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  • 10-K (Feb 23, 2010)
  • 10-K (Feb 24, 2009)

 
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CNA Financial 10-K 2010
e10vk
Table of Contents

UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
[Ö] ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE
SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2009
OR
[ ] TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE
SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from                      to                     
Commission File Number 1-5823
CNA FINANCIAL CORPORATION
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
     
Delaware   36-6169860
(State or other jurisdiction of   (I.R.S. Employer
incorporation or organization)   Identification No.)
     
333 S. Wabash    
Chicago, Illinois   60604
(Address of principal executive offices)   (Zip Code)
(312) 822-5000
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
     
Title of each class   Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock   New York Stock Exchange
with a par value   Chicago Stock Exchange
of $2.50 per share    
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes... NoÖ
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15 (d) of the Act. Yes... No Ö
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes Ö No...
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files). Yes... No....
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K. [Ö ]
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
Large accelerated filer.... Accelerated filer Ö Non-accelerated filer (Do not check if a smaller reporting company).... Smaller reporting company....
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes... No Ö
As of February 19, 2010, 269,074,707 shares of common stock were outstanding. The aggregate market value of the common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant as of June 30, 2009 was approximately $412 million based on the closing price of $15.47 per share of the common stock on the New York Stock Exchange on June 30, 2009.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE:
Portions of the CNA Financial Corporation Proxy Statement prepared for the 2010 annual meeting of shareholders, pursuant to Regulation 14A, are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Report.

 


 

         
Item       Page
Number       Number
       
   
 
   
1.     3
   
 
   
1A.     8
   
 
   
1B.     16
   
 
   
2.     16
   
 
   
3.     16
   
 
   
4.     16
   
 
   
       
   
 
   
5.     17
   
 
   
6.     19
   
 
   
7.     20
   
 
   
7A.     56
   
 
   
8.     61
   
 
   
9.     144
   
 
   
9A.     144
   
 
   
9B.     144
   
 
   
       
   
 
   
10.     145
   
 
   
11.     146
   
 
   
12.     146
   
 
   
13.     146
   
 
   
14.     146
   
 
   
       
   
 
   
15.     147
 
 

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PART I
ITEM 1. BUSINESS
CNA Financial Corporation (CNAF) was incorporated in 1967 and is an insurance holding company. Collectively, CNAF and its subsidiaries are referred to as CNA or the Company. References to “CNA,” “the Company,” “we,” “our,” “us” or like terms refer to the business of CNAF and its subsidiaries. Our property and casualty insurance operations are conducted by Continental Casualty Company (CCC), incorporated in 1897, and The Continental Insurance Company (CIC), organized in 1853, and affiliates. Loews Corporation (Loews) owned approximately 90% of our outstanding common stock as of December 31, 2009.
Our ongoing core businesses serve a wide variety of customers, including small, medium and large businesses, associations, professionals, and groups with a broad range of insurance and risk management products and services.
Our insurance products primarily include commercial property and casualty coverages. Our services include risk management, information services, warranty and claims administration. Our products and services are marketed through independent agents, brokers and managing general agents.
Our core business, commercial property and casualty insurance operations, is reported in two business segments: CNA Specialty and CNA Commercial. Our non-core operations are managed in two business segments: Life & Group Non-Core and Corporate & Other Non-Core. Each segment is managed separately due to differences in their product lines and markets. Discussions of each segment including the products offered, the customers served, the distribution channels used and competition are set forth in the Management’s Discussion and Analysis (MD&A) included under Item 7 and in Note N of the Consolidated Financial Statements included under Item 8.
Competition
The property and casualty insurance industry is highly competitive both as to rate and service. We compete with stock and mutual insurance companies, reinsurance companies and other entities for both producers and customers. We must continuously allocate resources to refine and improve our insurance products and services.
Rates among insurers vary according to the types of insurers and methods of operation. We compete for business not only on the basis of rate, but also on the basis of availability of coverage desired by customers, ratings and quality of service, including claim adjustment services.
There are approximately 2,400 individual companies that sell property and casualty insurance in the United States. Based on 2008 statutory net written premiums, we are the seventh largest commercial insurance writer and the thirteenth largest property and casualty insurance organization in the United States.
Regulation
The insurance industry is subject to comprehensive and detailed regulation and supervision throughout the United States. Each state has established supervisory agencies with broad administrative powers relative to licensing insurers and agents, approving policy forms, establishing reserve requirements, prescribing the form and content of statutory financial reports, and regulating capital adequacy and the type, quality and amount of investments permitted. Such regulatory powers also extend to premium rate regulations, which require that rates not be excessive, inadequate or unfairly discriminatory. In addition to regulation of dividends by insurance subsidiaries, intercompany transfers of assets may be subject to prior notice or approval by the state insurance regulators, depending on the size of such transfers and payments in relation to the financial position of the insurance affiliates making the transfer or payment.
Insurers are also required by the states to provide coverage to insureds who would not otherwise be considered eligible by the insurers. Each state dictates the types of insurance and the level of coverage that must be provided to such involuntary risks. Our share of these involuntary risks is mandatory and generally a function of our respective share of the voluntary market by line of insurance in each state.
Further, insurance companies are subject to state guaranty fund and other insurance-related assessments. Guaranty fund assessments are levied by the state departments of insurance to cover claims of insolvent insurers. Other insurance-related assessments are generally levied by state agencies to fund various

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organizations including disaster relief funds, rating bureaus, insurance departments, and workers’ compensation second injury funds, or by industry organizations that assist in the statistical analysis and ratemaking process.
Reform of the U.S. tort liability system is another issue facing the insurance industry. Over the last decade, many states have passed some type of tort reform. Even though there has been some tort reform success, new causes of action and theories of damages continue to be proposed in state court actions or by federal or state legislatures that continue to expand liability for insurers and their policyholders. For example, some state legislatures are considering legislation addressing direct actions against insurers related to bad faith claims. As a result of this unpredictability in the law, insurance underwriting and rating are expected to continue to be difficult in commercial lines, professional liability and some specialty coverages.
Although the federal government and its regulatory agencies do not directly regulate the business of insurance, federal legislative and regulatory initiatives can impact the insurance industry in a variety of ways. These initiatives and legislation include tort reform proposals; proposals addressing natural catastrophe exposures; terrorism risk mechanisms; federal financial services reforms; federal regulation of insurance; various tax proposals affecting insurance companies; and possible regulatory limitations, impositions and restrictions arising from the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008.
Employee Relations
As of December 31, 2009, we had approximately 8,900 employees and have experienced satisfactory labor relations. We have never had work stoppages due to labor disputes.
We have comprehensive benefit plans for substantially all of our employees, including retirement plans, savings plans, disability programs, group life programs and group healthcare programs. See Note J of the Consolidated Financial Statements included under Item 8 for further discussion of our benefit plans.

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The following table displays the distribution of our direct written premiums by geographic concentration.
Direct Written Premiums
                         
    Percent of Total
Years ended December 31   2009   2008   2007
                         
California
    9.1 %     9.2 %     9.5 %
New York
    6.8       6.9       7.0  
Texas
    6.6       6.2       6.1  
Florida
    6.2       6.5       7.5  
Illinois
    3.8       3.8       3.8  
New Jersey
    3.7       3.8       3.7  
Missouri
    3.6       3.1       2.9  
Pennsylvania
    3.2       3.3       3.4  
All other states, countries or political subdivisions (a)
    57.0       57.2       56.1  
 
           
 
                       
Total
    100.0 %     100.0 %     100.0 %
 
           
(a)  
No other individual state, country or political subdivision accounts for more than 3.0% of direct written premiums.
Approximately 7.0%, 7.4% and 6.9% of our direct written premiums were derived from outside of the United States for the years ended December 31, 2009, 2008 and 2007. Premiums from any individual foreign country were not significant.
Property and Casualty Claim and Claim Adjustment Expenses
The following loss reserve development table illustrates the change over time of reserves established for property and casualty claim and claim adjustment expenses at the end of the preceding ten calendar years for our property and casualty insurance companies. The table excludes our life subsidiaries, and as such, the carried reserves will not agree to the Consolidated Financial Statements included under Item 8. The first section shows the reserves as originally reported at the end of the stated year. The second section, reading down, shows the cumulative amounts paid as of the end of successive years with respect to the originally reported reserve liability. The third section, reading down, shows re-estimates of the originally recorded reserves as of the end of each successive year, which is the result of our property and casualty insurance subsidiaries’ expanded awareness of additional facts and circumstances that pertain to the unsettled claims. The last section compares the latest re-estimated reserves to the reserves originally established, and indicates whether the original reserves were adequate or inadequate to cover the estimated costs of unsettled claims.
The loss reserve development table is cumulative and, therefore, ending balances should not be added since the amount at the end of each calendar year includes activity for both the current and prior years. The development amounts in the table below include the impact of commutations, but exclude the impact of the provision for uncollectible reinsurance.

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Schedule of Loss Reserve Development
                                                                                         
Calendar Year Ended   1999 (a)   2000   2001 (b)   2002 (c)   2003   2004   2005   2006   2007   2008   2009
(In millions)                                                                                        
 
                                                                                       
Originally reported gross reserves for unpaid claim and claim adjustment expenses
  $ 26,850     $ 26,510     $ 29,649     $ 25,719     $ 31,284     $ 31,204     $ 30,694     $ 29,459     $ 28,415     $ 27,475     $ 26,712  
Originally reported ceded recoverable
    6,091       7,333       11,703       10,490       13,847       13,682       10,438       8,078       6,945       6,213       5,524  
 
                                           
Originally reported net reserves for unpaid claim and claim adjustment expenses
  $ 20,759     $ 19,177     $ 17,946     $ 15,229     $ 17,437     $ 17,522     $ 20,256     $ 21,381     $ 21,470     $ 21,262     $ 21,188  
 
                                           
 
                                                                                       
Cumulative net paid as of:
                                                                                       
One year later
  $ 6,547     $ 7,686     $ 5,981     $ 5,373     $ 4,382     $ 2,651     $ 3,442     $ 4,436     $ 4,308     $ 3,930     $ -  
Two years later
    11,937       11,992       10,355       8,768       6,104       4,963       7,022       7,676       7,127       -       -  
Three years later
    15,256       15,291       12,954       9,747       7,780       7,825       9,620       9,822       -       -       -  
Four years later
    18,151       17,333       13,244       10,870       10,085       9,914       11,289       -       -       -       -  
Five years later
    19,686       17,775       13,922       12,814       11,834       11,261       -       -       -       -       -  
Six years later
    20,206       18,970       15,493       14,320       12,988       -       -       -       -       -       -  
Seven years later
    21,231       20,297       16,769       15,291       -       -       -       -       -       -       -  
Eight years later
    22,373       21,382       17,668       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -  
Nine years later
    23,276       22,187       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -  
Ten years later
    23,992       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -  
 
                                                                                       
Net reserves re-estimated as of:
                                                                                       
End of initial year
  $ 20,759     $ 19,177     $ 17,946     $ 15,229     $ 17,437     $ 17,522     $ 20,256     $ 21,381     $ 21,470     $ 21,262     $ 21,188  
One year later
    21,163       21,502       17,980       17,650       17,671       18,513       20,588       21,601       21,463       21,021       -  
Two years later
    23,217       21,555       20,533       18,248       19,120       19,044       20,975       21,706       21,259       -       -  
Three years later
    23,081       24,058       21,109       19,814       19,760       19,631       21,408       21,609       -       -       -  
Four years later
    25,590       24,587       22,547       20,384       20,425       20,212       21,432       -       -       -       -  
Five years later
    26,000       25,594       22,983       21,076       21,060       20,301       -       -       -       -       -  
Six years later
    26,625       26,023       23,603       21,769       21,217       -       -       -       -       -       -  
Seven years later
    27,009       26,585       24,267       21,974       -       -       -       -       -       -       -  
Eight years later
    27,541       27,207       24,548       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -  
Nine years later
    28,035       27,510       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -  
Ten years later
    28,352       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -  
 
                                           
Total net (deficiency) redundancy
  $ (7,593 )   $ (8,333 )   $ (6,602 )   $ (6,745 )   $ (3,780 )   $ (2,779 )   $ (1,176 )   $ (228 )   $ 211     $ 241     $ -  
 
                                           
 
                                                                                       
Reconciliation to gross re-estimated reserves:
                                                                                       
Net reserves re-estimated
  $ 28,352     $ 27,510     $ 24,548     $ 21,974     $ 21,217     $ 20,301     $ 21,432     $ 21,609     $ 21,259     $ 21,021     $ -  
Re-estimated ceded recoverable
    10,511       11,277       16,756       16,107       14,468       13,349       10,727       8,444       7,113       6,101       -  
 
                                           
Total gross re-estimated reserves
  $ 38,863     $ 38,787     $ 41,304     $ 38,081     $ 35,685     $ 33,650     $ 32,159     $ 30,053     $ 28,372     $ 27,122     $ -  
 
                                           
 
                                                                                       
Total gross (deficiency) redundancy
  $ (12,013 )   $ (12,277 )   $ (11,655 )   $ (12,362 )   $ (4,401 )   $ (2,446 )   $ (1,465 )   $ (594 )   $ 43     $ 353     $ -  
 
                                           
 
                                                                                       
Net (deficiency) redundancy related to:
                                                                                       
Asbestos claims
  $ (1,655 )   $ (1,590 )   $ (818 )   $ (827 )   $ (177 )   $ (123 )   $ (113 )   $ (112 )   $ (107 )   $ (79 )   $ -  
Environmental claims
    (691 )     (635 )     (288 )     (282 )     (209 )     (209 )     (159 )     (159 )     (159 )     (76 )     -  
 
                                           
Total asbestos and environmental
    (2,346 )     (2,225 )     (1,106 )     (1,109 )     (386 )     (332 )     (272 )     (271 )     (266 )     (155 )     -  
Other claims
    (5,247 )     (6,108 )     (5,496 )     (5,636 )     (3,394 )     (2,447 )     (904 )     43       477       396       -  
 
                                           
Total net (deficiency) redundancy
  $ (7,593 )   $ (8,333 )   $ (6,602 )   $ (6,745 )   $ (3,780 )   $ (2,779 )   $ (1,176 )   $ (228 )   $ 211     $ 241     $ -  
 
                                           

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(a)  
Ceded recoverable includes reserves transferred under retroactive reinsurance agreements of $784 million as of December 31, 1999.
 
(b)  
Effective January 1, 2001, we established a new life insurance company, CNA Group Life Assurance Company (CNAGLA). Further, on January 1, 2001 $1,055 million of reserves were transferred from CCC to CNAGLA.
 
(c)  
Effective October 31, 2002, we sold CNA Reinsurance Company Limited. As a result of the sale, net reserves were reduced by $1,316 million.
Additional information regarding our property and casualty claim and claim adjustment expense reserves and reserve development is set forth in the MD&A included under Item 7 and in Notes A and F of the Consolidated Financial Statements included under Item 8.
Investments
Information on our investments is set forth in the MD&A included under Item 7 and in Notes A, B, C and D of the Consolidated Financial Statements included under Item 8.
Available Information
We file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other documents with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (Exchange Act). The public may read and copy any materials that we file with the SEC at the SEC’s Public Reference Room at 100 F Street, NE, Washington, D.C. 20549. The public may obtain information on the operation of the Public Reference Room by calling the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330. The SEC also maintains an Internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers, including CNA, that file electronically with the SEC. The public can obtain any documents that we file with the SEC at http://www.sec.gov.
We also make available free of charge on or through our internet website (http://www.cna.com) our Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish it to, the SEC. Copies of these reports may also be obtained, free of charge, upon written request to: CNA Financial Corporation, 333 S. Wabash Avenue, Chicago, IL 60604, Attn. Jonathan D. Kantor, Executive Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary.

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ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS
Our business faces many risks. We have described below some of the more significant risks which we face. There may be additional risks that we do not yet know of or that we do not currently perceive to be significant that may also impact our business. Each of the risks and uncertainties described below could lead to events or circumstances that have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, equity, business and insurer financial strength and debt ratings. You should carefully consider and evaluate all of the information included in this Report and any subsequent reports we may file with the SEC or make available to the public before investing in any securities we issue.
We have incurred and may continue to incur significant realized and unrealized investment losses and volatility in net investment income arising from the severe disruption in the capital and credit markets.
Investment returns are an important part of our overall profitability. General economic conditions, changes in financial markets such as fluctuations in interest rates, long term periods of low interest rates, credit conditions and currency, commodity and stock prices, including the short and long-term effects of losses in relation to asset-backed securities, and many other factors beyond our control can adversely affect the value of our investments and the realization of investment income. Further, we invest a portion of our assets in equity securities and limited partnerships which are subject to greater volatility than our fixed income investments. Limited partnership investments generally present greater volatility, higher illiquidity, and greater risk than fixed income investments. As a result of all of these factors, we may not realize an adequate return on our investments, may incur losses on sales of our investments, and may be required to write down the value of our investments. Therefore, our results of operations, equity, business and insurer financial strength and debt ratings could be materially adversely impacted.
Our underwriting results may continue to suffer as a result of the unfavorable global economic conditions.
Overall global economic conditions may continue to be recessionary and highly unfavorable. Although many lines of our business have both direct and indirect exposure to these economic conditions, the exposure is especially high for the lines of business that provide management and professional liability insurance, as well as surety bonds, to businesses engaged in real estate, financial services and professional services. As a result, we have experienced and may continue to experience unanticipated underwriting losses with respect to these lines of business. Additionally, global recessionary conditions have led to decreased insured exposures causing us to experience declines in premium volume. Consequently, our results of operations, equity, business and insurer financial strength and debt ratings could be adversely impacted.
Our valuation of investments and impairment of securities requires significant judgment.
Our investment portfolio is exposed to various risks, such as interest rate, credit, and currency risks, many of which are unpredictable. We exercise significant judgment in analyzing these risks and in validating fair values provided by third parties for securities in our investment portfolio that are not regularly traded. We also exercise significant judgment in determining whether the impairment of particular investments is temporary or other-than-temporary. Securities with exposure to residential and commercial mortgage and other loan collateral can be particularly sensitive to fairly small changes in actual collateral performance and assumptions as to future collateral performance.
During 2008, we incurred significant unrealized losses in our investment portfolio. During 2009, financial markets were volatile and we experienced improvement in our unrealized position. In addition, during 2009 and 2008 we recorded significant other-than-temporary impairment (OTTI) losses primarily in the corporate and other taxable bonds, asset-backed securities and non-redeemable preferred equity securities sectors.
Due to the inherent uncertainties involved with these types of risks and the resulting judgments, we may incur further unrealized losses and conclude that further other-than-temporary write downs of our investments are required. As a result, our results of operations, equity, business and insurer financial strength and debt ratings could be materially adversely impacted. Additional information on our investment portfolio is included in the MD&A under Item 7 and Notes B, C, and D to the Consolidated Financial Statements included under Item 8.

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We are unable to predict the impact on us of governmental efforts and policy changes taken and proposed to be taken in response to the unfavorable economic conditions.
The federal government has implemented various measures, including the establishment of the Troubled Assets Relief Program pursuant to the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008, in an effort to deal with the ongoing economic conditions. In addition, there are numerous proposals for further legislative and regulatory actions at both the federal and state levels, particularly with respect to the financial services industry. Since these new laws and regulations, or other policy changes, could involve critical matters affecting our operations, they may have an impact on our business and our overall financial condition. Due to this significant uncertainty, we are unable to determine whether our actions in response to these governmental efforts will be effective or to predict with any certainty the overall impact these governmental efforts will have on us. As a result, our results of operations, equity, business and insurer financial strength and debt ratings could be materially adversely impacted.
We are subject to extensive federal, state and local governmental regulations that restrict our ability to do business and generate revenues.
The insurance industry is subject to comprehensive and detailed regulation and supervision throughout the United States. Most insurance regulations are designed to protect the interests of our policyholders rather than our investors. Each state in which we do business has established supervisory agencies that regulate the manner in which we do business. Their regulations relate to, among other things, the following:
 
standards of solvency including risk-based capital measurements;
 
 
restrictions on the nature, quality and concentration of investments;
 
 
restrictions on our ability to withdraw from unprofitable lines of insurance or unprofitable market areas;
 
 
the required use of certain methods of accounting and reporting;
 
 
the establishment of reserves for unearned premiums, losses and other purposes;
 
 
potential assessments for funds necessary to settle covered claims against impaired, insolvent or failed private or quasi-governmental insurers;
 
 
licensing of insurers and agents;
 
 
approval of policy forms;
 
 
limitations on the ability of our insurance subsidiaries to pay dividends to us; and
 
 
limitations on the ability to non-renew, cancel or change terms and conditions in policies.
Regulatory powers also extend to premium rate regulations which require that rates not be excessive, inadequate or unfairly discriminatory. The states in which we do business also require us to provide coverage to persons whom we would not otherwise consider eligible. Each state dictates the types of insurance and the level of coverage that must be provided to such involuntary risks. Our share of these involuntary risks is mandatory and generally a function of our respective share of the voluntary market by line of insurance in each state.
Any of these regulations could materially adversely affect our results of operations, equity, business and insurer financial strength and debt ratings.
We are subject to capital adequacy requirements and, if we are unable to maintain or raise sufficient capital to meet these requirements, regulatory agencies may restrict or prohibit us from operating our business.
Insurance companies such as us are subject to risk-based capital standards set by state regulators to help identify companies that merit further regulatory attention. These standards apply specified risk factors to various asset, premium and reserve components of our statutory capital and surplus reported in our statutory basis of accounting financial statements. Current rules require companies to maintain statutory capital and surplus at a specified minimum level determined using the risk-based capital formula. If we do not meet these minimum requirements, state regulators may restrict or prohibit us from operating our business. If we are required to record a material charge against earnings in connection with a change in estimates or circumstances or if we

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incur significant unrealized losses related to our investment portfolio, we may violate these minimum capital adequacy requirements unless we are able to raise sufficient additional capital. Examples of events leading us to record a material charge against earnings include impairment of our investments or unexpectedly poor claims experience.
Loews has provided us with substantial amounts of capital in prior years. Loews may be restricted in its ability or willingness to provide additional capital support to us. As a result, if we are in need of additional capital, we may be required to secure this funding from sources other than Loews. We may be limited in our ability to raise significant amounts of capital on favorable terms or at all.
Rating agencies may downgrade their ratings of us and thereby adversely affect our ability to write insurance at competitive rates or at all.
Ratings are an important factor in establishing the competitive position of insurance companies. Our insurance company subsidiaries, as well as our public debt, are rated by rating agencies, namely, A.M. Best Company (A.M. Best), Moody’s Investors Service, Inc. (Moody’s) and Standard & Poor’s. Ratings reflect the rating agency’s opinions of an insurance company’s or insurance holding company’s financial strength, capital adequacy, operating performance, strategic position and ability to meet its obligations to policyholders and debt holders.
Due to the intense competitive environment in which we operate, the disruption in the capital and credit markets, the uncertainty in determining reserves and the potential for us to take material unfavorable development in the future, and possible changes in the methodology or criteria applied by the rating agencies, the rating agencies may take action to lower our ratings in the future. If our property and casualty insurance financial strength ratings are downgraded below current levels, our business and results of operations could be materially adversely affected. The severity of the impact on our business is dependent on the level of downgrade and, for certain products, which rating agency takes the rating action. Among the adverse effects in the event of such downgrades would be the inability to obtain a material volume of business from certain major insurance brokers, the inability to sell a material volume of our insurance products to certain markets, and the required collateralization of certain future payment obligations or reserves.
In addition, it is possible that a lowering of the debt ratings of Loews by certain of the rating agencies could result in an adverse impact on our ratings, independent of any change in our circumstances. We have entered into several settlement agreements and assumed reinsurance contracts that require collateralization of future payment obligations and assumed reserves if our ratings or other specific criteria fall below certain thresholds. The ratings triggers are generally more than one level below our current ratings. Additional information on our ratings and ratings triggers is included in the MD&A under Item 7.
Our insurance subsidiaries, upon whom we depend for dividends in order to fund our working capital needs, are limited by state regulators in their ability to pay dividends.
We are a holding company and are dependent upon dividends, loans and other sources of cash from our subsidiaries in order to meet our obligations. Ordinary dividend payments, or dividends that do not require prior approval by the subsidiaries’ domiciliary state departments of insurance are generally limited to amounts determined by formula which varies by state. The formula for the majority of the states is the greater of 10% of the prior year statutory surplus or the prior year statutory net income, less the aggregate of all dividends paid during the twelve months prior to the date of payment. Some states, however, have an additional stipulation that dividends cannot exceed the prior year’s earned surplus. If we are restricted, by regulatory rule or otherwise, from paying or receiving inter-company dividends, we may not be able to fund our working capital needs and debt service requirements from available cash. As a result, we would need to look to other sources of capital which may be more expensive or may not be available at all.
If we determine that our recorded loss reserves are insufficient to cover our estimated ultimate unpaid liability for claims, we may need to increase our loss reserves.
We maintain loss reserves to cover our estimated ultimate unpaid liability for claims and claim adjustment expenses for reported and unreported claims and for future policy benefits. Reserves represent our best estimate at a given point in time. Insurance reserves are not an exact calculation of liability but instead are complex estimates derived by us, generally utilizing a variety of reserve estimation techniques from numerous assumptions and expectations about future events, many of which are highly uncertain, such as estimates of

