Cisco Systems 10-K 2010
Documents found in this filing:
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
For the fiscal year ended July 31, 2010
For the transition period from to
Commission file number 0-18225
CISCO SYSTEMS, INC.
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)
Registrants telephone number, including area code: (408) 526-4000
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. x Yes ¨ No
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. ¨ Yes x No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. x Yes ¨ No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files). x Yes ¨ No
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained to the best of registrants knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K. ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See definitions of large accelerated filer, accelerated filer and smaller reporting company in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). ¨ Yes x No
Aggregate market value of registrants common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant, based upon the closing price of a share of the registrants common stock on January 22, 2010 as reported by the NASDAQ Global Select Market on that date: $131,623,106,220
Number of shares of the registrants common stock outstanding as of September 15, 2010: 5,585,268,740
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
This Annual Report on Form 10-K, including the Managements Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, which is incorporated by reference from our 2010 Annual Report to Shareholders, contains forward-looking statements regarding future events and our future results that are subject to the safe harbors created under the Securities Act of 1933 (the Securities Act) and the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (the Exchange Act). All statements other than statements of historical facts are statements that could be deemed forward-looking statements. These statements are based on current expectations, estimates, forecasts, and projections about the industries in which we operate and the beliefs and assumptions of our management. Words such as expects, anticipates, targets, goals, projects, intends, plans, believes, seeks, estimates, continues, endeavors, strives, may, variations of such words, and similar expressions are intended to identify such forward-looking statements. In addition, any statements that refer to projections of our future financial performance, our anticipated growth and trends in our businesses, and other characterizations of future events or circumstances are forward-looking statements. Readers are cautioned that these forward-looking statements are only predictions and are subject to risks, uncertainties, and assumptions that are difficult to predict, including those identified below, under Item 1A. Risk Factors, and elsewhere herein and in the 2010 Annual Report to Shareholders. Therefore, actual results may differ materially and adversely from those expressed in any forward-looking statements. We undertake no obligation to revise or update any forward-looking statements for any reason.
ITEM 1. Business
We design, manufacture, and sell Internet Protocol (IP)-based networking and other products related to the communications and information technology (IT) industry and provide services associated with these products and their use. We provide a broad line of products for transporting data, voice, and video within buildings, across campuses, and around the world. Our products are designed to transform how people connect, communicate, and collaborate. Our products are installed at enterprise businesses, public institutions, telecommunications companies, commercial businesses, and personal residences.
We conduct our business globally and are managed geographically in five segments: United States and Canada, European Markets, Emerging Markets, Asia Pacific, and Japan. The Emerging Markets theater consists of Eastern Europe, Latin America, the Middle East and Africa, and Russia and the Commonwealth of Independent States. For revenue and other information regarding these segments, see Note 15 to the Consolidated Financial Statements in our 2010 Annual Report to Shareholders. Note 15 is incorporated into this report by reference.
We were incorporated in California in December 1984, and our headquarters are in San Jose, California. The mailing address of our headquarters is 170 West Tasman Drive, San Jose, California 95134-1706, and our telephone number at that location is (408) 526-4000. Our website is www.cisco.com. Through a link on the Investor Relations section of our website, we make available the following filings as soon as reasonably practicable after they are electronically filed with or furnished to the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC): our Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K, and any amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act. All such filings are available free of charge.
Products and Services
We design, manufacture, and sell IP-based networking and other products related to the communications and IT industry and provide services associated with these products and their use. Our products and services are designed to address a wide range of customers needs, including improving productivity, reducing costs, and gaining a competitive advantage. In addition, our products and services are designed to help customers build their own network infrastructures that support tools and applications that allow them to communicate with key stakeholders, including customers, prospects, business partners, suppliers, and employees. We focus on delivering networking products and solutions that are designed to simplify and secure customers network infrastructures. We believe that integrating multiple network services into our products helps our customers reduce their total cost of network ownership. Our product offerings fall into the following categories: our core technologies, routing and switching; advanced technologies; and other products. In addition to our product offerings, we provide a broad range of service offerings, including technical support services and advanced services. Our customer base spans virtually all types of public and private agencies and businesses, comprising enterprise businesses, service providers, commercial customers, and consumers.
