radio revenues decreased 21% to $1.22 billion for 2009 from $1.54 billion for 2008 and revenues from the ten largest radio markets decreased 17%, reflecting softness in the advertising marketplace resulting from the weak economic environment, lower political advertising sales and the impact of station divestitures.
For 2009, Local Broadcasting reported operating income of $212.4 million versus an operating loss of $6.81 billion for 2008. Included in 2009 operating income were non-cash impairment charges of $210.0 million to reduce the carrying value of FCC licenses in certain radio markets and to reduce the carrying value of the allocated goodwill in connection with the sale of certain radio stations. Included in the 2008 operating loss were non-cash impairment charges of $7.53 billion principally to reduce the carrying value of goodwill and intangible assets. Local Broadcasting OIBDA before impairment charges decreased 37% to $512.9 million for 2009 from $820.0 million for 2008 primarily due to the decrease in revenues partially offset by $89.7 million lower restructuring charges in 2009, lower talent, employee-related, marketing and promotion costs resulting from restructuring and cost-savings initiatives, and lower selling expenses driven by the revenue decline. Local Broadcasting results for 2009 also benefited from gains of $40.3 million from the sale and exchange of certain long-lived assets. Restructuring charges of $2.3 million in 2009 reflected $4.7 million of contract termination costs related to exiting a broadcasting equipment lease upon completion of the digital conversion, partially offset by the reversal of $2.4 million
as a result of changes in estimates of previously established restructuring accruals. Local Broadcasting results included stock-based compensation expense of $20.7 million for 2009 and $27.0 million for 2008.
Capital expenditures decreased $39.2 million, or 36%, to $70.4 million for 2009 from $109.6 million for 2008 principally reflecting 2008 spending associated with the relocation of local broadcasting facilities and high-definition television upgrades.
2008 vs. 2007
For 2008, Local Broadcasting revenues decreased 14% to $2.95 billion from $3.45 billion in 2007 primarily due to lower advertising sales. Revenues for CBS Television Stations decreased 17% to $1.41 billion for 2008 from $1.70 billion for 2007, reflecting the declining advertising marketplace and the absence of the 2007 telecast of Super Bowl XLI on CBS, partially offset by higher political advertising sales. CBS Radio revenues decreased 12% to $1.54 billion for 2008 from $1.75 billion for 2007, reflecting the declining advertising marketplace and the impact of radio station divestitures. The station divestitures negatively impacted the CBS Radio revenue comparison by 1% in 2008.
For 2008, Local Broadcasting reported an operating loss of $6.81 billion, which included non-cash impairment charges of $7.53 billion principally to reduce the carrying value of goodwill and intangible assets, versus operating income of $1.13 billion for 2007. Local Broadcasting OIBDA before impairment charges decreased 34% to $820.0 million for 2008 from $1.24 billion for 2007 primarily due to lower advertising sales, restructuring charges of $92.0 million incurred during 2008, and the impact of radio station divestitures. These decreases were partially offset by lower talent, employee-related, marketing and promotion costs resulting from restructuring and cost-savings initiatives implemented during 2008, as well as lower sports programming costs. The restructuring charges in 2008 principally reflected severance costs associated with the elimination of positions, contract termination and other associated costs. Local Broadcasting results included stock-based compensation expense of $27.0 million for 2008 and $25.9 million for 2007.
On September 30, 2009, the Company completed the sale of four of its owned radio stations in Portland, Oregon to Alpha Broadcasting for $40.0 million. In connection with the sale, the Company recorded a pre-tax non-cash impairment charge of $31.7 million to reduce the carrying value of intangible assets and the allocated goodwill.
On April 1, 2009, the Company completed a transaction with Clear Channel Communications, Inc. for the swap of five of its mid-size market stations in Baltimore, Portland, Sacramento and Seattle, for two radio stations in Houston, a top 10 radio market. On March 6, 2009, the Company completed the sale of three of its owned radio stations in Denver to Wilks Broadcasting for $19.5 million. During 2008, in connection with these two transactions, the Company recorded a pre-tax non-cash impairment charge of $62.0 million to reduce the carrying value of intangible assets and the allocated goodwill.
On January 10, 2008, the Company completed the sale of seven of its owned television stations in Austin, Salt Lake City, Providence and West Palm Beach to Cerberus Capital Management, L.P. for $185.0 million.
On April 16, 2007, the Company completed an exchange agreement with Liberty Media Corporation under which the stock of a subsidiary of the Company which held CBS Corp.'s Green Bay television station and its satellite television station, valued at $64.0 million, and $169.8 million in cash was exchanged for the 7.6 million shares of CBS Corp. Class B Common Stock held by Liberty Media Corporation.
During 2007, the Company completed the sales of 34 of its owned radio stations in nine of its smaller markets for $543.4 million.
Outdoor (CBS Outdoor)
(Contributed 13% to consolidated revenues for the year ended December 31, 2009 and 16% for each of the years ended December 31, 2008 and 2007.)
2009 vs. 2008
For 2009, Outdoor revenues decreased 21% to $1.72 billion from $2.17 billion for 2008, due to lower advertising sales resulting from a weak advertising marketplace worldwide and the unfavorable impact of foreign exchange rate changes. Revenues for the Americas (comprised of North America and South America) decreased 16% primarily due to revenue declines of 16% in the U.S. billboards business, 17% in the U.S. displays business and the impact of foreign exchange rate changes. In constant dollars, revenues for the Americas decreased 15% from 2008. Revenues for Europe and Asia decreased 27% driven by lower advertising sales due to a weak advertising marketplace and the unfavorable impact of foreign exchange rate changes. In constant dollars, revenues for Europe and Asia decreased 20% from 2008. The unfavorable impact of foreign exchange rate changes on total Outdoor revenues was approximately $97 million for 2009. Approximately 47% and 50% of Outdoor revenues were generated from regions outside the U.S. for 2009 and 2008, respectively.
For 2009, Outdoor reported an operating loss of $96.9 million versus an operating loss of $2.63 billion for 2008, which included a non-cash impairment charge of $2.86 billion to reduce the carrying value of goodwill and intangible assets. Outdoor OIBDA before impairment charges decreased $298.7 million, or 64%, to $168.7 million for 2009 from $467.4 million for 2008 principally driven by the decline in advertising sales partially offset by lower employee-rel