Camtek 20-F 2005
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE
Commission file number 000-30664
Ramat Gavriel Industrial
Zone, P.O. BOX 544, Migdal HaEmek, Israel
Securities registered or to be registered
pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Securities registered or to be registered
pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
Securities for which there is a reporting
obligation pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Act:
Indicate the number of outstanding shares of each of the issuers classes of capital or common stock as of the close of the period covered by the annual report:
27,078,647 Ordinary Shares, par value NIS 0.01
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Company was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.
Yes x No o
Indicate by check mark which financial statement item the registrant has elected to follow.
Item 17 o Item 18 x
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Statements in this annual report about our future results, levels of activity, performance, goals or achievements or other future events constitute forward-looking statements. These statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause actual results or events to differ materially from those anticipated in our forward-looking statements. These factors include, among others, those listed under Risk Factors or described elsewhere in this annual report.
In some cases, one can identify forward-looking statements by our use of words such as may, will, should, could, expects, plans, intends, anticipates, believes, estimates, predicts, seeks, strategy, potential or continue or the negative or other variations of these words, or other comparable words or phrases.
Although we believe that the expectations reflected in our forward-looking statements are reasonable, we cannot guarantee future results, levels of activity, performance or achievements or other future events. We are under no duty to update any of our forward-looking statements after the date of this annual report, other than as required by law. One should not place undue reliance on forward-looking statements.
A. Selected Consolidated Financial Data.
We derived the statement of operations data for the years ended December 31, 2002, 2003 and 2004 and balance sheet data as of December 31, 2004 from the audited consolidated financial statements contained in this annual report. Those statements were jointly audited by Goldstein Sabo Tevet and Eisner LLP, an independent member of Baker Tilly International, regarding the years ended December 31, 2002 and 2003, and by Goldstein Sabo Tevet and Brightman Almagor & Co., a member firm of Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu, regarding the year ended December 31, 2004, all of whom are independent auditors, and whose reports with respect to these financial statements are included elsewhere in this annual report. We derived the statement of operations data for the years ended December 31, 2000 and 2001 from audited financial statements that are not included in this annual report.
For all fiscal periods for which consolidated financial data are set forth below, our audited consolidated financial statements are prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States.
B. Capitalization and Indebtedness.
C. Reasons for the Offer and Use of Proceeds.
D. Risk Factors.
There is a high degree of risk associated with our company and business. If any of the following risks occur, our business, operating results and financial condition could be materially adversely affected and the trading price of our ordinary shares could decline.
Risk Factors Related to Our Business and Our Markets
The main markets we target, the printed circuit board, high density interconnect substrate and semiconductor manufacturing and packaging industries, are highly cyclical and are currently expanding after experiencing a prolonged and severe downturn; it is difficult to predict the length and strength of this period of expansion or when the next downturn will occur.
The printed circuit board, high density interconnect substrate and semiconductor manufacturing and packaging industries are highly cyclical and expanded during 2004 after experiencing a prolonged and severe downturn, during which the overall rate of capital spending by printed circuit board and high density interconnect substrate manufacturers had been sharply cut and sales of our products had declined. As a result of this recovery, we saw during 2004 an increase in capital spending in the printed circuit board and high density interconnect substrate industries, and sales of our automated optical inspection, or AOI, systems to these manufacturers have increased. However, we cannot predict the length and strength of this recovery. In the first quarter of 2005, there was a decrease in demand from our clients in the printed circuit board industry, as a result of a capacity adjustment in that market. If this reduction in demand is not temporary, we have only a limited ability to reduce expenses because of the need for significant ongoing expenditures related to engineering, research and development and worldwide customer service and support operations. Accordingly, we may incur losses during future downturns or capacity adjustments affecting the markets we serve.
We are in the process of penetrating a new market with our Falcon system, which targets the semiconductor manufacturing and packaging industry. If this system and related products are not accepted, or if this market fails to grow, our results of operations will be adversely affected.
In the second quarter of 2004 we sold our first Falcon system, designed for the final inspection of silicon wafers to serve the semiconductor manufacturing and packaging industry, a market which we have only recently entered.
Our future success in the semiconductor manufacturing and packaging industry depends on the acceptance rate of AOI technology in the applications for which we offer our equipment and upon the acceptance of our AOI systems by manufacturers. If the market for our AOI systems in the semiconductor manufacturing and packaging industry does not develop at the rate we expect, whether as a result of an economic downturn, competition, alternative technologies, changes in technology, changes in product standards, inability to gain customer acceptance or otherwise, our results will be adversely affected.
Longer sales cycles may increase our costs and delay time to market of our products, which may increase our inventory and negatively impact our results of operations.
We are expanding our product lines and customer base. Compared to our sales cycles for repeat orders from existing customers, we have longer sales cycles for new customers who are likely to order multiple systems, for new products and for new customers in new markets. The sales process in these cases generally involves: demonstrations and testing against industry benchmarks in our sales centers; sales and technical presentations and presentations regarding our products competitive advantages; and installation of the systems at the customers site for side-by-side competitive evaluations for a period of one to four months. The longest evaluation period is for new customers who are likely to order multiple systems. More evaluation time is devoted during the initial penetration period for new products and for new customers in new markets, since these circumstances usually require intensive engineering efforts to fix errors, customize tasks and add new features. As a result of all of the above factors, our finished goods inventory has increased, and our costs may increase disproportionately to our revenues as our product lines and customer base expand.
We operate an international sales organization. Recently, a substantial majority of our sales has been to manufacturers in the Asia Pacific region. The concentration of our sales and other resources within a particular geographical region subjects us to additional risks.
We have sold our systems in over 30 countries around the world. In 2004, our total sales increased on an absolute basis in almost all geographic markets. However, the majority of our growth in sales was due to the increase in sales to our customers in the Asia Pacific region. In 2004, our sales in the Asia Pacific region accounted for approximately 73.4% of our total revenues, including approximately 43.9% of our total revenues from sales in China and Hong Kong and 21.6 from sales in Taiwan. We also increased our presence in the region during 2004. Changes in local legislation, changes in governmental controls and regulations, changes in tariffs and taxes, political instability, trade restrictions, a downturn in economic or financial conditions, as well as any extraordinary events having an adverse effect on the economy or business environment in this region may cause a significant decline in our future revenues and may have an adverse effect on our results of operations. These general risks are heightened in China, where the nature of the economy and the legal parameters are rapidly evolving and where foreign companies may face cultural obstacles. Our results from operations may be adversely affected by changes in the economic or legal environment in China.
If the current economic recovery continues, we may encounter difficulties in purchasing key components and subsystems to meet increased customer demand.
If the current economic recovery continues, our operations may have to further expand in order to meet increasing customer demand. In the current highly-competitive business environment, our customers require us to fill orders within a very short period of time. Our products are complex and require essential components and subsystems that are produced by a number of suppliers and subcontractors. These suppliers and subcontractors cannot always supply such components and subsystems within the time frame demanded by our customers, and we are therefore required to predict, with less reliable indications of future demand, our future needs over a longer time horizon than in the past. If we do not order adequate components and subsystems, or if our suppliers and subcontractors are unable to timely meet our increased demand, we might not be able to adequately meet our customers demands. Our inability to satisfy any increase in customer orders could result in the loss of sales and could cause customers to seek products from our competitors.
We may also overestimate our future needs, which could result in our carrying excess inventory of certain components and subsystems.
Technology in the markets in which we operate is rapidly evolving, and we may not be able to keep pace with these changes or with emerging industry standards. This could result in a loss of revenues.
The markets for our products are characterized by changing technology, evolving industry standards, changes in end-user requirements and new product introductions. Potential new technologies and improvements to existing production equipment and methods could improve production yields, thereby reducing the need to use our AOI systems in these industries. In addition, new technologies could emerge as alternatives to using our products.
Our future success will depend on our ability to enhance our existing products and to develop and introduce new technologies for AOI of printed circuit boards, high density interconnect substrates and silicon wafers. These products must keep pace with technological developments and address the increasingly sophisticated needs of our customers. If we fail to keep pace with technological changes, with products offered by our competitors or with emerging industry standards, our ability to attract new business and generate revenues may be damaged.
The markets we serve are highly competitive. There is a dominant market participant for AOI systems both for the printed circuit board industry and for the final inspection of silicon wafers in the semiconductor industry, and some of our competitors have greater resources, all of which may make it difficult for us to maintain profitability.
Competition in the markets we serve is intense. During 2001, 2002 and early 2003, competition intensified due to the low demand for the type of products that we manufacture, resulting from the general economic downturn during that time. Demand increased since the latter part of 2003, but if the trend of increasingly intense competition continues, it could mean lower prices for our products and a corresponding reduction in our gross margin. If we have to lower prices to remain competitive and are unable to reduce our costs to offset price reductions or are unable to introduce new, higher performance products with higher prices, our operating results may be adversely affected.
Competitors currently sell systems that provide functionality similar to our products. In the printed circuit board industry, our principal competitor and the dominant market participant is Orbotech Ltd., with additional competitors including Dainippon Screen and ManiaBarco. In addition, there is a market for used AOI systems for printed circuit board manufacturers, which may reduce the demand for our products and force us to lower our prices in certain cases. Our competitors in the high density interconnect substrate industry include Dainippon Screen, Orbotech and Utechzone. In the semiconductor manufacturing and packaging industry, our principal competitor and the dominant market participant is August Technology Corp., with additional competitors including Robotic Vision Systems, Topcon and Toray Industries.
Some of our competitors have greater financial, personnel and other resources and offer a broader range of products and services. These competitors may be able to respond more quickly to new or emerging technologies or changes in customer requirements, develop additional or superior products, benefit from greater purchasing economies, offer more aggressive pricing or devote greater resources to the promotion of their products.
Our products may infringe on the intellectual property rights of others, which could result in claims against us.
Third parties may assert claims that we have violated their patents or that we have infringed upon their intellectual property rights. Intellectual property claims have been asserted against us in the past and may be asserted against us in the future. Any intellectual property claims against us, even if without merit, could lead to protracted litigation, could cost us a significant amount of money to defend and could divert managements attention from our business.
On May 10, 2004, a lawsuit was filed against us in the District Court in Nazareth, Israel, by our competitor, Orbotech Ltd., alleging that the Dragon and Falcon systems infringe upon a patent held by Orbotech Ltd. and requesting an injunction against the manufacture and sale by the Company of those systems, as well as pecuniary damages.
On February 23, 2005, another lawsuit requesting temporary and permanent injunctions, as well as pecuniary damages, was filed against us in the District Court in Jerusalem by Orbotech Ltd., alleging patent infringement in connection with a patent, regarding illumination blocks (an apparatus for illuminating and controlling the illumination of scanned objects) used in our AOI systems, which already was the subject of earlier allegations made by Orbotech in a letter sent to us in 1998. The District Court in Jerusalem has granted Orbotech a temporary injunction under which we may not manufacture or sell a new illumination block which we were developing for customized special applications. We believe that the temporary injunction will not have a material effect on our business
We believe that we have good defenses against Orbotechs claims. However, we cannot assure you that we will be successful in our defense against Orbotechs claims. If these claims are successful, they could have a negative impact on our business by impairing our ability to sell our systems, and they could result in pecuniary damages against us. Pecuniary damages awarded at the discretion of the court, if any, would be based either on the amount of any losses Orbotech incurred in sales of products due to our sales of infringing products or on the amount of profits earned by us from sales of infringing products. In the event we do not prevail against these claims, we may also be liable for any court costs and attorneys fees incurred by Orbotech in connection with these litigations.
If one or more of our third-party suppliers or subcontractors does not provide us with key components or subsystems, we may not be able to deliver our products to our customers in a timely manner, and we may incur substantial costs to obtain these components from alternate sources.
We rely on single source and limited source suppliers and subcontractors for a number of essential components and subsystems of our products. We do not have agreements with all of these suppliers and subcontractors for the continued supply of the components or subsystems they provide. An interruption in supply from these sources or an unexpected termination of the manufacture of key components or subsystems would disrupt production and adversely affect our ability to deliver products to our customers. An unexpected termination of supply would require an investment in capital and manpower resources in order to shift to other suppliers and might cause a significant delay in introducing replacement products.
We had a recent history of losses, and we cannot assure you that we will not incur additional losses in the future.
We incurred net losses of $3.7 million, $11.3 million and $1.6 million for the years ended December 31, 2001, 2002 and 2003, respectively. We had net income of $10.8 million in 2004. However, we incurred a net loss of $2.4 million for the first quarter of 2005. We may not be able to sustain or increase profitability on a quarterly or annual basis. The failure to generate consistent profitability could have a material adverse effect on the market price of our shares.
If we are unable to protect our proprietary technologies, we may not be able to compete effectively.
We differentiate our products and technologies from those of our competitors by using our proprietary software, our image processing algorithms and the integration of our advanced hardware components. We rely on a combination of copyrights, trade secrets, patents, trademarks, confidentiality and non-disclosure agreements to protect our proprietary know-how and intellectual property, including hardware and software components of our products. These measures may not be adequate to protect our proprietary technologies and it may be possible for a third party, including a competitor, to copy or otherwise obtain and use our products or technologies without authorization or to develop similar technologies independently. Additionally, our products may be sold in countries, particularly in the Asia Pacific region, that provide less protection to intellectual property than that provided under U.S. or Israeli laws.
Fluctuations in currency exchange rates may result in the prices of our products becoming less competitive or in additional expenses.
Currency exchange rate fluctuations may affect the prices of our products. Our prices in most countries outside of Europe and Japan are denominated in dollars. In those countries, if there is a significant devaluation in the local currency compared to the dollar, the prices of our products will increase relative to that local currency and may be less competitive. In addition, much of our service income is denominated in local currencies. If a larger number of our sales were to be denominated in currencies other than dollars, our reported revenue and earnings would be subject to a greater degree to foreign exchange fluctuations.
We generate most of our revenues in dollars but incur a significant portion of our salary and operating expenses in NIS, and some of these expenses are linked to Israels Consumer Price Index. In addition, we have an outstanding loan denominated in NIS. As a result, we bear the risk that the rate of inflation in Israel will exceed the rate of devaluation of the NIS in relation to the dollar, which would increase our costs expressed in dollars.
We incur a significant portion of our expenses in China in the Yuan, and these expenses may rise with our increasing activities there. The Yuan is currently linked to the dollar. While the value of the Yuan has generally been stable in recent years and has been controlled by Chinas central government, it may fluctuate according to substantial changes in the political and economic conditions in China. The Chinese government is under continued international pressure to permit the Yuan to enter a full or limited free float. The appreciation of the Yuan against the dollar may adversely affect our results of operations in dollar terms.
Our dependence on a single manufacturing facility magnifies the risk of an interruption in our production capabilities.
We have only one manufacturing facility, which is located in Migdal HaEmek, Israel. Any event affecting this site, including natural disaster, labor stoppages or armed conflict, may disrupt or indefinitely discontinue our manufacturing capabilities and could significantly impair our ability to fulfill orders and generate revenues, thus negatively impacting our business.
We may experience fluctuations in our future operating results, making it difficult to predict future results.
Our revenues and net income, if any, in any particular period may be lower than revenues and net income, if any, in a preceding or comparable period. This complicates our planning processes and reduces the predictability of our earnings. Period-to-period comparisons of our results of operations may not be meaningful, and you should not rely on them as indications of our future performance.
Our quarterly results of operations may be subject to significant fluctuations due to the following factors:
We depend on a limited number of key personnel who would be difficult to replace.
Our continued growth and success largely depends on the managerial and technical skills of the members of our senior management and key employees. If we continue expanding our operations, we believe that we will need to promote and hire qualified engineering, administrative, operational, financial and marketing personnel. In particular, we may find it difficult to hire key personnel with the requisite knowledge of our business, products and technologies. The process of locating, training and successfully integrating qualified personnel into our operations can be lengthy and expensive. During periods of economic growth, competition for qualified engineering and technical personnel is intense.
If our Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Mr. Rafi Amit, other members of our senior management or any of our key employees are unable or unwilling to continue to be employed by us, our business would suffer. We do not have a key man life insurance policy for Mr. Amit.
Our relationship with Priortech may give rise to conflicts of interest.
From time to time, we purchase products of, or sell products to, other companies owned or controlled by Priortech, our principal shareholder, and act jointly with respect to governmental and administrative matters and the purchase from third parties of various products and services, which may create conflicts of interest. Although Israeli law imposes procedural requirements, including obtaining special shareholder approvals for interested party transactions, we cannot be certain that those procedures will eliminate the possible detrimental effects of any of these transactions and activities. In addition Mr. Amit acts as the Chief Executive Officer of the Company, on a full time basis as well as acting as Priortechs Chairman of the Board Of Directors. Mr. Yotam Stern, our Executive Vice President, Business & Strategy, spends up to 40% of his time serving as the Chief Executive Officer of Priortech and other positions in the Priortech group.
We may be classified as a passive foreign investment company, and, as a result, our U.S. shareholders may suffer adverse tax consequences.
Generally, if for any taxable year 75% or more of our gross income is passive income, or at least 50% of our assets are held for the production of, or produce, passive income, we may be characterized as a passive foreign investment company, or PFIC, for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Our passive income would not include income derived from the sale of our products but would include amounts derived by reason of the temporary investment of any cash amounts. This characterization could result in adverse U.S. tax consequences to our shareholders, including gain realized on the sale of our ordinary shares being treated as ordinary income rather than capital gain income and could result in punitive interest charges being applied to such sales proceeds. U.S. shareholders should consult with their own U.S. tax advisors with respect to the U.S. tax consequences of investing in our ordinary shares.
Based on an analysis of our assets and income, we believe that in 2004 we were not a PFIC. We currently expect that we will not be a PFIC in 2005. However, PFIC status is determined as of the end of the taxable year and is dependent on a number of factors, including the relative value of our passive assets and our non-passive assets, our market capitalization and the amount and type of our gross income. Therefore, there can be no assurance that we will not become a PFIC for the year ending December 31, 2005 or in a future year. For a discussion of how we might be characterized as a PFIC and related tax consequences, please see U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations-Tax Consequences if we are a Passive Foreign Investment Company.
Our share price has been volatile in the past and may continue to fluctuate in the future.
Our ordinary shares have experienced significant market price and volume fluctuations in the past. During the period from January 1, 2004 through May 31, 2005, the price of our ordinary shares ranged from $2.79 to $7.8. Our ordinary shares may experience significant market price and volume fluctuations in response to factors, some of which are beyond our control, such as the following:
Stock markets often experience extreme price and volume fluctuations. Market fluctuations, as well as general economic conditions, such as a recession, interest rate or currency rate fluctuations or political events or hostilities in Israel or the surrounding region could adversely affect the market price of our ordinary shares.
In the past, securities class action litigation has often been brought against companies following periods of volatility in the market price of their securities. In the future, we could be the target of similar litigation. Securities litigation could be protracted, result in substantial costs and divert managements attention and resources.
Our principal shareholder, Priortech, holds a controlling interest in us and will be able to exercise its control in ways that may be adverse to your interests.