Our products are used individually or as integrated offerings to connect personal and business computing devices to networks or computer networks with each otherwhether they are within a building, across a campus, or around the world. Our breadth of product and service offerings across multiple technology segments enables us to offer a wide range of products and services to meet customer-specific requirements. We also provide products and services that allow customers to transition their various networks to a single multi-service data, voice, and video network, enabling economies of scale.
Network architectures, built on core routing and switching technologies, are evolving to accommodate the demands of increasing numbers of users, network applications and new network-related markets. These new markets are a natural extension of our core business, are redefined when delivered by the network platform and are what we refer to as market adjacencies. Our position is not only differentiated by our architectural approach and IP leadership, but is strengthened through our experience, expertise, partners and services. Our unique value proposition, in our view, allows us to comprehensively deliver on and accelerate the transformation of these market adjacencies.
In the past several years we have addressed market adjacencies related to our core routing and switching products through the development of various network-related offerings in our advanced and emerging technologies groups of products. Our advanced and emerging technologies offerings build upon our existing competencies which we believe allows us to expand the overall market for our products and services. In this respect, we have focused our efforts on the following product categories: application networking services, Cisco TelePresence systems, the Cisco Unified Computing System platform, digital media, home networking, physical security, security, storage area networking, unified communications, video systems, and wireless technology, among others. We are in the process of identifying additional advanced and emerging technologies for focus and investment in the future. As has been the case from time to time, one or more of our currently identified advanced or emerging technologies may be curtailed or eliminated due to market developments or other factors.
We refer to the evolutionary process by which adjacencies arise as market transitions. Market transitions on which we are focusing primary attention include those related to the increased role of virtualization/the cloud, video, collaboration, and networked Web 2.0 technologies. With regard to virtualization/the cloud, one example of a market in which a significant market transition is underway is the enterprise data center market. We believe the market is at an inflection point, as awareness grows that intelligent networks are becoming the platform for productivity improvement and global competitiveness. We further believe that disruption in the enterprise data center market is accelerating, due to changing technology trends such as the increasing adoption of virtualization, the rise in scalable processing, and the advent of cloud computing and cloud-based IT resource deployments and business models. These key terms are defined as follows:
Virtualization: refers to the process of aggregating the current siloed data center resources into unified, shared resource pools that can be dynamically delivered to applications on demand thus enabling the ability to move content and applications between devices and the network.
The Cloud: refers to an information technology hosting and delivery system in which resources, such as servers or software applications, are no longer tethered to a users physical infrastructure but which instead are delivered to and consumed by the user on demand as an Internet-based service, whether singularly or with multiple other users simultaneously.
This virtualization and cloud-driven market transition in the enterprise data center market is being brought about through the convergence of networking, computing, storage, and software technologies. We are seeking to take advantage of this market transition through, among other things, our Cisco Unified Computing System platform and Cisco Nexus product families, which are designed to integrate the previously siloed technologies in the enterprise data center with a unified architecture. We are also seeking to capitalize on this market transition through the development of cloud-based product and service offerings, through which we intend to enable customers to develop and deploy their own cloud-related IT solutions, including software-as-a-service (SaaS), and other-as-a-service (XaaS) solutions.
In addition, in fiscal 2010, Cisco and EMC, together with VMware, formed the Virtual Computing Environment (VCE) coalition to accelerate customers ability to increase business agility through greater IT infrastructure flexibility and lower IT, energy and real estate costs through pervasive data center virtualization and a transition to private cloud infrastructures. The VCE coalition introduced Vblock Infrastructure packages designed to be fully integrated, tested, validated, scalable, and immediately deployable infrastructure packages that combine innovative virtualization, networking, computing, storage, security and management technologies from Cisco, EMC, and VMware with end-to-end vendor accountability. Similarly, our investment in Acadia Enterprises, LLC (Acadia), a joint venture with EMC, in which VMware and Intel have also invested, is designed to pave the way to new delivery models for cloud computing solutions.