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claims severity, frequency of claims, mortality, morbidity, expected interest rates, inflation, claims handling, case reserving policies and procedures, underwriting and pricing policies, changes in the legal and regulatory environment and the lag time between the occurrence of an insured event and the time of its ultimate settlement. Many of these uncertainties are not precisely quantifiable and require significant judgment on our part. As trends in underlying claims develop, particularly in so-called “long tail” or long duration coverages, we are sometimes required to add to our reserves. This is called unfavorable net prior year development and results in a charge to our earnings in the amount of the added reserves, recorded in the period the change in estimate is made. These charges can be substantial. Additional information on our reserves is included in the MD&A under Item 7 and Note F to the Consolidated Financial Statements included under Item 8.
We are subject to the uncertain effects of emerging or potential claims and coverage issues that arise as industry practices and legal, judicial, social and other environmental conditions change. These issues have had, and may continue to have, a negative effect on our business by either extending coverage beyond the original underwriting intent or by increasing the number or size of claims, resulting in further increases in our reserves which can have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and equity. The effects of these and other unforeseen emerging claim and coverage issues are extremely hard to predict. Examples of emerging or potential claim and coverage issues include:
 
increases in the number and size of claims relating to injuries from various medical products including pharmaceuticals;
 
 
the effects of recessionary economic conditions and financial reporting scandals, which have resulted in an increase in the number and size of claims, due to corporate failures; these claims include both directors and officers (D&O) and errors and omissions (E&O) insurance claims;
 
 
class action litigation relating to claims handling and other practices;
 
 
construction defect claims, including claims for a broad range of additional insured endorsements on policies;
 
 
clergy abuse claims, including passage of legislation to reopen or extend various statutes of limitations; and
 
 
mass tort claims, including bodily injury claims related to welding rods, benzene, lead, noise induced hearing loss and various other chemical and radiation exposure claims.
In light of the many uncertainties associated with establishing the estimates and making the assumptions necessary to establish reserve levels, we review and change our reserve estimates in a regular and ongoing process as experience develops and further claims are reported and settled. In addition, we periodically undergo state regulatory financial examinations, including review and analysis of our reserves. If estimated reserves are insufficient for any reason, the required increase in reserves would be recorded as a charge against our earnings for the period in which reserves are determined to be insufficient. These charges could be substantial and could materially adversely affect our results of operations, equity, business and insurer financial strength and debt ratings.
Loss reserves for asbestos and environmental pollution are especially difficult to estimate and may result in more frequent and larger additions to these reserves.
Our experience has been that establishing reserves for casualty coverages relating to asbestos and environmental pollution (which we refer to as A&E) claim and claim adjustment expenses are subject to uncertainties that are greater than those presented by other claims. Estimating the ultimate cost of both reported and unreported claims are subject to a higher degree of variability due to a number of additional factors including, among others, the following:
 
coverage issues including whether certain costs are covered under the policies and whether policy limits apply;
 
 
inconsistent court decisions and developing legal theories;
 
 
continuing aggressive tactics of plaintiffs’ lawyers;
 
 
the risks and lack of predictability inherent in major litigation;

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changes in the frequency of asbestos and environmental pollution claims;
 
 
changes in the severity of claims including bodily injury claims for malignancies arising out of exposure to asbestos;
 
 
the impact of the exhaustion of primary limits and the resulting increase in claims on any umbrella or excess policies we have issued;
 
 
our ability to recover reinsurance for these claims; and
 
 
changes in the legal and legislative environment in which we operate.
As a result of this higher degree of variability, we have necessarily supplemented traditional actuarial methods and techniques with additional estimating techniques and methodologies, many of which involve significant judgment on our part. Consequently, we may periodically need to record changes in our claim and claim adjustment expense reserves in the future in these areas in amounts that could materially adversely affect our results of operations, equity, business and insurer financial strength and debt ratings. Additional information on A&E claims is included in the MD&A under Item 7 and Note F to the Consolidated Financial Statements included under Item 8.
               Asbestos claims. The estimation of reserves for asbestos claims is particularly difficult in light of the factors noted above. In addition, our ability to estimate the ultimate cost of asbestos claims is further complicated by the following:
 
inconsistency of court decisions and jury attitudes, as well as future court decisions;
 
 
interpretation of specific policy provisions;
 
 
allocation of liability among insurers and insureds;
 
 
missing policies and proof of coverage;
 
 
the proliferation of bankruptcy proceedings and attendant uncertainties;
 
 
novel theories asserted by policyholders and their legal counsel;
 
 
the targeting of a broader range of businesses and entities as defendants;
 
 
uncertainties in predicting the number of future claims and which other insureds may be targeted in the future;
 
 
volatility in frequency of claims and severity of settlement demands;
 
 
increases in the number of non-impaired claimants and the extent to which they can be precluded from making claims;
 
 
the efforts by insureds to obtain coverage that is not subject to aggregate limits;
 
 
the long latency period between asbestos exposure and disease manifestation, as well as the resulting potential for involvement of multiple policy periods for individual claims;
 
 
medical inflation trends;
 
 
the mix of asbestos-related diseases presented; and
 
 
the ability to recover reinsurance.
In addition, a number of our insureds have asserted that their claims for insurance are not subject to aggregate limits on coverage. If these insureds are successful in this regard, our potential liability for their claims would be unlimited. Some of these insureds contend that their asbestos claims fall within the so-called “non-products” liability coverage within their policies, rather than the products liability coverage, and that this “non-products” liability coverage is not subject to any aggregate limit. It is difficult to predict the extent to which these claims will succeed and, as a result, the ultimate size of these claims.
               Environmental pollution claims. The estimation of reserves for environmental pollution claims is complicated by liability and coverage issues arising from these claims. We and others in the insurance industry

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are disputing coverage for many such claims. In addition to the coverage issues noted in the asbestos claims section above, key coverage issues in environmental pollution claims include the following:
 
whether cleanup costs are considered damages under the policies (and accordingly whether we would be liable for these costs);
 
 
the trigger of coverage and the allocation of liability among triggered policies;
 
 
the applicability of pollution exclusions and owned property exclusions;
 
 
the potential for joint and several liability; and
 
 
the definition of an occurrence.
To date, courts have been inconsistent in their rulings on these issues, thus adding to the uncertainty of the outcome of many of these claims.
Further, the scope of federal and state statutes and regulations determining liability and insurance coverage for environmental pollution liabilities have been the subject of extensive litigation. In many cases, courts have expanded the scope of coverage and liability for cleanup costs beyond the original intent of our insurance policies. Additionally, the standards for cleanup in environmental pollution matters are unclear, the number of sites potentially subject to cleanup under applicable laws is unknown, and the impact of various proposals to reform existing statutes and regulations is difficult to predict.
We may suffer losses from non-routine litigation and arbitration matters which may exceed the reserves we have established.
We face substantial risks of litigation and arbitration beyond ordinary course claims and A&E matters, which may contain assertions in excess of amounts covered by reserves that we have established. These matters may be difficult to assess or quantify and may seek recovery of very large or indeterminate amounts that include punitive or treble damages. Accordingly, unfavorable results in these proceedings could have a material adverse impact on our results of operations, equity, business and insurer financial strength and debt ratings.
Additional information on litigation is included in Notes F and G to the Consolidated Financial Statements included under Item 8.
Catastrophe losses are unpredictable.
Catastrophe losses are an inevitable part of our business. Various events can cause catastrophe losses, including hurricanes, windstorms, earthquakes, hail, explosions, severe winter weather, and fires, and their frequency and severity are inherently unpredictable. In addition, longer-term natural catastrophe trends may be changing and new types of catastrophe losses may be developing due to climate change, a phenomenon that has been associated with extreme weather events linked to rising temperatures, and includes effects on global weather patterns, greenhouse gases, sea, land and air temperatures, sea levels, rain, and snow. The extent of our losses from catastrophes is a function of both the total amount of our insured exposures in the affected areas and the severity of the events themselves. In addition, as in the case of catastrophe losses generally, it can take a long time for the ultimate cost to us to be finally determined. As our claim experience develops on a particular catastrophe, we may be required to adjust our reserves, or take unfavorable development, to reflect our revised estimates of the total cost of claims. We believe we could incur significant catastrophe losses in the future. Therefore, our results of operations, equity, business and insurer financial strength and debt ratings could be materially adversely impacted. Additional information on catastrophe losses is included in the MD&A under Item 7 and Note F to the Consolidated Financial Statements included under Item 8.
Our key assumptions used to determine reserves and deferred acquisition costs for our long term care product offerings could vary significantly from actual experience.
Our reserves and deferred acquisition costs for our long term care product offerings are based on certain key assumptions including morbidity, which is the frequency and severity of illness, sickness and diseases contracted, policy persistency, which is the percentage of policies remaining in force, interest rates and future health care cost trends. If actual experience differs from these assumptions, the deferred acquisition asset may not be fully realized and the reserves may not be adequate, requiring us to add to reserves, or take unfavorable

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development. Therefore, our results of operations, equity, business and insurer financial strength and debt ratings could be materially adversely impacted.
We are unable to predict the impact on us of federal health care reform legislation.
The federal government may be implementing landmark health care reform legislation that could involve critical matters affecting our operations, particularly our workers’ compensation and long term care products. Until the legislation is enacted, we are unable to predict with any certainty the overall impact it will have on us. As a result, our results of operations, equity, business and insurer financial strength and debt ratings could be materially adversely impacted.
We continue to face exposure to losses arising from terrorist acts, despite the passage of the Terrorism Risk Insurance Program Reauthorization Act of 2007.
The Terrorism Risk Insurance Program Reauthorization Act of 2007 extended, until December 31, 2014, the program established within the U.S. Department of Treasury by the Terrorism Risk Insurance Act of 2002. This program requires insurers to offer terrorism coverage and the federal government to share in insured losses arising from acts of terrorism. Given the unpredictability of the nature, targets, severity and frequency of potential terrorist acts, this program does not provide complete protection for future losses derived from acts of terrorism. Further, the laws of certain states restrict our ability to mitigate this residual exposure. For example, some states mandate property insurance coverage of damage from fire following a loss, thereby prohibiting us from excluding terrorism exposure. In addition, some states generally prohibit us from excluding terrorism exposure from our primary workers’ compensation policies. Consequently, there is substantial uncertainty as to our ability to contain our terrorism exposure effectively since we continue to issue forms of coverage, in particular, workers’ compensation, that are exposed to risk of loss from a terrorism act. As a result, our results of operations, equity, business and insurer financial strength and debt ratings could be materially adversely impacted by terrorist act losses.
Our premium writings and profitability are affected by the availability and cost of reinsurance.
We purchase reinsurance to help manage our exposure to risk. Under our reinsurance arrangements, another insurer assumes a specified portion of our claim and claim adjustment expenses in exchange for a specified portion of policy premiums. Market conditions determine the availability and cost of the reinsurance protection we purchase, which affects the level of our business and profitability, as well as the level and types of risk we retain. If we are unable to obtain sufficient reinsurance at a cost we deem acceptable, we may be unwilling to bear the increased risk and would reduce the level of our underwriting commitments. Therefore, our financial results of operations could be materially adversely impacted. Additional information on reinsurance is included in Note H to the Consolidated Financial Statements included under Item 8.
We may not be able to collect amounts owed to us by reinsurers.
We have significant amounts recoverable from reinsurers which are reported as receivables in our balance sheets and are estimated in a manner consistent with claim and claim adjustment expense reserves or future policy benefits reserves. The ceding of insurance does not, however, discharge our primary liability for claims. As a result, we are subject to credit risk relating to our ability to recover amounts due from reinsurers. Certain of our reinsurance carriers have experienced deteriorating financial conditions or have been downgraded by rating agencies. A continuation or worsening of the current unfavorable global economic conditions could similarly impact all of our reinsurers. In addition, reinsurers could dispute amounts which we believe are due to us. If we are not able to collect the amounts due to us from reinsurers, our claims expenses will be higher which could materially adversely affect our results of operations, equity, business and insurer financial strength and debt ratings. Additional information on reinsurance is included in Note H to the Consolidated Financial Statements included under Item 8.
We face intense competition in our industry and may be adversely affected by the cyclical nature of the property and casualty business.
All aspects of the insurance industry are highly competitive and we must continuously allocate resources to refine and improve our insurance products and services. We compete with a large number of stock and mutual insurance companies and other entities for both distributors and customers. Insurers compete on the basis of factors including products, price, services, ratings and financial strength. We may lose business to competitors offering competitive insurance products at lower prices. The property and casualty market is cyclical and has

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experienced periods characterized by relatively high levels of price competition, less restrictive underwriting standards and relatively low premium rates, followed by periods of relatively lower levels of competition, more selective underwriting standards and relatively high premium rates. As a result, our premium levels, expense ratio, results of operations, equity, business and insurer financial strength and debt ratings could be materially adversely impacted.
We are dependent on a small number of key executives and other key personnel to operate our business successfully.
Our success substantially depends upon our ability to attract and retain high quality key executives and other employees. We believe there are only a limited number of available qualified executives in the business lines in which we compete. We rely substantially upon the services of our executive officers to implement our business strategy. The loss of the services of any members of our management team or the inability to attract and retain other talented personnel could impede the implementation of our business strategies. We do not maintain key man life insurance policies with respect to any of our employees.

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ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
None.
ITEM 2. PROPERTIES
The 333 S. Wabash Avenue building, located in Chicago, Illinois and owned by CCC, a wholly-owned subsidiary of CNAF, serves as our home office. Our subsidiaries own or lease office space in various cities throughout the United States and in other countries. The following table sets forth certain information with respect to our principal office locations.
             
 
 
    Amount (Square Feet) of Building    
    Owned and Occupied or Leased    
                         Location   and Occupied by CNA   Principal Usage
333 S. Wabash Avenue, Chicago, Illinois
    803,728     Principal executive offices of CNAF
401 Penn Street, Reading, Pennsylvania
    171,318     Property and casualty insurance offices
2405 Lucien Way, Maitland, Florida
    121,959     Property and casualty insurance offices
40 Wall Street, New York, New York
    107,927     Property and casualty insurance offices
1100 Ward Avenue, Honolulu, Hawaii
    104,478     Property and casualty insurance offices
101 S. Phillips Avenue, Sioux Falls, South Dakota
    83,616     Property and casualty insurance offices
600 N. Pearl Street, Dallas, Texas
    70,790     Property and casualty insurance offices
675 Placentia Avenue, Brea, California
    63,538     Property and casualty insurance offices
1249 S. River Road, Cranbury, New Jersey
    56,100     Property and casualty insurance offices
4267 Meridian Parkway, Aurora, Illinois
    46,903     Data center
We lease the office space described above except for the Chicago, Illinois building, the Reading, Pennsylvania building and the Aurora, Illinois building, which are owned. We consider that our properties are generally in good condition, are well maintained and are suitable and adequate to carry on our business.
ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
Information on our legal proceedings is set forth in Notes F and G of the Consolidated Financial Statements included under Item 8.
ITEM 4. SUBMISSION OF MATTERS TO A VOTE OF SECURITY HOLDERS
None.

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PART II
ITEM 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
Our common stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange and the Chicago Stock Exchange under the symbol CNA.
As of February 19, 2010, we had 269,074,707 shares of common stock outstanding. Approximately 90% of our outstanding common stock is owned by Loews. We had 1,793 stockholders of record as of February 19, 2010 according to the records maintained by our transfer agent.
In the fourth quarter of 2008, we issued and Loews purchased $1.25 billion of CNAF non-voting cumulative senior preferred stock, designated the 2008 Senior Preferred Stock (2008 Senior Preferred). No dividends may be declared on our common stock or any future preferred stock while the 2008 Senior Preferred is outstanding. In the fourth quarter of 2009, we redeemed $250 million of the 2008 Senior Preferred. See Note L of the Consolidated Financial Statements included under Item 8 for further details on the 2008 Senior Preferred.
Our Board of Directors has approved an authorization to purchase, in the open market or through privately negotiated transactions, our outstanding common stock, as our management deems appropriate. Under the terms of the 2008 Senior Preferred discussed above, common stock repurchases are prohibited while the 2008 Senior Preferred is outstanding.
The table below shows the high and low sales prices for our common stock based on the New York Stock Exchange Composite Transactions.
Common Stock Information
                                                 
    2009   2008
                    Dividends                   Dividends
    High   Low   Declared   High   Low   Declared
Quarter:
                                               
First
  $ 17.43     $ 6.41       -     $ 35.04     $ 23.01     $ 0.15  
Second
    17.59       8.83       -       32.15       24.34       0.15  
Third
    26.51       13.63       -       30.61       21.88       0.15  
Fourth
    25.01       20.48       -       26.70       8.50       -  

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The following graph compares the total return of our common stock, the Standard & Poor’s (S&P) 500 Index and the S&P 500 Property & Casualty Insurance Index for the five year period from December 31, 2004 through December 31, 2009. The graph assumes that the value of the investment in our common stock and for each index was $100 on December 31, 2004 and that dividends were reinvested.
Stock Price Performance Graph
                                                 
Company / Index     2004       2005       2006       2007       2008       2009  
 
                                               
CNA Financial Corporation
    100.00       122.36       150.73       127.14       62.98       91.94  
S&P 500 Index
    100.00       104.91       121.48       128.16       80.74       102.11  
S&P 500 Property & Casualty Insurance Index
    100.00       115.11       129.93       111.79       78.91       88.65  
(PERFORMANCE GRAPH)

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ITEM 6. SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA
The following table presents selected financial data. The table should be read in conjunction with Item 7 Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations and Item 8 Financial Statements and Supplementary Data of this Form 10-K.
Selected Financial Data
                                         
As of and for the Years Ended                              
December 31   2009   2008   2007   2006   2005
(In millions, except per share data)                                        
 
                                       
Results of Operations:
                                       
Revenues
  $ 8,472     $ 7,799     $ 9,885     $ 10,376     $ 9,862  
 
                   
 
                                       
Income (loss) from continuing operations, net of tax
  $ 483     $ (251 )   $ 905     $ 1,181     $ 267  
Income (loss) from discontinued operations, net of tax
    (2 )     9       (6 )     (29 )     21  
Net income attributable to noncontrolling interests, net of tax
    (62 )     (57 )     (48 )     (44 )     (24 )
 
                   
Net income (loss) attributable to CNA
  $ 419     $ (299 )   $ 851     $ 1,108     $ 264  
 
                   
 
                                       
Basic Earnings (Loss) Per Share Attributable to CNA Common Stockholders:
                                       
Income (loss) from continuing operations attributable to CNA common stockholders
  $ 1.11     $ (1.21 )   $ 3.15     $ 4.17     $ 0.68  
Income (loss) from discontinued operations attributable to CNA common stockholders
    (0.01 )     0.03       (0.02 )     (0.11 )     0.08  
 
                   
 
                                       
Basic earnings (loss) per share attributable to CNA common stockholders
  $ 1.10     $ (1.18 )   $ 3.13     $ 4.06     $ 0.76  
 
                   
 
                                       
Diluted Earnings (Loss) Per Share Attributable to CNA Common Stockholders:
                                       
Income (loss) from continuing operations attributable to CNA common stockholders
  $ 1.11     $ (1.21 )   $ 3.15     $ 4.16     $ 0.68  
Income (loss) from discontinued operations attributable to CNA common stockholders
    (0.01 )     0.03       (0.02 )     (0.11 )     0.08  
 
                   
 
                                       
Diluted earnings (loss) per share attributable to CNA common stockholders
  $ 1.10     $ (1.18 )   $ 3.13     $ 4.05     $ 0.76  
 
                   
 
                                       
Dividends declared per common share
  $ -     $ 0.45     $ 0.35     $ -     $ -  
 
                   
 
                                       
Financial Condition:
                                       
Total investments
  $ 41,996     $ 35,003     $ 41,789     $ 44,096     $ 39,695  
Total assets
    55,298       51,688       56,759       60,283       59,016  
Insurance reserves
    38,263       38,771       40,222       41,080       42,436  
Long and short term debt
    2,303       2,058       2,157       2,156       1,690  
Total CNA stockholders’ equity
    10,660       6,877       10,150       9,768       8,950  
 
                                       
Book value per common share
  $ 35.91     $ 20.92     $ 37.36     $ 36.03     $ 31.26  
 
                                       
Statutory Surplus:
                                       
Combined Continental Casualty Companies (a)
  $ 9,338 (b)   $ 7,819     $ 8,348     $ 8,056     $ 6,733  
Life company
    448 (b)     487       471       687       627  
 
(a)  
Represents the combined statutory surplus of CCC and its subsidiaries, including the Life company, as determined in accordance with statutory accounting practices as further discussed in Note L of the Consolidated Financial Statements included under Item 8.
(b)  
Preliminary results.

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ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Overview
The following discussion should be read in conjunction with Item 1A Risk Factors, Item 6 Selected Financial Data and Item 8 Financial Statements and Supplementary Data of this Form 10-K. References to net operating income (loss), net realized investment gains (losses) and net income (loss) used in this MD&A reflect amounts attributable to CNA, unless otherwise noted.
Index to this MD&A
Management’s discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations is comprised of the following sections:
         
    Page No.
 
Consolidated Operations
    21  
 
Critical Accounting Estimates
    23  
 
Reserves – Estimates and Uncertainties
    25  
 
       
Segment Results
    31  
 
CNA Specialty
    32  
 
CNA Commercial
    35  
 
Life & Group Non-Core
    38  
 
Corporate & Other Non-Core
    40  
 
Asbestos and Environmental Pollution (A&E) Reserves
    42  
 
Investments
    44  
 
Net Investment Income
    44  
 
Net Realized Investment Gains (Losses)
    45  
 
Duration
    47  
 
Asset-Backed Exposure
    48  
 
Short Term Investments
    48  
 
Separate Accounts
    49  
 
Liquidity and Capital Resources
    50  
 
Cash Flows
    50  
 
Liquidity
    51  
 
Commitments, Contingencies and Guarantees
    52  
 
Ratings
    52  
 
Accounting Standards Update
    53  
 
Forward-Looking Statements
    54  

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CONSOLIDATED OPERATIONS
Results of Operations
The following table includes the consolidated results of our operations. For more detailed components of our business operations and the net operating income financial measure, see the segment discussions within this MD&A.
                         