Priortech beneficially holds 77.8% of our issued and outstanding ordinary shares. As a result, Priortech has the power to control the outcome of matters submitted to a vote of our shareholders, including the election of members of our board and the approval of significant corporate transactions. This concentration of ownership may also have the effect of making it more difficult to obtain approval for a change in control of us. Messrs. Rafi Amit, Yotam Stern and Itzhak Krell control Priortech and may be deemed to control us.
Risks Relating to Our Operations in Israel
Conducting business in Israel entails special risks.
Our principal offices and sole research and development and manufacturing facilities are located in the State of Israel. We depend on components imported from outside of Israel and almost all of our sales occur outside of Israel. Accordingly, we are directly influenced by the political, economic and military conditions affecting Israel. Specifically, we could be adversely affected by:
Since the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948, a number of armed conflicts have taken place between Israel and its Arab neighbors, and a state of hostility, varying from time to time in intensity and degree, has led to security and economic problems for Israel. Since September 2000, there has been a marked increase in violence, civil unrest and hostility, including armed clashes, between the State of Israel and the Palestinians, and acts of terror have been committed inside Israel and against Israeli targets in the West Bank and Gaza. There is no indication as to how long the current hostilities will last or whether there will be any further escalation. Any further escalation in these hostilities or any future armed conflict, political instability or violence in the region may have a negative effect on our business condition, harm our results of operations and adversely affect our share price. Furthermore, there are a number of countries, primarily in the Middle East, as well as Malaysia and Indonesia, that restrict business with Israel or Israeli companies, and we are precluded from marketing our products to these countries. Restrictive laws or policies of those countries directed towards Israel or Israeli businesses may have an adverse impact on our operations, our financial results or the expansion of our business.
Our operations could be disrupted as a result of the obligation of our key personnel in Israel to perform military service.
Many of our officers and employees in Israel, including certain key employees, are obligated to perform annual reserve duty in the Israeli army and are subject to being called up for reserve duty at any time. The absence of one or more of our officers and key employees for significant periods of time due to military service could be disruptive to our operations.
The Israeli government programs and tax benefits in which we have participated in the past and in which we currently participate or from which we receive benefits require us to meet several conditions. These programs or benefits may be terminated or reduced in the future, which could increase our costs.
We benefit from certain Israeli government programs and tax benefits, particularly from tax exemptions and reductions resulting from the Approved Enterprise status of our manufacturing facilities in Israel. To be eligible for these programs and tax benefits, we must continue to meet conditions, including making specified investments in fixed assets and equipment and financing a percentage of those investments with our share capital. If we fail to meet such conditions in the future, these tax benefits could be cancelled, and we could be required to refund those tax benefits already received. These programs and tax benefits may not be continued in the future at their current levels or at all, and our requests for future participation in these programs for any future expansion of our manufacturing facilities may not be approved. In recent years, the Israeli government has reduced the benefits available under certain of its programs in which we do not participate. The termination or reduction of these programs and tax benefits could increase our tax rates, thereby reducing our net profits or increasing our net losses.
The government grants we received in the past for research and development expenditures restrict our ability to manufacture products or to transfer technologies outside of Israel.
From our inception through 2000, we received government grants from the Office of the Chief Scientist of the Ministry of Industry and Trade, or OCS, for the financing of a significant portion of our product development expenditures. In March 2001, we commenced repayment of many of these grants pursuant to an understanding reached with the OCS. As of June 1, 2005, we have fully repaid the grants received by us from the OCS. Except for special circumstances and if we obtain governmental consents and pay to the OCS amounts which may be substantial, the terms of these grants prohibit us from selling or transferring rights in the technology developed with the grants to parties outside of Israel and allow sale or transfer of rights within Israel only with special governmental approvals, even after full repayment of the grants. Elements of our technologies, including in the areas of electronic hardware, image processing, electro-optics, physics and mechanics, were developed with OCS grants. In addition, except for special circumstances and with governmental consents, we may only manufacture products developed with these grants outside of Israel pursuant to the approval of a special governmental committee, and any approval of this nature may also require us to pay significantly higher royalties than the terms of the grants required. The restrictions regarding the sale or transfer of technology or manufacturing rights out of Israel could have a material adverse effect on our ability to enter into strategic alliances or enter into merger or acquisition transactions in the future that provide for the sale or transfer of our technology or manufacturing rights.
It may be difficult to enforce a U.S. judgment against us, our officers and directors and some of the experts named in this annual report or to assert U.S. securities law claims in Israel.
We are incorporated in Israel. Substantially all of our executive officers and directors and our Israeli accountants and attorneys are nonresidents of the United States, and a substantial portion of our assets and the assets of these persons are located outside the United States. Therefore, it may be difficult to enforce a judgment obtained in the United States against us or any of these persons, including one based on the civil liability provisions of the U.S. federal securities laws. Additionally, it may be difficult for you to assert U.S. federal securities laws claims or to enforce civil liabilities under U.S. federal securities laws in actions originally instituted in Israel.
Some provisions of Israeli law could inhibit the acquisition of us by others.
Some provisions of Israeli corporate law may have the effect of delaying, preventing or making more difficult a merger with, or acquisition of, us. The Israeli Companies Law generally provides that a merger be approved by the board of directors and by a majority of the shares present and voting on the proposed merger at a shareholders meeting called upon at least 21 days notice. A merger may not be completed until at least 50 days have passed since the filing of the merger proposal with the Israeli Registrar of Companies. The Israeli Companies Law also provides that an acquisition of shares in a public company must be made by means of a tender offer if, as a result of the acquisition, the purchaser would become a 25% or greater shareholder of the company, unless there is already another 25% or greater shareholder of the company. Similarly, an acquisition of shares must be made by way of a tender offer if, as a result of the acquisition, the purchaser would become a 45% or greater shareholder of the company, unless there is already a majority shareholder of the company. In any event, if, as a result of an acquisition of shares, the acquirer will hold more than 90% of a companys shares, the acquisition must be made by means of a tender offer for all of the shares. Finally, Israeli tax law treats some acquisitions, such as stock-for-stock exchanges between an Israeli company and a foreign company, less favorably than U.S. tax laws. For example, Israeli tax law may, under certain circumstances, subject a shareholder who exchanges his ordinary shares for shares in another corporation to taxation prior to the sale of the shares received in such stock-for-stock swap. For more information on the provisions of Israeli law in these contexts, please see sections Share Capital and Israeli Taxation.
A. History and Development of the Company
We were incorporated in 1987. In our first years of operation, we provided manual optical inspection equipment to address the needs of the printed circuit board, or PCB, manufacturing industry. In 1994, we introduced our first automated optical inspection, or AOI, system for the inspection of PCBs. In late 1998, we introduced our Orion system, which gained wide acceptance in the high-end PCB market and represented a breakthrough for us. Applying our core technologies, we developed our Pegasus system, which was introduced in the third quarter of 2002, for the inspection of high density interconnect substrates, or HDI-S. In September 2001, we acquired a developer and producer of AOI systems for the semiconductor manufacturing and packaging industry. This acquisition allowed us to enter the semiconductor inspection market. After a period of intense internal research and development, we shipped our first new Falcon system for the semiconductor manufacturing and packaging industry in the fourth quarter of 2003.
In July 2000, we sold 5,835,000 ordinary shares in an initial public offering, in which we received net proceeds of approximately $35 million. In August 2002, we sold 5,926,730 ordinary shares in a rights offering of ordinary shares to our then existing shareholders (of which 5,922,228 were sold to Priortech Ltd.), in which we received net proceeds of $6.1 million.
We have been a public company since July 2000. Our headquarters are located in Israel, and we have operations in the Asia Pacific region, Japan, the United States and Europe.
Our principal executive offices are located at our new facilities in Ramat Gavriel Industrial Zone, P.O. Box 544, Migdal HaEmek 23150, Israel, and our telephone number is 011-972-4-604-8111. Our agent for service of process in the United States is Camtek USA, Inc., located at 301 RT. 66, Building B, 2nd Fl., Neptune, NJ 07753, telephone number (732) 695-1333. Our website is located at www.camtek.co.il. The information on our website is not incorporated by reference into this annual report.
B. Business Overview.
For discussion of capital expenditures and divestitures, see Item 5 Operating and Financial Review and Prospects- Liquidity and Capital Resources.
We design, develop, manufacture and market automated optical inspection, or AOI, systems and related products. AOI systems are computerized systems which optically inspect various types of electronic product components for defects caused during the manufacturing process. Our AOI systems are used to enhance both production processes and yields for manufacturers in three industries: the printed circuit board, or PCB, industry; the high density interconnect, or HDI-S, industry; and the semiconductor manufacturing and packaging industry. Our systems provide our customers with a high level of defect detection, are highly reliable and offer high throughput. We have sold more than 1,300 of our AOI systems in over 30 countries around the world, predominantly to the PCB industry, of which we believe over 950 systems are still in use. Our customer base includes a majority of the largest 100 PCB manufacturers worldwide. Our global, direct customer support network provides responsive, localized support for our installed base.
Our products incorporate proprietary advanced image processing software and algorithms, as well as advanced electro-optics and precision mechanics. They are designed for easy operation and maintenance. In addition, our AOI systems use technology that enables our customers to handle a wide range of inspection and verification needs.
We target three industries: the PCB industry; the HDI-S industry; and the semiconductor manufacturing and packaging industry.
The Printed Circuit Board Market
A PCB is generally used as the basic platform to interconnect and mount a broad range of electronic components. PCBs consist of traces, or lines, of conductive material, such as copper, laminated on either a rigid or a flexible insulated base. These conductive lines provide electrical interconnections for electronic components and are essential to the functioning of electronic products. Imperfections in the various stages of the PCB manufacturing process may result in defects or flaws, like open conductive lines, electrical short circuits, nicks and inappropriate line widths.
The trend toward compact, high-performance and highly reliable electronic products, such as mobile phones, notebook computers, digital cameras and personal digital assistants, drives the demand for increased complexity and miniaturization of PCBs. In response to this demand, PCB manufacturers are increasingly producing multi-layer PCBs with narrower and denser lines, as well as boards with higher layer counts. Multi-layer boards consist of several layers of circuitry laminated together to form a single board with both horizontal and vertical electrical interconnections. In addition, multi-layer boards are continuing to evolve with new technologies. Currently, high-end PCBs (excluding substrates) use conductive lines and spaces 2 to 5 mil wide. One mil is the equivalent of one-thousandth of an inch. The scan time required to inspect a given PCB surface increases substantially in relation to the reduction in line width.
The manufacturing process for multi-layer boards is comprised of three stages: the manufacture of production tools, including artwork and masks; the production of inner layers and their lamination into a single board; and the production of external layers. The majority of AOI systems in the PCB industry is used for inspection of inner layers. Today, the number of inner layers in a typical multi-layer PCBs typically ranges from four to 18, though certain high layer-count boards may consist of as many as 52 layers.. Inspection by AOI systems during the manufacturing process for the detection of defects in the inner layers prior to the lamination process is crucial, so that any defective individual layers may be repaired or replaced while still accessible. Once the multi-layer board is laminated, any undetected defect in any specific layer will result in discarding the entire board.
The High Density Interconnect Substrate Market
A consistent trend in the semiconductor manufacturing industry is to increase the number of transistors on each integrated circuit, or IC, also commonly known as a chip. At the same time the pursuit for miniaturization and lower costs drives the packaging industry towards smaller devices requiring more input/output connections across smaller areas. This trend has created the need for an advanced intermediate carrier between the IC and the PCB. In response to this challenge, the PCB industry has developed HDI-S, in which the substrates conductive lines and spaces are 12 to 50 µm (microns). Although HDI-S are produced using technologies derived from those used for the production of traditional PCBs, the complexity and high density of these substrates require separate, specialized manufacturing facilities.
The HDI-S is connected to the PCB via an array of conductive solder balls, known as a ball grid array, or BGA. The IC is connected to the upper side of the HDI-S, either by wire bonding by means of small metal wires, or by flipping the IC and directly connecting its face to the HDI-S through an array of conductive bumps plated or stenciled on the upper side of the HDI-S and on the face of the IC, in what is known as flip chip BGA, or FCBGA, assembly.
The complexity of HDI-S requires high density inspection capabilities and creates challenges in achieving high production yields. Therefore, using AOI throughout the production line becomes even more essential than in the traditional PCB industry. AOI of the HDI-S is required during the manufacturing process as an in-process inspection. AOI is also required at the end of the production process to ensure that the HDI-S meets the requirements for the assembly of the semiconductor package.
FCBGA packaging technology is primarily used in high-performance, high-speed ICs, such as microprocessors, graphics processors and wireless ICs, as it allows a higher number of input-output contact pads and also improves the performance of the IC. In FCBGA packaging, the HDI-S must be inspected by AOI with 3-D measurement capabilities because any deformation of the substrate or deviation in the size, shape or placement of the bumps on the HDI-S may cause damage to either the substrate or to the IC during the packaging process or result in an unreliable contact with the mating pad on the IC, in either case leading to device failure.
The Semiconductor Manufacturing and Packaging Market
The semiconductor manufacturing industry produces silicon wafers, each of which consists of numerous ICs. At the end of the wafer manufacturing process, our AOI systems inspect the wafer for various defects. At this stage, AOI systems verify that no damage has been caused by the electronic probes used for functional testing of the finished wafer and generate data to improve the probe testing process. AOI is important to correct any wafer manufacturing process problems, as well as for quality assurance purposes, mainly to ensure that the conductive pads on the IC meet the requirements for wire-bonding to either a substrate or lead frame. A lead frame is the traditional manner of packaging the IC, where the IC is wire bonded to a thin sheet of copper or copper alloy stamped to form an array of leads. The protruding leads connect the finished device to the PCB.
In the semiconductor packaging process, the finished wafers are diced, or separated, into individual ICs, which are then mounted onto substrates, interconnected and encapsulated to produce semiconductor packages. AOI equipment, together with electrical probe testing, determines which ICs and substrates are non-defective. AOI equipment is also used to inspect for any defects that may have been caused to the ICs during the dicing of the wafer.
In FCBGA packaging technology, the face of the IC is attached to the top of a substrate via an array of bumps, rather than being wire bonded. Similar to HDI-S inspection, wafers designed for FCBGA assembly interconnect go through a process in which bumps are plated or stenciled on pads on the face of the IC. AOI with 3-D measurement capabilities is used to detect any missing, misplaced or deformed bumps and to determine their conformity to shape and height specifications. Size, shape and placement deviations may cause damage to the IC or the substrate during the packaging process, leading to device failure.
Our AOI systems consist of:
The inspected product is placed on the movable table and is scanned under the optical assembly unit. The optical assembly unit then captures the image of the product, while the electronic hardware unit processes the algorithms and detects any defects. The image of the defect is immediately available for verification by the system operator.
We offer a broad range of systems for AOI of ICs, HDI-S and for PCBs. These systems are used to enhance production yields and assist in controlling manufacturing processes at wafer fabs, test and assembly houses, and PCB plants worldwide. We invest significant resources in research and development to provide our customers with advantageous performance, low cost of ownership, high reliability and ease of operation. We believe that a significant part of our competitive advantage and of our ability to adapt our technologies to evolving market needs come from our design philosophy and applicable know-how in basing its products on software-intensive architectures.
Automated Optical Inspection Systems for the PCB and High-Density Interconnect Substrate Industries
Our products for these industries consist of the Dragon and Orion lines for the inspection of inner and outer layers of PCB panels; the Pegasus line for inspection of HDI-S; and special models dedicated for inspection of artwork and photo masks.
Dragon systems are high-throughput, automation-ready systems for inspection of all PCB types in a mass production environment. Dragon models are optimized for specific PCB technology ranges from mainstream circuits of typically 100 µm (microns) conductor line width, up to high density substrates having 12 µm (microns) wide conductive lines. All Dragon models are designed to interface with automated material handling mechanisms provided by us or other automation suppliers. We believe that the combination of detection ability, scanning speed and automated material handling deliver outstanding value to customers. The Dragon was first introduced in March 2003.
Orion systems are stand-alone AOI systems for high volume inspection of all PCB types. The Orion family has evolved gradually since its introduction in 2000. All Orion models retain an ergonomic user interface that supports high productivity and flexibility, allowing successive on-line inspection and verification, or solely inspection followed by off-line verification on a separate station. Like the Dragon family, Orion models are dedicated for various PCB technology ranges.
The Pegasus line includes systems for automated inspection of finished organic substrates that are subsequently used in packaging of BGA and Chip Scale Package (CSP) devices. The Pegasus inspects the both sides of the substrate, searching for process and mechanical defects in particular in the gold-plated areas where the substrate will interconnect with the silicon die or the PCB. Pegasus models handle substrates in strip format in magazines or singular substrates in trays.
Automated Optical Inspection Systems for the Semiconductor Industry
The Falcon products integrate two-dimensional and three-dimensional inspection, metrology and analysis capabilities onto a single platform. These capabilities enable the Falcon to detect defects in the semiconductor die, which, if left undetected, may cause premature failure. In addition, inspection data can be used by customers to monitor and characterize several wafer finishing processes, troubleshoot electrical testing issues or control the integrity of the interconnect bump arrays made on dice intended for packaging in flip chip technology. The Falcon family currently includes models for inspection of wafers up to 200 mm and up to 300mm in diameter at the end of their production process in the wafer fab, before they undergo functional electrical testing and sorting (pre-sort stage). The same models can be used to inspect wafers at fabs, test and assembly houses after test and sort procedures, where it adds the value of monitoring the marks left by the testing probe. Another model handles wafers up to 300 mm in diameter after they have been diced. At that stage the Falcon adds the value of detecting dicing-related damage.
Our customer base includes a majority of the largest 100 PCB manufacturers worldwide. Our customers, many of whom have multiple facilities, are located in over 30 countries throughout Asia, Europe and North America. No individual customer accounted for more than 10% of our total revenues during 2002, 2003 or 2004. In the HDI-S industry, our customers are typically dedicated HDI-S manufacturers, but also include large PCB manufacturers who have separate HDI-S manufacturing facilities. Our HDI-S customers are predominantly located in Taiwan, Japan and the Asia Pacific region. In the semiconductor manufacturing and packaging industry, we target wafer manufacturers and companies involved in the testing, assembly and packaging of semiconductors.
The following table shows our revenues classified by geographical region for each of the last three years:
Sales, Marketing and Customer Support
We have established a global distribution and support network throughout the territories in which we sell our products, including the Asia Pacific region, Japan, North America and Europe. We believe that this is an essential factor in our customers decision to purchase our products. We primarily utilize our own employees to provide these customer support services. We may expand our network into additional territories as market conditions warrant.
As of December 31, 2004, 154 of our employees were engaged in our worldwide sales, marketing and support efforts, including support and sales administration staff. Due to the shift in our sales from North America and Europe to the Asia Pacific region, we adjusted our sales organization accordingly during the past two years, and significantly expanded our sales, marketing and support teams in the Asia Pacific region.