The competitive landscape in the enterprise data center market is changing, and we expect there will be a new class of very large, well-financed and aggressive competitors, each bringing its own new class of products to address this new market. However, with respect to this market, we believe the network will be the intersection of innovation through an open ecosystem and standards. We expect to see acquisitions, further industry consolidation, and new alliances among companies as they seek to serve the enterprise data center market. As we enter this next market phase, we expect that we will strengthen certain strategic alliances, compete more with certain strategic alliances and partners, and perhaps also encounter new competitors in our attempt to deliver the best solutions for our customers.
Other market transitions on which we are focusing primary attention include those related to the increased role of video, collaboration, and networked Web 2.0 technologies. The key market transitions relative to the convergence of video, collaboration, and networked Web 2.0 technologies, which we believe will drive productivity and growth in network loads, appear to be evolving even more quickly and more significantly than we had previously anticipated. Cisco TelePresence systems are one example of product offerings that have incorporated video, collaboration, and networked Web 2.0 technologies, as customers evolve their communications and business models. We are focused on simplifying and expanding the creation, distribution, and use of end-to-end video solutions for businesses and consumers, and our fiscal 2010 acquisition of Tandberg ASA (Tandberg) is an example of our increased emphasis on the video market segment.
We believe that the architectural approach that has served us well in addressing the market adjacencies in the communications and information technology industry will be adaptable to other markets. Examples of market adjacencies where we aim to apply this approach are mobility, the consumer, and electrical services infrastructure. With regard to mobility, the growth of IP traffic on handheld devices is driving the need for more robust architectures, equipment and services in order to accommodate not only an increasing number of worldwide mobile device users, but also increased user demand for broadband-quality business network and consumer web applications to be seamlessly delivered on such devices. Our fiscal 2010 acquisition of Starent Networks, Corp. (Starent) reflects the significance of this market adjacency and our intent to offer solutions that help expand IP network load capabilities for mobile devices. For the consumer market, through collaboration with technology partners, retailers, service providers, and content publishers, we are striving to create compelling consumer experiences and make the network the platform for a variety of services in the home, as broadband development moves from a device-centric phase to a network-centric model. In the electrical services infrastructure market, we are developing an architecture for managing energy in a highly secure fashion on electrical grids at various steps from energy generation to consumption in homes and buildings.
To address these market adjacencies, we believe a collaborative strategy is required. We believe that we need the subject area and functional skill expertise of not just one person but many within our company. Accordingly, we have developed what we feel is an innovative organizational structure of boards and councils, bringing together Cisco managers from across many functional areas within our company to collaboratively define, plan, execute, and monitor our progress in these many market adjacencies.
For a discussion of the risks associated with our strategy, see Item 1A. Risk Factors, including the risk factor entitled We depend upon the development of new products and enhancements to existing products, and if we fail to predict and respond to emerging technological trends and customers changing needs, our operating results and market share may suffer. For information regarding sales of our major products and services, see Note 15 to the Consolidated Financial Statements in our 2010 Annual Report to Shareholders. Note 15 is incorporated into this report by reference.
Our current offerings fall into several categories:
Routing technology is fundamental to the Internet, and this technology interconnects public and private IP networks for mobile, data, voice, and video applications. Our routing products are designed to enhance the intelligence, security, reliability, scalability, and level of performance in the transmission of information and media-rich applications. We offer a broad range of routers, from core network infrastructure for service providers and enterprises to access routers for branch offices and for telecommuters and consumers at home. Key products within our routing category are the Cisco 1800, 2800, and 3800 Series Integrated Services Routers as well as the Cisco ASR 1000, 5000 and 9000 Series Aggregation Service Routers; Cisco 7200, 7600 and 12000 Series Routers and the Cisco CRS Carrier Routing System.
During fiscal 2010, we introduced the Cisco CRS-3 Carrier Routing System (CRS-3). Built on the same design principles as the CRS-1, the Cisco CRS-3 more than triples performance and provides efficiency by consuming less power while using cooling and rack-space resources for intelligent, service-rich bandwidth capacity. Developed for service provider core networks, the CRS-3 is designed to transport the growing video and application traffic on the Internet.