Years ended December 31   2009   2008   2007
(In millions, except per share data)                        
 
                       
Revenues
                       
Net earned premiums
  $ 6,721     $ 7,151     $ 7,484  
Net investment income
    2,320       1,619       2,433  
Other revenues
    288       326       279  
 
           
 
                       
Total operating revenues
    9,329       9,096       10,196  
 
           
 
                       
Claims, Benefits and Expenses
                       
Net incurred claims and benefits
    5,267       5,703       5,995  
Policyholders’ dividends
    23       20       14  
Amortization of deferred acquisition costs
    1,417       1,467       1,520  
Other insurance related expenses
    781       694       733  
Other expenses
    444       477       401  
 
           
 
                       
Total claims, benefits and expenses
    7,932       8,361       8,663  
 
           
 
                       
Operating income from continuing operations before income tax
    1,397       735       1,533  
Income tax expense on operating income
    (353 )     (145 )     (425 )
Net operating income, after-tax, attributable to noncontrolling interests
    (62 )     (57 )     (48 )
 
           
 
                       
Net operating income from continuing operations attributable to CNA
    982       533       1,060  
 
                       
Net realized investment losses, net of participating policyholders’ interests
    (857 )     (1,297 )     (311 )
Income tax benefit on net realized investment losses
    296       456       108  
Net realized investment (gains) losses, after-tax, attributable to noncontrolling interests
    -       -       -  
 
           
Net realized investment losses attributable to CNA
    (561 )     (841 )     (203 )
 
                       
Income (loss) from continuing operations attributable to CNA
    421       (308 )     857  
 
                       
Income (loss) from discontinued operations attributable to CNA, net of income tax (expense) benefit of $0, $9 and $0
    (2 )     9       (6 )
 
           
 
                       
Net income (loss) attributable to CNA
  $ 419     $ (299 )   $ 851  
 
           
2009 Compared with 2008
Net results improved $718 million in 2009 as compared with 2008. This improvement was due to increased net operating income and decreased net realized investment losses.
Net realized investment losses decreased $280 million in 2009 as compared with 2008. See the Investments section of this MD&A for further discussion of net realized investment results and net investment income.
Net operating income improved $449 million in 2009 as compared with 2008. Net operating income increased $394 million for CNA Specialty and CNA Commercial and net operating loss decreased $55 million for our non-core operations. This improvement was primarily due to higher net investment income and lower catastrophe losses. Net investment income in 2008 included indexed group annuity trading portfolio losses of $146 million. This trading portfolio supported the indexed group annuity portion of our pension deposit business which was exited during 2008, and these losses were substantially offset by a corresponding decrease in the policyholders’ funds reserves supported by the trading portfolio. Excluding the trading portfolio losses in 2008, net investment income increased $555 million primarily driven by limited partnership income. Catastrophe losses were $58 million after-tax in 2009, as compared to catastrophe impacts of $239 million after-tax in 2008. Partially offsetting these favorable items was an unfavorable change in current accident year underwriting results excluding catastrophes.

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Results for the year ended December 31, 2009 included expense of $45 million related to our pension and postretirement plans, compared with a benefit of $14 million for the year ended December 31, 2008. Based on our current assumptions and investment performance in 2009, our estimated 2010 expense for the CNA Retirement Plan and the CNA Retiree Health and Group Benefits plan is expected to moderate.
In 2008, the amount due from policyholders related to losses under deductible policies within CNA Commercial Lines was reduced by $90 million for insolvent insureds. The reduction of this amount, which was reflected as unfavorable net prior year reserve development in 2008, had no effect on 2008 results of operations as the Company had previously recognized provisions in prior years. These impacts were reported in Insurance claims and policyholders’ benefits in the 2008 Consolidated Statement of Operations.
Favorable net prior year development of $208 million and $80 million was recorded in 2009 and 2008 related to our CNA Specialty, CNA Commercial and Corporate & Other Non-Core segments. Excluding the impact of the $90 million of unfavorable net prior year reserve development discussed above, which had no net impact on the results of operations, favorable net prior year development was $170 million in 2008. Further information on net prior year development for 2009 and 2008 is included in Note F of the Consolidated Financial Statements included under Item 8.
Net earned premiums decreased $430 million in 2009 as compared with 2008, including a $58 million decrease related to CNA Specialty and a $355 million decrease related to CNA Commercial. See the Segment Results section of this MD&A for further discussion.
Results from discontinued operations decreased $11 million in 2009 as compared to 2008. The 2008 results were primarily driven by the recognition in 2008 of a change in estimate of the tax benefit related to the 2007 sale of our United Kingdom discontinued operations subsidiary.
2008 Compared with 2007
Net results decreased $1,150 million in 2008 as compared with 2007. This decrease was due to higher net realized investment losses and decreased net operating income.
Net realized investment losses increased $638 million in 2008 as compared to 2007. The increase was primarily driven by higher impairment losses. See the Investments section of this MD&A for further discussion of net realized investment results and net investment income.
Net operating income decreased $527 million in 2008 as compared with 2007. The decrease was primarily due to lower net investment income, driven by limited partnership results, and higher catastrophe impacts. Net investment income included a decline in trading portfolio results of $159 million, which was substantially offset by a corresponding decrease in the policyholders’ funds reserves supported by the indexed group annuity trading portfolio. The catastrophe impacts were $239 million after-tax in 2008, as compared to catastrophe losses of $51 million after-tax in 2007. Net operating income in 2007 included an after-tax loss of $108 million in connection with the settlement of the IGI contingency, as discussed in the Life & Group Non-Core segment discussion in this MD&A.
Favorable net prior year development of $80 million and $73 million was recorded in 2008 and 2007 related to our CNA Specialty, CNA Commercial and Corporate & Other Non-core segments. Further information on net prior year development for 2008 and 2007 is included in Note F of the Consolidated Financial Statements included under Item 8.
Net earned premiums decreased $333 million in 2008 as compared with 2007, including a $4 million decrease related to CNA Specialty and a $317 million decrease related to CNA Commercial. See the Segment Results section of this MD&A for further discussion.
Results from discontinued operations improved $15 million in 2008 as compared to 2007. The 2008 results were primarily driven by the recognition in 2008 of a change in estimate of the tax benefit related to the 2007 sale of our United Kingdom discontinued operations subsidiary. The loss in 2007 was primarily driven by unfavorable net prior year development.

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Critical Accounting Estimates
The preparation of the Consolidated Financial Statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (GAAP) requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the Consolidated Financial Statements and the amounts of revenues and expenses reported during the period. Actual results may differ from those estimates.
Our Consolidated Financial Statements and accompanying notes have been prepared in accordance with GAAP applied on a consistent basis. We continually evaluate the accounting policies and estimates used to prepare the Consolidated Financial Statements. In general, our estimates are based on historical experience, evaluation of current trends, information from third party professionals and various other assumptions that are believed to be reasonable under the known facts and circumstances.
The accounting estimates discussed below are considered by us to be critical to an understanding of our Consolidated Financial Statements as their application places the most significant demands on our judgment. Note A of the Consolidated Financial Statements included under Item 8 should be read in conjunction with this section to assist with obtaining an understanding of the underlying accounting policies related to these estimates. Due to the inherent uncertainties involved with these types of judgments, actual results could differ significantly from estimates and may have a material adverse impact on our results of operations and/or equity.
Insurance Reserves
Insurance reserves are established for both short and long-duration insurance contracts. Short-duration contracts are primarily related to property and casualty insurance policies where the reserving process is based on actuarial estimates of the amount of loss, including amounts for known and unknown claims. Long-duration contracts typically include traditional life insurance, payout annuities and long term care products and are estimated using actuarial estimates about mortality, morbidity and persistency as well as assumptions about expected investment returns. The reserve for unearned premiums on property and casualty and accident and health contracts represents the portion of premiums written related to the unexpired terms of coverage. The inherent risks associated with the reserving process are discussed in the Reserves – Estimates and Uncertainties section below.
Reinsurance
Amounts recoverable from reinsurers are estimated in a manner consistent with claim and claim adjustment expense reserves or future policy benefits reserves and are reported as receivables in the Consolidated Balance Sheets. The ceding of insurance does not discharge us of our primary liability under insurance contracts written by us. An exposure exists with respect to property and casualty and life reinsurance ceded to the extent that any reinsurer is unable to meet its obligations or disputes the liabilities assumed under reinsurance agreements. An estimated allowance for doubtful accounts is recorded on the basis of periodic evaluations of balances due from reinsurers, reinsurer solvency, our past experience and current economic conditions. Further information on our reinsurance program is included in Note H of the Consolidated Financial Statements included under Item 8.
Valuation of Investments and Impairment of Securities
The Company classifies its fixed maturity securities and equity securities as either available-for-sale or trading which are both carried at fair value. The determination of fair value requires management to make a significant number of assumptions, particularly with respect to asset-backed securities. Due to the level of uncertainty related to changes in the fair value of these assets, it is possible that changes in the near term could have an adverse material impact on our results of operations and/or equity.
Our investment portfolio is subject to market declines below amortized cost that may be other-than-temporary. A significant judgment in the valuation of investments is the determination of whether a credit loss exists on impaired securities, which results in the recognition of impairment losses in earnings. We have an Impairment Committee which reviews the investment portfolio on at least a quarterly basis, with ongoing analysis as new information becomes available. Further information on our process for evaluating impairments is included in Note B of the Consolidated Financial Statements included under Item 8.

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Long Term Care Products
Reserves and deferred acquisition costs for our long term care products are based on certain assumptions including morbidity, policy persistency and interest rates. The recoverability of deferred acquisition costs and the adequacy of the reserves are contingent on actual experience related to these key assumptions and other factors such as future health care cost trends. If actual experience differs from these assumptions, the deferred acquisition costs may not be fully realized and the reserves may not be adequate, requiring us to add to reserves, or take unfavorable development. Therefore, our results of operations and/or equity could be adversely impacted.
Payout Annuity Contracts
Reserves for our payout annuity products are based on certain assumptions including mortality and interest rates. The adequacy of the reserves is contingent on actual experience related to these key assumptions. If actual experience differs from these assumptions, reserves may not be adequate, requiring us to add to reserves, or take unfavorable development. Therefore, our results of operations and/or equity could be adversely impacted.
Pension and Postretirement Benefit Obligations
We make a significant number of assumptions in estimating the liabilities and costs related to our pension and postretirement benefit obligations to employees under our benefit plans. The assumptions that most impact these costs are the discount rate, the expected return on plan assets and the rate of compensation increases. These assumptions are evaluated relative to current market factors such as inflation, interest rates and fiscal and monetary policies. Changes in these assumptions can have a material impact on pension obligations and pension expense.
To determine the discount rate assumption as of the year-end measurement date for our CNA Retirement Plan and CNA Retiree Health and Group Benefits Plan, we considered the estimated timing of plan benefit payments and available yields on high quality fixed income debt securities. For this purpose, high quality is considered a rating of Aa or better by Moody’s Investors Service, Inc. (Moody’s) or a rating of AA or better from Standard & Poor’s (S&P). We reviewed several yield curves constructed using the cash flow characteristics of the plans as well as bond indices as of the measurement date. The year-over-year change of those data points was also considered. Based on this review, management determined that 5.70% and 5.50% were the appropriate discount rates as of December 31, 2009 to calculate our accrued pension and postretirement liabilities. Accordingly, the 5.70% and 5.50% rates will also be used to determine our 2010 pension and postretirement expense. At December 31, 2008, the discount rates used to calculate our accrued pension and postretirement liabilities were 6.30% and 6.30%.
Further information on our pension and postretirement benefit obligations is included in Note J of the Consolidated Financial Statements included under Item 8.
Legal Proceedings
We are involved in various legal proceedings that have arisen during the ordinary course of business. We evaluate the facts and circumstances of each situation, and when we determine it is necessary, a liability is estimated and recorded. Further information on our legal proceedings and related contingent liabilities is provided in Notes F and G of the Consolidated Financial Statements included under Item 8.
Income Taxes
We account for taxes under the asset and liability method. Under this method, deferred income taxes are recognized for temporary differences between the financial statement and tax return basis of assets and liabilities. Any resulting future tax benefits are recognized to the extent that realization of such benefits is more likely than not, and a valuation allowance is established for any portion of a deferred tax asset that management believes will not be realized. The assessment of the need for a valuation allowance requires management to make estimates and assumptions about future earnings, reversal of existing temporary differences and available tax planning strategies. If actual experience differs from these estimates and assumptions, the recorded deferred tax asset may not be fully realized resulting in an increase to income tax expense in our results of operations. In addition, the ability to record deferred tax assets in the future could be limited resulting in a higher effective tax rate in that future period.

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Reserves – Estimates and Uncertainties
We maintain reserves to cover our estimated ultimate unpaid liability for claim and claim adjustment expenses, including the estimated cost of the claims adjudication process, for claims that have been reported but not yet settled (case reserves) and claims that have been incurred but not reported (IBNR). Claim and claim adjustment expense reserves are reflected as liabilities and are included on the Consolidated Balance Sheets under the heading “Insurance Reserves.” Adjustments to prior year reserve estimates, if necessary, are reflected in results of operations in the period that the need for such adjustments is determined. The carried case and IBNR reserves as of each balance sheet date are provided in the Segment Results section of this MD&A and in Note F of the Consolidated Financial Statements included under Item 8.
The level of reserves we maintain represents our best estimate, as of a particular point in time, of what the ultimate settlement and administration of claims will cost based on our assessment of facts and circumstances known at that time. Reserves are not an exact calculation of liability but instead are complex estimates that we derive, generally utilizing a variety of actuarial reserve estimation techniques, from numerous assumptions and expectations about future events, both internal and external, many of which are highly uncertain.
We are subject to the uncertain effects of emerging or potential claims and coverage issues that arise as industry practices and legal, judicial, social and other environmental conditions change. These issues have had, and may continue to have, a negative effect on our business by either extending coverage beyond the original underwriting intent or by increasing the number or size of claims. Examples of emerging or potential claims and coverage issues include:
   
increases in the number and size of claims relating to injuries from various medical products including pharmaceuticals;
 
   
the effects of recessionary economic conditions and financial reporting scandals, which have resulted in an increase in the number and size of claims, due to corporate failures; these claims include both directors and officers (D&O) and errors and omissions (E&O) insurance claims;
 
   
class action litigation relating to claims handling and other practices;
 
   
construction defect claims, including claims for a broad range of additional insured endorsements on policies;
 
   
clergy abuse claims, including passage of legislation to reopen or extend various statutes of limitations; and
 
   
mass tort claims, including bodily injury claims related to welding rods, benzene, lead, noise induced hearing loss and various other chemical and radiation exposure claims.
Our experience has been that establishing reserves for casualty coverages relating to asbestos and environmental pollution (A&E) claims and claim adjustment expenses are subject to uncertainties that are greater than those presented by other claims. Estimating the ultimate cost of both reported and unreported A&E claims are subject to a higher degree of variability due to a number of additional factors, including among others:
   
coverage issues, including whether certain costs are covered under the policies and whether policy limits apply;
 
   
inconsistent court decisions and developing legal theories;
 
   
continuing aggressive tactics of plaintiffs’ lawyers;
 
   
the risks and lack of predictability inherent in major litigation;
 
   
changes in the frequency of A&E claims;
 
   
changes in the severity of claims, including bodily injury claims for malignancies arising out of exposure to asbestos;
 
   
the impact of the exhaustion of primary limits and the resulting increase in claims on any umbrella or excess policies we have issued;
 
   
our ability to recover reinsurance for A&E claims; and

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changes in the legal and legislative environment in which we operate.
It is also difficult to forecast changes in the legal and legislative environment and the impact on the future development of A&E claims. This development will be affected by future court decisions and interpretations, as well as changes in applicable legislation. It is difficult to predict the ultimate outcome of large coverage disputes until settlement negotiations near completion and significant legal questions are resolved or, failing settlement, until the dispute is adjudicated. This is particularly the case with policyholders in bankruptcy where negotiations often involve a large number of claimants and other parties and require court approval to be effective.
Traditional actuarial methods and techniques employed to estimate the ultimate cost of claims for more traditional property and casualty exposures are less precise in estimating claim and claim adjustment reserves for A&E, particularly in an environment of emerging or potential claims and coverage issues that arise from industry practices and legal, judicial and social conditions. Therefore, these traditional actuarial methods and techniques are necessarily supplemented with additional estimation techniques and methodologies, many of which involve significant judgments that are required of management. For A&E, we regularly monitor our exposures, including reviews of loss activity, regulatory developments and court rulings. In addition, we perform a ground up analysis on our exposures. Our actuaries, in conjunction with our specialized claim unit, use various modeling techniques to estimate our overall exposure to known accounts. We use this information and additional modeling techniques to develop loss distributions and claim reporting patterns to determine reserves for accounts that will report A&E exposure in the future. Estimating the average claim size requires analysis of the impact of large losses and claim cost trend based on changes in the cost of repairing or replacing property, changes in the cost of legal fees, judicial decisions, legislative changes, and other factors. Due to the inherent uncertainties in estimating reserves for A&E claim and claim adjustment expenses and the degree of variability due to, among other things, the factors described above, we may be required to record material changes in our claim and claim adjustment expense reserves in the future, should new information become available or other developments emerge. See the A&E Reserves section of this MD&A and Note F of the Consolidated Financial Statements included under Item 8 for additional information relating to A&E claims and reserves.
The impact of these and other unforeseen emerging or potential claims and coverage issues is difficult to predict and could materially adversely affect the adequacy of our claim and claim adjustment expense reserves and could lead to future reserve additions. See the Segment Results sections of this MD&A and Note F of the Consolidated Financial Statements included under Item 8 for a discussion of changes in reserve estimates and the impact on our results of operations.
Establishing Reserve Estimates
In developing claim and claim adjustment expense (“loss” or “losses”) reserve estimates, our actuaries perform detailed reserve analyses that are staggered throughout the year. The data is organized at a “product” level. A product can be a line of business covering a subset of insureds such as commercial automobile liability for small and middle market customers, it can encompass several lines of business provided to a specific set of customers such as dentists, or it can be a particular type of claim such as construction defect. Every product is analyzed at least once during the year, and many products are analyzed multiple times. The analyses generally review losses gross of ceded reinsurance and apply the ceded reinsurance terms to the gross estimates to establish estimates net of reinsurance. In addition to the detailed analyses, we review actual loss emergence for all products each quarter.
The detailed analyses use a variety of generally accepted actuarial methods and techniques to produce a number of estimates of ultimate loss. Our actuaries determine a point estimate of ultimate loss by reviewing the various estimates and assigning weight to each estimate given the characteristics of the product being reviewed. The reserve estimate is the difference between the estimated ultimate loss and the losses paid to date. The difference between the estimated ultimate loss and the case incurred loss (paid loss plus case reserve) is IBNR. IBNR calculated as such includes a provision for development on known cases (supplemental development) as well as a provision for claims that have occurred but have not yet been reported (pure IBNR).
Most of our business can be characterized as long-tail. For long-tail business, it will generally be several years between the time the business is written and the time when all claims are settled. Our long-tail exposures include commercial automobile liability, workers’ compensation, general liability, medical malpractice, other

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professional liability coverages, assumed reinsurance run-off and products liability. Short-tail exposures include property, commercial automobile physical damage, marine and warranty. CNA Specialty and CNA Commercial contain both long-tail and short-tail exposures. Corporate & Other Non-Core contains long-tail exposures.
Various methods are used to project ultimate loss for both long-tail and short-tail exposures including, but not limited to, the following:
   
Paid Development,
 
   
Incurred Development,
 
   
Loss Ratio,
 
   
Bornhuetter-Ferguson Using Premiums and Paid Loss,
 
   
Bornhuetter-Ferguson Using Premiums and Incurred Loss,
 
   
Frequency times Severity, and
 
   
Stochastic modeling.
The paid development method estimates ultimate losses by reviewing paid loss patterns and applying them to accident years with further expected changes in paid loss. Selection of the paid loss pattern requires analysis of several factors including the impact of inflation on claims costs, the rate at which claims professionals make claim payments and close claims, the impact of judicial decisions, the impact of underwriting changes, the impact of large claim payments and other factors. Claim cost inflation itself requires evaluation of changes in the cost of repairing or replacing property, changes in the cost of medical care, changes in the cost of wage replacement, judicial decisions, legislative changes and other factors. Because this method assumes that losses are paid at a consistent rate, changes in any of these factors can impact the results. Since the method does not rely on case reserves, it is not directly influenced by changes in the adequacy of case reserves.
For many products, paid loss data for recent periods may be too immature or erratic for accurate predictions. This situation often exists for long-tail exposures. In addition, changes in the factors described above may result in inconsistent payment patterns. Finally, estimating the paid loss pattern subsequent to the most mature point available in the data analyzed often involves considerable uncertainty for long-tail products such as workers’ compensation.
The incurred development method is similar to the paid development method, but it uses case incurred losses instead of paid losses. Since the method uses more data (case reserves in addition to paid losses) than the paid development method, the incurred development patterns may be less variable than paid patterns. However, selection of the incurred loss pattern requires analysis of all of the factors above. In addition, the inclusion of case reserves can lead to distortions if changes in case reserving practices have taken place, and the use of case incurred losses may not eliminate the issues associated with estimating the incurred loss pattern subsequent to the most mature point available.
The loss ratio method multiplies premiums by an expected loss ratio to produce ultimate loss estimates for each accident year. This method may be useful for immature accident periods or if loss development patterns are inconsistent, losses emerge very slowly, or there is relatively little loss history from which to estimate future losses. The selection of the expected loss ratio requires analysis of loss ratios from earlier accident years or pricing studies and analysis of inflationary trends, frequency trends, rate changes, underwriting changes, and other applicable factors.
The Bornhuetter-Ferguson using premiums and paid loss method is a combination of the paid development approach and the loss ratio approach. This method normally determines expected loss ratios similar to the approach used to estimate the expected loss ratio for the loss ratio method and requires analysis of the same factors described above. This method assumes that only future losses will develop at the expected loss ratio level. The percent of paid loss to ultimate loss implied from the paid development method is used to determine what percentage of ultimate loss is yet to be paid. The use of the pattern from the paid development method requires consideration of all factors listed in the description of the paid development method. The estimate of losses yet to be paid is added to current paid losses to estimate the ultimate loss for each year. This method will

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react very slowly if actual ultimate loss ratios are different from expectations due to changes not accounted for by the expected loss ratio calculation.
The Bornhuetter-Ferguson using premiums and incurred loss method is similar to the Bornhuetter-Ferguson using premiums and paid loss method except that it uses case incurred losses. The use of case incurred losses instead of paid losses can result in development patterns that are less variable than paid patterns. However, the inclusion of case reserves can lead to distortions if changes in case reserving have taken place, and the method requires analysis of all the factors that need to be reviewed for the loss ratio and incurred development methods.
The Frequency times Severity method multiplies a projected number of ultimate claims by an estimated ultimate average loss for each accident year to produce ultimate loss estimates. Since projections of the ultimate number of claims are often less variable than projections of ultimate loss, this method can provide more reliable results for products where loss development patterns are inconsistent or too variable to be relied on exclusively. In addition, this method can more directly account for changes in coverage that impact the number and size of claims. However, this method can be difficult to apply to situations where very large claims or a substantial number of unusual claims result in volatile average claim sizes. Projecting the ultimate number of claims requires analysis of several factors including the rate at which policyholders report claims to us, the impact of judicial decisions, the impact of underwriting changes and other factors. Estimating the ultimate average loss requires analysis of the impact of large losses and claim cost trend based on changes in the cost of repairing or replacing property, changes in the cost of medical care, changes in the cost of wage replacement, judicial decisions, legislative changes and other factors.
Stochastic modeling produces a range of possible outcomes based on varying assumptions related to the particular product being modeled. For some products, we use models which rely on historical development patterns at an aggregate level, while other products are modeled using individual claim variability assumptions supplied by the claims department. In either case, multiple simulations are run and the results are analyzed to produce a range of potential outcomes. The results will typically include a mean and percentiles of the possible reserve distribution which aid in the selection of a point estimate.
For many exposures, especially those that can be considered long-tail, a particular accident year may not have a sufficient volume of paid losses to produce a statistically reliable estimate of ultimate losses. In such a case, our actuaries typically assign more weight to the incurred development method than to the paid development method. As claims continue to settle and the volume of paid loss increases, the actuaries may assign additional weight to the paid development method. For most of our products, even the incurred losses for accident years that are early in the claim settlement process will not be of sufficient volume to produce a reliable estimate of ultimate losses. In these cases, we will not assign any weight to the paid and incurred development methods. We will use loss ratio, Bornhuetter-Ferguson and average loss methods. For short-tail exposures, the paid and incurred development methods can often be relied on sooner primarily because our history includes a sufficient number of years to cover the entire period over which paid and incurred losses are expected to change. However, we may also use loss ratio, Bornhuetter-Ferguson and average loss methods for short-tail exposures.
For other more complex products where the above methods may not produce reliable indications, we use additional methods tailored to the characteristics of the specific situation. Such products include construction defect losses and A&E.
For construction defect losses, our actuaries organize losses by report year. Report year groups claims by the year in which they were reported. To estimate losses from claims that have not been reported, various extrapolation techniques are applied to the pattern of claims that have been reported to estimate the number of claims yet to be reported. This process requires analysis of several factors including the rate at which policyholders report claims to us, the impact of judicial decisions, the impact of underwriting changes and other factors. An average claim size is determined from past experience and applied to the number of unreported claims to estimate reserves for these claims.
Periodic Reserve Reviews
The reserve analyses performed by our actuaries result in point estimates. Each quarter, the results of the detailed reserve reviews are summarized and discussed with our senior management to determine the best estimate of reserves. This group considers many factors in making this decision. The factors include, but are not limited to, the historical pattern and volatility of the actuarial indications, the sensitivity of the actuarial indications to changes in paid and incurred loss patterns, the consistency of claims handling processes, the