Our marketing efforts include participation in various trade shows and conventions, publications and trade press, product demonstrations performed at our facilities and regular contact with customers by sales personnel. We generally provide a 12-month warranty to our customers. In addition, for a fee, we offer service and maintenance contracts commencing after the expiration of the warranty period, which is typically one year. Under our service and maintenance contracts, we provide prompt on-site customer support.
Our manufacturing activities consist primarily of the assembly and integration of parts, components and subassemblies, which are acquired from third-party vendors and subcontractors. The manufacturing process for our products generally lasts four to six weeks. We utilize subcontractors in Israel for the production of subsystems.
We rely on single source and limited source suppliers and subcontractors for a number of essential components and subsystems of our products. We generally maintain several months of inventory of critical components used in the manufacture and assembly of our products. To date, we have been able to obtain sufficient units of these components to meet our needs.
The markets in which we operate are highly competitive. In the PCB industry, our principal competitor is Orbotech, with additional competitors including Dainippon Screen, Lloyd Doyle and ManiaBarco. Our competitors in the HDI-S industry include Dainippon Screen, Orbotech and Utechzone. In the semiconductor manufacturing and packaging industry, our primary competitor is August Technology, with additional competitors including Robotic Vision Systems, Topcon and Toray Industries.
We believe that the principal elements of competition in the AOI market are:
We believe that we compete effectively on all of these factors.
The following table shows our principal capital expenditures in fixed assets for the last three years:
We currently do not have any material capital expenditures in progress.
On May 10, 2004, a lawsuit was filed against us in the District Court in Nazareth, Israel, by our competitor, Orbotech Ltd., alleging that the Dragon and Falcon systems infringe upon a patent held by Orbotech Ltd. and requesting an injunction against the manufacture and sale by the Company of those systems, as well as pecuniary damages.
On February 23, 2005, another lawsuit requesting temporary and permanent injunctions, as well as pecuniary damages, was filed against us in the District Court in Jerusalem by Orbotech Ltd., alleging patent infringement in connection with a patent, regarding illumination blocks (an apparatus for illuminating and controlling the illumination of scanned objects) used in our AOI systems, which already was the subject of earlier allegations made by Orbotech in a letter sent to us in 1998, regarding an illumination block. The District Court in Jerusalem has granted Orbotech a temporary injunction under which we may not manufacture or sell a new illumination block which we were developing for customized special application. We do not believe that the temporary injunction will have a material effect on our business.
We believe that we have good defenses against Orbotechs claims. However, we cannot assure you that we will be successful in our defense against Orbotechs claims.
We are not a party to any other material legal proceedings.
C. Organizational Structure
Priortech Ltd., our principal shareholder, through its affiliated companies, engages in various aspects of electronic packaging, including the production and assembly of PCBs and the development and sale of HDI-S. Based on sales, PCB Technologies, a subsidiary of Priortech, is one of the largest PCB manufacturers in Israel. Priortech currently holds 77.8% of our outstanding ordinary shares. We did not sell any AOI systems to Priortech in 2002 and 2003, but did sell to a subsidiary of Priortech an AOI system for $230,000 in 2004 and a photo plotter for $190,000 in 2003. In addition to these sales of products, we act jointly with Priortech with regard to various governmental, administrative and commercial matters, which we believe is to the mutual advantage of both parties.
D. Property, Plants and Equipment
Our main office, manufacturing and research and development facilities are located in the Ramat Gavriel Industrial Zone of Migdal HaEmek in northern Israel. In September 1998, we entered into a lease for these facilities to be built by the lessor and also acquired an option to purchase the building and underlying land from the lessor, which was exercised by us. These facilities occupy 74,000 square feet, of which 28,000 square feet are devoted to the manufacture of our products. We believe that our production capacity is sufficient for our current and expected levels of sales.
Our sales offices and demonstration centers, which we lease in various locations around the world, occupy, in the aggregate, approximately 28,000 square feet.
A. Operating Results
The following discussion of our financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and the notes to those statements included herein, which have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States, or United States GAAP.
We design, develop, manufacture and market automatic optical inspection, or AOI, systems and related products. Our AOI systems are used to enhance both production processes and yields for manufacturers in the printed circuit board, or PCB, industry, the high density interconnect substrate, or HDI-S, industry and the semiconductor manufacturing and packaging industry.
We sell our AOI systems internationally. The majority of sales of our AOI systems in 2004 was to PCB manufacturers in the Asia Pacific region, particularly in China and Taiwan. This trend is due, among other factors, to the migration of PCB manufacturers into this region due to significant labor cost advantages available there. In 2004, our sales to customers in the Asia Pacific region accounted for approximately 73.4% of our total revenues, including approximately 43.9% of our total revenues from sales in China and Hong Kong and 21.6% from sales in Taiwan. We expect that this trend of increased production of PCBs and other electronic components in the Asia Pacific region will continue for the foreseeable future, but at a reduced rate than took place in 2004.
In addition to revenues derived from the sale of AOI systems and related products, we generate revenues from providing maintenance and support services for our products. We expect our service revenues to increase as our installed base increases. We generally provide a one year warranty with our systems. Accordingly, service revenues are not earned during the warranty period. Our service revenues, and gross profit derived from these revenues, decreased in 2004 since fewer systems were sold during the industry downturn (during 2001-2003), therefore fewer warranties expired. We expect service revenues to grow in 2005 due to the higher rate of sales of systems during 2003 and 2004.
Our customers are increasingly requiring that we deliver our products with short lead times. In order to meet our customers needs in the timeframe they require, we need to pre-order components and subsystems based on our forecasts of future orders, rather than on actual orders. This need to pre-stock our component and subsystem inventory is compounded by the fact that, in times of increasing demand in our industry, our suppliers and subcontractors tend to extend their delivery schedules or fail to meet their delivery deadlines. In order to compensate for these unexpected delays, we have had to predict our needs further into the future, which increases the risk that our predictions may not correspond to our actual future needs. The uncertainties involved in these longer term estimates during times of business expansion tend to increase the level of component and subsystem inventories.
Compared to our sales cycles for repeat orders from existing customers, we have longer sales cycles for new customers who are likely to order multiple systems, for new products and for new customers in new markets. The sales process generally involves: demonstrations and testing against industry benchmarks in our sales centers; sales and technical presentations and presentations regarding our products competitive advantages; and installation of the systems at a customers site for side-by-side competitive evaluations for a period of one to four months. During the initial penetration period for new products and for new customers in new markets, the evaluation period is typically extended, since there are usually more intensive engineering efforts to fix errors, customize tasks and add new features. As a result of all of the above factors, our finished goods inventory has increased. A significant portion of our finished goods inventory consists of systems under evaluation and demonstration systems. We expect that this inventory will continue to increase as our business, product lines and customer base expand.
During the industry downturn in 2001, 2002 and early 2003, we implemented several cost cutting and adjustment programs and measures. These measures included reductions in salaries, bonuses and professional service fees, selective layoffs on a worldwide basis and restructuring of production, research and development and sales and marketing resources. Our cost reduction programs and measures resulted in a reduction in the level of our expenses during 2002 and 2003. Since our business expanded in 2004, we increased salaries and restore bonus arrangements, which were cut during the reduction programs.
Critical Accounting Policies
The Securities and Exchange Commission defines critical accounting policies as those that are, in managements view, most important to the portrayal of a companys financial condition and results of operations and most demanding on their calls on judgment, often as a result of the need to make estimates about the effect of matters that are inherently uncertain and may change in subsequent periods. We believe our most critical accounting policies relate to:
Revenue Recognition of Product Sales. We recognize revenues from the sales of our products when the products are installed at the customers premises and are operating in accordance with the products specifications, signed documentation of the arrangement, such as a signed contract or purchase order, has been received and the price is fixed or determinable and collectability is reasonably assured.
Our products are only installed by our qualified technicians. Thus, before we recognize the revenue from the sale of a product and consider the sales cycle completed, our technicians must install our product at the customers premises, activate the product according to its specifications and then certify completion of such installation and activation.
Our revenue recognition policy requires that we make a judgment as to whether collectability is reasonably assured. Our judgment is made for each customer on a case-by-case basis, and, among other factors, we take into consideration the individual customers payment history and its financial strength, as demonstrated by its financial reports or through a third-party credit check. In some cases, we secure payments by a letter of credit or other instrument.
Valuation of Accounts Receivable. We review accounts receivable to determine which are doubtful of collection. In making this determination of the appropriate allowance for doubtful accounts, we consider our history of write-offs, relationships with our customers and the overall credit worthiness of our customers. Changes in the credit worthiness of our customers, the general economic environment and other factors may impact the level of our future write-offs. The following table is a summary of the allowance for doubtful accounts related to accounts receivable for the years ended December 31, 2002, 2003 and 2004:
In establishing these allowances for doubtful accounts, we took into account the industry downturn and global economic recession in 2001, 2002 and the beginning of 2003.
Valuation of Inventory. We review inventory for obsolescence and excess quantities to determine that items deemed obsolete or excess inventory are appropriately reserved. In making the determination, we consider future sales of related products and the quantity of inventory at the balance sheet date, assessed against each inventory items past usage rates and future expected usage rates. Changes in factors such as technology, customer demand, competing products and other matters could affect the level of our obsolete and excess inventory in the future. For example, in the third quarter of 2002, we took a one-time inventory write-off charge of $1.8 million to account for obsolete inventory. Most of this write-off was a result of major engineering enhancements to components of our Orion product line that improved its performance while significantly reducing the costs of goods sold. We wrote off the inventory items that would not be used in future sales due to these enhancements.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
In November 2004, the FASB issued FASB Statement No. 151, Inventory Costs, an amendment to ARB 43, Chapter 4 (SFAS 151). The amendment made by SFAS 151 clarifies that abnormal amounts of idle facility expense, freight, handling costs, and wasted material (spoilage) should be recognized as current-period charges, and also requires the allocation of fixed production overhead inventory based on the normal capacity of the production facilities. The guidance is effective for inventory costs incurred during fiscal years beginning after June 15, 2005. Earlier application is permitted for inventory costs incurred during fiscal years beginning after November 23, 2004. The provisions of SFAS 151 should be applied prospectively. The Company does not expect the adoption of SFAS 151 to have material effect on the Companys results of operations.
In December 2004, the FASB issued SFAS No. 123 (revised 2004) Share Based Payments (SFAS 123(R)). This Statement is a revision of FASB Statement No. 123, Accounting for Stock-Based Compensation, which supersedes APB Opinion No. 25, and its authoritative interpretations. SFAS 123(R) establishes standards for the accounting for transactions in which an entity exchanges its equity instruments for goods or services; focuses primarily on accounting for transactions in which an entity obtains employee and director services in share-based payment transactions; and does not change the accounting guidance for share-based payment transactions with parties other than employees. SFAS 123(R) eliminates the alternative to use APB 25s intrinsic value method of accounting that was provided in SFAS 123 as originally issued and requires measuring the cost of employee services received in exchange for an award of equity instruments based on the grant-date fair value of the award. The fair-value-based method in this Statement is similar to the fair-value-based method in SFAS 123 in most respects. The costs associated with the awards will be recognized over the period during which an employee is required to provide service in exchange for the award the requisite service period (usually the vesting period).
The grant-date fair value of employee share options and similar instruments will be estimated using option-pricing models adjusted for the unique characteristics of those instruments (unless observable market prices for the same or similar instruments are available). If an equity award is modified after the grant date, incremental compensation cost will be recognized in an amount equal to the excess of the fair value of the modified award over the fair value of the original award immediately before the modification. The provisions of SFAS 123(R) apply beginning with the Companys 2006 fiscal year. When initially applying the provisions of SFAS 123(R), in the first quarter of 2006, the Company will be required to elect between using either the modified prospective method or the modified retrospective method. Under the modified prospective method, the Company is required to recognize compensation cost for all awards granted after the adoption of SFAS 123(R) and for the unvested portion of previously granted awards that are outstanding on that date. Under the modified retrospective method, the Company is required to restate its previously issued financial statements to recognize the amounts previously calculated and reported on a pro forma basis, as if the original provisions of SFAS 123 had been adopted. Under both methods, it is permitted to use either a straight line or an accelerated method to amortize the cost as an expense for awards with graded vesting. Management has recently commenced identifying the potential future impact of applying the provisions of SFAS 123(R), including each of its proposed transition methods, yet is currently unable to fully quantify the effect of this Standard on the Companys future financial position and results of operations. Nonetheless, it is expected that the adoption of SFAS 123(R) will increase the stock-based-award expenses the Company is to record in the future in comparison to the expenses recorded under the guidance currently applied by the Company.
In December 2004, the FASB issued SFAS No. 153, Exchanges of Nonmonetary Assets an amendment of APB No. 29. This Statement amends APB 29 to eliminate the exception for nonmonetary exchanges of similar productive assets and replaces it with a general exception for exchanges of nonmonetary assets that do not have commercial substance. The Statement specifies that a nonmonetary exchange has commercial substance if the future cash flows of the entity are expected to change significantly as a result of the exchange. This Statement is effective for nonmonetary asset exchanges occurring in fiscal periods beginning after June 15, 2005. Earlier application is permitted for nonmonetary asset exchanges occurring in fiscal periods beginning after the date this Statement is issued. Retroactive application is not permitted.
Results of Operations
Year Ended December 31, 2004 Compared to Year Ended December 31, 2003
Revenues. Revenues increased 116% to $67.4 million in the year ended December 31, 2004 from $31.1 million in the year ended December 31, 2003, primarily as a result of the upturn in the global electronics industry, which resulted in our customers increasing capital equipment spending. Sales of products increased 138% to $63.4 million in the year ended December 31, 2004 from $26.6 million in the year ended December 31, 2003. The mixture of products sold and their configuration varieties make it very difficult to estimate average selling prices and pricing trends. However, we estimate that the average selling prices of our AOI systems increased by approximately 6% during 2004 compared to 2003. The introduction of new products and the increased quantity of AOI systems sold during 2004 were the main factors contributing to our revenue increase.
In 2004, our total sales increased on an absolute basis in all geographic markets; in addition, the relative significance of certain geographic markets as a percentage of our total sales has continued to shift from Europe and the United States to the Asia Pacific region. Sales also increased due to the successful penetration of our Dragon system, continuing penetration of our Pegasus system and the introduction of our Orion Fine Line system to the packaging market. We have also started to recognize sales to the semiconductor manufacturing sector by introducing our Falcon system.
Service fees decreased by 11.1% to $4.1 million in the year ended December 31, 2004 from $4.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2003. This decrease reflected the decrease in sales of system in 2002 which resulted in lower service fees in 2004.
Gross Profit. Gross profit consists of revenues less cost of revenues, which includes the cost of components, production materials, labor, depreciation, factory and service center overhead, provisions for warranties and royalty payments to the Government of Israel. These expenditures are only partially affected by sales volume. In 2004, we experienced an increase in gross profit and gross margins, primarily due to increased sales which provided the economies of scale benefits. Our gross profit on product sales increased by $22 million to $35.2 million in 2004, compared to $13.2 million in 2003. Our gross profit on service revenue decreased by $216,000 in 2004, compared to $1.1 million in 2003. Our total gross profit increased by $21.8 million to $36.1 million in 2004 from $14.3 million in 2003, representing an increase of 152.3%. Our gross margin improved to 53.5% in 2004, compared to a gross margin of 46% in 2003.
Research and Development Costs. Research and development expenses consist primarily of salaries, materials consumption and costs associated with subcontracting certain development efforts . Total research and development expenses for 2004 were $7.3 million, compared to $5.9 million in 2003. Research and development expenses increased in 2004, due in part to increased research and development projects (an increase of $646,000) and an increase of $447,000 resulting from an increase in headcount and raised salaries and bonuses that had been reduced in the past two years.
Selling, General and Administrative Expenses. Selling, general and administrative expenses consist primarily of expenses associated with salaries, commissions, promotion and travel, doubtful debt, professional services and rent costs. Our selling, general and administrative expenses, increased 56.5% to $16.0 million in 2004 from $10.0 million in 2003. Selling, general and administrative expenses as a percentage of revenues decreased in 2004 to 23.7% from 32.2% in 2003 mainly due to economies of scale. In 2004 we continued the restructuring and strengthening our sales infrastructure especially in the Asian territory. We increased our sales and service employee headcount raising expenses by $2.0 million, expenses related to revenue volume such as agent commissions were increased by $1.0 million, traveling expenses increased by $333,000 and shipping expenses increased by $1.3 million.
Financial and Other (Expenses) Income, Net. We had net financial expense of $359,000 in 2004, as compared to net financial income of $235,000 in 2003. These changes related primarily to exchange rate influence and interest paid. Changes in currency rates resulted in income of $80,000 in 2004 and $396,000 in 2003. In 2003, this income was offset by interest expenses of $450,000, while in 2004, we had interest expense of $ 169,000.
Provision for Income Taxes. We had a provision for income tax of $499,000 in 2004 due to a settlement we reached with the Israeli Income Tax Authorities regarding certain tax assessments. This compares to a provision of $225,000 in 2003. The 2003 provision reflected our estimate of the probable cost of settlement of these tax assessments.
Net Income. Our net income increased to $10.8 million in 2004 compared to a net loss of $1.6 million in 2003. This increase in net income was primarily due to an increase in our revenues.
Year Ended December 31, 2003 Compared to Year Ended December 31, 2002
Revenues. Revenues increased 37.8% to $31.1 million in the year ended December 31, 2003 from $22.6 million in the year ended December 31, 2002, primarily as a result of the upturn in the second half of 2003 in the global electronics industry, which resulted in our customers increasing capital equipment spending. Sales of products increased 39.1% to $26.6 million in the year ended December 31, 2003 from $19.1 million in the year ended December 31, 2002. Our mix of products sold and their configuration varieties make it very difficult to estimate average selling prices and pricing trends. However, we estimate that the average selling prices of our AOI systems increased by approximately 6% during 2003 compared to 2002. The introduction of new products and the increased quantity of AOI systems sold during 2003 were the main factors contributing to our revenue increase.
In 2003, our total sales increased on an absolute basis in almost all geographic markets; in addition, the relative significance of certain geographic markets as a percentage of our total sales has continued to shift from Europe and the United States to the Asia Pacific region. Sales also increased due to the launch of our Dragon system, continuing penetration of our Pegasus system and the introduction of our Orion Fine Line system. Sales in the semiconductor manufacturing and packaging market were insignificant. We expect to begin to recognize revenues from the sale of our Falcon product line targeting this market in the end of the second quarter of 2004 or in the third quarter of 2004.
Service fees increased 31.1% to $4.6 million in the year ended December 31, 2003 from $3.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2002. This increase reflected the expiration of warranties on systems installed mostly in 2001.