Switching is another integral networking technology used in campuses, branch offices, and data centers. Switches are used within buildings in local-area networks (LANs), across cities in metropolitan-area networks (MANs), and across great distances in wide-area networks (WANs). Our switching products offer many forms of connectivity to end users, workstations, IP phones, access points, and servers, and also function as aggregators on LANs, MANs, and WANs. Our switching systems employ several widely used technologies, including Ethernet, Power over Ethernet, Fibre Channel over Ethernet, Packet over Synchronous Optical Network, and Multiprotocol Label Switching. Many of our switches are designed to support an integrated set of advanced services, allowing organizations to be more efficient by using one switch for multiple networking functions rather than multiple switches to accomplish the same functions. Cisco offers a comprehensive family of Ethernet switching solutions from fixed-configuration switches for small and medium-sized businesses to modular switches for enterprises and service providers. Our fixed-configuration switches are designed to provide a foundation for converged data, voice, and video services. They range from small, standalone switches to stackable models that function as a single, scalable switching unit. Modular switches offer flexibility for enterprises, which due to large-scale network demands often need to deploy numerous, concurrent intelligent networking services without degrading overall performance. Key products within our switching category are the Cisco Catalyst 2960, 3560, 3750, 4500, 4900, and 6500 Series; the Nexus 1000V, 4000, 5000 and 7000 Series switches; and Cisco Nexus 2000 Series Fabric Extenders.
During fiscal 2010, we enhanced our fixed configuration switches, to deliver key network services that are designed to work with Cisco routing, security, and wireless products to enable video collaboration, enterprise-wide energy management, and policy-based security. In fiscal 2010, we continued to expand on the Cisco Catalyst 4900 series and the deployment options for Nexus 7000 by introducing support for up to one million routes.
Application Networking Services
Cisco Application Networking Services consist of a broad portfolio of application networking solutions that enable secure, high performance, reliable delivery of applications within data centers and across WANs to remote and branch office users. Our solutions are designed to help facilitate the deployment and delivery of business applications across an entire organization by using technology to accelerate, maximize availability of, and secure both application traffic and computing resources. A key product within our application networking services category is Cisco Wide Area Application Services (WAAS), a comprehensive WAN optimization solution.
During fiscal 2010, we introduced WAN Optimization Services for SaaS-based applications and WAN Optimization solutions for the Integrated Service Router G2s Services Ready Engine.
Todays consumers have increasing demands for wireless connectivity. Our home networking strategy aligns with Ciscos broader vision to enable consumers to live a connected life that is more personal, more social, and more visual. Our products connect different devices in the household, allowing people to share Internet access, printers, storage, video, music, movies, and games throughout the home. Products include routers, adapters, gateways, switches, modems, home network management software, and other products that are designed to provide both tech-savvy and mass-market consumers with rich in-home experiences. These products are sold through select retailers, value-added resellers, online retailers, and service providers worldwide.
During fiscal 2010, we re-launched our home networking product lines in the United States and Canada. The launch included Valet, a new product line of wireless products aimed at providing mainstream users with the benefits of wireless home networking experiences. In addition, we launched the new Linksys E-Series wireless routers and adapters for technology-minded consumers. Both of these product families support the new 802.11n Wi-Fi standard. They also include our new Cisco Connect Software, enabling consumers to easily set up and manage their wireless network.
Cisco security solutions deliver network and content security systems that are designed to enable highly secure collaboration. Our products in this category span firewall, intrusion prevention, remote access, virtual private networks (VPN), unified client, web, and email security. We focus on a proactive, layered approach to counter both existing and emerging security threats. We provide security solutions that are designed to be integrated, timely, comprehensive, and effective, helping to ensure holistic security for organizations worldwide. In addition, Cisco security systems include network and application policy solutions for identity services used in data centers and collaboration services as a series of network access control and entitlement solutions. A key product line within our security product category is the Cisco ASA 5500 Series Adaptive Security Appliances line.
In fiscal 2010, we introduced the Cisco AnyConnect VPN Client, which enables users to access networks with their mobile device of choice, including laptops and smartphone-based mobile devices while allowing organizations to manage the security risks of borderless networks. We also acquired ScanSafe, Inc. (ScanSafe) a cloud-based web security service designed to prevent zero-day malware from reaching corporate networks, including roaming or mobile users. As a cloud-based service, the ScanSafe solution requires no hardware or upfront capital costs or maintenance and is designed to provide real-time threat protection for accurate policy and security enforcement.