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consistency of case reserving practices, changes in our pricing and underwriting, pricing and underwriting trends in the insurance market, and legal, judicial, social and economic trends.
Our recorded reserves reflect our best estimate as of a particular point in time based upon known facts, consideration of the factors cited above, and our judgment. The carried reserve may differ from the actuarial point estimate as the result of our consideration of the factors noted above as well as the potential volatility of the projections associated with the specific product being analyzed and other factors impacting claims costs that may not be quantifiable through traditional actuarial analysis. This process results in management’s best estimate which is then recorded as the loss reserve.
Currently, our recorded reserves are modestly higher than the actuarial point estimate. For both CNA Commercial and CNA Specialty, the difference between our reserves and the actuarial point estimate is primarily driven by uncertainty with respect to immature accident years, claim cost inflation, changes in claims handling, tort reform roll-backs which may adversely impact claim costs, and the effects of the recessionary economy. For Corporate & Other Non-Core, the carried reserve is relatively consistent with the actuarial point estimate.
The key assumptions fundamental to the reserving process are often different for various products and accident years. Some of these assumptions are explicit assumptions that are required of a particular method, but most of the assumptions are implicit and cannot be precisely quantified. An example of an explicit assumption is the pattern employed in the paid development method. However, the assumed pattern is itself based on several implicit assumptions such as the impact of inflation on medical costs and the rate at which claim professionals close claims. As a result, the effect on reserve estimates of a particular change in assumptions usually cannot be specifically quantified, and changes in these assumptions cannot be tracked over time.
Our recorded reserves are management’s best estimate. In order to provide an indication of the variability associated with our net reserves, the following discussion provides a sensitivity analysis that shows the approximate estimated impact of variations in the most significant factor affecting our reserve estimates for particular types of business. These significant factors are the ones that could most likely materially impact the reserves. This discussion covers the major types of business for which we believe a material deviation to our reserves is reasonably possible. There can be no assurance that actual experience will be consistent with the current assumptions or with the variation indicated by the discussion. In addition, there can be no assurance that other factors and assumptions will not have a material impact on our reserves.
Within CNA Specialty, we believe a material deviation to our net reserves is reasonably possible for professional liability and related business. This business includes professional liability coverages provided to various professional firms, including architects, realtors, small and mid-sized accounting firms, law firms and technology firms. This business also includes D&O, employment practices, fiduciary and fidelity coverages as well as insurance products serving the healthcare delivery system. The most significant factor affecting reserve estimates for this business is claim severity. Claim severity is driven by the cost of medical care, the cost of wage replacement, legal fees, judicial decisions, legislation and other factors. Underwriting and claim handling decisions such as the classes of business written and individual claim settlement decisions can also impact claim severity. If the estimated claim severity increases by 9%, we estimate that the net reserves would increase by approximately $450 million. If the estimated claim severity decreases by 3%, we estimate that net reserves would decrease by approximately $150 million. Our net reserves for this business were approximately $4.9 billion at December 31, 2009.
Within CNA Commercial, the two types of business for which we believe a material deviation to our net reserves is reasonably possible are workers’ compensation and general liability.
For CNA Commercial workers’ compensation, since many years will pass from the time the business is written until all claim payments have been made, claim cost inflation on claim payments is the most significant factor affecting workers’ compensation reserve estimates. Workers’ compensation claim cost inflation is driven by the cost of medical care, the cost of wage replacement, expected claimant lifetimes, judicial decisions, legislative changes and other factors. If estimated workers’ compensation claim cost inflation increases by 100 basis points for the entire period over which claim payments will be made, we estimate that our net reserves would increase by approximately $450 million. If estimated workers’ compensation claim cost inflation decreases by 100 basis points for the entire period over which claim payments will be made, we estimate that

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our net reserves would decrease by approximately $400 million. Our net reserves for CNA Commercial workers’ compensation were approximately $4.8 billion at December 31, 2009.
For CNA Commercial general liability, the most significant factor affecting reserve estimates is severity. Claim severity is driven by changes in the cost to repair or replace property, the cost of medical care, the cost of wage replacement, judicial decisions, legislation and other factors. If the estimated claim severity for general liability increases by 6%, we estimate that our net reserves would increase by approximately $200 million. If the estimated claim severity for general liability decreases by 3%, we estimate that our net reserves would decrease by approximately $100 million. Our net reserves for CNA Commercial general liability were approximately $3.3 billion at December 31, 2009.
Within Corporate & Other Non-Core, the two types of business for which we believe a material deviation to our net reserves is reasonably possible are CNA Re and A&E.
For CNA Re, the predominant method used for estimating reserves is the incurred development method. Changes in the cost to repair or replace property, the cost of medical care, the cost of wage replacement, the rate at which ceding companies report claims, judicial decisions, legislation and other factors all impact the incurred development pattern for CNA Re. The pattern selected results in the incurred development factor that estimates future changes in case incurred loss. If the estimated incurred development factor for CNA Re increases by 40%, we estimate that our net reserves for CNA Re would increase by approximately $100 million. If the estimated incurred development factor for CNA Re decreases by 30%, we estimate that our net reserves would decrease by approximately $75 million. Our net reserves for CNA Re were approximately $0.7 billion at December 31, 2009.
For A&E, the most significant factor affecting reserve estimates is overall account severity. Overall account severity for A&E reflects the combined impact of economic trends (inflation), changes in the types of defendants involved, the expected mix of asbestos disease types, judicial decisions, legislation and other factors. If the estimated overall account severity for A&E increases approximately 20%, we estimate that our A&E net reserves would increase by approximately $300 million. If the estimated overall account severity for A&E decreases by approximately 10%, we estimate that our A&E net reserves would decrease by approximately $150 million. Our net reserves for A&E were approximately $1.4 billion at December 31, 2009.
Given the factors described above, it is not possible to quantify precisely the ultimate exposure represented by claims and related litigation. As a result, we regularly review the adequacy of our reserves and reassess our reserve estimates as historical loss experience develops, additional claims are reported and settled and additional information becomes available in subsequent periods.
In light of the many uncertainties associated with establishing the estimates and making the assumptions necessary to establish reserve levels, we review our reserve estimates on a regular basis and make adjustments in the period that the need for such adjustments is determined. These reviews have resulted in our identification of information and trends that have caused us to change our reserves in prior periods and could lead to the identification of a need for additional material increases or decreases in claim and claim adjustment expense reserves, which could materially affect our results of operations, equity, business and insurer financial strength and debt ratings positively or negatively. See the Ratings section of this MD&A for further information regarding our financial strength and debt ratings.

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Segment Results
The following discusses the results of continuing operations for our operating segments.
As a result of our realignment of management responsibilities, we revised our property and casualty segments in the fourth quarter of 2009. There was no change in our Life & Group Non-Core and Corporate & Other Non-Core segments. Prior period segment disclosures have been conformed to the current year presentation. The new segment structure reflects the way management currently reviews results and makes business decisions.
Our core property and casualty commercial insurance operations are reported in two business segments: CNA Specialty and CNA Commercial. CNA Specialty provides a broad array of professional, financial and specialty property and casualty products and services, primarily through insurance brokers and managing general underwriters. CNA Commercial includes property and casualty coverages sold to small businesses and middle market entities and organizations primarily through an independent agency distribution system. CNA Commercial also includes commercial insurance and risk management products sold to large corporations primarily through insurance brokers. Previously, our international operations were treated as a separate business unit within CNA Specialty. The products sold through our international operations are now reflected within CNA Specialty and CNA Commercial in a manner that aligns with the products within each segment. Additionally, our excess and surplus lines, which were previously included in CNA Specialty, are now included in CNA Commercial, as part of CNA Select Risk.
Our non-core operations are managed in two segments: Life & Group Non-Core and Corporate & Other Non-Core. Life & Group Non-Core primarily includes the results of the life and group lines of business that have been placed in run-off. Corporate & Other Non-Core primarily includes certain corporate expenses, including interest on corporate debt, and the results of certain property and casualty business primarily in run-off, including CNA Re. This segment also includes the results related to the centralized adjusting and settlement of A&E.
Our property and casualty field structure consists of 41 branch locations across the country organized into 6 zones. The centralized processing operation for small and middle-market customers, located in Maitland, Florida, handles policy processing, billing and collection activities, and also acts as a call center to optimize customer service. The claims structure consists of a centralized claim center designed to efficiently handle the high volume of low severity claims including property damage, liability, and workers’ compensation medical only claims, and 14 principal claim office locations around the country handling the more complex claims.
We utilize the net operating income financial measure to monitor our operations. Net operating income is calculated by excluding from net income (loss) attributable to CNA the after-tax effects of 1) net realized investment gains or losses, 2) income or loss from discontinued operations and 3) any cumulative effects of changes in accounting guidance. See further discussion regarding how we manage our business in Note N of the Consolidated Financial Statements included under Item 8. In evaluating the results of our CNA Specialty and CNA Commercial segments, we utilize the loss ratio, the expense ratio, the dividend ratio, and the combined ratio. These ratios are calculated using GAAP financial results. The loss ratio is the percentage of net incurred claim and claim adjustment expenses to net earned premiums. The expense ratio is the percentage of insurance underwriting and acquisition expenses, including the amortization of deferred acquisition costs, to net earned premiums. The dividend ratio is the ratio of policyholders’ dividends incurred to net earned premiums. The combined ratio is the sum of the loss, expense and dividend ratios.
Changes in estimates of claim and allocated claim adjustment expense reserves and premium accruals, net of reinsurance, for prior years are defined as net prior year development within this MD&A. These changes can be favorable or unfavorable. Net prior year development does not include the impact of related acquisition expenses. Further information on our reserves is provided in Note F of the Consolidated Financial Statements included under Item 8.

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CNA SPECIALTY
Business Overview
CNA Specialty provides professional liability and other coverages through property and casualty products and services, both domestically and abroad, through a network of brokers, managing general underwriters and independent agencies. CNA Specialty provides solutions for managing the risks of its clients, including architects, lawyers, accountants, healthcare professionals, financial intermediaries and public and private companies. Product offerings also include surety and fidelity bonds and vehicle warranty services.
CNA Specialty includes the following business groups:
Professional & Management Liability provides management and professional liability insurance and risk management services and other specialized property and casualty coverages in the United States. This group provides professional liability coverages to various professional firms, including architects, realtors, small and mid-sized accounting firms, law firms and technology firms. Professional & Management Liability also provides D&O, employment practices, fiduciary and fidelity coverages. Specific areas of focus include small and mid-size firms as well as privately held firms and not-for-profit organizations, where tailored products for this client segment are offered. Products within Professional & Management Liability are distributed through brokers, agents and managing general underwriters.
Professional & Management Liability, through CNA HealthPro, also offers insurance products to serve the healthcare delivery system. Products include professional liability and associated standard property and casualty coverages, and are distributed on a national basis through brokers, agents and managing general underwriters. Key customer segments include long term care facilities, allied healthcare providers, life sciences, dental professionals and mid-size and large healthcare facilities.
International provides similar management and professional liability insurance and other specialized property and casualty coverages in Canada and Europe.
Surety consists primarily of CNA Surety Corporation (CNA Surety) and its insurance subsidiaries and offers small, medium and large contract and commercial surety bonds. CNA Surety provides surety and fidelity bonds in all 50 states through a combined network of independent agencies. We own approximately 62% of CNA Surety.
Warranty and Alternative Risks provides extended service contracts and related products that protect individuals from the financial burden associated with mechanical breakdown and other related losses, primarily for vehicles and portable electronic communication devices. These products are distributed through and administered by a wholly owned subsidiary, CNA National Warranty Corporation, or through a third party administrator.

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The following table details results of operations for CNA Specialty.
Results of Operations
                         
Years ended December 31   2009   2008   2007
(In millions)                        
 
                       
Net written premiums
  $ 2,684     $ 2,719     $ 2,766  
Net earned premiums
    2,697       2,755       2,759  
Net investment income
    526       354       493  
Net operating income
    591       414       524  
Net realized investment losses, after-tax
    (123 )     (167 )     (45 )
Net income
    468       247       479  
 
                       
Ratios
                       
Loss and loss adjustment expense
    56.9 %     61.7 %     62.5 %
Expense
    29.3       27.3       25.8  
Dividend
    0.3       0.5       0.2  
 
           
 
                       
Combined
    86.5 %     89.5 %     88.5 %
 
           
2009 Compared with 2008
Net written premiums for CNA Specialty decreased $35 million in 2009 as compared with 2008. The decrease in net written premiums was driven by our architects & engineers and surety bond lines of business, as current economic conditions have led to decreased insured exposures. This, along with the competitive market conditions, may continue to put ongoing pressure on premium and income levels and the expense ratio. Net written premiums were also unfavorably impacted by foreign exchange. Net earned premiums decreased $58 million as compared with the same period in 2008, consistent with the trend of lower net written premiums.
CNA Specialty’s average rate decreased 2% for 2009 as compared to a decrease of 4% for 2008 for policies that renewed in each period. Retention rates of 85% were achieved for those policies that were available for renewal in each period.
Net income improved $221 million in 2009 as compared with 2008. This increase was due to improved net operating income and lower net realized investment losses. See the Investments section of this MD&A for further discussion of net investment income and net realized investment results.
Net operating income improved $177 million in 2009 as compared with 2008, primarily due to higher net investment income and increased favorable net prior year development.
The combined ratio improved 3.0 points in 2009 as compared with 2008. The loss ratio improved 4.8 points primarily due to increased favorable net prior year development. The expense ratio increased 2.0 points in 2009 as compared with 2008, primarily due to higher underwriting expenses and the lower net earned premium base. Underwriting expenses increased primarily due to higher employee-related costs.
Favorable net prior year development of $224 million was recorded in 2009, compared to $106 million in 2008. Further information on CNA Specialty net prior year development for 2009 and 2008 is included in Note F of the Consolidated Financial Statements included under Item 8.

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The following table summarizes the gross and net carried reserves as of December 31, 2009 and 2008 for CNA Specialty.
Gross and Net Carried
Claim and Claim Adjustment Expense Reserves
                 
December 31   2009   2008
(In millions)                
 
               
Gross Case Reserves
  $ 2,208     $ 2,105  
Gross IBNR Reserves
    4,714       4,616  
 
       
 
               
Total Gross Carried Claim and Claim Adjustment Expense Reserves
  $ 6,922     $ 6,721  
 
       
 
               
Net Case Reserves
  $ 1,781     $ 1,639  
Net IBNR Reserves
    4,085       3,896  
 
       
 
               
Total Net Carried Claim and Claim Adjustment Expense Reserves
  $ 5,866     $ 5,535  
 
       
2008 Compared with 2007
Net written premiums for CNA Specialty decreased $47 million in 2008 as compared with 2007. Premiums written in 2008 were unfavorably impacted by competitive market conditions resulting in decreased production, as compared with 2007, primarily in professional management and liability lines. The unfavorable impact in premiums written was partially offset by decreased ceded premiums primarily due to decreased use of reinsurance. Net earned premiums decreased $4 million as compared with the same period in 2007, consistent with the decrease in net written premiums.
CNA Specialty’s average rate decreased 4% for 2008, as compared to a decrease of 5% for 2007 for policies that renewed in each period. Retention rates of 85% and 83% were achieved for those policies that were up for renewal in each period.
Net income decreased $232 million in 2008 as compared with 2007. This decrease was primarily attributable to higher net realized investment losses and lower net operating income. See the Investments section of this MD&A for further discussion of net investment income and net realized investment results.
Net operating income decreased $110 million in 2008 as compared with 2007. This decrease was primarily driven by significantly lower net investment income and decreased current accident year underwriting results. These unfavorable results were partially offset by the impact of favorable net prior year development in 2008 as compared to unfavorable net prior year development in 2007.
The combined ratio increased 1.0 point in 2008 as compared with 2007. The loss ratio improved 0.8 point, primarily due to the impact of development. This was partially offset by higher current accident year loss ratios recorded primarily in our E&O and D&O coverages for financial institutions due to the financial markets credit crisis in 2008.
The expense ratio increased 1.5 points in 2008 as compared with 2007. The increase primarily related to increased underwriting expenses and reduced ceding commissions.
Favorable net prior year development of $106 million was recorded in 2008, compared to unfavorable net prior year development of $24 million in 2007. Further information on CNA Specialty net prior year development for 2008 and 2007 is included in Note F of the Consolidated Financial Statements included under Item 8.

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CNA COMMERCIAL
Business Overview
CNA Commercial works with an independent agency distribution system and a network of brokers to market a broad range of property and casualty insurance products and services to small, middle-market and large businesses and organizations. Property products include standard and excess property coverages, as well as marine coverage, and boiler and machinery. Casualty products include standard casualty insurance products such as workers’ compensation, general and product liability, commercial auto and umbrella coverages. Most insurance programs are provided on a guaranteed cost basis; however, we also offer specialized loss-sensitive insurance programs to those customers viewed as higher risk and less predictable in exposure.
These property and casualty products are offered as part of our Commercial, Business and International insurance groups. Our Business insurance group serves our smaller commercial accounts and the Commercial insurance group serves our middle markets and larger risks. In addition, CNA Commercial provides total risk management services relating to claim and information services to the large commercial insurance marketplace, through a wholly-owned subsidiary, CNA ClaimPlus, Inc., a third party administrator. The International insurance group primarily consists of the commercial product lines of our operations in Europe, Canada, Latin America and Hawaii.
Also included in CNA Commercial is CNA Select Risk (Select Risk), which includes our excess and surplus lines coverages. Select Risk provides specialized insurance for selected commercial risks on both an individual customer and program basis. Customers insured by Select Risk are generally viewed as higher risk and less predictable in exposure than those covered by standard insurance markets. Select Risk’s products are distributed throughout the United States through specialist producers, program agents and brokers.
The following table details results of operations for CNA Commercial.
Results of Operations
                         
Years ended December 31   2009   2008   2007
(In millions)                        
 
                       
Net written premiums
  $ 3,448     $ 3,770     $ 4,007  
Net earned premiums
    3,432       3,787       4,104  
Net investment income
    922       603       1,006  
Net operating income
    506       289       697  
Net realized investment losses, after-tax
    (232 )     (335 )     (105 )
Net income (loss)
    274       (46 )     592  
 
                       
Ratios
                       
Loss and loss adjustment expense
    69.6 %     73.0 %     66.8 %
Expense
    35.2       31.2       32.1  
Dividend
    0.3       -       0.2  
 
           
 
                       
Combined
    105.1 %     104.2 %     99.1 %
 
           
2009 Compared with 2008
Net written premiums for CNA Commercial decreased $322 million in 2009 as compared with 2008. Written premiums declined in most lines primarily due to general economic conditions. Current economic conditions have led to decreased insured exposures, such as in small businesses and in the construction industry due to smaller payrolls and reduced project volume. This, along with competitive market conditions, may continue to put ongoing pressure on premium and income levels and the expense ratio. Net earned premiums decreased $355 million in 2009 as compared with 2008, consistent with the trend of lower net written premiums. Premiums were also impacted by unfavorable premium development recorded in 2009 and unfavorable foreign exchange.
CNA Commercial’s average rate was flat, as compared to a decrease of 4% for 2008 for policies that renewed in each period. Retention rates of 81% were achieved for those policies that were available for renewal in both periods.

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Net results improved $320 million in 2009 as compared with 2008. This improvement was due to increased net operating income and decreased net realized investment losses. See the Investments section of this MD&A for further discussion of net realized investment results and net investment income.
Net operating income improved $217 million in 2009 compared with 2008. This improvement was primarily driven by higher net investment income and lower catastrophe losses. Partially offsetting these favorable items was an unfavorable change in current accident year underwriting results excluding catastrophes.
The combined ratio increased 0.9 point in 2009 as compared with 2008. The loss ratio improved 3.4 points primarily due to decreased catastrophe losses, partially offset by the impact of higher current accident year non-catastrophe loss ratios. Catastrophe losses were $82 million, or 2.4 points of the loss ratio, for 2009 as compared to $343 million, or 9.0 points of the loss ratio, for 2008. The current accident year loss ratio, excluding catastrophe losses, was unfavorably impacted by loss experience in several lines of business, including workers’ compensation and renewable energy, as well as several significant property losses.
The expense ratio increased 4.0 points in 2009 as compared with 2008, primarily related to higher underwriting expenses, unfavorable changes in estimates for insurance-related assessments and the lower net earned premium base. Underwriting expenses increased primarily due to higher employee-related costs.
In 2008, the amount due from policyholders related to losses under deductible policies within CNA Commercial Lines was reduced by $90 million for insolvent insureds. The reduction of this amount, which was reflected as unfavorable net prior year reserve development in 2008, had no effect on 2008 results of operations as the Company had previously recognized provisions in prior years. These impacts were reported in Insurance claims and policyholders’ benefits in the 2008 Consolidated Statement of Operations.
Favorable net prior year development of $168 million was recorded in 2009, compared to favorable net prior year development of $96 million in 2008. Excluding the impact of the $90 million of unfavorable net prior year reserve development discussed above, which had no net impact on the 2008 results of operations, favorable net prior year development was $186 million. Further information on CNA Commercial net prior year development for 2009 and 2008 is included in Note F of the Consolidated Financial Statements included under Item 8.
The following table summarizes the gross and net carried reserves as of December 31, 2009 and 2008 for CNA Commercial.
Gross and Net Carried
Claim and Claim Adjustment Expense Reserves
                 
December 31   2009   2008
(In millions)                
 
               
Gross Case Reserves
  $ 6,510     $ 6,772  
Gross IBNR Reserves
    6,495       6,837  
 
       
 
               
Total Gross Carried Claim and Claim Adjustment Expense Reserves
  $ 13,005     $ 13,609  
 
       
 
               
Net Case Reserves
  $ 5,269     $ 5,505  
Net IBNR Reserves
    5,580       5,673  
 
       
 
               
Total Net Carried Claim and Claim Adjustment Expense Reserves
  $ 10,849     $ 11,178  
 
       
2008 Compared with 2007
Net written premiums for CNA Commercial decreased $237 million in 2008 as compared with 2007. Premiums written in 2008 were unfavorably impacted by competitive market conditions resulting in decreased production, as compared with 2007, across most lines of business. This unfavorable impact was partially offset by decreased ceded premiums. Net earned premiums decreased $317 million in 2008 as compared with 2007, consistent with the decreased net written premiums.
CNA Commercial’s average rate decreased 4% for 2008, as compared to a decrease of 3% for 2007 for policies that renewed in each period. Retention rates of 81% and 79% were achieved for those policies that were available for renewal in each period.

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Net results decreased $638 million in 2008 as compared with 2007. This decrease was attributable to decreased net operating income and higher net realized investment losses. See the Investments section of this MD&A for further discussion of the net realized investment results and net investment income.
Net operating income decreased $408 million in 2008 as compared with 2007. This decrease was primarily driven by significantly lower net investment income and higher catastrophe impacts. The catastrophe impacts were $230 million after-tax in 2008, which included a $7 million after-tax catastrophe-related insurance assessment, as compared to catastrophe losses of $49 million after-tax in 2007.
The combined ratio increased 5.1 points in 2008 as compared with 2007. The loss ratio increased 6.2 points primarily due to increased catastrophe losses. Catastrophes losses related to 2008 events had an adverse impact of 9.0 points on the loss ratio in 2008 compared with an adverse impact of 1.8 points in 2007.
The expense ratio decreased 0.9 point in 2008 as compared with 2007 primarily related to changes in the assessment rates imposed by certain states for insurance-related assessments. The dividend ratio decreased 0.2 point in 2008 as compared with 2007 due to increased favorable dividend development in the workers’ compensation line of business.
Favorable net prior year development of $96 million was recorded in 2008. Excluding the impact of the $90 million of unfavorable net prior year reserve development discussed above, which had no net impact on the 2008 results of operations, favorable net prior year development was $186 million. Favorable net prior year development of $183 million was recorded in 2007. Further information on CNA Commercial net prior year development for 2008 and 2007 is included in Note F of the Consolidated Financial Statements included under Item 8.