Gross Profit. In 2003, we experienced an increase in gross profit and gross margins, primarily due to increased sales, lower costs of goods sold due to the resulting economies of scale and our continued efforts at cost cutting in all areas. Our revenues increased in 2003 by $8.5 million, while our cost of revenues remained at almost the same aggregate level as in 2002, some non-recurring charges and fixed expenses were reduced and our variable costs were increased. The main fixed costs and non-recurring factors that were decreased in 2003 compared to 2002 were a decrease in royalties to the Government of Israel by $850,000, an inventory write-off in 2002 of $1.8 million, which did not recur in 2003, and a decrease in factory overhead expenses of $384,000. Our gross profit on product sales increased by $7.3 million to $13.2 million in 2003, compared to $5.9 million in 2002. Our gross profit on service revenue increased by $844,000 to $1.1 million in 2003, compared to $270,000 in 2002. Our total gross profit increased by $8.2 million to $14.3 million in 2003 from $6.1 million in 2002, representing an increase of 132.9%. Our gross margin improved to 46.0% in 2003, compared to a gross margin of 27.2% in 2002.
Research and Development Costs. Total research and development expenses for 2003 were $5.9 million, compared to $7.2 million in 2002. In 2003, we reduced our total research and development costs through an internal consolidation of our research and development personnel and a shift of research efforts from subcontractors to internal employees. Thus, we managed to decrease our expenses related to subcontractors and materials consumption by $1.1 million in 2003.
Selling, General and Administrative Expenses. Our selling, general and administrative expenses were $10.0 million in 2003 and $10.1 million in 2002. Selling, general and administrative expenses as a percentage of revenues decreased in 2003 to 32.2% from 44.5% in 2002 due to economies of scale. We restructured our selling, general and administrative organization by shifting a significant portion of our sales efforts from the United States to the Asia Pacific region, where employee costs are lower, by focusing more on direct sales and less on sales that require payments of commissions to external sales representatives, by implementing general cost cutting measures in professional services and by reducing the number of our executive management positions.
Financial and Other (Expenses) Income, Net. We had net financial income of $235,000 in 2003, as compared to net financial income of $331,000 in 2002. These changes related primarily to decreasing interest rates and deposit balances. Changes in currency rates resulted in income of $396,000 in 2003 and $112,000 in 2002. In 2003, this income was offset by interest expenses in 2003 of $169,000, while in 2002, we had interest income of $189,000.
Provision for Income Taxes. We had a provision for income tax of $225,000 in 2003 in connection with certain tax assessments we received from the Israeli Income Tax Authorities, compared to a provision of $519,000 in 2002. The 2003 provision reflected our estimate of the probable cost of settlement of these tax assessments. The assessment from the Israeli Income Tax Authorities has now been settled, and an additional provision of $460,000 regarding the settlement was made in the first quarter of 2004. The principal reason for the provision in 2002 was a write-off of $539,000 of deferred tax assets, due to the unlikelihood of recovery in light of our continuing losses at the time.
Net Loss. Our net loss decreased to $1.6 million in 2003 from $11.3 million in 2002. This decrease in net loss was primarily due to an increase in our revenues, coupled with a smaller increase in expenses.
B. Liquidity and Capital Resources.
Our cash and cash equivalent balances totaled approximately $9.1 million at December 31, 2004 and $12.8 million at December 31, 2003. We had no investments in marketable securities as of December 31, 2004 or December 31, 2003. Our cash and marketable securities consisted mainly of money raised through equity offerings in 2000 and 2002. We raised approximately $36.0 million from our initial public offering in 2000 and approximately $6.1 million in a rights offering of ordinary shares to our then existing shareholders in 2002. Our working capital was approximately $40.0 million at December 31, 2004 and $29.4 million at December 31, 2003. Our decrease in cash and cash equivalents during 2004 was mainly due to the sharp increase in inventory levels as a result of our wide product variety and to a sharp increase in our accounts receivable due to our increased level of sales. In addition, we drew on our existing credit line with our primary lender, Bank Leumi, in the amount of $2.3 million.
Cash flow from operating activities
For the year ended December 31, 2004, we had negative cash flow from operations of $1.8 million, primarily due to an increase in our inventories of $11.2 million, and due to an increase in our accounts receivable of $8.8 million. For the year ended December 31, 2003, we had negative cash flow from operations of $3.0 million, primarily due to an increase in our accounts receivable of $2.7 million, in amounts due from Priortech and its affiliates of $2.1 million and in inventories of $1.7 million, partially offset by an increase in accounts payable of $4.0 million. The increase in our receivables, payables and inventory was a reflection of our increased level of activity during 2003. The amounts due from Priortech primarily related to Israeli value added tax refunds belonging to us, which were received by Priortech due to the fact that we are part of a consolidated group with Priortech for purposes of Israeli value added tax matters. All amounts due, as of December 31, 2003, to us from Priortech have since been paid.
Cash flow from investing activities
Cash flow used by investing activities in 2004 was $0.8 million, mainly due to investment in fixed assets. Cash flow provided by investing activities in 2003 was $10.7 million, mainly due to the redemption of marketable securities. Cash flow provided by investing activities in 2002 was $2.7 million, also mainly due to the redemption of marketable securities.
Capital expenditures for 2004 were $829,000, compared to $220,000 in 2003, and $240,000 in 2002. Most of the capital expenditures in 2004 were for the purpose of replacing obsolete equipment and machinery and renewing office furnishings. Our capital expenditure budget for 2005 is approximately $800,000.
The short-term bank credit will continue to be available to us after repayment, even if we repay any amounts outstanding, subject to the terms of the credit agreement with Bank Leumi. Under the terms of this credit facility, we may draw down up to NIS 26 million, the equivalent of approximately $5.8 million. The terms of this credit facility require that our shareholders equity, net of intangible assets, treasury stock, deferred expenses and accounts payable from related entities, remain at or above 45% of the total value represented by our consolidated balance sheet, and further require us to maintain a cash balance of at least $2.0 million in the form of either bank deposits or non-encumbered bonds rated no lower than AA. We have also undertaken not to effect a merger or change of control without the consent of Bank Leumi, and to furnish the bank with our financial statements. Borrowings under the Bank Leumi loan are collateralized by all of our assets. There is no guarantee that we can maintain compliance with all the conditions imposed by Bank Leumi in connection with the credit line, and, therefore, the credit line may not be available to us in the future.
On September 17, 2001, we announced that our Board of Directors had authorized a share repurchase program to acquire up to $3.0 million of our ordinary shares from time to time in open market transactions. During September 2001, we purchased 250,000 ordinary shares at an aggregate cost of $592,000, and during 2002, we purchased 761,619 ordinary shares at an aggregate total cost of $401,000 in connection with such program. The purpose of our repurchase program was to demonstrate to our shareholders our confidence in our company and the AOI industry and to show our confidence in the long-run performance of both of them. We believed when we implemented this program that it was in the best interests of our shareholders. We do no currently have any specific plans for the use of the repurchased shares.
On March 31, 2004, we reached a settlement with the Israeli Income Tax Authorities over disputed assessments for the 1999, 2000 and 2001 tax years. The dispute concerned assessments received from the Israeli Income Tax Authorities, according to which we owed tax on our annual revenues in a total amount of $6.7 million for those three tax years. The assessment included four elements: (a) the tax benefits to which we are entitled in relation to our Approved Enterprise status under Israeli tax law, (b) the recognition of certain research and development costs, (c) the recognition of our costs relating to our initial public offering in 2000 and (d) the inflationary adjustment of debentures which we acquired from the proceeds of our initial public offering in 2000. Under the settlement reached, we will pay the Israeli Income Tax Authorities a total of approximately $685,000 to settle the $6.7 million originally demanded of us. In addition, under the settlement, we may continue to calculate our applicable tax benefits for the subsequent years (2002 through 2007) of the Approved Enterprise program in which we currently participate and with respect to which the tax assessment pertained at the rates previously applied by us. The settlement amount resulted in a one-time provision for income tax of approximately $460,000 in the first quarter of 2004, in addition to the $225,000 that was reserved for this purpose in the fourth quarter of 2003.
We believe that our existing sources of liquidity and anticipated cash flow from operations will be sufficient to meet our anticipated cash requirements for at least the next twelve months.
Effective Corporate Tax Rate
Our production facilities are the subject of several investment programs, and have been granted Approved Enterprise status under the Law for Encouragement of Capital Investments, 1959. We are entitled to a tax holiday for a period of ten years from the year in which we, as an Approved Enterprise, first earn taxable income. The periods of benefits relating to our investment programs which received Approved Enterprise status expire at different times. The tax benefits with regard to our first investment program which received Approved Enterprise status expired on December 31, 1999, and the tax benefits with regard to our second approved investment program will expire at the end of 2007. Income related to our first investment program is now subject to a 34% corporate tax rate. The percentage of our income which will be subject to the 34% tax rate is dependent on the increase in our revenues in comparison to the revenues in the year in which each additional investment program was approved and other factors. In 2005, approximately 10% of our taxable income will be subject to the 34% corporate tax rate.
As of December 31, 2004, we had net operating loss, or NOL, carryovers for Israeli tax purposes of approximately $5.1 million, which may be used to offset taxable income, subject to annual limitations. This NOL carryover has no expiration date. In addition, foreign subsidiaries have NOL carryovers totaling approximately $9.7 million, of which approximately $4.1 million expire between 2005 to 2009, approximately $2.5 million expire between 2021 to 2023 and approximately $3.1 million have no expiration date. `
In the event that we operate under more than one approval or that our capital investments are only partly approved, our effective tax rate will be a weighted combination of the various applicable tax rates.
Disclosure About Market Risk
The currency of the primary economic environment in which our operations are conducted is the dollar. Most of our revenues are derived in dollars, and the prices of most of our materials and components are purchased in dollars or are linked to changes in the dollar/NIS exchange rate effective on the date of delivery of the goods to our factory. Most of our marketing expenses are also denominated in dollars or are dollar linked. Our product prices in most countries outside of Europe and Japan are denominated in dollars. However, most of our service income is denominated in local currency. In Europe or Japan, if there is a significant devaluation in the local currency as compared to the dollar, the prices of our products will increase relative to that local currency and may be less competitive. The opposite effect occurs when the dollar decreases in value in comparison to these currencies, which was the case in 2004. As the majority of our revenues are denominated in dollars, we believe that inflation and fluctuations in the NIS/dollar exchange rate have no material effect on our revenues. However, a portion of the costs of our Israeli operations, mainly personnel and facility-related, are incurred in NIS. As a result, we bear the risk that the rate of inflation in Israel will exceed the rate of devaluation of the NIS in relation to the dollar, which will increase our costs expressed in dollars and have an effect on our net income. Our NIS costs, as expressed in dollars, increase to the extent by which any increase in the rate of inflation in Israel is not offset, or is offset on a lagging basis, by a devaluation of the NIS in relation to the dollar or to the extent that the NIS appreciates in relation to the dollar.
An increasing portion of our expenses is incurred in the Peoples Republic of China. The Chinese currency is currently linked to the dollar. The Chinese government has been under increasing international pressure to permit the Yuan to enter a full or limited free float. Should this linkage be discontinued by the Chinese government, and if the Chinese currency rises in value in relation to the dollar, our results of operations, in dollar terms, would be adversely affected.
In our consolidated financial statements, transactions and balances originally denominated in dollars are presented at their original amounts. Gains and losses arising from non-dollar transactions and balances are included in the determination of net income as part of financial expenses, net.
Currently, we do not engage in hedging or other transactions intended to manage risks relating to foreign currency exchange rate or interest rate fluctuations.
C. Research and Development, Patents and Licenses.
We believe that intensive research and development are essential to our business. We devote substantial research and development resources to developing new products and to improving our existing products to meet our customers evolving needs. We have dedicated teams with expertise in image processing software and algorithms, electronic hardware, electro-optics, physics, mechanics and systems design.
Our product development efforts over the past two years have resulted in the introduction of several new AOI systems, including the new models in the Dragon series, and Orion series as well as automated material handling systems for the Dragon series for the PCB market. the Pegasus the Lam, new models in the Orion series for the HDI-S market and the Falcon for the semiconductor manufacturing and packaging market.
Our research and development efforts are primarily focused on:
In addition, we are focusing our efforts on leveraging our core technologies, expertise and experience into improving our Falcon and Dragon family of products. We believe our internal multi-disciplinary expertise will enable us to maintain and enhance our technological edge.
As of December 31, 2004, we had 76 employees engaged in research and development, all of whom are based in our headquarters in Israel. We also use subcontractors for the development of some of the hardware components of our systems. Our research and development expenses were $7.2 million, $5.9 million and $7.3 million for the years ended December 31, 2002, 2003 and 2004, respectively, representing 31.8%, 18.8% and 10.7% of total revenues for the years then ended.
We will continue to devote our research and development resources to maintaining and extending our technology leadership position. In 2005 and 2006, we expect to introduce new products and capabilities for all of our target markets.
In general, we rely on a combination of our copyrights, trade secrets, patents, trademarks and non-disclosure agreements to protect our proprietary know-how and intellectual property. We also enter into confidentiality agreements with key employees and with all of the subcontractors who develop and manufacture components for use in our products. We cannot be certain that actions we take to protect our proprietary rights will be adequate nor can we be certain that we will be able to deter reverse engineering or that there will not be independent third-party development of our technology
We have eight patents pending with the Patent Cooperation Treaty organization, six patents pending in Israel, and one patent registered in the United States, Japan and Israel. Several of these patents relate to our AOI technology developed for the semiconductor industry. We consider aspects of many elements of our AOI systems to be proprietary to us.
D. Trend Information.
During 2001, 2002 and early 2003, competition in the industries we serve intensified due to the low demand for AOI systems, resulting from the general economic downturn during that time. Demand for AOI systems increased from the latter part of 2003 through the third quarter of 2004, though there was a capacity correction in the first quarter of 2005. There are two general trends that we believe are driving this increased demand. First, as electronic equipment becomes more complex, AOI equipment becomes more critical to the manufacturing process. Second, the recovery of the global electronics industry drove manufacturers in these industries to increase their investment in capital equipment. This increase led to an increase in demand for our systems both for expansion and for the replacement of existing systems.
In 2004, the majority of sales of our AOI systems were to PCB manufacturers in the Asia Pacific region, particularly in China and Taiwan. This trend is due, among other factors, to the migration of PCB manufacturers into this region due to significant labor cost advantages available there. We expect that this trend toward the manufacturing of PCBs and other electronic components in the Asia Pacific region will continue for the foreseeable future, though at a lower rate.
E. Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements.
We do not have any arrangements or relationships with entities that are not consolidated into our financial statements and are reasonably likely to materially affect our liquidity or the availability of our capital resources.
F. Contractual Obligations and Other Commercial Commitments.
As of December 31, 2004, we had contractual obligations and commercial commitments of:
A. Directors and Senior Management.
The following table sets forth information with respect to our directors, executive officers and key employee as of the date of this annual report. The address of our directors, executive officers and key employee is c/o Camtek Ltd., Ramat Gavriel Industrial Zone, P.O. Box 544, Migdal HaEmek 23150 Israel.
Rafi Amit has served as our Chief Executive Officer since January 1998 and has served as Chairman of the Board of Directors since 1987. Since 1981, Mr. Amit has also served as the President and director of Priortech and has been the Chairman of the Board of Directors of Priortech since 1988. From 1981 until 2004, Mr. Amit served as Priortechs Chief Executive Officer. Mr. Amit has a B.Sc. in Industrial Engineering and Management from Technion Israel Institute of Technology. Mr. Rafi Amit is the brother of Mr. Moshe Amit.
Yotam Stern has served as an executive of ours since January 1998 and since February 2001 has served as our Executive Vice President, Business & Strategy. He has also served as a member of our Board of Directors since 1987. From January 1998 until February 2001, Mr. Stern served as our Chief Financial Officer. Mr. Stern has also served as the Chief Financial Officer of Priortech since 1981 and as Priortechs Chief Executive Officer since 2004 as well as serving as a director of Priortech since 1985. Mr. Stern has a B.A. in Economics from Hebrew University of Jerusalem.
Meir Ben-Shoshan has served on our Board of Directors since November 1998. From May 1995 until March 1999, Mr. Ben-Shoshan was a director of AG Associates (Israel) Ltd., a manufacturer of integrated processing equipment for the semiconductor industry, and was Chairman of its board from April 1996 to March 1999. From 1986 to 1998, Mr. Ben-Shoshan was a vice president of Clal Electronics Industries Ltd., a large electronics company. From March 2000 to March 2001, Mr. Ben-Shoshan was a director of Tower Semiconductor Ltd., a manufacturer of semiconductors. He has also been a director of IFN Ltd., a company dealing in e-knowledge and e-content management since January 2000 and has been the Chairman of the Board of Jordan Valley Applied Radiation Ltd. since August 1999. Mr. Ben-Shoshan has been a member of the Association of Production Engineers in England since 1965 and received an M.B.A. from Tel-Aviv University.
Haim Horowitz has served on our Board of Directors since November 1998. Mr. Horowitz has also been the manager of the operating and financial control department of DSP Group, a fabless semiconductor company. Between 1999 and 2003, Mr. Horowitz served as Vice President and Chief Financial Officer of Menen Medical Ltd., a medical equipment manufacturer. Between 1994 and 1999, he served as Treasurer of Menen Medical Ltd., and from 1993 to 1994, he served as the Chief Financial Officer of Menen Medical Corp., a subsidiary of Menen Medical Ltd. From 1991 to 1993, Mr. Horowitz served as Treasurer of Elscint, Inc., a medical imaging equipment company. Mr. Horowitz holds a B.Sc. in Industry and Management from Technion Israel Institute of Technology.
Eran Bendoly has served on our Board of Directors since November 2000. Currently, Mr. Bendoly serves as the Chief Executive Officer of Xenia Management Ltd., which is the managing partner of Xenia Ventures LP, a limited partnership that operates the technological incubator in Kiryat Gat, Israel. From 2000 to 2002, Mr. Bendoly served as Director of Finance for Europe, Middle East & Africa of Mindspeed Technologies, Inc., a U.S.-based fabless semiconductor manufacturer. From 1998 to 2000, Mr. Bendoly served as Chief Financial Officer of Novanet Semiconductor Ltd., and, from 1996 to 1998, he served as Vice President, Finance and Operations of Novacom Technologies Ltd. Mr. Bendoly holds a B.A. from Hebrew University of Jerusalem and an M.B.A. from KU Leuven University of Belgium.
Moshe Amit has served as one of our executive officers since October 1994 and since February 2001 has served as our Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer. From 1987 until 1994, Mr. Amit served as the President of PCE, Inc., a New Jersey-based company affiliated with us, which, until 2001, sold and serviced PCBs and AOI systems. Mr. Amit has a B.Sc. in Industrial Engineering and Management from Technion Israel Institute of Technology. Mr. Moshe Amit is the brother of Mr. Rafi Amit.
Yuval Attias has served as our Controller since February 1999, prior to which Mr. Attias was an accountant with Somekh Chaikin, the Israeli affiliate of KPMG Peat Marwick. Mr. Attias has a B.A. in Economics and Accounting from Haifa University and is a registered CPA in Israel.