Storage Area Networking
We provide storage area networking (SAN) products for data center environments designed to deliver multilayer, scalable, and highly secure connectivity between servers and storage systems, including products such as storage arrays and tape drives. These products incorporate intelligent network features, such as advanced network security, traffic management, virtualization, and tools that are designed to help make storing, retrieving, and protecting critical data across widely distributed environments more efficient. The Cisco MDS 9000 Series currently is the key product line within our storage area networking product category.
During fiscal 2010, we continued to enhance our MDS 9000 product line by introducing features to enable server virtualization, SAN consolidation and pay-as-you-grow flexibility to scale from an entry-level departmental switch to edge connectivity in enterprise SANs.
Cisco Unified Communications products integrate voice, video, data, and mobile applications on fixed and mobile networks, delivering a media-rich collaboration experience to the workspace. Specific products include IP phones, client software, servers, and network appliances supporting call control, contact centers, messaging, conferencing, voice mobility, and collaboration including presence and preference information. These products are available as software and web-based collaborative offerings, as standalone devices, and as integrated components in Cisco routers and switches. These applications aim to use the network as the platform to enhance competitive advantage by enabling users to accelerate decision time and reduce transaction time. The security and scalability of the network enable users in any workspace to connect with one another through a computer, handset, smartphone, or other similar communications equipment. Cisco Unified Communications products are part of a comprehensive solution that includes network infrastructure, security, wireless, management
applications, lifecycle services, flexible deployment, outsourced management options, and third-party applications. In addition, Cisco WebEx products provide web-based collaborative offerings that allow users to share presentations, applications, documents, and desktops, with full-motion video and integrated audio, in a rich multimedia environment online through the use of a standard web browser.
During fiscal 2010, we introduced unified communications solutions, which provide more deployment options for our customers, with support for virtualization of unified communications applications on the Cisco Unified Computing System (UCS) and we also announced the launch of Cisco Hosted Collaboration Solution for partners who are looking to offer Cisco Unified Communications and Collaboration in an as a Service consumption model. We also provided additional support for customers migrating from legacy voice to IP-based networks and we enhanced capabilities to our Unified Messaging, Conferencing, Mobility, and Customer Contact solutions.
Our video systems offerings consist primarily of digital set-top boxes and digital media technology products. Digital set-top boxes provide video entertainment services to consumers. They enable subscribers to access a variety of interactive digital television services developed by either Cisco or third parties. Our equipment includes standard-definition (SD), IP television (IPTV) service-enabled, Data over Cable System Interface Specification (DOCSIS), DOCSIS gateway (DSG), high-definition (HD), digital video recorder (DVR), HD-DVR, multiple-room DVR, and digital-only set-top boxes. Digital media technology products span a wide range of signal processing and headend capabilities including reception, encoding or transcoding, transrating, multiplexing, ad insertion, switching, and modulation. Deployment of these capabilities can help service providers and broadcast customers to more efficiently deliver entertainment, information, and communications services over their existing access networks.
The Cisco Unified Wireless Network is designed to unify high-performance 802.11n wireless access across campus, branch, remote, and outdoor environments. This wireless system strives to maximize flexibility and reliability with its access point, controller, antenna, and integrated management products. Simplified management and mobile device troubleshooting are features of the platform designed to reduce operational cost. This platform delivers, through an open application programming interface (API), business-relevant mobility data, voice, video, and context-aware applications to partners and end-user customers. A current key product line within our wireless technology category is the Cisco Aironet product family.
Our other products category primarily consists of optical networking products, cable access, Ciscos Flip Video family which includes the Flip Ultra and Flip Mino camcorder lines, and service provider voice-over-IP (VoIP) services. Additional items in our other products category include emerging technologies such as Cisco TelePresence systems, the Cisco Unified Computing System, physical security and video surveillance, digital media systems, and building systems that help companies manage energy efficiently.
During fiscal 2010, with the acquisition of Tandberg, our TelePresence products within the other products category now include the Tandberg line of video conferencing products. We also launched new Flip camcorders in the United States and Canada.