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LIFE & GROUP NON-CORE
Business Overview
The Life & Group Non-Core segment primarily includes the results of the life and group lines of business that are in run-off. We continue to service our existing individual long term care commitments, our payout annuity business and our pension deposit business. We also retain a block of group reinsurance and life settlement contracts. These businesses are being managed as a run-off operation. Our group long term care business, while considered non-core, continues to be actively marketed. During 2008, we exited the indexed group annuity portion of our pension deposit business.
The following table summarizes the results of operations for Life & Group Non-Core.
Results of Operations
                         
Years ended December 31   2009   2008   2007
(In millions)                        
 
                       
Net earned premiums
  $ 595     $ 612     $ 618  
Net investment income
    664       484       622  
Net operating loss
    (16 )     (108 )     (159 )
Net realized investment losses, after-tax
    (153 )     (236 )     (36 )
Net loss
    (169 )     (344 )     (195 )
2009 Compared with 2008
Net earned premiums for Life & Group Non-Core decreased $17 million in 2009 as compared with 2008. Net earned premiums relate primarily to the individual and group long term care businesses.
Net loss decreased $175 million in 2009 as compared with 2008. The decrease in net loss was primarily due to improved net realized investment results, favorable performance on our remaining pension deposit business as further discussed below, and a settlement reached with Willis Limited that resolved litigation related to the placement of personal accident reinsurance. Under the settlement agreement, Willis Limited agreed to pay us a total of $130 million, which resulted in an after-tax gain of $61 million, net of reinsurance. This litigation was brought by us in response to our settlement of the IGI contingency in 2007, as discussed below.
Certain of the separate account investment contracts related to our pension deposit business guarantee principal and an annual minimum rate of interest, for which we recorded an additional pretax liability in Policyholders’ funds in 2008. Based on the increase in value of the investments supporting this business, we decreased this pretax liability by $42 million during 2009. During 2008 we increased this liability by $68 million.
These favorable impacts were partially offset by unfavorable results in our long term care business and a $28 million after-tax legal accrual recorded in the second quarter of 2009 related to a previously held limited partnership investment. The limited partnership investment supported the indexed group annuity portion of our pension deposit business.
Net investment income for the year ended December 31, 2008 included trading portfolio losses of $146 million, which were substantially offset by a corresponding decrease in the policyholders’ funds reserves supported by the trading portfolio. This trading portfolio supported the indexed group annuity portion of our pension deposit business. During 2008, we settled these liabilities with policyholders with no material impact to results of operations. That business had a net loss of $22 million for the year ended December 31, 2008.
2008 Compared with 2007
Net earned premiums for Life & Group Non-Core decreased $6 million in 2008 as compared with 2007.
Net loss increased $149 million in 2008 as compared with 2007. The increase in net loss was primarily due to increased net realized investment losses and adverse investment performance on a portion of our pension deposit business. As discussed above, during 2008, the Company recorded a pretax liability of $68 million in Policyholders’ funds due to the performance of the related assets supporting the pension deposit business in 2008. There was no liability recorded in 2007 related to this business.

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The net loss in 2007 included an after-tax loss of $108 million related to the settlement of the IGI contingency. The IGI contingency related to reinsurance arrangements with respect to personal accident insurance coverages provided between 1997 and 1999 which were the subject of arbitration proceedings.
The decreased net investment income included a decline of trading portfolio results, which was substantially offset by a corresponding decrease in the policyholders’ fund reserves supported by the indexed group annuity trading portfolio. The trading portfolio supported the indexed group annuity portion of our pension deposit business. See the Investments section of this MD&A for further discussion of net investment income and net realized investment results.

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CORPORATE & OTHER NON-CORE
Overview
Corporate & Other Non-Core primarily includes certain corporate expenses, including interest on corporate debt, and the results of certain property and casualty business primarily in run-off, including CNA Re. This segment also includes the results related to the centralized adjusting and settlement of A&E claims.
The following table summarizes the results of operations for the Corporate & Other Non-Core segment, including A&E and intrasegment eliminations.
Results of Operations
                         
Years ended December 31   2009   2008   2007
(In millions)                        
 
                       
Net investment income
  $ 208     $ 178     $ 312  
Net operating loss
    (99 )     (62 )     (2 )
Net realized investment losses, after-tax
    (53 )     (103 )     (17 )
Net loss
    (152 )     (165 )     (19 )
2009 Compared with 2008
Net loss decreased $13 million in 2009 as compared with 2008, primarily due to improved net realized investment results and higher net investment income. Partially offsetting these favorable items was increased unfavorable net prior year development primarily related to A&E.
Unfavorable net prior year development of $184 million was recorded in 2009, including $79 million for asbestos exposures and $76 million for environmental pollution exposures. In our most recent actuarial ground up review we noted adverse development in various asbestos accounts due to increases in average claim severity and defense expense arising from increased trial activity. Additionally, we have not seen a decline in the overall emergence of new accounts during the last few years. We noted adverse development in various pollution accounts due to changes in the liabilities attributed to our policyholders and adverse changes in case law impacting insurers’ coverage obligations. These changes in turn increased our account estimates on certain accounts. In addition, the frequency of environmental pollution claims did not decline at the rate previously anticipated. Unfavorable net prior year development of $122 million was recorded in 2008. Further information on Corporate & Other Non-Core net prior year development for 2009 and 2008 is included in Note F of the Consolidated Financial Statements included under Item 8.
The following table summarizes the gross and net carried reserves as of December 31, 2009 and 2008 for Corporate & Other Non-Core.
Gross and Net Carried
Claim and Claim Adjustment Expense Reserves
                 
December 31   2009   2008
(In millions)                
 
               
Gross Case Reserves
  $ 1,548     $ 1,823  
Gross IBNR Reserves
    2,458       2,578  
 
       
 
               
Total Gross Carried Claim and Claim Adjustment Expense Reserves
  $ 4,006     $ 4,401  
 
       
 
               
Net Case Reserves
  $ 972     $ 1,126  
Net IBNR Reserves
    1,515       1,561  
 
       
 
               
Total Net Carried Claim and Claim Adjustment Expense Reserves
  $ 2,487     $ 2,687  
 
       
2008 Compared with 2007
Net loss increased $146 million in 2008 as compared with 2007. This increase was primarily due to lower net investment income, higher net realized investment losses and expenses associated with a legal contingency. These unfavorable impacts were partially offset by a $27 million release from the allowance for uncollectible

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reinsurance receivables arising from a change in estimate. In addition, the 2007 results included current accident year losses related to certain mass torts.
Unfavorable net prior year development of $122 million was recorded in 2008. Unfavorable net prior year development of $86 million was recorded in 2007. Further information on Corporate & Other Non-Core net prior year development for 2008 and 2007 is included in Note F of the Consolidated Financial Statements included under Item 8.

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A&E Reserves
Our property and casualty insurance subsidiaries have actual and potential exposures related to asbestos and environmental pollution (A&E) claims. Establishing reserves for A&E claim and claim adjustment expenses is subject to a higher degree of variability due to a number of factors, as further discussed in the Reserve Estimates & Uncertainties section of this MD&A. Due to the inherent uncertainties in estimating claim and claim adjustment expense reserves for A&E and due to the significant uncertainties described related to A&E claims, our ultimate liability for these cases, both individually and in aggregate, may exceed the recorded reserves. Any such potential additional liability, or any range of potential additional amounts, cannot be reasonably estimated currently, but could be material to our business, results of operations, equity, and insurer financial strength and debt ratings.
Asbestos
In the past several years, we experienced, at certain points in time, significant increases in claim counts for asbestos-related claims. The factors that led to these increases included, among other things, intensive advertising campaigns by lawyers for asbestos claimants, mass medical screening programs sponsored by plaintiff lawyers and the addition of new defendants such as the distributors and installers of products containing asbestos. In recent years, the rate of new filings has decreased. Various challenges to mass screening claimants have been successful. Historically, the majority of asbestos bodily injury claims have been filed by persons exhibiting few, if any, disease symptoms. Studies have concluded that the percentage of unimpaired claimants to total claimants ranges between 66% and up to 90%. Some courts and some state statutes mandate that so-called “unimpaired” claimants may not recover unless at some point the claimant’s condition worsens to the point of impairment. Some plaintiffs classified as “unimpaired” continue to challenge those orders and statutes. Therefore, the ultimate impact of the orders and statutes on future asbestos claims remains uncertain.
Despite the decrease in new claim filings in recent years, there are several factors, in our view, negatively impacting asbestos claim trends. Plaintiff attorneys who previously sued entities that are now bankrupt continue to seek other viable targets. As plaintiff attorneys named additional defendants to new and existing asbestos bodily injury lawsuits, we experienced an increase in the total number of policyholders with current asbestos claims. Companies with few or no previous asbestos claims are becoming targets in asbestos litigation and, although they may have little or no liability, nevertheless must be defended. Additionally, plaintiff attorneys and trustees for future claimants are demanding that policy limits be paid lump-sum into the bankruptcy asbestos trusts prior to presentation of valid claims and medical proof of these claims. Various challenges to these practices have succeeded in litigation, and are continuing to be litigated. Plaintiff attorneys and trustees for future claimants are also attempting to devise claims payment procedures for bankruptcy trusts that would allow asbestos claims to be paid under lax standards for injury, exposure and causation. This also presents the potential for exhausting policy limits in an accelerated fashion. Challenges to these practices are being mounted, though the ultimate impact or success of these tactics remains uncertain.
We are involved in significant asbestos-related claim litigation, which is described in Note F of the Consolidated Financial Statements included under Item 8.
Environmental Pollution
Environmental pollution cleanup is the subject of both federal and state regulation. By some estimates, there are thousands of potential waste sites subject to cleanup. The insurance industry has been involved in extensive litigation regarding coverage issues. Judicial interpretations in many cases have expanded the scope of coverage and liability beyond the original intent of the policies. The Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 (Superfund) and comparable state statutes (mini-Superfunds) govern the cleanup and restoration of toxic waste sites and formalize the concept of legal liability for cleanup and restoration by “Potentially Responsible Parties” (PRPs). Superfund and the mini-Superfunds establish mechanisms to pay for cleanup of waste sites if PRPs fail to do so and assign liability to PRPs. The extent of liability to be allocated to a PRP is dependent upon a variety of factors. Further, the number of waste sites subject to cleanup is unknown. To date, approximately 1,500 cleanup sites have been identified by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and included on its National Priorities List (NPL). State authorities have designated many cleanup sites as well.

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Many policyholders have made claims against us for defense costs and indemnification in connection with environmental pollution matters. The vast majority of these claims relate to accident years 1989 and prior, which coincides with our adoption of the Simplified Commercial General Liability coverage form, which includes what is referred to in the industry as absolute pollution exclusion. We and the insurance industry are disputing coverage for many such claims. Key coverage issues include whether cleanup costs are considered damages under the policies, trigger of coverage, allocation of liability among triggered policies, applicability of pollution exclusions and owned property exclusions, the potential for joint and several liability and the definition of an occurrence. To date, courts have been inconsistent in their rulings on these issues.
Further information on A&E claim and claim adjustment expense reserves and net prior year development is included in Note F of the Consolidated Financial Statements included under Item 8.

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INVESTMENTS
We maintain a large portfolio of fixed maturity and equity securities, including large amounts of corporate and government issued debt securities, residential and commercial mortgage-backed securities, and other asset-backed securities and investments in limited partnerships which pursue a variety of long and short investment strategies across a broad array of asset classes. Our investment portfolio supports our obligation to pay future insurance claims and provides investment returns which are an important part of our overall profitability.
For more than a year, capital and credit markets have experienced severe levels of volatility, illiquidity, uncertainty and overall disruption. This broader market disruption significantly subsided in 2009 in most asset sectors. The U.S. Government has initiated programs intended to stabilize and improve markets and the economy. While the ultimate impact of these programs remains uncertain and economic conditions in the U.S. remain challenging, financial markets have shown improvement in 2009. Risk free interest rates continued near multi-year lows and credit spreads narrowed resulting in improvement in the Company’s unrealized position. However, fair values in the asset-backed sector continue to be depressed primarily due to continued concerns with underlying residential and commercial collateral. During the year, the Company took advantage of favorable market conditions to reposition the portfolio to better match the needs of the business. The substantial improvement in the unrealized position of the portfolio not only reflects the broader market recovery, but also these actions which centered around reducing non-investment grade corporate and non-agency residential and commercial mortgage-backed securities through net sales and principal repayments of $1,482 million and $2,459 million on an amortized cost basis. In addition, we had net purchases of $7,441 million in investment grade corporate bonds and $2,041 million in agency residential mortgage-backed securities.
Net Investment Income
The significant components of net investment income are presented in the following table.
Net Investment Income
                         
Years ended December 31   2009   2008   2007
(In millions)                        
 
                       
Fixed maturity securities
  $ 1,941     $ 1,984     $ 2,047  
Short term investments
    36       115       186  
Limited partnerships
    315       (379 )     183  
Equity securities
    49       80       25  
Trading portfolio – indexed group annuity
    -       (146 )     10  
Trading portfolio – other
    23       (3 )     -  
Other
    6       19       35  
 
           
 
                       
Gross investment income
    2,370       1,670       2,486  
Investment expenses
    (50 )     (51 )     (53 )
 
           
 
                       
Net investment income
  $ 2,320     $ 1,619     $ 2,433  
 
           
Net investment income increased $701 million in 2009 as compared with 2008. Excluding indexed group annuity trading portfolio losses of $146 million in 2008, net investment income increased $555 million primarily driven by improved results from limited partnership investments. This increase was partially offset by the impact of lower risk free and short term interest rates. Limited partnership investments generally present greater volatility, higher illiquidity, and greater risk than fixed income investments. Limited partnership income in 2009 was driven by improved performance across many limited partnerships and included individual partnership performance that ranged from a positive $120 million to a negative $59 million. The limited partnership investments are managed as an overall portfolio in an effort to mitigate the greater levels of volatility, illiquidity and risk that are present in the individual investments. The indexed group annuity trading portfolio losses in 2008 were substantially offset by a corresponding decrease in the policyholders’ funds reserves supported by the trading portfolio, which was included in Insurance claims and policyholders’ benefits on the Consolidated Statements of Operations. We exited the indexed group annuity business in 2008.

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Net investment income decreased $814 million in 2008 as compared with 2007. The decrease was primarily driven by significant losses from limited partnerships and the indexed group annuity trading portfolio in 2008, and a decline in short term interest rates.
The fixed maturity investment portfolio and short term investments provided a pretax effective income yield of 5.1%, 5.6% and 5.8% for the years ended December 31, 2009, 2008, and 2007.
Net Realized Investment Gains (Losses)
The components of net realized investment results are presented in the following table.
Net Realized Investment Gains (Losses)
                         
Years ended December 31   2009   2008   2007
(In millions)                        
 
                       
Fixed maturity securities:
                       
U.S. Treasury securities and obligations of government agencies
  $ (53 )   $ 235     $ 86  
Corporate and other taxable bonds
    (306 )     (643 )     (183 )
States, municipalities and political subdivisions – tax-exempt securities
    (21 )     53       3  
Asset-backed securities
    (778 )     (476 )     (343 )
Redeemable preferred stock
    (9 )     -       (41 )
 
           
Total fixed maturity securities
    (1,167 )     (831 )     (478 )
 
                       
Equity securities
    243       (490 )     117  
Derivative securities
    51       (19 )     32  
Short term investments and other
    16       43       18  
 
           
 
                       
Realized investment losses, net of participating policyholders’ interests
    (857 )     (1,297 )     (311 )
Income tax benefit
    296       456       108  
Realized investment (gains) losses, after-tax, attributable to noncontrolling interests
    -       -       -  
 
           
 
                       
Net realized investment gains (losses) attributable to CNA
  $ (561 )   $ (841 )   $ (203 )
 
           
Net realized investment losses decreased $280 million for 2009 as compared with 2008, driven by a realized investment gain related to a common stock holding as discussed below and decreased OTTI losses recognized in earnings. Further information on our realized gains and losses, including our OTTI losses and impairment decision process, is set forth in Note B of the Consolidated Financial Statements included under Item 8. During the second quarter of 2009, the Company adopted updated accounting guidance, which amended the OTTI loss model for fixed maturity securities, as discussed in Note A of the Consolidated Financial Statements included under Item 8.
Included in the 2009 net realized gains for equity securities was $370 million related to the sale of our holdings of Verisk Analytics Inc., which began trading on October 7, 2009 after an initial public offering. Since our cost basis in this position was zero, the entire amount was recognized as a pretax realized investment gain in the fourth quarter of 2009.
Net realized investment losses increased $638 million for 2008 as compared with 2007. The increase was primarily driven by an increase in OTTI losses recognized in earnings.
Our fixed maturity portfolio consists primarily of high quality bonds, 90% and 91% of which were rated as investment grade (rated BBB- or higher) at December 31, 2009 and 2008. The classification between investment grade and non-investment grade is based on a ratings methodology that takes into account ratings from the three major providers, S&P, Moody’s and Fitch Ratings (Fitch) in that order of preference. If a security is not rated by any of the three, we formulate an internal rating. For securities with credit support from third party guarantees, the rating reflects the greater of the underlying rating of the issuer or the insured rating.

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The following table summarizes the ratings of our fixed maturity portfolio at carrying value.
Fixed Maturity Ratings
                                 
December 31   2009   %   2008   %
(In millions)                                
 
                               
U.S. Government and Agencies
  $ 3,705       10 %   $ 4,611       16 %
AAA rated
    5,855       17       8,494       29  
AA and A rated
    12,464       35       8,166       29  
BBB rated
    10,122       28       5,029       17  
Non-investment grade
    3,466       10       2,587       9  
 
               
 
                               
Total
  $ 35,612       100 %   $ 28,887       100 %
 
               
Non-investment grade fixed maturity securities, as presented in the table below, include high-yield securities rated below BBB- by bond rating agencies and other unrated securities that, according to our analysis, are below investment grade. Non-investment grade securities generally involve a greater degree of risk than investment grade securities. Although we have focused efforts to reduce our exposure to non-investment grade securities through net dispositions, non-investment grade securities increased primarily due to price appreciation and downgrades of $1,126 million of asset-backed securities and $333 million of other fixed maturity securities on an amortized cost basis that were previously investment grade. The amortized cost of our non-investment grade fixed maturity bond portfolio was $3,637 million and $3,709 million at December 31, 2009 and 2008. The following table summarizes the ratings of this portfolio at carrying value.
Non-investment Grade
                                 
December 31   2009   %   2008   %
(In millions)                                
                                 
BB
  $ 1,352       39 %   $ 1,585       61 %
B
    1,255       36       754       29  
CCC - C
    761       22       232       9  
D
    98       3       16       1  
 
               
Total
  $ 3,466       100 %   $ 2,587       100 %
 
               
Included within the fixed maturity portfolio are securities that contain credit support from third party guarantees from mono-line insurers. At December 31, 2009, $487 million of the carrying value of the fixed maturity portfolio had a third party guarantee that increased the underlying average rating of those securities from AA- to AAA. Of this amount, over 99% was within the tax-exempt bond segment. This third party credit support on tax-exempt bonds is provided by five mono-line insurers, the largest exposure based on fair value being Assured Guaranty Ltd. at 94%.
At December 31, 2009 and 2008, approximately 99% and 97% of the fixed maturity portfolio was issued by U.S. Government and agencies or was rated by S&P or Moody’s. The remaining bonds were rated by other rating agencies or internally.
The carrying value of fixed maturity and equity securities that are either subject to trading restrictions or trade in illiquid private placement markets at December 31, 2009 was $154 million, which represents less than 0.4% of our total investment portfolio. These securities were in a net unrealized gain position of $5 million at December 31, 2009.

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The following table provides the composition of available-for-sale fixed maturity securities in a gross unrealized loss position at December 31, 2009 by maturity profile. Securities not due at a single date are allocated based on weighted average life.
Maturity Profile
                 
    Percent of   Percent of
    Fair Value   Unrealized Loss
       
Due in one year or less
    3 %     4 %
Due after one year through five years
    20       12  
Due after five years through ten years
    36       36  
Due after ten years
    41       48  
 
       
 
Total
    100 %     100 %
 
       
Duration
A primary objective in the management of the fixed maturity and equity portfolios is to optimize return relative to underlying liabilities and respective liquidity needs. Our views on the current interest rate environment, tax regulations, asset class valuations, specific security issuer and broader industry segment conditions, and the domestic and global economic conditions, are some of the factors that enter into an investment decision. We also continually monitor exposure to issuers of securities held and broader industry sector exposures and may from time to time adjust such exposures based on our views of a specific issuer or industry sector.
A further consideration in the management of the investment portfolio is the characteristics of the underlying liabilities and the ability to align the duration of the portfolio to those liabilities to meet future liquidity needs, minimize interest rate risk and maintain a level of income sufficient to support the underlying insurance liabilities. For portfolios where future liability cash flows are determinable and typically long term in nature, we segregate investments for asset/liability management purposes. The segregated investments support liabilities primarily in the Life & Group Non-Core segment including annuities, structured benefit settlements and long term care products.
The effective durations of fixed maturity securities, short term investments, non-redeemable preferred stocks and interest rate derivatives are presented in the table below. Short term investments are net of securities lending collateral and accounts payable and receivable amounts for securities purchased and sold, but not yet settled.
Effective Durations
                                 
    December 31, 2009   December 31, 2008
            Effective Duration           Effective Duration
    Fair Value   (In years)   Fair Value   (In years)
(In millions)                                
 
                               
Segregated investments
  $ 10,376       11.2     $ 8,168       9.9  
 
                               
Other interest sensitive investments
    29,665       4.0       25,194       4.5  
 
               
 
                               
Total
  $ 40,041       5.8     $ 33,362       5.8  
 
               
The investment portfolio is periodically analyzed for changes in duration and related price change risk. Additionally, we periodically review the sensitivity of the portfolio to the level of foreign exchange rates and other factors that contribute to market price changes. A summary of these risks and specific analysis on changes is included in Item 7A Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk included herein.

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Asset-Backed Exposure
Asset-Backed Distribution
                                 
    Security Type
     
December 31, 2009   RMBS (a)   CMBS (b)   Other ABS (c)   Total
(In millions)                                
 
                               
U.S. Government Agencies
  $ 3,405     $ -     $ -     $ 3,405  
AAA
    1,644       345       626       2,615  
AA
    307       92       69       468  
A
    250       81       35       366  
BBB
    226       44       102       372  
Non-investment grade and equity tranches
    1,105       22       -       1,127  
 
               
Total Fair Value
  $ 6,937     $ 584     $ 832     $ 8,353  
 
               
Total Amortized Cost
  $ 7,469     $ 709     $ 858     $ 9,036  
 
               
 
                               
Sub-prime (included above)
                               
Fair Value
  $ 602     $ -     $ -     $ 602  
Amortized Cost
  $ 709     $ -     $ -     $ 709  
 
                               
Alt-A (included above)
                               
Fair Value
  $ 650     $ -     $ -     $ 650  
Amortized Cost
  $ 775     $ -     $ -     $ 775  
 
(a)  
Residential mortgage-backed securities (RMBS)
 
(b)  
Commercial mortgage-backed securities (CMBS)
 
(c)  
Other asset-backed securities (Other ABS)
The exposure to sub-prime residential mortgage (sub-prime) collateral and Alternative A residential mortgages that have lower than normal standards of loan documentation (Alt-A) collateral is measured by the original deal structure. Of the securities with sub-prime exposure, approximately 66% were rated investment grade, while 78% of the Alt-A securities were rated investment grade. At December 31, 2009, $7 million of the carrying value of the sub-prime and Alt-A securities carried a third-party guarantee.
Pretax OTTI losses of $435 million for securities with sub-prime and Alt-A exposure were included in the $685 million of pretax OTTI losses related to asset-backed securities recognized in earnings on the Consolidated Statement of Operations for the year ended December 31, 2009. Continued deterioration in the underlying collateral beyond our current expectations may cause us to reconsider and recognize additional OTTI losses in earnings. See Note B of the Consolidated Financial Statements included under Item 8 for additional information related to unrealized losses on asset-backed securities.
Short Term Investments
The carrying value of the components of the short term investment portfolio is presented in the following table.
Short Term Investments
                 
    December 31,   December 31,
    2009   2008
(In millions)                
 
               
Short term investments available-for-sale:
               
Commercial paper
  $ 185     $ 563  
U.S. Treasury securities
    3,025       2,258  
Money market funds
    179       329  
Other
    560       384  
 
       
 
               
Total short term investments
  $ 3,949     $ 3,534  
 
       
There was no cash collateral held related to securities lending at December 31, 2009 or 2008.