Amir Gilead has been employed by us since March 2000, and since November 2001, has served as our Vice President, Semiconductor and Packaging Division. From 1999 until March 2000, Mr. Gilead served as President and Chief Executive Officer of Advanced Automation International Inc., a startup in the semiconductor equipment manufacturing industry. From 1990 until 1999, Mr. Gilead held various executive positions with Kulicke & Soffa, a semiconductor equipment manufacturer. Mr. Gilead has a B.Sc. and an M.Sc. in electrical engineering from Technion Israel Institute of Technology.
Adi Corem has been employed by us since November 1998 and has served as our Vice President, Operations since January 2001. From 1988 to November 1998, Mr. Corem served as the Operations Manager of Volta Carmiel Ltd., a manufacturer of plastic products. From 1984 to 1988, Mr. Corem worked as a Projects Manager in Elbit Systems Ltd., a military technology developer and producer. Mr. Corem has a B.Sc. in Industrial Engineering from Technion Israel Institute of Technology.
Jacob Yavor has been employed by us since 1987 and has served as our Vice President, Printed Circuit Board and HDI-S Division since May 2002. Mr. Yavor has a B.Sc. in Computer Engineering from Technion Israel Institute of Technology.
Roni Flieswasser established the then European branch of Camtek in September 1995, prior to the establishment of Camtek Europe NV. Prior to joining Camtek, Mr. Flieswasser worked with AOI systems at Orbotech, and was a partner for four years in a software company specializing in business applications.
Roy Porat has served as President of Camtek Hong Kong since September 2003. From 2001 until September 2003, Mr. Porat served as President of our U.S. subsidiary, Camtek USA, Inc. From 1999 to 2000, Mr. Porat served as the Chief Executive Officer of Aeronautics Ltd. From 1994 to 1999, Mr. Porat served in various executive positions at our affiliate, PCB Technologies. Mr. Porat has a B.Sc. in Industrial Engineering from Technion Israel Institute of Technology.
Compensation of Executive Officers and Directors
The aggregate remuneration paid by us in the year ended December 31, 2004 to all the persons listed in the table under Directors, Executive Officers and Key Employees, except for Mr. Yuval Attias, was approximately $2,158,000, which includes amounts paid to provide pension, retirement or similar benefits, as well as amounts expended by us for automobiles made available to all our executive officers, and other fringe benefits commonly reimbursed or paid by companies in Israel. Regulations promulgated under the Israeli Companies Law regulate the annual remuneration and remuneration for participation in meetings of outside directors and the reimbursement of their expenses. Messrs. Rafi Amit and Yotam Stern did not receive any additional compensation for their service as our directors.
We maintain written employment agreements with our employees, including all of our executive officers, that contain customary provisions, including non-compete and confidentiality agreements. In recent years, Israeli courts have required employers seeking to enforce non-compete undertakings of a former employee to demonstrate that the competitive activities of the former employee will harm one of a limited number of material interests of the employer. If we cannot demonstrate that we will be harmed by the competitive activities of a former employee, we may be unable to prevent our competitors from benefiting from the expertise of our former employees.
Effective January 1, 1998, we entered into an employment agreement with Mr. Rafi Amit, our Chief Executive Officer. The agreement has a two-year term, which is automatically renewed at the end of every two years thereafter. The agreement contains confidentiality and non-compete provisions for the term of Mr. Amits employment and for a two-year period after the termination of his employment. Furthermore, the agreement provides that all intellectual property developed by Mr. Amit, or in which he took part, in connection with his employment, is our sole property. Pursuant to his employment agreement, Mr. Amit may dedicate up to 20% of his time to work for Priortech or any of the Priortech entities. Mr. Amit is currently engaged full time in his employment with the Company. The employment agreement may be terminated by either party at any time, or not renewed at the end of any successive two-year extension of its term, by written notice of termination or non-renewal delivered to the other party six months in advance. We may, however, immediately terminate the employment of Mr. Amit in various circumstances, including a breach of fiduciary duty.
Effective January 1, 1998, we entered into an employment agreement with Mr. Yotam Stern, our Executive Vice President, Business & Strategy. The agreement has a two year term which is automatically renewed at the end of every two years thereafter. The agreement contains confidentiality and non-compete provisions for the term of Mr. Sterns employment and for a two-year period after the termination of his employment. Pursuant to his employment agreement, Mr. Stern may dedicate up to 25% of his time to work for Priortech or any of the Priortech entities. In May 2005, our shareholders approved an amendment to this agreement under which Mr. Stern may dedicate up to 40% of his time to work for Priortech or any of the Priortech entities. The employment agreement may be terminated by either party at any time, or not renewed at the end of any successive two-year extension of its term, by written notice of termination or non-renewal delivered to the other party six months in advance. We may, however, terminate Mr. Sterns employment immediately upon the occurrence of various circumstances, including a breach of fiduciary duty.
C. Board Practices.
Composition of the Board of Directors
Our Articles provide that our Board of Directors shall consist of not less than five nor more than ten directors, including the outside directors. Currently, our board consists of five directors.
Directors, other than outside directors, are elected by a resolution of the shareholders at the annual general meeting and serve until the conclusion of the next annual general meeting of the shareholders. Directors may be removed at any time by a resolution of the shareholders. Since directors may be elected and removed by a majority vote, Priortech Ltd., which holds a majority of our voting shares, has the power to elect all of our directors, subject to the restrictions placed on the election of outside directors as described below. The Chief Executive Officer is appointed by our Board of Directors. Each of the other officers is appointed by the Chief Executive Officer.
The Chairman of our Board of Directors and Chief Executive Officer is Mr. Rafi Amit, who also serves as our general manager. Under the Israeli Companies Law, the general manager of a public company may not hold the position of Chairman of the Board unless that designation is approved at the general meeting of shareholders, by a vote of at least two-thirds of the non-controlling shareholders attending the meeting and voting on the resolution. This approval requirement need not be met if the total number of shares not held by controlling shareholders of the company which are voted against the resolution represents 1% or less of all of the voting rights. The designation may be approved for a term of up to three years and may be re-approved by the same majority for an additional three-year term each time. At our annual general shareholders meeting held in July 2003, our shareholders authorized Mr. Rafi Amit to continue to hold the position of general manager for an additional period of up to three years.
Our Articles provide that any director may appoint as an alternate director, by written notice to us or to the Chairman of the Board, any individual who is qualified to serve as director and who is not then serving as a director or alternate director for any other director. An alternate director has all of the rights and obligations of a director, excluding the right to appoint an alternate for himself. Currently no alternate directors serve on our board.
Messrs. Rafi Amit, Yotam Stern and Eran Bendoly are each serving a one year term which expires at our 2006 annual general meeting of shareholders. Each of our outside directors, Messrs. Haim Horowitz and Meir Ben-Shoshan, is serving a three year term in accordance with the Israeli Companies Law, which will expire at our annual general meeting of shareholders to be held in 2006.
None of the members of our Board of Directors, except Messrs. Rafi Amit and Yotam Stern, is a party to a service contract with us which would provide them benefits upon termination of employment.
Outside Directors; Independent Directors
Under the Israeli Companies Law, public Israeli companies are required to appoint at least two directors who qualify as outside directors under Israeli law.
The outside directors must not have any relationship with us. For this purpose, relationship means any employment, business or professional relations, either in the present or in the preceding two years. An individual whose relatives, business partners, employers or controlled companies have a relationship with us may not serve as an outside director. In addition, an individual whose other business affairs may cause a conflict of interest with the performance of his duties as an outside director or interfere with his ability to serve as such, may not serve as an outside director. Also, at least one of the outside directors must have financial and accounting expertise and the other must have professional qualifications, as defined in regulations promulgated under the Israeli Companies Law.
Outside directors are elected by a majority of the shares present and voting at the shareholders meeting. In addition, the shares voted in favor of their election must include at least one third of the shareholdings present and voting at the meeting, not counting abstentions, which are not held by controlling shareholders of the company. This minority approval requirement need not be met if the total number of shares not held by controlling shareholders of the company which are voted against the election of an outside director represents 1% or less of all of the voting rights.
Each of our outside directors serves a three-year term, and may be re-elected to serve in this capacity for one additional term of up to three years. An outside director can be removed from office only by either the same percentage of shareholders that may elect him, or by a court order. In either case, an outside director may be removed only if the outside director ceases to meet the statutory qualifications for serving as an outside director or breaches his fiduciary duty. The court may also remove an outside director from office if he or she is unable to perform his or her duties on a regular basis. If at the time an outside director is appointed by the shareholders, all other directors are of the same gender, the outside director to be appointed shall be of the other gender.
Neither we nor our subsidiaries may, prior to the lapse of two years after the termination of membership on our board of any of our outside directors, employ such former outside director, engage him or her to serve as an executive officer or director for us or retain his or her professional services.
Messrs. Haim Horowitz and Meir Ben-Shoshan currently serve as our outside directors.
The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, as well as related new rules subsequently implemented by the Securities and Exchange Commission, require foreign private issuers, such as us, to comply with various corporate governance practices. In addition, the Nasdaq Stock Market, or Nasdaq, has adopted amendments to its requirements for companies that are listed on Nasdaq. We believe that we are currently in compliance with, and we intend to take all actions necessary for us to maintain compliance with, the applicable corporate governance requirements of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, the rules adopted by the Securities and Exchange Commission and the listing standards of Nasdaq.
Under the Nasdaq listing requirements, we are required to have a majority of independent directors on our Board of Directors. Messrs. Haim Horowitz, Meir Ben-Shoshan and Eran Bendoly all qualify as our independent directors under Nasdaq rules.
The board of directors of an Israeli public company must appoint an internal auditor proposed by the audit committee. The role of the internal auditor is to examine, among other things, the compliance of the companys conduct with applicable law and orderly business procedures. An internal auditor may not hold any other position in the company, have any business affairs outside of the company which may create a conflict of interest with his or her duties as internal auditor or be an interested party. For this purpose, an interested party is a person who holds 5% or more of the companys shares, serves as or has the power to appoint a director to or the chief executive officer of the company, is otherwise personally employed by the company or serves on its board or is a relative of any of these parties. The only exception to the rule against an internal auditor being employed by the company is that the internal auditor may serve as an ombudsman, provided that this does not interfere with the performance of the duties of the internal auditor. In addition, the internal auditor may not be a member of the companys independent accounting firm. We currently have an internal auditor who meets the independence requirements of Israeli law.
Committees of the Board of Directors
The Israeli Companies Law provides that a public company must appoint an audit committee and may also appoint other committees to the board of directors, unless otherwise specified in the Companys Articles. The board of directors may delegate its powers to such committees of the board of directors as it deems appropriate, subject to the provisions of the Israeli Companies Law. Powers that may not be delegated include, among others, the power to distribute dividends, the determination of general company policy, the issuance of securities, the issuance of shares (unless such issuance is under an employee share option plan) and the approval of financial reports. However, those matters can be delegated to committees for the purpose of making recommendations to the full board of directors. According to the Companies Law, a committee to which powers have been delegated shall be composed only of directors. However, a committee whose purpose is only to make a recommendation can be composed of non-directors unless otherwise specified in the Companys Articles. According to the Companies Law, at least one outside director must be appointed to serve on each committee of the board, excluding the audit committee, which must be comprised of at least three directors, including all of the outside directors of the Company. However, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act and the Nasdaq listing requirements require that all members of the audit committee be independent. The audit committee may not include the chairman of the board, any director who is employed by the company or regularly provides service to it, a controlling shareholder, or a relative of any such individual. Our Board of Directors has an audit committee and a compensation committee.
Audit Committee. The Audit Committee oversees and approves the retention, performance and compensation of our independent auditors and establishes and oversees the implementation of procedures concerning our systems of internal accounting and auditing control. The Audit Committee is also responsible for identifying deficiencies in the management of our business and proposing solutions for any such deficiencies, and, in accordance with the Israeli Companies Law and the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, approving certain acts and transactions that involve conflicts of interest or that involve interested parties. The members of our Audit Committee are Messrs. Meir Ben-Shoshan, Eran Bendoly and Haim Horowitz, all of whom are independent directors in accordance with Nasdaq listing requirements. Messrs. Bendoly and Horovitz qualify as financial experts for purposes of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act and the Nasdaq listing requirements, and Messrs. Ben-Shoshan and Horowitz qualify as outside directors under Israeli Companies Law.
Compensation Committee. The Compensation Committee reviews and makes recommendations to our board concerning the terms of the compensation packages provided to our employees, including our executive officers, and the terms of any bonus, share options or other awards to be provided to our employees, including our executive officers. Under Israeli law, all compensation arrangements with a general manager who is not a director require the approval of the board of directors. Arrangements regarding the compensation of directors require approval of the audit committee, the board of directors and the shareholders, in that order, and if the director holds a controlling interest in the company, special shareholder approvals are required. See Duties of Office Holders and Approval of Transactions under Israeli Law. The members of our Compensation Committee are Messrs. Horowitz, Ben-Shoshan and Bendoly.
Duties of Office Holders and Controlling Shareholders and Approval of Transactions under Israeli Law
The Israeli Companies Law codifies the duty of care and the fiduciary duties that office holders have towards the company. An office holders duty of care includes the duty to act as a reasonable office holder would have acted in the same position and under the same circumstances. An office holders fiduciary duty requires the office holder to act in good faith and for the good of the company, which includes:
An office holder, under the Israeli Companies Law, is anyone serving, regardless of formal title, as a director, general manager, chief executive officer, executive vice president, vice president, or any other executive reporting directly to the general manager. Each person listed in the table under Directors, Executive Officers and Key Employees is one of our office holders, with the exception of our controller. All arrangements as to compensation of office holders who are neither directors nor controlling shareholders are approved by our compensation committee. The compensation of office holders who are directors or controlling shareholders, and any other employee who is a controlling shareholder, and as of March 17, 2005, also a close relative of such controlling shareholder as defined in the Companies Law), must be approved also by our Audit Committee, our Board of Directors and our shareholders, in that order. Special shareholder voting procedures are required for the approval of compensation of office holders or employees who are also controlling shareholders or any relative thereof.
Disclosure of Personal Interest
The Israeli Companies Law requires an office holder or controlling shareholder of a company to disclose any personal interest in an existing or proposed transaction with the company, no later than at the first board meeting in which the transaction is discussed. A personal interest also includes an interest in any company in which the person, his or her close relative or any entity in which such person or close relative has a personal interest, is a direct or indirect 5% or greater shareholder, is a director or the general manager or has the right to appoint at least one director or the general manager. Board approval is required to approve the transaction, and no transaction that is adverse to the companys interest may be approved. Approval by the companys audit committee and board of directors is required for an extraordinary transaction, meaning any transaction that is not in the ordinary course of business, is not on market terms or is likely to have a substantial effect on the companys profitability, assets or liabilities. A director who has a personal interest in a matter may not be present at a board of directors or audit committee meeting during discussions or vote on the matter. However, a director with a personal interest may be present if the transaction to be discussed is not an extraordinary transaction, or if a majority of the audit committee members or the directors, as the case may be, has a personal interest in the matter. If a majority of the board of directors or the audit committee has a personal interest in the transaction, shareholder approval is also required.
Transactions with Controlling Shareholders
A controlling shareholder is a shareholder who has the ability to direct the activities of a company, including a shareholder who holds 25% or more of the voting rights if no other shareholder holds more than 50% of the voting rights. Under Israeli law, the disclosure requirements regarding personal interests that apply to directors and office holders also apply to a controlling shareholder of a public company.
Required Approval. Extraordinary transactions with a controlling shareholder (and as of March 17, 2005, also a controlling shareholders close relative) or in which a controlling shareholder (or its relative) has a personal interest, and the terms of compensation of a controlling shareholder or a relative of a controlling shareholder who is a director, executive officer or employee, require the approval of the audit committee, the board of directors and the shareholders of the company. This shareholder approval must include the majority of shares voted at the meeting. In addition, either:
A shareholder who participates in this vote must provide notice to the company prior to voting, stating whether such shareholder has a personal interest in the transaction. In the absence of this notice, the shareholder may not vote on the matter, and his or her vote shall not be counted.
Approval of Certain Specific Extraordinary Transactions. According to regulations promulgated under the Israeli Companies Law, the following specific kinds of extraordinary transactions with a controlling shareholder do not require shareholder approval, provided that the audit committee and the board of directors have approved the transaction and determined that it is one of the following:
Insurance, Indemnification and Exemption
Our Articles provide that, subject to the provisions of the Israeli Companies Law, we may:
We may exempt, in advance, an office holder from all or part of his or her responsibility for damages occurring as a result of a breach of his or her duty of care. However, we may not exempt, in advance, an office holder for breach of his or her duty of care in respect distribution of dividends. We may also approve an action taken by the office holder, even if performed in breach of his or her fiduciary duty, if the office holder was acting in good faith, the action does not adversely affect us and the office holder has revealed to the board his or her personal interest in the action.
Notwithstanding the foregoing, we may not insure, indemnify or exempt an office holder for any breach of his or her fiduciary duty, or for a violation of his or her duty of care (1) if the act was committed recklessly or with intent, (2) if the act was committed with the intent to realize improper personal gain, or (3) for any fine imposed on the office holder, except as provided above.
As required under Israeli law, our Audit Committee, Board of Directors and shareholders have approved the indemnification and insurance of our office holders, as well as the resolutions necessary both to exempt our office holders in advance from any liability for damages arising from a breach of their duty of care to us, and to provide them with the indemnification undertakings and insurance coverage they have received from us in accordance with our Articles.
The following table sets forth for the last three years, the number of our employees engaged in the specified activities:
The following table sets forth for the last three years, the number of our employees located in the following geographic regions:
With respect to our Israeli employees, we have no collective bargaining agreements with our employees. However, by administrative order, certain provisions of the collective bargaining agreements between the Histadrut (General Federation of Labor in Israel) and the Coordination Bureau of Economic Organizations, relating primarily to the length of the work day, minimum wages, pension contributions, insurance for work-related accidents, procedures for dismissing employees, determination of severance pay and other conditions of employment, are applicable to our employees. In accordance with these provisions, the salaries of our Israeli employees are partially indexed to the Consumer Price Index in Israel, depending on the rate of increase of the Consumer Price Index.
We consider our relationship with our employees to be good, and we have never experienced a labor dispute, strike or work stoppage.
E. Share Ownership.
The following table sets forth certain information with respect to the beneficial ownership of our outstanding ordinary shares by our directors and executive officers.
Beneficial ownership is determined in accordance with the rules of the Securities and Exchange Commission and generally means sole or shared power to vote or direct the voting or to dispose or direct the disposition of any ordinary shares. Except as indicated by footnote, the persons named in the table below have sole voting and investment power with respect to all ordinary shares shown as beneficially owned by them. The percentage of beneficial ownership is based upon 27,078,647 ordinary shares outstanding as of June 15, 2005.
Share Option Plans
General. We currently maintain five share option plans. The purpose of our option plans is to afford an incentive to our officers, directors, employees and consultants and those of our subsidiaries, to acquire a proprietary interest in us, to increase their efforts on our behalf and to promote the success of our business.
As of December 31, 2004, there were 1,250,000 outstanding options to acquire our ordinary shares pursuant to our share option plans at a weighted average exercise price of $1.98, exercisable at various dates through July 2013.)
Future options to be granted by us to our employees, officers, directors and consultants or those of our affiliates will only be made pursuant to the 2003 Share Option Plan.
Administration of Our Share Option Plans. Our option plans are administered by our Board of Directors. Under these option plans, options to purchase our ordinary shares may also be granted to our officers, directors, employees or consultants and those of our subsidiaries. The exercise price of options is determined, under our option plans, by our Board of Directors, and is generally set as the fair market value (although some options are exercisable for no additional consideration and are the equivalent of restricted stock grants). The vesting schedule of the options is also determined by the Board of Directors; generally the options vest over a four-year period. Each option granted under the option plans is exercisable between four to ten years from the date of the grant of the option, according to the plan under which they were granted and subject to certain early expiration provisions, such as in the event of termination.
The Share Option Plans. In September 1997, we adopted a share option plan (the 1997 Share Option Plan) under which options to purchase our ordinary shares were granted to employees, as determined by the board from time to time. This plan was amended in 2000 and in 2003, each time in order to comply with new Israeli tax legislation.
In November 2000, we adopted three share option plans: the Executive Share Option Plan, the US Incentive Stock Option Plan and the European Employee Share Option Plan. Under these plans, options were granted to employees, directors, executive officers and consultants of our company and our affiliates around the world.
In October 2003, we adopted our 2003 Share Option Plan and its corresponding Sub-Plan for Grantees Subject to United States Taxation and Sub-Plan for Grantees Subject to Israeli Taxation. The total number of options that may be granted under the 2003 Share Option Plan is 998,800 options.
Options Granted During 2004. No options were granted by us during the year ended December 31, 2004.
We have filed registration statements on Form S-8 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, to register the ordinary shares issuable under all of our option plans. Ordinary shares issued pursuant to these share option plans are eligible for resale in the public market.
As of December 31, 2004, there were outstanding options exercisable for 375,300 ordinary shares at an average weighted exercise price of $1.98 per share, and unvested options exercisable for 874,700 ordinary shares at an average weighted exercise price of $ 1.98.
A. Major Shareholders.
The following table provides information regarding the beneficial ownership of our ordinary shares as of June 15, 2005, as to each person or entity who beneficially owns more than 5.0% of our outstanding ordinary shares. None of these shareholders has different voting rights than any of the Companys other shareholders.
Beneficial ownership is determined in accordance with the rules of the Securities and Exchange Commission and generally means sole or shared power to vote or direct the voting or to dispose or direct the disposition of any ordinary shares. Except as indicated by footnote, the person named in the table below have sole voting and investment power with respect to all ordinary shares shown as beneficially owned by them. The percentage of beneficial ownership is based upon 27,078,647 ordinary shares outstanding as of June 15, 2005.
* A majority of the voting equity in Priortech Ltd. is subject to a voting agreement. As a result of this agreement, Messrs. Rafi Amit, Yotam Stern and Itzhak Krell may be deemed to control Priortech Ltd. Priortechs principal executive offices are located at Industrial Zone, Migdal HaEmek 23150, Israel.
B. Related Party Transactions.
In August 2002, we sold 5,926,730 ordinary shares in a rights offering of ordinary shares to our then existing shareholders, in which we received proceeds of approximately $6.1 million. Of the ordinary shares sold in the rights offering, 5,922,228 ordinary shares were sold to Priortech, which exercised all its rights under the rights offering.
Ordinary Course Transactions and Activities with Priortech and its Affiliates
From time to time we have entered into transactions in the ordinary course of business with Priortech and its affiliates. Our purchases of materials, such as PCBs and assembled PCBs from Priortech and its affiliates, totaled $532,000, $733,000 and $1,122,000 in 2002, 2003 and 2004 respectively. In addition, we purchase bare PCBs and assembled PCBs from a Priortech subsidiary for the development and manufacture of our systems so long as the price charged and other payment terms is comparable to the best offer we could obtain from a third party. We did not sell any of our systems to Priortech in 2002 or 2003, we sold a photo plotter for $190,000 to a subsidiary of Priortech in 2003 and our total revenues from sales to affiliates of Priortech in 2004 were $230,000. We act jointly with Priortech with regard to various governmental, administrative and commercial matters, which we believe is to the mutual advantage of both parties. Unpaid balances between Priortech and us bear interest at LIBOR plus 1%. As of December 31, 2004, the remaining balance owed to us by Priortech and its affiliates under transactions made in the ordinary course of business with them was $479,000 and as of March 31, 2005 this balance stood at $327,000.We believe that these transactions and activities were conducted on terms and conditions as favorable to us as those which we could have entered into with unaffiliated third parties.
Registration Rights Agreement with Priortech
On March 1, 2004, we entered into a registration rights agreement providing for us to register with the SEC certain of our ordinary shares held by Priortech. This registration rights agreement may be used in connection with future offerings of our ordinary shares, includes, among others, the following terms: (a) Priortech is entitled to make up to three demands that we register our ordinary shares held by Priortech, subject to delay due to market conditions; (b) Priortech will be entitled to participate and sell our ordinary shares in any future registration statements initiated by us, subject to delay due to market conditions; (c) we will indemnify Priortech in connection with any liabilities incurred in connection with such registration statements due to any misstatements or omissions other than information provided by Priortech, and Priortech will indemnify us in connection with any liabilities incurred in connection with such registration statements due to any misstatements or omissions in written statements by Priortech made for the purpose of their inclusion in such registration statements; and (d) we will pay all expenses related to registrations which we have initiated, except for certain underwriting discounts or commissions or legal fees, and Priortech will pay all expenses related to a registration initiated at its demand in which we are not participating.
On December 30, 2004, the Registration Rights Agreement with Priortech was amended. The amendment concerns primarily the grant of unlimited shelf registration rights thereunder to Priortech with respect to its holdings in us, and the assignability of those shelf registration rights to its transferees.
Employment Agreements with Messrs. Rafi Amit and Yotam Stern
Effective January 1, 1998, we entered into an employment agreement with Mr. Rafi Amit, our Chief Executive Officer. Pursuant to his employment agreement, Mr. Amit may dedicate up to 20% of his time to work for Priortech or any of the Priortech entities (for further details see Employment Agreements).
Also effective January 1, 1998, we entered into an employment agreement with Mr. Yotam Stern, our Executive Vice President, Business & Strategy. Pursuant to his employment agreement, Mr. Stern may dedicate up to 40% of his time to work for Priortech or any of the Priortech entities (for further details see Employment Agreements).
Mr. Rafi Amit works on a full time basis for us and therefore receives a full time salary, while Mr. Yotam Stern receives 60% of a full time salary, from us. Mr. Stern is compensated directly by each of the Priortech entities for which he works. Mr. Rafi Amit also serves as the Chairman of Priortech, and Mr. Yotam Stern also serves as the Chief Executive Officer and as a director of Priortech.
Messrs. Amit and Stern do not receive any additional compensation for their service as our directors.
C. Interests of Experts and Counsel.
A. Consolidated Statements and Other Financial Information.
Please see the consolidated financial statements listed in Item 18 for audited consolidated financial statements prepared in accordance with this Item.
B. Significant Changes.
There have been no significant changes since the date of the financial statements included in this annual report.
A. Offer and Listing Details.
Price History of Ordinary Shares.
Since April 22, 2004, the primary trading market for our ordinary shares has been the Nasdaq National Market, where our ordinary shares are listed and traded under the symbol CAMT. From February 5, 2003 through April 21, 2004, our ordinary shares were listed and traded on the Nasdaq SmallCap Market, and from July 28, 2000 through February 4, 2003, our ordinary shares were listed and traded on the Nasdaq National Market. The following table sets forth, for the periods indicated, the high and low reported sales prices of the ordinary shares:
For the period between November 26, 2001 and October 21, 2003, our ordinary shares were also listed on the Tel Aviv Stock Exchange, or TASE. During such period, the trading activity on the TASE in our ordinary shares was insignificant. At our request, our ordinary shares were de-listed from the TASE.
B. Plan of distribution.
As noted above, the Companys ordinary shares are traded on the Nasdaq National Market under the symbol CAMT.
D. Selling Shareholders.
F. Expenses of the Issue.
A and B. Share Capital; Memorandum and Articles
Following is a summary of material information concerning our share capital and a brief description of the material provisions contained in our Memorandum of Association and our Articles.
Our authorized share capital consists of one class of shares, which are our ordinary shares. Out of our authorized share capital of 100,000,000 ordinary shares, par value NIS 0.01 per ordinary share, 27,078,647 ordinary shares are outstanding and fully-paid.
The ordinary shares do not have preemptive rights. The ownership and voting of our ordinary shares of Israel are not restricted in any way by our Articles, or by the laws of the State of Israel, except for shareholders who are citizens of countries in a state of war with Israel. Under the Israeli Companies Law, Israeli companies may purchase and hold their own shares, subject to the same conditions that apply to distribution of dividends (see Dividend and Liquidation Rights). These shares do not confer any rights whatsoever for as long as they are held by us. Additionally, a subsidiary may purchase or hold shares of its parent company to the same extent that the parent company is entitled to purchase its own shares, and these shares do not confer any voting rights for as long as they are held by the subsidiary.
Transfer of Shares and Notices
Ordinary shares are issued in registered form. Ordinary shares registered on the books of the transfer agent in the United States may be freely transferred on the transfer agents books. Each shareholder of record is entitled to receive at least 21 days prior notice for a general meeting of the shareholders.
Dividend and Liquidation Rights
Our Board of Directors may, without seeking shareholder approval, declare a dividend to be paid to the holders of ordinary shares out of our retained earnings or our earnings derived over the two most recent years, whichever is higher, as reflected in the last audited or reviewed financial report prepared less than six months prior to distribution, provided that there is no reasonable concern that a payment of a dividend will prevent us from satisfying our existing and foreseeable obligations as they become due. Dividends are distributed to shareholders in proportion to the nominal value of their respective holdings. In the event of our liquidation, after satisfaction of liabilities to creditors, our assets will be distributed to the holders of ordinary shares in proportion to the nominal value of their respective holdings. This right may be affected by the grant of preferential dividend or distribution rights to the holders of any class of shares with preferential rights that may be authorized in the future. Our shareholders would need to approve any class of shares with preferential rights.
Modification of Class Rights
The Israeli Companies Law provides that the articles of a company may not be modified in such a manner that would have a detrimental effect on the rights of a particular class of shares without the vote of a majority of the affected class.
Voting, Shareholders Meetings and Resolutions
Holders of ordinary shares have one vote for each ordinary share held on all matters submitted to a vote of the shareholders. These voting rights may be affected by the grant of special voting rights to the holders of any class of shares with preferential rights that may be authorized in the future; however, currently no holders of our securities have any special voting rights.
An annual meeting of the shareholders must be held every year, and not later than 15 months following the last annual meeting. A special meeting of the shareholders may be convened by the board of directors at its decision to do so or upon the demand of any of: (1) two of the directors or 25% of the then serving directors, whichever is fewer; (2) shareholders owning at least 5% of the issued share capital and at least 1% of the voting rights in the company; or (3) shareholders owning at least 5% of the voting rights in the company. If the board does not convene a meeting upon a valid demand of any of the above, then whoever made the demand, and in the case of shareholders, those shareholders holding more than half of the voting rights of the persons making the demand, may convene a meeting of the shareholders to be held within three months of the demand. Alternatively, upon petition by the individuals making the demand, a court may order that a meeting be convened.
The quorum required for a meeting of shareholders consists of at least two shareholders present in person or by proxy within one half hour of the time scheduled for the beginning of the meeting, who hold or represent together at least 33 1/3% of the voting power in our company. A meeting adjourned due to lack of a quorum is generally adjourned to the same day in the following week at the same time and place or any time and place as the directors designate in a notice to the shareholders. If a quorum is not present at the reconvened meeting, the meeting may be held with any number of participants. However, if the meeting was convened following a demand by the shareholders, the quorum will be that minimum number of shareholders authorized to make the demand.
In any shareholders meeting, a shareholder can vote either in person or by proxy. General meetings of shareholders will be held in Israel, unless decided otherwise by our board.
Most resolutions at a shareholders meeting may be passed by a majority of the voting power of the company represented at the shareholders meeting and voting on the matter. Resolutions requiring special voting procedures include the appointment and removal of outside directors, approval of transactions with controlling shareholders and the approval for the chairman of the board to also serve as chief executive officer. See Management -Duties of Office Holders and Approval of Transactions under the Israeli Law.
Under the Israeli Companies Law, a shareholder has a duty to act in good faith and in a customary manner in exercising his rights and duties towards the company and other shareholders, to refrain from prejudicing the rights of other shareholders and to refrain from abusing his power in the company. The rights and duties apply, among other things, to voting at the general meeting of the shareholders on any of the following matters: (1) amendments to the articles; (2) an increase in the companys authorized share capital; (3) a merger; or (4) an approval of those related party transactions that require shareholder approval.
In addition, any shareholder who: (1) is a controlling shareholder; (2) knows that its vote will determine the outcome of a shareholder vote; or (3) under the provisions of the articles, has the power to appoint or to prevent the appointment of an office holder in the company, is under a duty to act in fairness towards the company. Israeli law does not define the substance of this duty of fairness, however the laws of contracts, regarding breach of contract, shall apply to violations of the duty to act in fairness.
Anti-Takeover Effects of Israeli Laws; Mergers and Acquisitions Under Israeli Law
The Israeli Companies Law allows a merger to be effected without the need for court approval if the merger receives the approval of the boards of directors of each of the merging companies and a majority of the shareholders present and voting at the general shareholders meeting of each of the merging companies. However, such approval by the general shareholders meeting is not required if the merging company is the full owner of the other party to the merger, or if the merger does not require the change of the merging companys articles of association and the merging company is not issuing more than 25% of its share capital as part of the merger and a person will not become a controlling shareholder as result of the merger. Israeli law also provides that in addition to the approval of the merger by the requisite majority at the shareholders general meeting, if either party to the merger or its interested parties hold over 25% of the shares of the other party to the merger, then the majority must also include a majority of the shares held by those shareholders present and voting (excluding abstainees) who do not have an interest in the other party.
Israeli law does not require court approval of a merger other than in specified situations. However, upon petition by objecting shareholders or a creditor of a merging company, the court may delay or prevent the consummation of the merger, if it deems there to be a reasonable concern that as a result of the merger, the surviving company will not be able to meet the obligation to creditors of either of the merging companies.
A merger may not be completed until 50 days have passed from the time that the merger proposal was filed with the Israeli Registrar of Companies and until all required approvals have been obtained and submitted to the Registrar of Companies.
In addition, the Israeli Companies Law contains provisions dealing with arrangements between a company and its shareholders. These arrangements may be used to effect squeeze-out transactions in which the target company becomes a wholly-owned subsidiary of the acquirer. These provisions generally require that the merger be approved by at least 75% of the shares of participating shareholders and a majority of the shareholders voting at a shareholders meeting. In addition to shareholder approval, court approval of the transaction is required, which entails further delay.
The Israeli Companies Law also provides that an acquisition of shares in a public company must be made by means of a tender offer if, as a result of the acquisition, the purchaser would become a holder of 25% or more of the companys voting power. This rule does not apply if there is already another holder of 25% or more of the voting power of the company. Similarly, the Israeli Companies Law provides that an acquisition of shares of a public company must be made by means of a tender offer if, as a result of the acquisition, the purchaser would become a holder of more than 45% of the voting power of the company. This rule does not apply if someone else already holds 45% of the voting power of the company or if such acquisition of shares is made in a private offering, following the consent of the Companys general meeting of shareholders or if the acquisition of shares is from a controlling shareholder following which the purchaser will become a controlling shareholder.
An acquisition of shares following which the purchaser would become a holder of more than 90% of a public companys shares must be made by a tender offer for the purchase of all the remaining shares; if a tender offer is not accepted by holders of less than 5% of the companys issued shares, then the holders of the remaining shares must sell their shares to the acquirer on the terms of the tender offer, although they may petition the court to raise the offered price on the basis that it is an unfair price. However, the acquirer will not be permitted to acquire tendered shares, to the extent that the acquisition of those shares would bring the acquirers holdings to 95% or less and more than 90% of the target companys shares, in which case the acquirer may only purchase the balance which will bring the acquirers holdings to 90%. In addition, a shareholder who holds more than 90% of the shares of a public company may not purchase additional shares as long as the shareholder holds more than 90%. Shares acquired in violation of these provisions become dormant and cease to confer any rights upon their holder; and all rights are suspended as long as the shares are held by the acquirer.
In addition, our technology developed pursuant to the terms of the Law for the Encouragement of Industrial Research and Development, 1984, may not be sold or transferred to third parties without the prior approval of a governmental committee. Approval for the sale or transfer of technology may be granted only if the recipient undertakes to abide by all of the provisions of the Law for the Encouragement of Industrial and Research Development and its associated regulations, including the restrictions on the transfer of know-how, the obligation to manufacture in Israel and the obligation to pay royalties in an amount that might be increased. These requirements could inhibit the acquisition of us by others. However, a recent amendment to the Law for the Encouragement of Industrial Research and Development enables the transfer of know-how outside of Israel, and the manufacture outside of Israel, under very limited and specific conditions, including additional payment of certain amounts.
Finally, Israeli tax law treatment of certain acquisitions, such as stock-for-stock swap between an Israeli company and a foreign company, may be less favorable than the treatment that may be applicable under U.S. tax law. For example, Israeli tax law may subject a shareholder who exchanges his ordinary shares for shares in a foreign corporation to immediate taxation. However, a stock-for-stock swap of listed securities will not be subject to taxation until the earlier of: (1) the time at which the shares will be sold; or (2) for 50% of the stock, the lapse of two years from the date of the transaction, and for the remaining 50%, the lapse of four years from the date of the transaction.
The transfer agent and registrar for the ordinary shares is the American Stock Transfer & Trust Company, New York, New York.
C. Material Contracts.
D. Exchange Controls
Nonresidents of Israel who purchase our shares may exchange any NIS received as dividends, if any, thereon, and any amounts payable upon the dissolution, liquidation or winding up of our affairs, as well as the proceeds of any sale in Israel of the ordinary shares to an Israeli resident, into freely repatriable dollars, at the rate of exchange prevailing at the time of exchange, pursuant to regulations issued under the Currency Control Law, 1978, provided that Israeli income tax has been withheld with respect to amounts that are being repatriated to the extent applicable or an exemption has been obtained. Israeli residents are eligible, subject to reporting requirements, to purchase securities in foreign currencies.
U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations
Subject to the limitations described herein, this discussion summarizes the material U.S. federal income tax consequences of the purchase, ownership and disposition of our ordinary shares to a U.S. holder. A U.S. holder is a holder of our ordinary shares who is:
Unless otherwise specifically indicated, this discussion does not consider the U.S. tax consequences to a person that is not a U.S. holder and considers only U.S. holders that will own the ordinary shares as capital assets.