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Separate Accounts
The following table summarizes the bond ratings of the investments supporting separate account products which guarantee principal and a minimum rate of interest, for which additional amounts may be recorded in Policyholders’ funds should the aggregate contract value exceed the fair value of the related assets supporting the business at any point in time.
Separate Account Bond Ratings
                                 
December 31   2009   %   2008   %
(In millions)                                
 
                               
U.S. Government Agencies
  $ 67       18 %   $ 67       20 %
AAA rated
    17       5       53       15  
AA and A rated
    176       46       148       43  
BBB rated
    93       24       74       22  
Non-investment grade
    27       7       1       -  
 
               
 
                               
Total
  $ 380       100 %   $ 343       100 %
 
               
At December 31, 2009 and 2008, approximately 97% of the separate account portfolio was issued by U.S. Government and affiliated agencies or was rated by S&P or Moody’s. The remaining bonds were rated by other rating agencies or internally.

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LIQUIDITY AND CAPITAL RESOURCES
Cash Flows
Our principal operating cash flow sources are premiums and investment income from our insurance subsidiaries. Our primary operating cash flow uses are payments for claims, policy benefits and operating expenses.
For 2009, net cash provided by operating activities was $1,258 million, as compared to $1,558 million for 2008. Cash provided by operating activities in 2008 was favorably impacted by increased net sales of trading securities to fund policyholders’ withdrawals of investment contract products issued by us, which are reflected as financing cash flows. The primary source of these cash flows was the indexed group annuity portion of our pension deposit business which we exited in 2008. Additionally, during the second quarter of 2009 we resumed the use of a trading portfolio for income enhancement purposes. Because cash receipts and cash payments resulting from purchases and sales of trading securities are reported as cash flows related to operating activities, operating cash flows were reduced by $164 million related to net cash outflows which increased the size of the trading portfolio held at December 31, 2009. Cash provided by operating activities in 2009 was favorably impacted by decreased loss payments as compared to 2008, and tax recoveries in 2009 compared with tax payments in 2008.
For 2008, net cash provided by operating activities was $1,558 million as compared to $1,239 million in 2007. Cash provided by operating activities was favorably impacted by increased net sales of trading securities to fund policyholders’ withdrawals of investment contract products issued by us, decreased tax payments and decreased loss payments. Policyholders’ fund withdrawals are reflected as financing cash flows. Cash provided by operating activities was unfavorably impacted by decreased premium collections and decreased investment income receipts.
Cash flows from investing activities include the purchase and sale of available-for-sale financial instruments. Additionally, cash flows from investing activities may include the purchase and sale of businesses, land, buildings, equipment and other assets not generally held for resale.
Net cash used by investing activities was $1,093 million, $1,908 million and $1,082 million for 2009, 2008, and 2007. Cash flows used by investing activities related principally to purchases of fixed maturity securities and short term investments. The cash flow from investing activities is impacted by various factors such as the anticipated payment of claims, financing activity, asset/liability management and individual security buy and sell decisions made in the normal course of portfolio management.
Cash flows from financing activities include proceeds from the issuance of debt and equity securities, outflows for dividends or repayment of debt, outlays to reacquire equity instruments, and deposits and withdrawals related to investment contract products issued by us.
Net cash flows used by financing activities was $120 million in 2009. Net cash flows provided by financing activities was $347 million in 2008. Net cash flows used by financing activities was $185 million in 2007. Net cash used by financing activities in 2009 was primarily related to the payment of dividends on the 2008 Senior Preferred stock to Loews Corporation.
2008 Senior Preferred
In the fourth quarter of 2008, we issued, and Loews purchased, 12,500 shares of CNAF non-voting cumulative senior preferred stock (2008 Senior Preferred) for $1.25 billion. In the fourth quarter of 2009, we redeemed $250 million of the 2008 Senior Preferred at the issue price plus accrued dividends, using a portion of the proceeds from the issuance of $350 million of 7.350% ten-year senior notes, leaving $1.0 billion of the 2008 Senior Preferred outstanding as of December 31, 2009. Dividends of $122 million and $19 million on the 2008 Senior Preferred were declared and paid for the years ended December 31, 2009 and 2008.

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Liquidity
We believe that our present cash flows from operations, investing activities and financing activities are sufficient to fund our working capital and debt obligation needs and we do not expect this to change in the near term due to the following factors:
 
We do not anticipate changes in our core property and casualty commercial insurance operations which would significantly impact liquidity and we continue to maintain reinsurance contracts which limit the impact of potential catastrophic events.
 
We have entered into several settlement agreements and assumed reinsurance contracts that require collateralization of future payment obligations and assumed reserves if our ratings or other specific criteria fall below certain thresholds. The ratings triggers are generally more than one level below our current ratings. A downgrade below our current ratings levels would also result in additional collateral requirements for derivative contracts for which we are in a liability position at any given point in time. The maximum potential collateralization requirements are approximately $70 million.
 
As of December 31, 2009, our holding company held short term investments of $395 million. Additionally, we have $100 million available through a revolving credit facility as of December 31, 2009. Our holding company’s ability to meet its debt service and other obligations is significantly dependent on receipt of dividends from our subsidiaries. The payment of dividends to us by our insurance subsidiaries without prior approval of the insurance department of each subsidiary’s domiciliary jurisdiction is limited by formula. Notwithstanding this limitation, we believe that our holding company has sufficient liquidity to fund our preferred stock dividend and debt service payments through 2010.
We have an effective shelf registration statement under which we may issue $1,650 million of debt or equity securities.

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Commitments, Contingencies, and Guarantees
We have various commitments, contingencies and guarantees which we become involved with during the ordinary course of business. The impact of these commitments, contingencies and guarantees should be considered when evaluating our liquidity and capital resources.
A summary of our commitments as of December 31, 2009 is presented in the following table.
Contractual Commitments
                                         
December 31, 2009                                   More than 5
    Total   Less than 1 year   1-3 years   3-5 years   years
(In millions)                                        
 
                                       
Debt (a)
  $ 3,338     $ 144     $ 884     $ 771     $ 1,539  
Lease obligations
    173       39       66       42       26  
Claim and claim expense reserves (b)
    28,310       6,042       7,347       4,061       10,860  
Future policy benefits reserves (c)
    12,505       177       337       326       11,665  
Policyholder funds reserves (c)
    155       19       9       7       120  
Guaranteed payment contracts (d)
    8       5       3       -       -  
Preferred stock dividends (e)
    500       100       200       200       -  
 
                   
 
                                       
Total (f)
  $ 44,989     $ 6,526     $ 8,846     $ 5,407     $ 24,210  
 
                   
(a)  
Includes estimated future interest payments.
 
(b)  
Claim and claim adjustment expense reserves are not discounted and represent our estimate of the amount and timing of the ultimate settlement and administration of gross claims based on our assessment of facts and circumstances known as of December 31, 2009. See the Reserves – Estimates and Uncertainties section of this MD&A for further information. Claim and claim adjustment expense reserves of $19 million related to business which has been 100% ceded to unaffiliated parties in connection with the sale of our individual life business in 2004 are not included.
 
(c)  
Future policy benefits and policyholder funds reserves are not discounted and represent our estimate of the ultimate amount and timing of the settlement of benefits based on our assessment of facts and circumstances known as of December 31, 2009. Future policy benefit reserves of $777 million and policyholder fund reserves of $39 million related to business which has been 100% ceded to unaffiliated parties in connection with the sale of our individual life business in 2004 are not included. Additional information on future policy benefits and policyholder funds reserves is included in Note A of the Consolidated Financial Statements under Item 8.
 
(d)  
Primarily relating to telecommunications and software services.
 
(e)  
Our preferred stock has a minimum dividend rate of 10% due quarterly, if declared. We have reflected the dividend payment in the table above for a period of 5 years, which may be more or less than the actual period the preferred stock remains outstanding. As long as the amount of preferred stock outstanding is $1.0 billion, the minimum dividend payment, if declared, is $100 million a year.
 
(f)  
Does not include expected estimated contribution of $73 million to the Company’s pension and postretirement plans in 2010.
Further information on our commitments, contingencies and guarantees is provided in Notes B, C, F, G, I and K of the Consolidated Financial Statements included under Item 8.
Ratings
Ratings are an important factor in establishing the competitive position of insurance companies. Our insurance company subsidiaries are rated by major rating agencies, and these ratings reflect the rating agency’s opinion of the insurance company’s financial strength, operating performance, strategic position and ability to meet our obligations to policyholders. Agency ratings are not a recommendation to buy, sell or hold any security, and may be revised or withdrawn at any time by the issuing organization. Each agency’s rating should be evaluated independently of any other agency’s rating. One or more of these agencies could take action in the future to change the ratings of our insurance subsidiaries.

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The table below reflects the various group ratings issued by A.M. Best Company (A.M. Best), Moody’s and S&P for the property and casualty and life companies. The table also includes the ratings for CNAF senior debt and The Continental Corporation (Continental) senior debt.
                 
    Insurance Financial Strength Ratings   Debt Ratings
    Property & Casualty   Life   CNAF   Continental
    CCC Group   CAC   Senior Debt   Senior Debt
 
A.M. Best
  A   A-   bbb   Not rated
Moody’s
  A3   Not rated   Baa3   Baa3
S&P
  A-   Not rated   BBB-   BBB-
A.M. Best, Moody’s and S&P currently maintain a stable outlook on the Company.
If our property and casualty insurance financial strength ratings were downgraded below current levels, our business and results of operations could be materially adversely affected. The severity of the impact on our business is dependent on the level of downgrade and, for certain products, which rating agency takes the rating action. Among the adverse effects in the event of such downgrades would be the inability to obtain a material volume of business from certain major insurance brokers, the inability to sell a material volume of our insurance products to certain markets and the required collateralization of certain future payment obligations or reserves.
As discussed in the Liquidity section above, additional collateralization may be required for certain settlement agreements and assumed reinsurance contracts, as well as derivative contracts, if our ratings or other specific criteria fall below certain thresholds.
In addition, it is possible that a lowering of the debt ratings of Loews by certain of these agencies could result in an adverse impact on our ratings, independent of any change in our circumstances. None of the major rating agencies which rates Loews currently maintains a negative outlook or has Loews on negative Credit Watch.
Accounting Standards Update
For a discussion of accounting standards updates that have been adopted or will be adopted in the future, see Note A of the Consolidated Financial Statements included under Item 8.

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FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This report contains a number of forward-looking statements which relate to anticipated future events rather than actual present conditions or historical events. These statements are made pursuant to the safe harbor provisions of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 and generally include words such as “believes,” “expects,” “intends,” “anticipates,” “estimates,” and similar expressions. Forward-looking statements in this report include any and all statements regarding expected developments in our insurance business, including losses and loss reserves for asbestos and environmental pollution and other mass tort claims which are more uncertain, and therefore more difficult to estimate than loss reserves respecting traditional property and casualty exposures; the impact of routine ongoing insurance reserve reviews we are conducting; our expectations concerning our revenues, earnings, expenses and investment activities; expected cost savings and other results from our expense reduction activities; and our proposed actions in response to trends in our business. Forward-looking statements, by their nature, are subject to a variety of inherent risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from the results projected in the forward-looking statement. We cannot control many of these risks and uncertainties. Some examples of these risks and uncertainties are:
 
conditions in the capital and credit markets including severe levels of volatility, illiquidity, uncertainty and overall disruption, as well as sharply reduced economic activity, that may impact the returns, types, liquidity and valuation of our investments;
 
 
general economic and business conditions, including recessionary conditions that may decrease the size and number of our insurance customers and create additional losses to our lines of business, especially those that provide management and professional liability insurance, as well as surety bonds, to businesses engaged in real estate, financial services and professional services, and inflationary pressures on medical care costs, construction costs and other economic sectors that increase the severity of claims;
 
 
the effects of the mergers and failures of a number of prominent financial institutions and government sponsored entities, as well as the effects of accounting and financial reporting scandals and other major failures in internal controls and governance, on capital and credit markets, as well as on the markets for directors and officers and errors and omissions coverages;
 
 
changes in foreign or domestic political, social and economic conditions;
 
 
regulatory initiatives and compliance with governmental regulations, judicial decisions, including interpretation of policy provisions, decisions regarding coverage and theories of liability, trends in litigation and the outcome of any litigation involving us, and rulings and changes in tax laws and regulations;
 
 
regulatory limitations, impositions and restrictions upon us, including the effects of assessments and other surcharges for guaranty funds and second-injury funds, other mandatory pooling arrangements and future assessments levied on insurance companies and other financial industry participants under the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008 recoupment provisions;
 
 
the impact of competitive products, policies and pricing and the competitive environment in which we operate, including changes in our book of business;
 
 
product and policy availability and demand and market responses, including the level of ability to obtain rate increases and decline or non-renew under priced accounts, to achieve premium targets and profitability and to realize growth and retention estimates;
 
 
development of claims and the impact on loss reserves, including changes in claim settlement policies;
 
 
the assertion of “public nuisance” theories of liability, pursuant to which plaintiffs seek to recover monies spent to administer public health care programs and/or to abate hazards to public health and safety;
 
 
the effectiveness of current initiatives by claims management to reduce loss and expense ratios through more efficacious claims handling techniques;
 
 
the performance of reinsurance companies under reinsurance contracts with us;
 
 
conditions in the capital and credit markets that may limit our ability to raise significant amounts of capital on favorable terms, as well as restrictions on the ability or willingness of Loews to provide additional capital support to us;

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weather and other natural physical events, including the severity and frequency of storms, hail, snowfall and other winter conditions, natural disasters such as hurricanes and earthquakes, as well as climate change, including effects on weather patterns, greenhouse gases, sea, land and air temperatures, sea levels, rain and snow;
 
 
regulatory requirements imposed by coastal state regulators in the wake of hurricanes or other natural disasters, including limitations on the ability to exit markets or to non-renew, cancel or change terms and conditions in policies, as well as mandatory assessments to fund any shortfalls arising from the inability of quasi-governmental insurers to pay claims;
 
 
man-made disasters, including the possible occurrence of terrorist attacks and the effect of the absence or insufficiency of applicable terrorism legislation on coverages;
 
 
the unpredictability of the nature, targets, severity or frequency of potential terrorist events, as well as the uncertainty as to our ability to contain our terrorism exposure effectively, notwithstanding the extension through December 31, 2014 of the Terrorism Risk Insurance Act of 2002;
 
 
the occurrence of epidemics;
 
 
exposure to liabilities due to claims made by insureds and others relating to asbestos remediation and health-based asbestos impairments, as well as exposure to liabilities for environmental pollution, construction defect claims and exposure to liabilities due to claims made by insureds and others relating to lead-based paint and other mass torts;
 
 
the risks and uncertainties associated with our loss reserves, as outlined in the Critical Accounting Estimates and the Reserves – Estimates and Uncertainties sections of this MD&A, including the sufficiency of the reserves and the possibility for future increases;
 
 
regulatory limitations and restrictions, including limitations upon our ability to receive dividends from our insurance subsidiaries imposed by state regulatory agencies and minimum risk-based capital standards established by the National Association of Insurance Commissioners;
 
 
the possibility of changes in our ratings by ratings agencies, including the inability to access certain markets or distribution channels and the required collateralization of future payment obligations as a result of such changes, and changes in rating agency policies and practices; and
 
 
the actual closing of contemplated transactions and agreements.
Our forward-looking statements speak only as of the date on which they are made and we do not undertake any obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statement to reflect events or circumstances after the date of the statement, even if our expectations or any related events or circumstances change.

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ITEM 7A. QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK
Our financial instruments are exposed to various risks, such as interest rate, credit and currency risk. Due to the level of risk associated with certain invested assets and the level of uncertainty related to changes in the value of these assets, it is possible that changes in these risks in the near term, including increases in interest rates and further credit spread widening, could have an adverse material impact on our results of operations and/or equity.
Discussions herein regarding market risk focus on only one element of market risk, which is price risk. Price risk relates to changes in the level of prices due to changes in interest rates, equity prices, foreign exchange rates or other factors that relate to market volatility of the rate, index or price underlying the financial instrument. Our primary market risk exposures are due to changes in interest rates, although we have certain exposures to changes in equity prices and foreign currency exchange rates. The fair value of the financial instruments is generally adversely affected when interest rates rise, equity markets decline and the dollar strengthens against foreign currency.
Active management of market risk is integral to our operations. We may use the following tools to manage our exposure to market risk within defined tolerance ranges: (1) change the character of future investments purchased or sold, (2) use derivatives to offset the market behavior of existing assets and liabilities or assets expected to be purchased and liabilities to be incurred, or (3) rebalance our existing asset and liability portfolios.
Sensitivity Analysis
We monitor our sensitivity to interest rate changes (inclusive of credit spread) by revaluing financial assets and liabilities using a variety of different interest rates. The Company uses duration and convexity at the security level to estimate the change in fair value that would result from a change in each security’s yield. Duration measures the price sensitivity of an asset to changes in the yield rate. Convexity measures how the duration of the asset changes with interest rates. The duration and convexity analysis takes into account the unique characteristics (e.g., call and put options and prepayment expectations) of each security in determining the hypothetical change in fair value. The analysis is performed at the security level and aggregated up to the asset category levels for reporting in the tables below.
The evaluation is performed by applying an instantaneous change in yield rates of varying magnitudes on a static balance sheet to determine the effect such a change in rates would have on our fair value at risk and the resulting effect on stockholders’ equity. The analysis presents the sensitivity of the fair value of our financial instruments to selected changes in market rates and prices. The range of change chosen reflects our view of changes that are reasonably possible over a one-year period. The selection of the range of values chosen to represent changes in interest rates should not be construed as our prediction of future market events, but rather an illustration of the impact of such events.
The sensitivity analysis estimates the decline in the fair value of our interest sensitive assets and liabilities that were held on December 31, 2009 and 2008 due to an instantaneous change in the yield of the security at the end of the period of 100 and 150 basis points.
The sensitivity analysis also assumes an instantaneous 10% and 20% decline in the foreign currency exchange rates versus the United States dollar from their levels at December 31, 2009 and 2008, with all other variables held constant.
Equity price risk was measured assuming an instantaneous 10% and 25% decline in the Standard & Poor’s 500 Index (S&P 500) from its level at December 31, 2009 and 2008, with all other variables held constant. Our equity holdings were assumed to be highly and positively correlated with the S&P 500.
The value of limited partnerships can be affected by changes in equity markets as well as changes in interest rates. A model was developed to analyze the observed changes in the value of limited partnerships held by the Company over a multiple year period along with the corresponding changes in various equity indices and interest rates. The result of the model allowed us to estimate the change in value of limited partnerships when equity markets decline by 10% and 25% and interest rates increase by 100 and 150 basis points.
Our sensitivity analysis has also been applied to the assets supporting our separate account business because certain of our separate account products guarantee principal and a minimum rate of interest. All or a portion of these decreases related to the separate account assets may be offset by decreases in related separate account

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liabilities to customers, but that is dependent on the position of the separate account in relation to the specific guarantees at the time of the interest rate or price decline. Similarly, increases in the fair value of the separate account investments would also be offset by increases in the same related separate account liabilities by the same approximate amounts.
The following tables present the estimated effects on the fair value of our financial instruments at December 31, 2009 and 2008, due to an increase in yield rates of 100 basis points, a 10% decline in foreign currency exchange rates and a 10% decline in the S&P 500.
                                 
Market Risk Scenario 1            
            Increase (Decrease)
    Market   Interest   Currency   Equity
December 31, 2009   Value   Rate Risk   Risk   Risk
(In millions)                                
 
                               
 
                               
General account:
                               
Fixed maturity securities available-for-sale:
                               
U.S. Treasury securities and obligations of government agencies
  $ 199     $ (5 )   $ -     $ -  
Asset-backed securities
    8,353       (232 )     (2 )     -  
States, municipalities and political subdivisions – tax-exempt securities
    6,993       (687 )     -       -  
Corporate and other taxable bonds
    19,839       (1,155 )     (131 )     -  
Redeemable preferred stock
    54       (3 )     -       (2 )
 
                       
 
                               
Total fixed maturity securities available-for-sale
    35,438       (2,082 )     (133 )     (2 )
 
                               
Fixed maturity securities trading
    174       (17 )     -       -  
Equity securities available-for-sale
    644       -       -       (65 )
Short term investments available-for-sale
    3,949       (12 )     (32 )     -  
Limited partnerships
    1,787       1       -       (59 )
Other invested assets
    4       20       -       -  
 
                       
 
                               
Total general account
    41,996       (2,090 )     (165 )     (126 )
 
                       
 
                               
Separate accounts:
                               
Fixed maturity securities
    380       (15 )     -       -  
Equity securities
    32       -       -       (3 )
Short term investments
    6       -       -       -  
 
                       
 
                               
Total separate accounts
    418       (15 )     -       (3 )
 
                       
 
                               
Derivative financial instruments, included in Other liabilities
    (11 )     1       -       -  
 
                       
 
                               
Total securities
  $ 42,403     $ (2,104 )   $ (165 )   $ (129 )
 
                       
 
                               
Debt (carrying value)
  $ 2,303     $ (109 )   $ -     $ -  
 
                       

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Market Risk Scenario 1            
            Increase (Decrease)
    Market   Interest   Currency   Equity
December 31, 2008   Value   Rate Risk   Risk   Risk
(In millions)                                
 
                               
General account:
                               
Fixed maturity securities available-for-sale:
                               
U.S. Treasury securities and obligations of government agencies
  $ 2,930     $ (148 )   $ -     $ -  
Asset-backed securities
    7,764       (542 )     (2 )     -  
States, municipalities and political subdivisions – tax-exempt securities
    7,415       (630 )     -       -  
Corporate and other taxable bonds
    10,730       (597 )     (97 )     -  
Redeemable preferred stock
    47       (2 )     -       (2 )
 
                       
 
                               
Total fixed maturity securities available-for-sale
    28,886       (1,919 )     (99 )     (2 )
 
                               
Fixed maturity securities trading
    1       -       -       -  
Equity securities available-for-sale
    871       -       (1 )     (87 )
Short term investments available-for-sale
    3,534       (17 )     (13 )     -  
Limited partnerships
    1,683       1       -       (38 )
Other invested assets
    28       -       -       -  
 
                       
 
                               
Total general account
    35,003       (1,935 )     (113 )     (127 )
 
                       
 
                               
Separate accounts:
                               
Fixed maturity securities
    343       (17 )     -       -  
Equity securities
    27       -       -       (2 )
Short term investments
    7       -       -       -  
 
                       
 
                               
Total separate accounts
    377       (17 )     -       (2 )
 
                       
 
                               
Derivative financial instruments, included in Other liabilities
    (111 )     90       -       -  
 
                       
 
                               
Total securities
  $ 35,269     $ (1,862 )   $ (113 )   $ (129 )
 
                       
 
                               
Debt (carrying value)
  $ 2,058     $ (102 )   $ -     $ -  
 
                       

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The following tables present the estimated effects on the fair value of our financial instruments at December 31, 2009 and 2008, due to an increase in yield rates of 150 basis points, a 20% decline in foreign currency exchange rates and a 25% decline in the S&P 500.
 