This discussion is based on current provisions of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the Code), current and proposed Treasury regulations promulgated under the Code and administrative and judicial interpretations of the Code, all as currently in effect and all of which are subject to change, possibly with a retroactive effect. This discussion does not address all aspects of U.S. federal income taxation that may be relevant to any particular U.S. holder based on the U.S. holders particular circumstances. In particular, this discussion does not address the U.S. federal income tax consequences to U.S. holders who are broker-dealers or who own, directly, indirectly or constructively, 10% or more of our outstanding voting shares, U.S. holders holding the ordinary shares as part of a hedging, straddle or conversion transaction, U.S. holders whose functional currency is not the U.S. dollar, insurance companies, tax-exempt organizations, financial institutions and persons subject to the alternative minimum tax, who may be subject to special rules not discussed below. Additionally, the tax treatment of holders of ordinary shares that are partnerships or other pass-through entities or persons who hold the ordinary shares through a partnership or other pass-through entity is not considered, nor is the possible application of U.S. federal estate or gift taxes or any aspect of state, local or non-U.S. tax laws.
You are advised to consult your tax advisor with respect to the specific U.S. federal, state, local and foreign income tax consequences to you of purchasing, holding or disposing of our ordinary shares.
Taxation of Distributions on the Ordinary Shares
Subject to the discussion below under Tax Consequences if we are a Passive Foreign Investment Company, the amount of a distribution with respect to the ordinary shares will equal the amount of cash and the fair market value of any property distributed and will also include the amount of any Israeli taxes withheld as described below under Israeli Taxation -Taxation of Non-Residents on Receipt of Dividends. A distribution paid by us with respect to the ordinary shares to a U.S. holder will be treated as dividend income to the extent that the distribution does not exceed our current and accumulated earnings and profits, as determined for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Dividends that are received by U.S. holders that are individuals, estates or trusts will be taxed at the rate applicable to long-term capital gains (a maximum rate of 15%), provided that such dividends meet the requirements of qualified dividend income. Dividends that fail to meet such requirements, and dividends received by corporate U.S. holders are taxed at ordinary income rates. No dividend received by a U.S. holder will be a qualified dividend (1) if the U.S. holder held the ordinary share with respect to which the dividend was paid for less than 61 days during the 121-day period beginning on the date that is 60 days before the ex-dividend date with respect to such dividend, excluding for this purpose, under the rules of Code section 246(c), any period during which the U.S. holder has an option to sell, is under a contractual obligation to sell, has made and not closed a short sale of, is the grantor of a deep-in-the-money or otherwise nonqualified option to buy, or has otherwise diminished its risk of loss by holding other positions with respect to, such ordinary share (or substantially identical securities); or (2) to the extent that the U.S. holder is under an obligation (pursuant to a short sale or otherwise) to make related payments with respect to positions in property substantially similar or related to the ordinary share with respect to which the dividend is paid. If we were to be a passive foreign investment company(as such term is defined in the Code) for any year, dividends paid on our ordinary shares in such year or in the following year would not be qualified dividends. In addition, a non-corporate U.S. holder will be able to take a qualified dividend into account in determining its deductible investment interest (which is generally limited to its net investment income) only if it elects to do so; in such case the dividend will be taxed at ordinary income rates.
The amount of any distribution which exceeds the amount treated as a dividend will be treated first as a non-taxable return of capital, reducing the U.S. holders tax basis in its ordinary shares to the extent thereof, and then as capital gain from the deemed disposition of the ordinary shares. Corporate holders will not be allowed a deduction for dividends received in respect of the ordinary shares.
Dividends paid by us in NIS will be included in the income of U.S. holders at the dollar amount of the dividend (including any Israeli taxes withheld therefrom), based upon the spot rate of exchange in effect on the date the distribution is included in income. U.S. holders will have a tax basis in the NIS for U.S. federal income tax purposes equal to that dollar value. Any subsequent gain or loss in respect of the NIS arising from exchange rate fluctuations will generally be taxable as U.S. source ordinary income or loss.
Subject to the limitations set forth in the Code and the Treasury regulations thereunder, U.S. holders may elect to claim as a foreign tax credit against their U.S. federal income tax liability the Israeli income tax withheld from dividends received in respect of the ordinary shares. The limitations on claiming a foreign tax credit include, among others, computation rules under which foreign tax credits allowable with respect to specific classes of income cannot exceed the U.S. federal income taxes otherwise payable with respect to each such class of income. In this regard, dividends paid by us will be foreign source passive income for U.S. foreign tax credit purposes or, in the case of a financial services entity, financial services income (and, for tax years beginning after December 31, 2006, as general category income). U.S. holders that do not elect to claim a foreign tax credit may instead claim a deduction for the Israeli income tax withheld. The rules relating to foreign tax credits are complex, and you should consult your tax advisor to determine whether and to what extent you would be entitled to this credit. A U.S. holder will be denied a foreign tax credit for Israeli income tax withheld from a dividend received on the ordinary shares (i) if the U.S. holder has not held the ordinary shares for at least 16 days of the 30-day period beginning on the date which is 15 days before the ex-dividend date with respect to such dividend or (ii) to the extent the U.S. holder is under an obligation to make related payments with respect to positions in substantially similar or related property. Any days during which a U.S. holder has substantially diminished its risk of loss on the ordinary shares are not counted toward meeting the required 16-day holding period. The discussion above is subject to Tax Consequences if we are a Passive Foreign Investment Company,
Taxation of the Disposition of Ordinary Shares
Subject to the discussion below under Tax Consequences if We are a Passive Foreign Investment Company, upon the sale, exchange or other disposition of our ordinary shares, a U.S. holder will recognize capital gain or loss in an amount equal to the difference between the amount realized on the disposition and the U.S. holders tax basis in the ordinary shares. The gain or loss recognized on the disposition of the ordinary shares will be long-term capital gain or loss if the U.S. holder held the ordinary shares for more than one year at the time of the disposition. Gain or loss recognized by a U.S. holder on a sale, exchange or other disposition of ordinary shares will be treated as U.S. source income or loss for U.S. foreign tax credit purposes.
A U.S. holder that uses the cash method of accounting calculates the dollar value of the proceeds received on the sale as of the date that the sale settles. However, a U.S. holder that uses the accrual method of accounting is required to calculate the value of the proceeds of the sale as of the trade date and may therefore realize foreign currency gain or loss. A U.S. holder may avoid realizing foreign currency gain or loss by electing to use the settlement date to determine the proceeds of sale for purposes of calculating the foreign currency gain or loss. In addition, a U.S. holder that receives foreign currency upon disposition of ordinary shares and converts the foreign currency into dollars after the settlement date or trade date (whichever date the U.S. holder is required to use to calculate the value of the proceeds of sale) will have foreign exchange gain or loss based on any appreciation or depreciation in the value of the foreign currency against the dollar, which will generally be U.S. source ordinary income or loss.
Tax Consequences if we are a Passive Foreign Investment Company
We will be a passive foreign investment company, or PFIC, if either (1) 75% or more of our gross income in a taxable year is passive income; or (2) 50% or more of the value, determined on the basis of a quarterly average, of our assets in a taxable year produce or are held for the production of passive income. If we own (directly or indirectly) at least 25% by value of the stock of another corporation, we will be treated for purposes of the foregoing tests as owning our proportionate share of the other corporations assets and as directly earning our proportionate share of the other corporations income. If we are a PFIC, a U.S. holder must determine under which of three alternative taxing regimes it wishes to be taxed:
Once made, the QEF election applies to all subsequent taxable years of the U.S. holder in which it holds our ordinary shares and for which we are a PFIC and can be revoked only with the consent of the Internal Revenue Service. A shareholder makes a QEF election by attaching a completed Internal Revenue Service Form 8621, including the information provided in the PFIC annual information statement, to a timely filed United States federal income tax return. Even if a QEF election is not made, a U.S. person who is a shareholder in a PFIC must file a completed Internal Revenue Service Form 8621 every year.
If a QEF election is made after the first taxable year in which a U.S. holder holds our ordinary shares and we are a PFIC, then special rules would apply.
Under the mark-to-market election, gain on the sale of our ordinary shares is treated as ordinary income, and loss on the sale of our ordinary shares, to the extent the amount of loss does not exceed the net mark-to-market gain previously included, is treated as ordinary loss. The mark-to-market election applies to the tax year for which the election is made and all later tax years, unless the ordinary shares cease to be marketable or the Internal Revenue Service consents to the revocation of the election.
If the mark-to-market election is made after the first taxable year in which a U.S. holder holds our ordinary shares and we are a PFIC, then special rules would apply.
Excess distributions must be allocated ratably to each day that a U.S. holder has held our ordinary shares. A U.S. holder must include amounts allocated to the current taxable year in its gross income as ordinary income for that year. All amounts allocated to prior years of the U.S. holder would be taxed at the highest tax rate for each such prior year applicable to ordinary income. The U.S. holder also would be liable for interest on the deferred tax liability for each such prior year calculated as if such liability had been due with respect to each such prior year. A U.S. holder that is an individual is not allowed a deduction for interest on the deferred tax liability. The portions of gains and distributions that are not characterized as excess distributions are subject to tax in the current year under the normal tax rules of the Code.
A U.S. person who inherits shares in a foreign corporation that was a PFIC in the hands of the decedent (who did not make either of the elections described above), is denied the otherwise available step-up in the tax basis of such shares to fair market value at the date of death. The U.S. person steps into the shoes of the decedent and will be subject to the rules described above.
Based on an analysis of our assets and income, we believe that we were not a PFIC for our tax year ended December 31, 2004. We currently expect that we will not be a PFIC in 2005. However, PFIC status is determined as of the end of the taxable year and is dependent on a number of factors, including the relative value of our passive assets and our non-passive assets, our market capitalization and the amount and type of our gross income. There can be no assurance that we will not become a PFIC for the current year ending December 31, 2005 or in a future year. We will notify U.S. holders in the event we conclude that we will be treated as a PFIC for any taxable year to enable U.S. holders to consider whether or not to elect to treat us as a QEF for U.S. federal income tax purposes or to mark to market the ordinary shares or to become subject to the excess distribution regime, and we expect that in such event we will provide U.S. holders with the information needed to make a QEF election.
Although a U.S. holder normally is not permitted to make a retroactive QEF election, a retroactive election may be made for a taxable year of the U.S. holder (the retroactive election year) if the U.S. holder (i) reasonably believed that, as of the date the QEF election was due, the foreign corporation was not a PFIC for its taxable year that ended during the retroactive election year and (ii) filed a protective statement with respect to the foreign corporation, applicable to the retroactive election year, in which the U.S. holder described the basis for its reasonable belief and extended the period of limitation on the assessment of taxes determined under Sections 1291 through 1298 of the Code with respect to the foreign corporation (PFIC-related taxes) for all taxable years of the shareholder to which the protective statement applies. U.S. holders should consult their tax advisors regarding the advisability of filing a protective statement.
U.S. holders are urged to consult their tax advisors regarding the application of the PFIC rules, including eligibility for and the manner and advisability of making, the QEF election or the mark-to-market election.
Information Reporting and Backup Withholding
A U.S. holder generally is subject to information reporting and may be subject to backup withholding at rate of up to 28% with respect to dividends paid in the United States on, and the receipt of the proceeds from the disposition of, the ordinary shares. Backup withholding will not apply with respect to payments made to exempt recipients, including corporations and tax-exempt organizations, or if a U.S. holder provides a correct taxpayer identification number (or certifies that he has applied for a taxpayer identification number), certifies that such holder is not subject to backup withholding or otherwise establishes an exemption. Backup withholding is not an additional tax and may be claimed as a credit against the U.S. federal income tax liability of a U.S. holder, or alternatively, the U.S. holder may be eligible for a refund of any excess amounts withheld under the backup withholding rules, in either case, provided that the required information is furnished to the Internal Revenue Service.
Non-U.S. Holders of Ordinary Shares
Except as described below, a non-U.S. holder of ordinary shares (except certain former U.S. citizens and long-term residents of the United States) will not be subject to U.S. federal income or withholding tax on the receipt of dividends on, and the proceeds from the disposition of, an ordinary share, unless that item is effectively connected with the conduct by the non-U.S. holder of a trade or business in the United States and, in the case of a resident of a country which has an income tax treaty with the United States, that item is attributable to a permanent establishment in the United States or, in the case of an individual, a fixed place of business in the United States. In addition, gain recognized by an individual non-U.S. holder will be subject to tax in the United States if the non-U.S. holder is present in the United States for 183 days or more in the taxable year of the sale and other conditions are met.
Non-U.S. holders will not be subject to information reporting or backup withholding with respect to the payment of dividends on ordinary shares unless the payment is made through a paying agent, or an office of a paying agent, in the United States. Non-U.S. holders will be subject to information reporting and backup withholding at a rate of up to 28% with respect to the payment within the United States of dividends on the ordinary shares unless the holder provides its taxpayer identification number, certifies to its foreign status or otherwise establishes an exemption.
Non-U.S. holders will be subject to information reporting and backup withholding at a rate of up to 28% on the receipt of the proceeds from the disposition of the ordinary shares to, or through, the United States office of a broker, whether domestic or foreign, unless the holder provides a taxpayer identification number, certifies to its foreign status or otherwise establishes an exemption. Non-U.S. holders will not be subject to information reporting or backup withholding with respect to the receipt of proceeds from the disposition of the ordinary shares by a foreign office of a broker; provided, however, that if the broker is a U.S. person or a U.S. related person, information reporting (but not backup withholding) will apply unless the broker has documentary evidence in its records of the non-U.S. holders foreign status or the non-U.S. holder certifies to its foreign status under penalties of perjury or otherwise establishes an exemption. For this purpose, a U.S. related person is a broker or other intermediary that maintains one or more enumerated U.S. relationships. Backup withholding is not an additional tax and may be claimed as a credit against the U.S. federal income tax liability of a non-U.S. holder, or alternatively, the non-U.S. holder may be eligible for a refund of any excess amounts withheld under the backup withholding rules, in either case, provided that the required information is furnished to the Internal Revenue Service.
The following summary describes the current tax structure applicable to companies in Israel, with special reference to its effect on us. It also discusses Israeli tax consequences material to persons purchasing our ordinary shares. We recommend that you consult your tax advisor as to the particular tax consequences of an investment in our ordinary shares.
General Corporate Tax Structure
Most Israeli companies are subject to corporate tax at the rate of 34% of their taxable income.However, pursuant to an amendment to the law passed on June 29, 2004 the corporate tax rate is to be reduced to 32% for the 2006 tax year and 30% for the 2007 tax year and thereafter. Furthermore the Israeli Minster of Finance has recently proposed a new tax five-year tax program, under which the Corporate tax rate will be reduced to 25% by the year 2009 and the capital gains tax will be increased to 20% by January 2006, this proposal has yet to be approved by the Israeli Government and by the Knesset (Israeli parliament).In our case, the rate is currently effectively reduced, as set forth below.
Taxation Under Inflationary Conditions
The Income Tax Law (Inflationary Adjustments), 1985, or the Inflationary Adjustments Law, is intended to neutralize the erosion of capital investments and to prevent tax benefits resulting from deduction of inflationary expenses. This law applies a supplementary set of inflationary adjustments to the normal taxable profits and losses computed under the regular cost principles. We are subject to tax under this law.
Under the Inflationary Adjustments Law, income and loss for tax purposes are adjusted for inflation on the basis of changes in the Israeli consumer price index. In addition, subject to limitations regarding depreciation of fixed assets and losses carried forward are adjusted for inflation on the basis of changes in the Israeli consumer price index. Under a recent amendment to the Inflationary Adjustment Law, the Minister of Finance is authorized, with the approval of the Finance Committee of the Israeli parliament, to suspend the application of the Inflationary Adjustment Law for any particular year if the rate of inflation for that year was not higher than 3%. The Inflationary Adjustment Law was not suspended in 2002, 2003 or in 2004.
Law for the Encouragement of Capital Investments, 1959
The Law for Encouragement of Capital Investments, 1959, or the Investment Law, sets a number of alternative courses for receiving benefits which encourage investments in companies that meet the criterions set forth in the Investment Law. An Approved Enterprise may be entitled to benefits, including Israeli Government cash grants, which are made available if it is located in a government designated development area, and tax benefits. As discussed below, our production facilities have been granted Approved Enterprise status.
A company could forgo entitlement to grants otherwise available under the Investment Law, and in lieu thereof participate in the Alternative Benefits course, under which the undistributed income from the Approved Enterprise is fully exempt from corporate tax for a certain period, depending on the geographical region of Israel in which the Approved Enterprise is located. We chose and received approvals within the Alternative Benefit course. The Investment Law was amended in April 1st, 2005, and the Alternative Benefit program was cancelled. Nonetheless, Alternative Benefit programs, which were approved by the end of 2004 shall continue to be in full force and effect.
Each certificate of approval for an Approved Enterprise relates to a specific investment program, delineated both by the financial scope of the investment and by the physical characteristics of the facility or the asset. The tax benefits from any such certificate of approval relate only to taxable profits attributable to the specific Approved Enterprise.
Taxable income derived from an Approved Enterprise is subject to a reduced corporate tax rate of up to 25%, until the earlier of
That income is eligible for further reductions in tax rates if the company qualifies as a Foreign Investors Company, depending on the percentage of the foreign ownership of its equity. A Foreign Investors Company is a company more than 25% of whose share capital (in terms of shares, rights to profits, voting and appointment of directors) and loan capital is owned by non-Israeli residents.
The tax rate is reduced to 20% if the foreign ownership of the foreign investment company is 49% or more but less than 74%; 15% if the foreign ownership of the Foreign Investors Company is 74% or more but less than 90%; and 10% if the foreign ownership of the Foreign Investors Company is 90% or more. The determination of foreign ownership is made on the basis of the lowest level of foreign ownership during the tax year.
In the event that a company is operating under more than one approval, or that not all of its capital investments are approved, its effective corporate tax rate is the result of a weighted combination of the various applicable rates.
As we participate in the Alternative Benefits course, and, as our facilities are located in geographical Zone A, the most preferred region in Israel for Approved Enterprise purposes, we are exempt from corporate tax for a period of ten years from the date the first taxable income has been derived from each Approved Enterprise but not later than the earlier of the 12 year period from commencement of production or 14 year period from the date of approval of the Approved Enterprise status. We have received five Approved Enterprise approvals for the establishment and expansions of our facilities, the first of which expired in 1999 and the others will expire between the end of 2007 and the end of year 2014.
The benefits available to an Approved Enterprise are conditioned upon terms stipulated in the Investment Law and the regulations thereunder and the criteria set forth in the applicable certificate of approval. These conditions include the filing of periodic reports and a requirement that minimum proportions of our paid-up capital be 30% of our fixed assets. In the event that we do not fulfill these conditions in whole or in part, the benefits can be canceled and we may be required to refund the amount of the benefits, with the addition of the Israeli consumer price index linkage differences and interest. We believe that our Approved Enterprises currently operate in compliance with all applicable conditions and criteria, but there can be no assurance that they will continue to do so. These programs and tax benefits may not be continued in the future at their current levels or at any level or our requests for future participation in these programs may not be approved.