                                 
Market Risk Scenario 2            
            Increase (Decrease)
    Market   Interest   Currency   Equity
December 31, 2009   Value   Rate Risk   Risk   Risk
(In millions)                                
 
                               
 
                               
General account:
                               
Fixed maturity securities available-for-sale:
                               
U.S. Treasury securities and obligations of government agencies
  $ 199     $ (7 )   $ -     $ -  
Asset-backed securities
    8,353       (318 )     (4 )     -  
States, municipalities and political subdivisions – tax-exempt securities
    6,993       (994 )     -       -  
Corporate and other taxable bonds
    19,839       (1,677 )     (261 )     -  
Redeemable preferred stock
    54       (5 )     -       (5 )
 
                       
 
                               
Total fixed maturity securities available-for-sale
    35,438       (3,001 )     (265 )     (5 )
 
                               
Fixed maturity securities trading
    174       (19 )     -       -  
Equity securities available-for-sale
    644       -       (1 )     (161 )
Short term investments available-for-sale
    3,949       (19 )     (64 )     -  
Limited partnerships
    1,787       1       -       (148 )
Other invested assets
    4       30       -       -  
 
                       
 
                               
Total general account
    41,996       (3,008 )     (330 )     (314 )
 
                       
 
                               
Separate accounts:
                               
Fixed maturity securities
    380       (22 )     -       -  
Equity securities
    32       -       -       (8 )
Short term investments
    6       -       -       -  
 
                       
 
                               
Total separate accounts
    418       (22 )     -       (8 )
 
                       
 
                               
Derivative financial instruments, included in Other liabilities
    (11 )     -       -       -  
 
                       
 
                               
Total securities
  $ 42,403     $ (3,030 )   $ (330 )   $ (322 )
 
                       
 
                               
Debt (carrying value)
  $ 2,303     $ (160 )   $ -     $ -  
 
                       

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Market Risk Scenario 2            
            Increase (Decrease)
    Market   Interest   Currency   Equity
December 31, 2008   Value   Rate Risk   Risk   Risk
(In millions)                                
 
                               
 
                               
General account:
                               
Fixed maturity securities available-for-sale:
                               
U.S. Treasury securities and obligations of government agencies
  $ 2,930     $ (215 )   $ -     $ -  
Asset-backed securities
    7,764       (845 )     (3 )     -  
States, municipalities and political subdivisions – tax-exempt securities
    7,415       (907 )     -       -  
Corporate and other taxable bonds
    10,730       (865 )     (194 )     -  
Redeemable preferred stock
    47       (2 )     -       (5 )
 
                       
 
                               
Total fixed maturity securities available-for-sale
    28,886       (2,834 )     (197 )     (5 )
 
                               
Fixed maturity securities trading
    1       -       -       -  
Equity securities available-for-sale
    871       -       (2 )     (218 )
Short term investments available-for-sale
    3,534       (29 )     (26 )     -  
Limited partnerships
    1,683       1       -       (94 )
Other invested assets
    28       -       -       -  
 
                       
 
                               
Total general account
    35,003       (2,862 )     (225 )     (317 )
 
                       
 
                               
Separate accounts:
                               
Fixed maturity securities
    343       (25 )     -       -  
Equity securities
    27       -       -       (7 )
Short term investments
    7       -       -       -  
 
                       
 
                               
Total separate accounts
    377       (25 )     -       (7 )
 
                       
 
                               
Derivative financial instruments, included in Other liabilities
    (111 )     131       -       -  
 
                       
 
                               
Total securities
  $ 35,269     $ (2,756 )   $ (225 )   $ (324 )
 
                       
 
                               
Debt (carrying value)
  $ 2,058     $ (149 )   $ -     $ -  
 
                       

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ITEM 8. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA
CNA Financial Corporation
Consolidated Statements of Operations
                         
Years ended December 31   2009   2008   2007
(In millions, except per share data)                        
 
                       
Revenues
                       
Net earned premiums
  $ 6,721     $ 7,151     $ 7,484  
Net investment income
    2,320       1,619       2,433  
Net realized investment losses, net of participating policyholders’ interests:
                       
Other-than-temporary impairment losses
    (1,657 )     (1,484 )     (741 )
Portion of other-than-temporary impairment losses recognized in Other comprehensive income
    305       -       -  
 
                 
 
                       
Net impairment losses recognized in earnings
    (1,352 )     (1,484 )     (741 )
Other net realized investment gains
    495       187       430  
 
                 
 
                       
Net realized investment losses, net of participating policyholders’ interests
    (857 )     (1,297 )     (311 )
 
                       
Other revenues
    288       326       279  
 
                 
 
                       
Total revenues
    8,472       7,799       9,885  
 
                 
 
                       
Claims, Benefits and Expenses
                       
Insurance claims and policyholders’ benefits
    5,290       5,723       6,009  
Amortization of deferred acquisition costs
    1,417       1,467       1,520  
Other operating expenses
    1,097       1,037       994  
Interest
    128       134       140  
 
                 
 
                       
Total claims, benefits and expenses
    7,932       8,361       8,663  
 
                 
 
                       
Income (loss) from continuing operations before income tax
    540       (562 )     1,222  
Income tax (expense) benefit
    (57 )     311       (317 )
 
                 
 
                       
Income (loss) from continuing operations
    483       (251 )     905  
Income (loss) from discontinued operations, net of income tax (expense) benefit of $0, $9 and $0
    (2 )     9       (6 )
 
                 
 
                       
Net income (loss)
    481       (242 )     899  
Net income attributable to noncontrolling interests
    (62 )     (57 )     (48 )
 
                 
 
                       
Net income (loss) attributable to CNA
  $ 419     $ (299 )   $ 851  
 
                 
 
                       
Income (Loss) Attributable to CNA Common Stockholders
                       
 
                       
Income (loss) from continuing operations attributable to CNA
  $ 421     $ (308 )   $ 857  
Dividends on 2008 Senior Preferred
    (122 )     (19 )     -  
 
                 
 
                       
Income (loss) from continuing operations attributable to CNA common stockholders
    299       (327 )     857  
Income (loss) from discontinued operations attributable to CNA common stockholders
    (2 )     9       (6 )
 
                 
 
                       
Income (loss) attributable to CNA common stockholders
  $ 297     $ (318 )   $ 851  
 
                 
The accompanying Notes are an integral part of these Consolidated Financial Statements.

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Years ended December 31   2009   2008   2007
(In millions, except per share data)                        
 
                       
Basic and Diluted Earnings (Loss) Per Share Attributable to CNA Common Stockholders
                       
 
                       
Income (loss) from continuing operations attributable to CNA common stockholders
  $ 1.11     $ (1.21 )   $ 3.15  
Income (loss) from discontinued operations attributable to CNA common stockholders
    (0.01 )     0.03       (0.02 )
 
                 
 
                       
Basic and diluted earnings (loss) per share attributable to CNA common stockholders
  $ 1.10     $ (1.18 )   $ 3.13  
 
                 
 
                       
Weighted Average Outstanding Common Stock and Common Stock Equivalents
                       
 
                       
Basic
    269.0       269.4       271.5  
 
                 
Diluted
    269.1       269.4       271.8  
 
                 
The accompanying Notes are an integral part of these Consolidated Financial Statements.

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CNA Financial Corporation
Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income (Loss)



                                                 
    2009   2008   2007
Years ended December 31   Tax   After-tax   Tax   After-tax   Tax   After-tax
(In millions)                                                
 
                                               
Changes in:
                                               
Net unrealized losses on investments with other-than-temporary impairments
  $ 52     $ (95 )   $ -     $ -     $ -     $ -  
Net unrealized gains (losses) on other investments
    (2,024 )     3,741       1,926       (3,553 )     313       (579 )
 
                                   
Net unrealized gains (losses) on investments
    (1,972 )     3,646       1,926       (3,553 )     313       (579 )
Net unrealized gains (losses) on discontinued operations and other
    (2 )     9       6       (6 )     2       3  
Net foreign currency translation adjustment
    -       117       -       (153 )     -       30  
Net pension and postretirement benefit plans
    (8 )     15       194       (363 )     (52 )     97  
Allocation to participating policyholders
    -       (40 )     -       32       -       5  
 
                                   
 
                                               
Other comprehensive income (loss)
  $ (1,982 )     3,747     $ 2,126       (4,043 )   $ 263       (444 )
 
                                         
 
                                               
Net income (loss)
            481               (242 )             899  
 
                                         
 
                                               
Comprehensive income (loss)
            4,228               (4,285 )             455  
 
                                               
Changes in:
                                               
Net unrealized (gains) losses on investments attributable to noncontrolling interests
            (24 )             11               -  
Net pension and postretirement benefit plans attributable to noncontrolling interests
            (2 )             5               (2 )
 
                                         
Other comprehensive (income) loss attributable to noncontrolling interests
            (26 )             16               (2 )
 
                                               
Net income attributable to noncontrolling interests
            (62 )             (57 )             (48 )
 
                                         
 
                                               
Comprehensive income attributable to noncontrolling interests
            (88 )             (41 )             (50 )
 
                                         
 
                                               
Total comprehensive income (loss) attributable to CNA
          $ 4,140             $ (4,326 )           $ 405  
 
                                         
The accompanying Notes are an integral part of these Consolidated Financial Statements.

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CNA Financial Corporation
Consolidated Balance Sheets
                 
December 31   2009   2008
(In millions, except share data)                
 
               
Assets
               
Investments:
               
Fixed maturity securities at fair value (amortized cost of $35,602 and $34,155)
  $ 35,612     $ 28,887  
Equity securities at fair value (cost of $633 and $1,016)
    644       871  
Limited partnership investments
    1,787       1,683  
Other invested assets
    4       28  
Short term investments
    3,949       3,534  
 
           
Total investments
    41,996       35,003  
Cash
    140       85  
Reinsurance receivables (less allowance for uncollectible receivables of $351 and $366)
    6,581       7,395  
Insurance receivables (less allowance for doubtful accounts of $202 and $221)
    1,656       1,818  
Accrued investment income
    416       356  
Receivables for securities sold and collateral
    154       402  
Deferred acquisition costs
    1,108       1,125  
Prepaid reinsurance premiums
    188       237  
Federal income tax recoverable (includes $320 and $299 due from Loews Corporation)
    297       294  
Deferred income taxes
    1,333       3,493  
Property and equipment at cost (less accumulated depreciation of $498 and $641)
    360       393  
Goodwill and other intangible assets
    141       141  
Other assets
    505       562  
Separate account business
    423       384  
 
           
Total assets
  $ 55,298     $ 51,688  
 
           
 
               
Liabilities and Equity
               
Liabilities:
               
Insurance reserves:
               
Claim and claim adjustment expenses
  $ 26,816     $ 27,593  
Unearned premiums
    3,274       3,406  
Future policy benefits
    7,981       7,529  
Policyholders’ funds
    192       243  
Payables for securities purchased
    242       12  
Participating policyholders’ funds
    56       20  
Long term debt
    2,303       2,058  
Reinsurance balances payable
    281       316  
Other liabilities
    2,564       2,830  
Separate account business
    423       384  
 
           
Total liabilities
    44,132       44,391  
 
           
 
               
Commitments and contingencies (Notes B, C, F, G, I , and K)
               
 
               
Equity:
               
Preferred stock (12,500,000 shares authorized)
2008 Senior Preferred (no par value; $100,000 stated value; 10,000 and 12,500 shares issued and outstanding held by Loews Corporation)
    1,000       1,250  
Common stock ($2.50 par value; 500,000,000 shares authorized; 273,040,243 shares issued; and 269,026,759 and 269,024,408 shares outstanding)
    683       683  
Additional paid-in capital
    2,177       2,174  
Retained earnings
    7,264       6,845  
Accumulated other comprehensive loss
    (325 )     (3,924 )
Treasury stock (4,013,484 and 4,015,835 shares), at cost
    (109 )     (109 )
Notes receivable for the issuance of common stock
    (30 )     (42 )
 
           
Total CNA stockholders’ equity
    10,660       6,877  
Noncontrolling interests
    506       420  
 
           
Total equity
    11,166       7,297  
 
           
Total liabilities and equity
  $ 55,298     $ 51,688  
 
           
The accompanying Notes are an integral part of these Consolidated Financial Statements.

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CNA Financial Corporation
Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows
                         
Years ended December 31   2009   2008   2007
(In millions)                        
 
                       
Cash Flows from Operating Activities:
                       
Net income (loss)
  $ 481     $ (242 )   $ 899  
Adjustments to reconcile net income (loss) to net cash flows provided by operating activities:
                       
(Income) loss from discontinued operations
    2       (9 )     6  
Loss on disposal of property and equipment
    14       1       1  
Deferred income tax expense (benefit)
    177       (174 )     (99 )
Trading portfolio activity
    (164 )     644       (12 )
Net realized investment losses, net of participating policyholders’ interests
    857       1,297       311  
Undistributed losses (earnings) of equity method investees
    (223 )     446       (99 )
Net amortization of investment discount
    (198 )     (278 )     (252 )
Depreciation
    86       78       64  
Changes in:
                       
Receivables, net
    976       987       1,386  
Accrued investment income
    (60 )     (26 )     (17 )
Deferred acquisition costs
    17       36       29  
Prepaid reinsurance premiums
    49       33       72  
Federal income taxes recoverable/payable
    (3 )     (287 )     (38 )
Insurance reserves
    (612 )     (590 )     (830 )
Reinsurance balances payable
    (35 )     (85 )     (138 )
Other assets
    53       13       42  
Other liabilities
    (139 )     (287 )     (80 )
Other, net
    3       9       7  
 
                 
 
                       
Total adjustments
    800       1,808       353  
 
                 
 
                       
Net cash flows provided by operating activities-continuing operations
  $ 1,281     $ 1,566     $ 1,252  
 
                 
Net cash flows used by operating activities-discontinued operations
  $ (23 )   $ (8 )   $ (13 )
 
                 
Net cash flows provided by operating activities-total
  $ 1,258     $ 1,558     $ 1,239  
 
                 
 
                       
 
                       
 
                       
Cash Flows from Investing Activities:
                       
Purchases of fixed maturity securities
  $ (24,189 )   $ (48,404 )   $ (73,157 )
Proceeds from fixed maturity securities:
                       
Sales
    19,245       41,749       69,012  
Maturities, calls and redemptions
    3,448       4,092       4,744  
Purchases of equity securities
    (269 )     (205 )     (236 )
Proceeds from sales of equity securities
    901       220       340  
Change in short term investments
    (327 )     1,032       1,347  
Change in collateral on loaned securities and derivatives
    (5 )     (57 )     (2,788 )
Change in other investments
    140       (295 )     (168 )
Purchases of property and equipment
    (63 )     (104 )     (160 )
Dispositions
    -       -       14  
Other, net
    3       46       (69 )
 
                 
 
                       
Net cash flows used by investing activities-continuing operations
  $ (1,116 )   $ (1,926 )   $ (1,121 )
 
                 
Net cash flows provided by investing activities-discontinued operations
  $ 23     $ 18     $ 39  
 
                 
Net cash flows used by investing activities-total
  $ (1,093 )   $ (1,908 )   $ (1,082 )
 
                 
The accompanying Notes are an integral part of these Consolidated Financial Statements.

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    2009   2008   2007
Cash Flows from Financing Activities:
                       
Dividends paid to Loews for 2008 Senior Preferred
  $ (122 )   $ (19 )   $ -  
Dividends paid to common stockholders
    -       (122 )     (95 )
Proceeds from the issuance of debt
    350       250       -  
Principal payments on debt
    (100 )     (350 )     -  
Return of investment contract account balances
    (15 )     (607 )     (122 )
Receipts on investment contract account balances
    4       3       3  
Payment to redeem 2008 Senior Preferred
    (250 )     -       -  
Proceeds from the issuance of 2008 Senior Preferred
    -       1,250       -  
Stock options exercised
    1       1       18  
Purchase of treasury stock
    -       (70 )     -  
Other, net
    12       11       11  
 
                 
 
                       
Net cash flows provided (used) by financing activities-continuing operations
  $ (120 )   $ 347     $ (185 )
 
                 
Net cash flows provided (used) by financing activities-discontinued operations
  $ -     $ -     $ -  
 
                 
Net cash flows provided (used) by financing activities-total
  $ (120 )   $ 347     $ (185 )
 
                 
 
                       
Effect of foreign exchange rate changes on cash-continuing operations
    10       (13 )     5  
 
                 
 
                       
Net change in cash
    55       (16 )     (23 )
Net cash transactions from continuing operations to discontinued operations
    -       17       59  
Net cash transactions from discontinued operations to continuing operations
    -       (17 )     (59 )
 
                       
 
                       
 
                       
 
                       
Cash, beginning of year
    85       101       124  
 
                 
 
                       
Cash, end of year
  $ 140     $ 85     $ 101  
 
                 
 
                       
 
                       
Cash-continuing operations
  $ 140     $ 85     $ 94  
Cash-discontinued operations
    -       -       7  
 
                 
Cash-total
  $ 140     $ 85     $ 101  
 
                 
The accompanying Notes are an integral part of these Consolidated Financial Statements.

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CNA Financial Corporation
Consolidated Statements of Stockholders’ Equity
                         
Years ended December 31   2009   2008   2007
(In millions)                        
Preferred Stock
                       
Balance, beginning of period
  $ 1,250     $ -     $ -  
Issuance of 2008 Senior Preferred
    -       1,250       -  
Redemption of 2008 Senior Preferred
    (250 )     -       -  
 
                 
 
                       
Balance, end of period
    1,000       1,250       -  
 
                 
 
                       
Common Stock
                       
Balance, beginning and end of period
    683       683       683  
 
                       
Additional Paid-in Capital
                       
Balance, beginning of period
    2,174       2,169       2,166  
Stock based compensation and other
    3       5       3  
 
                 
 
                       
Balance, end of period
    2,177       2,174       2,169  
 
                 
 
                       
Retained Earnings
                       
Balance, beginning of period
    6,845       7,285       6,529  
Cumulative effect adjustment from change in other-than-temporary impairment accounting guidance
    122       -       -  
Dividends paid to common stockholders
    -       (122 )     (95 )
Dividends paid to Loews Corporation for 2008 Senior Preferred
    (122 )     (19 )     -  
Net income (loss) attributable to CNA
    419       (299 )     851  
 
                 
 
Balance, end of period
    7,264       6,845       7,285  
 
                 
 
                       
Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income (Loss)
                       
Balance, beginning of period
    (3,924 )     103       549  
Cumulative effect adjustment from change in other-than-temporary impairment accounting guidance
    (122 )     -       -  
Other comprehensive income (loss) attributable to CNA
    3,721       (4,027 )     (446 )
 
                 
 
                       
Balance, end of period
    (325 )     (3,924 )     103  
 
                 
 
                       
Treasury Stock
                       
Balance, beginning of period
    (109 )     (39 )     (58 )
Purchase of treasury stock
    -       (70 )     -  
Stock options exercised
    -       -       19  
 
                 
 
                       
Balance, end of period
    (109 )     (109 )     (39 )
 
                 
 
                       
Notes Receivable for the Issuance of Common Stock
                       
Balance, beginning of period
    (42 )     (51 )     (58 )
Decrease in notes receivable for the issuance of common stock
    12       9       7  
 
                 
 
                       
Balance, end of period
    (30 )     (42 )     (51 )
 
                 
 
                       
Total CNA Stockholders’ Equity
    10,660       6,877       10,150  
 
                 
 
                       
Noncontrolling Interests
                       
Balance, beginning of period
    420       385       335  
Net income
    62       57       48  
Other comprehensive income (loss)
    26       (16 )     2  
Other
    (2 )     (6 )     -  
 
                 
 
                       
Balance, end of period
    506       420       385  
 
                 
 
                       
Total Equity
  $ 11,166     $ 7,297     $ 10,535  
 
                 
The accompanying Notes are an integral part of these Consolidated Financial Statements.

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Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements
Note A. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Basis of Presentation
The Consolidated Financial Statements include the accounts of CNA Financial Corporation (CNAF) and its controlled subsidiaries. Collectively, CNAF and its subsidiaries are referred to as CNA or the Company. CNA’s property and casualty and the remaining life & group insurance operations are primarily conducted by Continental Casualty Company (CCC), The Continental Insurance Company (CIC), Continental Assurance Company (CAC) and CNA Surety Corporation (CNA Surety). The Company owned approximately 62% of the outstanding common stock of CNA Surety as of December 31, 2009. Loews Corporation (Loews) owned approximately 90% of the outstanding common stock of CNAF as of December 31, 2009.
The accompanying Consolidated Financial Statements have been prepared in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (GAAP). All significant intercompany amounts have been eliminated. The preparation of consolidated financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the Consolidated Financial Statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results may differ from those estimates. For the year ended December 31, 2009, management has evaluated all subsequent events through the filing date of February 23, 2010.
Business
The Company’s core property and casualty insurance operations are reported in two business segments: CNA Specialty and CNA Commercial. The Company’s non-core operations are managed in two segments: Life & Group Non-Core and Corporate & Other Non-Core. In the fourth quarter of 2009, the Company revised its property and casualty segments. See Note N for further discussion.
The Company serves a wide variety of customers, including small, medium and large businesses; associations; professionals; and groups and individuals with a broad range of insurance and risk management products and services.
Core insurance products include commercial property and casualty coverages. Non-core insurance products, which primarily have been placed in run-off, include life and accident and health insurance; retirement products and annuities; and property and casualty reinsurance. CNA services include risk management, information services, warranty and claims administration. The Company’s products and services are marketed through independent agents, brokers, and managing general agents.
Insurance Operations
Premiums: Insurance premiums on property and casualty insurance contracts are recognized in proportion to the underlying risk insured which principally are earned ratably over the duration of the policies. Premiums on accident and health insurance contracts are earned ratably over the policy year in which they are due. The reserve for unearned premiums on these contracts represents the portion of premiums written relating to the unexpired terms of coverage.
Insurance receivables are presented net of an estimated allowance for doubtful accounts, which is recorded on the basis of periodic evaluations of balances due currently or in the future from insureds, including amounts due from insureds related to losses under high deductible policies, management’s experience and current economic conditions.
Property and casualty contracts that are retrospectively rated contain provisions that result in an adjustment to the initial policy premium depending on the contract provisions and loss experience of the insured during the experience period. For such contracts, the Company estimates the amount of ultimate premiums that the Company may earn upon completion of the experience period and recognizes either an asset or a liability for the difference between the initial policy premium and the estimated ultimate premium. The Company adjusts such estimated ultimate premium amounts during the course of the experience period based on actual results to date. The resulting adjustment is recorded as either a reduction of or an increase to the earned premiums for the period.

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Claim and claim adjustment expense reserves: Claim and claim adjustment expense reserves, except reserves for structured settlements not associated with asbestos and environmental pollution (A&E), workers’ compensation lifetime claims, accident and health claims and certain claims associated with discontinued operations, are not discounted and are based on 1) case basis estimates for losses reported on direct business, adjusted in the aggregate for ultimate loss expectations; 2) estimates of incurred but not reported losses; 3) estimates of losses on assumed reinsurance; 4) estimates of future expenses to be incurred in the settlement of claims; 5) estimates of salvage and subrogation recoveries and 6) estimates of amounts due from insureds related to losses under high deductible policies. Management considers current conditions and trends as well as past Company and industry experience in establishing these estimates. The effects of inflation, which can be significant, are implicitly considered in the reserving process and are part of the recorded reserve balance. Ceded claim and claim adjustment expense reserves are reported as a component of Reinsurance receivables on the Consolidated Balance Sheets. See Note O for further information on claim and claim adjustment expense reserves for discontinued operations.
Claim and claim adjustment expense reserves are presented net of anticipated amounts due from insureds related to losses under deductible policies of $1.5 billion and $2.0 billion as of December 31, 2009 and 2008. A significant portion of these amounts is supported by collateral. The Company also has an allowance for uncollectible deductible amounts, which is presented as a component of the allowance for doubtful accounts included in Insurance receivables on the Consolidated Balance Sheets. In 2008, the amount due from policyholders related to losses under deductible policies within CNA Commercial was reduced by $90 million for insolvent insureds. The reduction of this amount, which was reflected as unfavorable net prior year reserve development, had no effect on results of operations as the Company had previously recognized provisions in prior years. These impacts were reported in Insurance claims and policyholders’ benefits in the Consolidated Statement of Operations.
Structured settlements have been negotiated for certain property and casualty insurance claims. Structured settlements are agreements to provide fixed periodic payments to claimants. Certain structured settlements are funded by annuities purchased from CAC for which the related annuity obligations are reported in future policy benefits reserves. Obligations for structured settlements not funded by annuities are included in claim and claim adjustment expense reserves and carried at present values determined using interest rates ranging from 4.6% to 7.5% at both December 31, 2009 and 2008. At December 31, 2009 and 2008, the discounted reserves for unfunded structured settlements were $746 million and $756 million, net of discount of $1.1 billion in both periods.
Workers’ compensation lifetime claim reserves are calculated using mortality assumptions determined through statutory regulation and economic factors. Accident and health claim reserves are calculated using mortality and morbidity assumptions based on Company and industry experience. Workers’ compensation lifetime claim reserves and accident and health claim reserves are discounted at interest rates that range from 3.0% to 6.5% for the years ended December 31, 2009 and 2008. At December 31, 2009 and 2008, such discounted reserves totaled $1.7 billion and $1.6 billion, net of discount of $482 million in both periods.
Future policy benefits reserves: Reserves for long term care products are computed using the net level premium method, which incorporates actuarial assumptions as to interest rates, mortality, morbidity, persistency, withdrawals and expenses. Actuarial assumptions generally vary by plan, age at issue and policy duration, and include a margin for adverse deviation. Interest rates range from 6.0% to 8.6% at December 31, 2009 and 2008, and mortality, morbidity and withdrawal assumptions are based on Company and industry experience prevailing at the time of issue. Expense assumptions include the estimated effects of inflation and expenses to be incurred beyond the premium paying period.
Policyholders’ funds reserves: Policyholders’ funds reserves primarily include reserves for investment contracts without life contingencies. For these contracts, policyholder liabilities are equal to the accumulated policy account values, which consist of an accumulation of deposit payments plus credited interest, less withdrawals and amounts assessed through the end of the period. During 2008, the Company exited the indexed group annuity portion of its pension deposit business and settled the related liabilities with policyholders with no material impact to results of operations. Cash flows related to the settlement of the liabilities with policyholders were presented on the Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows in Cash flows from financing activities, as Return of investment contract account balances. Cash flows related to proceeds from the

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liquidation of the related assets supporting the policyholder liabilities were presented on the Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows in Cash flows from operating activities, as Trading portfolio activity.
Guaranty fund and other insurance-related assessments: Liabilities for guaranty fund and other insurance-related assessments are accrued when an assessment is probable, when it can be reasonably estimated, and when the event obligating the entity to pay an imposed or probable assessment has occurred. Liabilities for guaranty funds and other insurance-related assessments are not discounted and are included as part of Other liabilities on the Consolidated Balance Sheets. As of December 31, 2009 and 2008, the liability balances were $167 million and $170 million. As of December 31, 2009 and 2008, included in Other assets on the Consolidated Balance Sheets were $5 million and $6 million of related assets for premium tax offsets. This asset is limited to the amount that is able to be offset against premium tax on future premium collections from business written or committed to be written.
Reinsurance: Amounts recoverable from reinsurers are estimated in a manner consistent with claim and claim adjustment expense reserves or future policy benefits reserves and are reported as Reinsurance receivables on the Consolidated Balance Sheets. The cost of reinsurance is primarily accounted for over the life of the underlying reinsured policies using assumptions consistent with those used to account for the underlying policies or over the reinsurance contract period. The ceding of insurance does not discharge the primary liability of the Company. An estimated allowance for doubtful accounts is recorded on the basis of periodic evaluations of balances due from reinsurers, reinsurer solvency, management’s experience and current economic conditions. The expenses incurred related to uncollectible reinsurance receivables are presented as a component of Insurance claims and policyholders’ benefits on the Consolidated Statements of Operations.
Reinsurance contracts that do not effectively transfer the underlying economic risk of loss on policies written by the Company are recorded using the deposit method of accounting, which requires that premium paid or received by the ceding company or assuming company be accounted for as a deposit asset or liability. At December 31, 2009 and 2008, the Company had $21 million and $25 million recorded as deposit assets and $112 million and $110 million recorded as deposit liabilities.
Income on reinsurance contracts accounted for under the deposit method is recognized using an effective yield based on the anticipated timing of payments and the remaining life of the contract. When the anticipated timing of payments changes, the effective yield is recalculated to reflect actual payments to date and the estimated timing of future payments. The deposit asset or liability is adjusted to the amount that would have existed had the new effective yield been applied since the inception of the contract. This adjustment is reflected in Other revenues or Other operating expenses on the Consolidated Statements of Operations as appropriate.
Participating insurance: Policyholder dividends are accrued using an estimate of the amount to be paid based on underlying contractual obligations under policies and applicable state laws. Limitations exist on the amount of income from participating life insurance contracts that may be distributed to stockholders, and therefore the share of income on these policies that cannot be distributed to stockholders is excluded from Stockholders’ equity by a charge to operations and other comprehensive income and the establishment of a corresponding liability.
Deferred acquisition costs: Acquisition costs include commissions, premium taxes and certain underwriting and policy issuance costs which vary with and are related primarily to the acquisition of business. Such costs related to property and casualty business are deferred and amortized ratably over the period the related premiums are earned.
Deferred acquisition costs related to accident and health insurance are amortized over the premium-paying period of the related policies using assumptions consistent with those used for computing future policy benefit reserves for such contracts. Assumptions as to anticipated premiums are made at the date of policy issuance or acquisition and are consistently applied during the lives of the contracts. Deviations from estimated experience are included in results of operations when they occur. For these contracts, the amortization period is typically the estimated life of the policy.
The Company evaluates deferred acquisition costs for recoverability. Anticipated investment income is considered in the determination of the recoverability of deferred acquisition costs. Adjustments, if necessary, are recorded in current results of operations. Deferred acquisition costs are presented net of ceding commissions and other ceded acquisition costs. Unamortized deferred acquisition costs relating to contracts that have been substantially changed by a modification in benefits, features, rights or coverages that were not

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anticipated in the original contract are not deferred and are included as a charge to operations in the period during which the contract modification occurred.
Investments in life settlement contracts and related revenue recognition: Prior to 2002, the Company purchased investments in life settlement contracts. A life settlement contract is a contract between the owner of a life insurance policy (the policy owner) and a third-party investor (investor). Under a life settlement contract, the Company obtained the ownership and beneficiary rights of an underlying life insurance policy.
The Company accounts for its investments in life settlement contracts using the fair value method. Under the fair value method, each life settlement contract is carried at its fair value at the end of each reporting period. The change in fair value, life insurance proceeds received and periodic maintenance costs, such as premiums, necessary to keep the underlying policy in force, are recorded in Other revenues on the Consolidated Statement of Operations. The Company’s investments in life settlement contracts were $130 million and $129 million at December 31, 2009 and 2008, and are included in Other assets on the Consolidated Balance Sheets. The cash receipts and payments related to life settlement contracts are included in Cash flows from operating activities on the Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows.
The following table details the values for life settlement contracts. The determination of fair value is discussed in Note D.
                         
December 31, 2009   Number of Life   Fair Value of Life Settlement   Face Amount of Life Insurance
    Settlement Contracts   Contracts   Policies
        (In millions)   (In millions)
 
                       
Estimated maturity during:
                       
2010
    100     $ 17     $ 53  
2011
    90       15       49  
2012
    90       13       46  
2013
    80       11       44  
2014
    80       10       41  
Thereafter
    817       64       443  
 
           
Total
    1,257     $ 130     $ 676  
 
           
The Company uses an actuarial model to estimate the aggregate face amount of life insurance that is expected to mature in each future year and the corresponding fair value. This model projects the likelihood of the insured’s death for each in force policy based upon the Company’s estimated mortality rates, which may vary due to the relatively small size of the portfolio of life settlement contracts. The number of life settlement contracts presented in the table above is based upon the average face amount of in force policies estimated to mature in each future year.
The increase in fair value recognized for the years ended December 31, 2009, 2008 and 2007 on contracts still being held was $10 million, $17 million and $12 million. The gain recognized during the years ended December 31, 2009, 2008 and 2007 on contracts that matured was $24 million, $30 million and $38 million.
Separate Account Business: Separate account assets and liabilities represent contract holder funds related to investment and annuity products for which the policyholder assumes substantially all the risk and reward. The assets are segregated into accounts with specific underlying investment objectives and are legally segregated from the Company. All assets of the separate account business are carried at fair value with an equal amount recorded for separate account liabilities. Certain of the separate account investment contracts related to the Company’s pension deposit business guarantee principal and an annual minimum rate of interest, for which additional amounts may be recorded in Policyholders’ funds should the aggregate contract value exceed the fair value of the related assets supporting the business at any point in time. Most of these contracts are subject to a fair value adjustment if terminated by the policyholder. During 2008, the Company recorded $68 million of additional Policyholders’ funds liabilities due to declines in the value of the related separate account assets. If the fair value of the related assets supporting the business increase to a level that exceeds the aggregate contract value, the amount of any such increase will accrue to the Company’s benefit to the extent of any remaining additional liability in Policyholders’ funds. Accordingly, during 2009, the Company released a portion of the additional amounts originally recorded in 2008, leaving $26 million of additional Policyholders’ funds liability at December 31, 2009. Fee income accruing to the Company related to separate accounts is primarily included within Other revenue on the Consolidated Statements of Operations.

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Investments
Valuation of investments: The Company classifies its fixed maturity securities and its equity securities as either available-for-sale or trading, and as such, they are carried at fair value. Changes in fair value of trading securities are reported within Net investment income on the Consolidated Statements of Operations. Changes in fair value related to available-for-sale securities are reported as a component of Other comprehensive income. The amortized cost of fixed maturity securities classified as available-for-sale is adjusted for amortization of premiums and accretion of discounts to maturity, which are included in Net investment income on the Consolidated Statements of Operations. Investment valuations are adjusted and losses may be recognized in the Consolidated Statements of Operations when a decline in value is determined by the Company to be other-than-temporary. See the Accounting Standards Update section of this note for further information regarding the Company’s recognition and presentation of other-than-temporary impairments.
For asset-backed securities included in fixed maturity securities, the Company recognizes income using an effective yield based on anticipated prepayments and the estimated economic life of the securities. When estimates of prepayments change, the effective yield is recalculated to reflect actual payments to date and anticipated future payments. The net investment in the securities is adjusted to the amount that would have existed had the new effective yield been applied since the acquisition of the securities. Such adjustments are reflected in Net investment income on the Consolidated Statements of Operations. Interest income on lower rated beneficial interests in securitized financial assets is determined using the prospective yield method.
The Company’s carrying value of investments in limited partnerships is its share of the net asset value of each partnership, as determined by the General Partner. Certain partnerships for which results are not available on a timely basis are reported on a lag, primarily one month. Changes in net asset values are accounted for under the equity method and recorded within Net investment income on the Consolidated Statements of Operations.
Other invested assets include certain derivative securities and real estate investments. Derivative securities are recorded at fair value. See Note C for further discussion of the Company’s use of and reporting for derivatives. Real estate investments are carried at the lower of cost or fair value.
Short term investments are carried at fair value.
Realized investment gains (losses): All securities sold resulting in investment gains (losses) are recorded on the trade date, except for bank loan participations which are recorded on the date that the legal agreements are finalized. Realized investment gains (losses) are determined on the basis of the cost or amortized cost of the specific securities sold.
Securities lending activities: The Company lends securities to unrelated parties, primarily major brokerage firms, through an internally managed program and an external program managed by the Company’s lead custodial bank as agent. The securities lending program is for the purpose of enhancing income. The Company does not lend securities for operating or financing purposes. Borrowers of these securities must initially deposit collateral with the Company of at least 102% and maintain collateral of no less than 100% of the fair value of the securities loaned, regardless of whether the collateral is cash or securities. Only cash collateral is accepted for the Company’s internally managed program and is typically invested in the highest quality commercial paper with maturities of less than 7 days. U.S. Government, agencies or Government National Mortgage Association securities are accepted as non-cash collateral for the external program. The Company maintains effective control over all loaned securities and, therefore, continues to report such securities as Fixed maturity securities on the Consolidated Balance Sheets.
The lending programs are matched-book programs where the collateral is invested to substantially match the term of the loan which limits risk. In accordance with the Company’s lending agreements, securities on loan are returned immediately to the Company upon notice. Cash collateral received on these transactions is invested in short term investments with an offsetting liability recognized for the obligation to return the collateral. Non-cash collateral, such as securities received by the Company, is not reflected as an asset of the Company as there exists no right to sell or repledge the collateral. There was no cash collateral held related to securities lending included in Short term investments on the Consolidated Balance Sheets at December 31, 2009 and 2008. The fair value of non-cash collateral was $348 million at December 31, 2008. There was no non-cash collateral held at December 31, 2009.

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Income Taxes
The Company and its eligible subsidiaries (CNA Tax Group) are included in the consolidated federal income tax return of Loews and its eligible subsidiaries. The Company accounts for income taxes under the asset and liability method. Under the asset and liability method, deferred income taxes are recognized for temporary differences between the financial statement and tax return bases of assets and liabilities. Future tax benefits are recognized to the extent that realization of such benefits is more likely than not, and a valuation allowance is established for any portion of a deferred tax asset that management believes will not be realized.
Pension and Postretirement Benefits
The Company recognizes the overfunded or underfunded status of its defined benefit plans in Other assets or Other liabilities on the Consolidated Balance Sheets. Changes in funded status related to prior service costs and actuarial gains and losses are recognized in the year in which the changes occur through Other comprehensive income. Annual service cost, interest cost, expected return on plan assets, amortization of prior service cost, and amortization of actuarial losses are recognized on the Consolidated Statements of Operations. Effective January 1, 2009, due to the significant number of inactive participants, the Company has amortized actuarial losses over the average remaining life expectancy of the inactive participants for the CNA Retirement Plan. Previously, the Company amortized actuarial losses over the average remaining service period of the active participants. This change resulted in an increase to net income of $20 million, net of taxes, for the year ended December 31, 2009.
Stock-Based Compensation
The Company records compensation expense using the fair value method for all awards it grants, modifies, repurchases or cancels primarily on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period, generally four years.
Foreign Currency
Foreign currency translation gains and losses are reflected in Stockholders’ equity as a component of Accumulated other comprehensive income. The Company’s foreign subsidiaries’ balance sheet accounts are translated at the exchange rates in effect at each year end and income statement accounts are either translated at the exchange rate on the date of the transaction or at the average exchange rates. Foreign currency transaction losses of $14 million, $35 million and $10 million were included in determining net income (loss) for the years ended December 31, 2009, 2008 and 2007.
Property and Equipment
Property and equipment are carried at cost less accumulated depreciation. Depreciation is based on the estimated useful lives of the various classes of property and equipment and is determined principally on the straight-line method. Furniture and fixtures are depreciated over seven years. Office equipment is depreciated over five years. The estimated lives for data processing equipment and software range from three to five years. Leasehold improvements are depreciated over the corresponding lease terms. The Company’s owned buildings are depreciated over a period not to exceed fifty years. Capitalized improvements are depreciated over the remaining useful lives of the buildings.
Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets
Goodwill and other indefinite-lived intangible assets of $141 million as of December 31, 2009 and 2008 primarily represent the excess of purchase price over the fair value of the net assets of acquired entities and businesses. As of December 31, 2009 and 2008, $139 million of the balance related to CNA Surety. Goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets are tested for impairment annually or when certain triggering events require such tests.

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Earnings (Loss) Per Share Data
Earnings (loss) per share attributable to the Company’s common stockholders is based on weighted average outstanding shares. Basic earnings (loss) per share excludes the impact of dilutive securities and is computed by dividing net income (loss) attributable to CNA by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding for the period. Diluted earnings (loss) per share reflects the potential dilution that could occur if securities or other contracts to issue common stock were exercised or converted into common stock.
For the years ended December 31, 2009 and 2007, approximately 120 thousand and 270 thousand potential shares attributable to exercises under stock-based employee compensation plans were included in the calculation of diluted earnings per share. For the year ended December 31, 2008, as a result of the net loss, none of the 1.6 million potential shares attributable to exercises under stock-based employee compensation plans were included in the calculation of loss per share as the effect would have been antidilutive. For the years ended December 31, 2009 and 2007, approximately 1.7 million and 300 thousand potential shares attributable to exercises under stock-based employee compensation plans were not included in the calculation of diluted earnings per share because the effect would have been antidilutive.
The 2008 Senior Preferred Stock (2008 Senior Preferred) was issued in November 2008 and accrues cumulative dividends at an initial rate of 10% per year. If declared, dividends are payable quarterly and any dividends not declared or paid when due will be compounded quarterly. See Note L for further details.
Supplementary Cash Flow Information
Cash payments made for interest were $124 million, $139 million and $142 million for the years ended December 31, 2009, 2008 and 2007. Cash refunds received for federal income taxes amounted to $117 million for the year ended December 31, 2009. Cash payments made for federal income taxes were $120 million and $420 million for the years ended December 31, 2008 and 2007.

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Accounting Standards Update
Adopted
Noncontrolling Interests in Consolidated Financial Statements
In December 2007, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) issued updated accounting guidance which provided accounting and reporting standards for the noncontrolling interests in a subsidiary and for the deconsolidation of a subsidiary. It clarified that noncontrolling ownership interests in a subsidiary should be reported as equity in the consolidated financial statements. It also required consolidated net income to be reported at amounts that include the amounts attributable to both the parent and the noncontrolling interest. The Company adopted this updated accounting guidance on January 1, 2009. The adoption had no impact on the Company’s financial condition or results of operations, but impacted the presentation of these amounts within the Consolidated Financial Statements.
Effective Date of Fair Value Measurements
In February 2008, the FASB issued updated accounting guidance which delayed the effective date of fair value measurement disclosures for all non-recurring fair value measurements of nonfinancial assets and nonfinancial liabilities until the fiscal year beginning after November 15, 2008. The Company adopted the provisions of this updated accounting guidance as it relates to reporting units and indefinite-lived intangible assets measured at fair value for the purposes of goodwill and intangible asset impairment testing as of January 1, 2009. The adoption of these provisions had no impact on the Company’s financial condition or results of operations.
Recognition and Presentation of Other-Than-Temporary Impairments
In April 2009, the FASB issued updated accounting guidance, which amended the other-than-temporary impairment (OTTI) loss model for fixed maturity securities. A fixed maturity security is impaired if the fair value of the security is less than its amortized cost basis, which is its cost adjusted for accretion, amortization and previously recorded OTTI losses. The updated accounting guidance requires an OTTI loss equal to the difference between fair value and amortized cost to be recognized in earnings if the Company intends to sell the fixed maturity security or if it is more likely than not the Company will be required to sell the fixed maturity security before recovery of its amortized cost basis.
The remaining fixed maturity securities in an unrealized loss position are evaluated to determine if a credit loss exists. If the Company does not expect to recover the entire amortized cost basis of a fixed maturity security, the security is deemed to be other-than-temporarily impaired for credit reasons. For these securities, the bifurcation of OTTI losses into a credit component and a non-credit component is required by the updated accounting guidance. The credit component is recognized in earnings and represents the difference between the present value of the future cash flows that the Company expects to collect and a fixed maturity security’s amortized cost basis. The non-credit component is recognized in other comprehensive income and represents the difference between fair value and the present value of the future cash flows that the Company expects to collect.
Prior to the adoption of the updated accounting guidance, OTTI losses were not bifurcated between credit and non-credit components. The difference between fair value and amortized cost was recognized in earnings for all securities for which the Company did not expect to recover the amortized cost basis, or for which the Company did not have the ability and intent to hold until recovery of fair value to amortized cost.
The adoption of this updated accounting guidance as of April 1, 2009 resulted in a cumulative effect adjustment of $122 million, net of tax, which was reclassified to Accumulated other comprehensive income (AOCI) from Retained earnings on the Consolidated Statement of Equity. The cumulative effect adjustment represents the non-credit component of those previously impaired fixed maturity securities that are still considered OTTI, and the entire amount previously recorded as an OTTI loss on fixed maturity securities no longer considered OTTI as of April 1, 2009.

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Employers’ Disclosures about Postretirement Benefit Plan Assets
In December 2008, the FASB issued updated accounting guidance which requires enhanced disclosures regarding plan assets and how investment allocations are made, including the factors that are pertinent to an understanding of investment policies and procedures, the major categories of plan assets, the inputs and valuation techniques used to measure the fair value of plan assets, the effect of fair value measurements using significant unobservable inputs on changes in plan assets for the period, and significant concentrations of risk within plan assets. The adoption of this updated accounting guidance as of December 31, 2009 had no impact on the Company’s financial condition or results of operations. The Company has complied with the disclosure requirements related to plan assets in Note J.
Recently issued accounting standards to be adopted
Variable Interest Entities
In June 2009, the FASB issued updated accounting guidance which amends the requirements for determination of the primary beneficiary of a variable interest entity, requires an ongoing assessment of whether an entity is the primary beneficiary and requires enhanced interim and annual disclosures. The updated accounting guidance is effective for annual reporting periods beginning after November 15, 2009, and is not expected to have a significant impact on the Company’s financial condition or results of operations.

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Note B. Investments
The significant components of net investment income are presented in the following table.
Net Investment Income
                         
Years ended December 31   2009   2008   2007
(In millions)                        
 
                       
Fixed maturity securities
  $ 1,941     $ 1,984     $ 2,047  
Short term investments
    36       115       186  
Limited partnerships
    315       (379 )     183  
Equity securities
    49       80       25  
Trading portfolio – indexed group annuity (a)
    -       (146 )     10  
Trading portfolio – other (b)
    23       (3 )     -  
Other
    6       19       35  
 
           
 
                       
Gross investment income
    2,370       1,670       2,486  
Investment expenses
    (50 )     (51 )     (53 )
 
           
 
                       
Net investment income
  $ 2,320     $ 1,619     $ 2,433  
 
           
(a) The gains (losses) related to the indexed group annuity trading portfolio, including net unrealized gains (losses), were substantially offset by a corresponding change in the policyholders’ funds reserves supported by this trading portfolio, which was included in Insurance claims and policyholders’ benefits on the Consolidated Statements of Operations.
(b) The net unrealized losses on trading securities still held included in net investment income was $5 million and $3 million for the years ended December 31, 2009 and 2008.
 
Net realized investment gains (losses) are presented in the following table.
Net Realized Investment Gains (Losses)
                         
Years ended December 31   2009   2008   2007
(In millions)                        
 
                       
Net realized investment gains (losses):
                       
 
                       
Fixed maturity securities:
                       
Gross realized gains
  $ 500     $ 532     $ 486  
Gross realized losses
    (1,667 )     (1,363 )     (964 )
 
           
 
                       
Net realized investment losses on fixed maturity securities
    (1,167 )     (831 )     (478 )
 
                       
Equity securities:
                       
Gross realized gains
    473       22       146  
Gross realized losses
    (230 )     (512 )     (29 )
 
           
 
                       
Net realized investment gains (losses) on equity securities
    243       (490 )     117  
 
                       
Derivatives
    51       (19 )     32  
Short term investments and other
    16       43       18  
 
           
 
                       
Net realized investment losses, net of participating policyholders’ interests
  $ (857 )   $ (1,297 )   $ (311 )
 
           

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Net change in unrealized gains (losses) in investments is presented in the following table.
Net Change in Unrealized Gains (Losses)
                         
Years ended December 31   2009   2008   2007
(In millions)                        
 
                       
Net change in unrealized losses on investments:
                       
Fixed maturity securities
  $ 5,278     $ (5,137 )   $ (847 )
Equity securities
    156       (347 )     (47 )
Other
    (4 )     5       2  
 
           
 
                       
Total net change in unrealized gains (losses) on investments
  $ 5,430     $ (5,479 )   $ (892 )
 
           
The components of other-than-temporary-impairment (OTTI) losses recognized in earnings by asset type are summarized in the following table.
                         
Years ended December 31   2009   2008   2007
(In millions)                        
 
                       
Fixed maturity securities available-for-sale:
                       
 
                       
U.S Treasury securities and obligations of government agencies
  $ -     $ 29     $ 53  
 
                       
Asset-backed securities:
                       
Residential mortgage-backed securities
    461       222       209  
Commercial mortgage-backed securities
    193       208       65  
Other asset-backed securities
    31       35       37  
 
           
Total asset-backed securities
    685       465       311  
 
                       
States, municipalities and political subdivisions – tax-exempt securities
    79       1       50  
Corporate and other taxable bonds
    357       585       260  
Redeemable preferred stock
    9       1       42  
 
           
 
                       
Total fixed maturity securities available-for-sale
    1,130       1,081       716  
 
           
 
                       
Equity securities available-for-sale:
                    &nb