Tax Rates imposed on dividends
Dividends paid by a company that owns an Approved Enterprise and that are attributable to income derived from that Approved Enterprise during the applicable benefits period, are taxed at a reduced rate of 15%, if the dividends are paid during the benefit period or no more than twelve years thereafter; or, if the company qualifies as a Foreign Investors Company without any time limitations. This tax must be withheld at source by the company paying the dividend. A dividend paid from income derived from an enterprise owned by a company that has elected the Alternative Benefits Program during the period in which it is exempt from tax is also subject to tax at a 15% rate but causes the company to be liable for additional corporate tax on the amount distributed, at the rate that would have been applicable had the company not elected the Alternative Benefits Program (which is up to 25%).
The amendment to the Investment Law
On April 1, 2005, an amendment to the Investments Law came into force. In order to be recognized as owning a Approved Enterprise, a company is required to meet a number of conditions set forth in the amendment, including making a minimal investment in manufacturing assets for the Approved Enterprise and receiving a minimal rate of 25% of the gross revenues from certain market which has a population of at least 12 million people. Pursuant to the amendment, a company with a Approved Enterprise is entitled, in to accelerated depreciation for the manufacturing assets used by the Approved Enterprise and to certain tax benefits. As we are located in geographical Zone A, if we will invest the minimal investment abovementioned and we shall still meet the other criteria set forth in the Investment Law, we will be exempt from income tax for a period of up to 10 years.
Another special tax course enabling companies owning facilities in certain geographical locations in Israel to pay corporate tax at the rate of 11.5% on income of the Approved Enterprise. The benefits period is ten years. Upon payment of dividends, the company is required to withhold tax at source at a rate of 15% for Israeli residents and at a rate of 4% for foreign residents. The amendment changes the definition of foreign investment in the Investments Law so that instead of an investment of foreign currency in the company, the definition now requires a minimal investment of NIS 5 million by foreign investors. Furthermore, such definition now also includes the purchase of shares of a company from another shareholder, provided that the companys outstanding and paid-up share capital exceeds NIS 5 million.
Law for the Encouragement of Industry (Taxes), 1969
We believe that we currently qualify as an Industrial Company within the meaning of the Law for the Encouragement of Industry (Taxes), 1969, or the Industry Encouragement Law. According to the Industry Encouragement Law, an Industrial Company is a company resident in Israel, 90% or more of the income of which in any tax year, other than of income from defense loans, capital gains, interest and dividends, is derived from an Industrial Enterprise owned by it. An Industrial Enterprise is defined as an enterprise whose major activity in a given tax year is industrial production.
The following corporate tax benefits are available to Industrial Companies:
Eligibility for the benefits under the Industry Encouragement Law is not subject to receipt of prior approval from any governmental authority. No assurance can be given that we qualify or will continue to qualify as an Industrial Company or that the benefits described above will be available in the future.
Law for the Encouragement of Industrial Research and Development, 1984
Under the Law for the Encouragement of Industrial Research and Development, 1984, research and development programs approved by a governmental committee of the Office of the Chief Scientist are eligible for grants, in exchange for payment of royalties from revenues generated by the products developed in accordance with the program. Once a project is approved, the Office of the Chief Scientist will award grants between 20-50% of the projects approved budget, in exchange for royalties at a rate of 2% to 6%, depending on the date of approval of the project, of the proceeds from the sales of the products that are developed from projects funded by the Office of the Chief Scientist. These royalties must be paid beginning with the commencement of sales of those products and ending when 100% of the dollar value of the grant was repaid or, for projects approved after January 1, 1999, the dollar amount of the grant plus interest at the rate LIBOR for dollar deposits in a twelve-month period.
The terms of this Israeli governmental participation also require that the products developed with government grants be manufactured in Israel, unless a special governmental committee, in its discretion consents to manufacturing abroad. In addition, in the event that any of the manufacturing rights are sold or transferred to parties or performed outside of Israel, if approved by the special governmental committee, a company may be required to pay royalties at a higher rate and be liable to an increased aggregate pay back amount depending on the portion of manufacturing performed outside of Israel, up to a maximum of 300% of the dollar amount of the grant. Prior to the recent amendment of the law, the technology developed pursuant to the terms of these grants could not have been sold or transferred outside of Israel under any circumstances, and could not have been sold or transferred to third parties within Israel without the prior approval of the governmental committee. However, pursuant to an amendment of the law, which entered into force on March 30th, 2005, the special governmental committee may, in special cases, approve the transfer or sale of the technology outside of Israel. Such sale or transfer, even if approved, may impose on a company a substantial payment, which generally may be as high as the amount of the grants received by a company, increased in proportion to the increase of the value of the technology or the company less any royalty payments already paid to the government. This approval is not required for the export of any products resulting from that research development. Approval of the sale or transfer of technology within Israel may be granted only if the recipient abides by all of the provisions of this law and the regulations promulgated thereunder, including the restrictions on the sale or transfer of know-how and the obligation to pay royalties in an amount that may be increased. There can be no assurance that this consent, if requested, will be granted.
Each application to the Office of the Chief Scientist is reviewed separately, and grants are based on the program approved by the research committee of the Office of the Chief Scientist. Expenditures supported under other incentive programs of the State of Israel are not eligible for Office of the Chief Scientist grants.
In March 2001, we reached an arrangement with the Chief Scientist whereby were to repay the outstanding balance of the grants we received, not including grants received by Inspectech prior to its merger into us, at a quarterly rate equal to 4.5% of the revenues derived in connection with products we develop as a result of research and development funded by Chief Scientist participations, up to a maximum amount of $250,000 per quarter. We have not received any additional grants from the Office of the Chief Scientist since 2000, and As of June 1, 2005 we had no additional payment obligations in connection with these grants.
Net Operating Loss Carryover
As of December 31, 2004, we had net operating loss, or NOL, carryovers for Israeli tax purposes of approximately $5.1 million which may be used to offset taxable income, subject to annual limitations. This NOL carryover has no expiration date.
Taxation of Shareholders Capital Gains
Israeli law imposes a capital gains tax on the sale of capital assets. The law distinguishes between the Real Gain and the Inflationary Surplus. The Real Gain is the difference between the total capital gain and the Inflationary Surplus. The Inflationary Surplus is computed on the basis of the difference between the Israeli consumer price index in the month of sale and the month of purchase. The Inflationary Surplus accumulated after January 1, 1994 is exempt from capital gains tax. A foreign resident may reduce the tax rate used for the Inflationary Surplus to zero if calculated according to the exchange rate of the foreign currency lawfully invested in shares of the Israeli resident company, instead of the Israeli consumer price index. Real Gains accrued after January 1, 2003 are subject to capital gains tax of 25%, whereas assets acquired before January 1, 2003 are subject to a blended tax rate based on the relative periods of time that the assets were held before and after January 1, 2003. Real Gains derived on or after January 1, 2003 from the sale of ordinary shares traded on the Tel Aviv Stock Exchange or on a foreign stock exchange recognized by the Israeli Ministry of Finance are subject to capital gains tax of 15%. However, the Israeli Minster of Finance has recently proposed a new five-year tax program, under which capital gains tax will be increased to 20% by January 2006.This proposal has yet to be approved by the Israeli Government and by the Knesset (Israeli parliament). Non-residents are generally exempt from tax on gains from the sale of such shares, provided that the Real Gains are not derived by a non-residents permanent establishment in Israel. We note that Nasdaq was recognized by the Israeli Ministry of Finance as a foreign stock exchange.
Application of the U.S.-Israel Tax Treaty to Capital Gains Tax
Subject to the U.S.-Israel Tax Treaty, the sale, exchange or disposition of the ordinary shares by a person who qualifies as a resident of the United States and who is entitled to claim the benefits afforded to that resident, which is called a Treaty U.S. Resident, will not be subject to Israeli capital gains tax unless that Treaty U.S. Resident held, directly or indirectly, shares representing 10% or more of our voting power during any part of the 12-month period preceding the sale, exchange or disposition. A sale, exchange or disposition of the ordinary shares by a Treaty U.S. Resident who held, directly or indirectly, shares representing 10% or more of our voting power at any time during the 12-month period preceding the sale, exchange or disposition will be subject to Israeli capital gains tax, to the extent applicable. However, under the U.S.-Israel Tax Treaty, this Treaty U.S. Resident would be permitted to claim credit for these taxes against U.S. income tax imposed with respect to such sale, exchange or disposition, subject to the limitations set in U.S. laws applicable to foreign tax credits.
Taxation of Non-Residents on Receipt of Dividends
Nonresidents of Israel are subject to Israeli income tax on the receipt of dividends paid on the ordinary shares at the rate of 25%, which tax will be withheld at source, unless the dividends are paid from income derived from an Approved Enterprise during the applicable benefit period, or a different rate is provided in a treaty between Israel and the shareholders country of residence. Under the U.S.-Israel Tax Treaty, the maximum tax on dividends paid to a holder of the ordinary shares who is a Treaty U.S. Resident will be 25%. However, when dividends are paid from income derived during any period for which the Israeli company is not entitled to the reduced tax rate applicable to an Approved Enterprise under Israels Law for the Encouragement of Capital Investments-1959, the maximum tax will be 12.5% if the holder is a company holding shares representing 10% or more of the voting power during the part of the taxable year preceding the date of payment of dividends and during the whole of its prior taxable year, if any, and, if the company has not derived more then 25% of its revenues from passive income. When dividends are paid from income derived during any period for which the Israeli company is entitled to the reduced tax rate applicable to an Approved Enterprise, then the tax will be 15%.
F. Dividends and Paying Agents.
G. Statement by Experts.
H. Documents on Display.
We file annual and special reports and other information with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC. You may inspect and copy such material at the public reference facilities maintained by the SEC, 450 Fifth Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20549. You may also obtain copies of such material from the SEC at prescribed rates by writing to the Public Reference Section of the SEC, 450 Fifth Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20549. Please call the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330 for further information on the public reference room.
The SEC maintains an Internet Web site at http://www.sec.gov that contains reports and other material that are filed through the SECs Electronic Data Gathering, Analysis and Retrieval, or EDGAR, system.
Our ordinary shares are quoted on the NASDAQ National Market. You may inspect reports and other information concerning us at the offices of the National Association of Securities Dealers, Inc., 1735 K Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20006. Information about us is also available on our Web site at http://www.camtek.co.il. Such information on our Web site is not part of this annual report.
As a foreign private issuer, we are exempt from the rules under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or Exchange Act, prescribing the furnishing and content of proxy statements, and our officers, directors and principal shareholders are exempt from the reporting and short-swing profit recovery provisions contained in Section 16 of the Exchange Act. In addition, we are not required under the Exchange Act to file periodic reports and financial statements with the SEC as frequently or as promptly as United States companies whose securities are registered under the Exchange Act. A copy of each report submitted in accordance with applicable United States law is available for public review at our principal executive offices.
I. Subsidiary Information.
Interest Rate Risk
We currently do not hold or invest in derivative financial instruments for trading or other purposes and, as of December 31, 2004, we had no outstanding derivative financial instruments of any kind. We have no material market risk exposure of the type contemplated by Item 11, and, therefore, no quantitative tabular disclosures are required.
Our non-NIS denominated loans bear interest based on the LIBOR, and our NIS denominated loans are based on the Israeli prime interest rate. From time to time, we use short-term loans. As of December 31, 2004, our short-term loans were US Dollar denominated.
Most of our investments are compromised of short-term bank deposits which bear fixed interest rates.
Foreign Currency Rate Fluctuations
The currency of the primary economic environment in which our operations are conducted is the dollar. Most of our revenues are derived in dollars, and the prices of most of our materials and components are purchased in dollars or are linked to changes in the dollar/NIS exchange rate effective on the date of delivery of the goods to our factory. Most of our marketing expenses are also denominated in dollars or are dollar linked. Our product prices in most countries outside of Europe and Japan are denominated in dollars. However, most of our service income is denominated in local currency. In Europe or Japan, if there is a significant devaluation in the local currency as compared to the dollar, the prices of our products will increase relative to that local currency and may be less competitive. The opposite effect occurs when the dollar decreases in value in comparison to these currencies, which was the case in 2003. As the majority of our revenues are denominated in dollars, we believe that inflation and fluctuations in the NIS/dollar exchange rate have no material effect on our revenues. However, a portion of the costs of our Israeli operations, mainly personnel and facility-related, are incurred in NIS. As a result, we bear the risk that the rate of inflation in Israel will exceed the rate of devaluation of the NIS in relation to the dollar, which will increase our costs expressed in dollars and have an effect on our net income. Our NIS costs, as expressed in dollars, increase to the extent by which any increase in the rate of inflation in Israel is not offset, or is offset on a lagging basis, by a devaluation of the NIS in relation to the dollar or to the extent that the NIS appreciates in relation to the dollar.
An increasing portion of our expenses is incurred in the Peoples Republic of China. The Chinese currency is currently linked to the dollar. The Chinese government has been under increasing international pressure to permit the Yuan to enter a full or limited free float. Should this linkage be discontinued by the Chinese government, and if the Chinese currency rises in value in relation to the dollar, our results of operations, in dollar terms, would be adversely affected.
In our consolidated financial statements, transactions and balances originally denominated in dollars are presented at their original amounts. Gains and losses arising from non-dollar transactions and balances are included in the determination of net income as part of financial expenses, net.
Currently, we do not engage in hedging or other transactions intended to manage risks relating to foreign currency exchange rate or interest rate fluctuations.
Our balance sheet exposure to fluctuations in the exchange rate between the U.S. dollar and other currencies are primarily from NIS denominated balances. As of December 31, 2004, we had net liabilities of approximately $9.8 million, denominated in NIS. Any fluctuation in the exchange rate between the NIS and the U.S. dollar of 1% will cause us expenses of $98,000 or income for the same amount in case of evaluation or devaluation, respectively.
We have established disclosure controls and procedures to ensure that material information relating to us, including our consolidated subsidiaries, is made known to the officers who certify our financial reports and to other members of senior management and the Board of Directors.
Our chief executive officer and chief financial officer, after evaluating the effectiveness of our disclosure controls and procedures (as defined in Rule 13a-15(e) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended) as of December 31, 2004, have concluded that, as of such date, our disclosure controls and procedures were effective to ensure that information required to be disclosed by us in reports that we file or submit under the Exchange Act is accumulated and communicated to our management, including our chief executive officer and chief financial officer, to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosure and is recorded, processed, summarized and reported within the periods specified by the SECs rules and forms.
There have been no changes in our internal control over financial reporting (as defined in Exchange Act Rule 13a-15(f) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended) during the period covered by this report that materially affected, or are reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting.
Our board of directors has determined that each of Messrs. Eran Bendoly and Haim Horovitz is qualified as an audit committee financial expert as defined in Item 401(h) of Regulation S-K.
On May 3, 2004, we adopted a Code of Ethics which is applicable to all of our directors, officers and employees, including our principal executive, financial and accounting officers and persons performing similar functions. A copy of the Code of Conduct is available on our website, www.camtek.co.il. We will also provide a copy of the Code of Ethics to any person, without charge, upon written request addressed to our Chief Financial Officer at our corporate headquarters in Israel.
Our Audit Committee maintains a policy of approving and recommending only those services to be performed by our external auditors which are permitted under the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and the applicable rules of the Securities and Exchange Commission relating to auditors independence, and which are otherwise consistent with and will encourage, and are remunerated at levels that accord with, the basic principles of auditor independence.
The following table presents the aggregate amount of fees paid by the Company to each of Goldstein Sabo Tevet and Brightman Almagor & Co., a member firm of Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu, for their services to the Company for the year ended December 31, 2004:
The following table presents the aggregate amount of fees paid by the Company to each of Goldstein Sabo Tevet CPA and Brightman Almagor & Co., a member firm of Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu, for their services to the Company for the year ended December 31, 2003:
Audit Fees: Consists of the aggregate fees billed for professional services rendered for the audit of the our annual financial statements and services that are normally provide by independent auditors in connection with statutory and regulatory filings or engagements.
Audit Related Fees: Consists of the aggregate fees billed for assurance and related services that are reasonably related to the performance of the audit or review of our financial statements and are not reported under Audit Fees. These services include the review of interim financial statements.
Tax Fees: Consists of the aggregate fees billed for professional services rendered for tax compliance, tax advice and tax planning. These services include assistance regarding income tax and international tax compliance.
All Other Fees: Consists of the aggregate fees billed for products and services other than the services reported above. These services include consultations concerning financial accounting and reporting standards in view of the accounting policies required by the various governmental agencies.
Not yet applicable to registrant.
Not yet applicable to registrant.
The Company has elected to furnish financial statements and related information specified in Item 18.
The financial statements required by this item are found at the end of this annual report, beginning on page F-1.
English translations from Hebrew original.
* Filed herewith.
The Company hereby certifies that it meets all of the requirements for filing on Form 20-F and that it has duly caused and authorized the undersigned to sign this annual report on its behalf.
INDEX TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
the Shareholders and Board of Directors
We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Camtek Ltd. (the Company) and its subsidiaries as of December 31, 2004 and 2003, and the related consolidated statements of operations, shareholders equity and comprehensive income (loss) and cash flows for each of the two years in the period ended December 31, 2004. These financial statements are the responsibility of the Companys management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on these financial statements based on our audits.
We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States). Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement. An audit includes consideration of internal control over financial reporting as a basis for designing audit procedures that are appropriate in the circumstances, but not for the purpose of expressing an opinion on the effectiveness of the Companys internal control over financial reporting. Accordingly, we express no such opinion. An audit also includes examining, on a test basis, evidence supporting the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements, assessing the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall financial statement presentation. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.
In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements referred to above present fairly, in all material respects, the consolidated financial position of the Company and its subsidiaries as of December 31, 2004 and 2003 and the consolidated results of their operations, and their consolidated cash flows for each of the two years in the period ended December 31, 2004, in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles.
the Shareholders and Board of Directors
We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheet of Camtek Ltd. (the Company) and its subsidiaries as of December 31, 2002, and the related consolidated statements of operations, changes in shareholders equity and cash flows for the year ended December 31, 2002. These financial statements are the responsibility of the Companys management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on these financial statements based on our audit.
We conducted our audit in accordance with auditing standards generally accepted in the United States of America. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement. An audit includes examining, on a test basis, evidence supporting the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. An audit also includes assessing the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall financial statement presentation. We believe that our audit provides a reasonable basis for our opinion.
In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements referred to above present fairly, in all material respects, the consolidated financial position of the Company and its subsidiaries as of December 31, 2002 and the consolidated results of their operations, and their cash flows for the year ended December 31, 2002, in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.
See notes to consolidated financial statements
See notes to consolidated financial statements
See notes to consolidated financial statements
See notes to consolidated financial statements