In addition to our product offerings, we provide a broad range of service offerings, including technical support services and advanced services. Technical support services help ensure that our products operate efficiently, remain available, and benefit from the most up-to-date system software. These services help customers protect their network investments and minimize downtime for systems running mission-critical applications. Advanced services are services that are part of a comprehensive program that is designed to provide responsive, preventive, and consultative support of our technologies for specific networking needs. The advanced services program supports networking devices, applications, solutions, and complete infrastructures. Our service and support strategy seeks to capitalize on increased globalization, and we believe this strategy, along with our architectural approach, has the potential to further differentiate us from competitors.
Customers and Markets
Many factors influence the IT, collaboration, and networking requirements of our customers. These include the size of the organization, number and types of technology systems, geographic location, and the business applications deployed throughout the customers network. Our customer base is not limited to any specific industry, geography, or market segment. In each of the past three fiscal years, no single customer has accounted for 10 percent or more of our net sales. Our customers primarily operate in the following markets: enterprise, service provider, commercial, and consumer.
Enterprise businesses are large regional, national, or global organizations with multiple locations or branch offices and typically employ 1,000 or more employees. Many enterprise businesses have unique IT, collaboration, and networking needs within a multi-vendor environment. Our enterprise customers also include public sector entities and governments. We strive to take advantage of the network-as-a-platform strategy to integrate business processes with technology architectures to assist customer growth. We offer service and support packages, financing, and managed network services through our service provider partners. We sell these products through a network of third-party application and technology vendors and channel partners.
Service providers offer data, voice, video, and mobile/wireless services to businesses, governments, utilities, and consumers worldwide. They include regional, national, and international wireline carriers, as well as Internet, cable, and wireless providers. We also group media, broadcast, and web portal providers within our service provider market, as the lines in the telecommunications industry continue to blur between traditional network-based services and content-based and application-based services. Service providers use a variety of our routing and switching, optical, security, video, connected home, mobility, and network management products and systems in their own networks. In addition, many service providers use Cisco data center, virtualization, and collaboration technologies to offer managed or Internet-based services to their business customers. These technologies include Cisco Unified Communications and call center products and applications, Cisco WebEx collaboration tools, and Cisco TelePresence systems products, as well as other video and security products and systems that can be incorporated into network-attached data centers. Compared with other customers, service providers are more likely to require network design, deployment, and support services because of the scale and complexity of their networks, which requirements are addressed, we believe, by our architectural approach.
Generally, we define commercial businesses as companies with fewer than 1,000 employees. The larger, or midmarket, customers within the commercial market are served by a combination of our direct salesforce and our channel partners. These customers typically require the latest advanced technologies that our enterprise customers demand, but with less complexity. Small businesses, or companies with fewer than 100 employees, require information technologies and communication products that are easy to configure, install, and maintain. These smaller companies within the commercial market are primarily served by our channel partners.
Our consumer customers are individuals who use the network at home, or while away from home, for personal use to enjoy a broad range of entertainment, communications, and information experiences. Cisco is able to deliver these solutions to consumers through major consumer channels, including both traditional and online retailers, directly through our website and through value added resellers. The Flip Video family of camcorders represents a new addition to our consumer product line, having been added to our product portfolio through the acquisition of Pure Digital Technologies, Inc. The Flip Video family of camcorders is designed to make video simple, accessible, and fun by allowing people to easily capture and edit videos and then share them instantly with friends and family and on popular video-sharing websites.
As of the end of fiscal 2010, our worldwide sales and marketing department consisted of approximately 24,600 employees, including managers, sales representatives, and technical support personnel. We have field sales offices in approximately 90 countries, and we sell our products and services both directly and through a variety of channels with support from our salesforce. A substantial portion of our products and services is sold through our channel partners, and the remainder is sold through direct sales. Our channel partners include systems integrators, service providers, other resellers, distributors, and retail partners.
Systems integrators and service providers typically sell directly to end users and often provide system installation, technical support, professional services, and other support services in addition to network equipment sales. Systems integrators also typically integrate our products into an overall solution. Some service providers are also systems integrators.
Distributors hold inventory and typically sell to systems integrators, service providers, and other resellers. In addition, home networking products are generally sold through distributors and retail partners. We refer to sales through distributors and retail partners as our two-tier system of sales to the end customer. Revenue from distributors and retail partners generally is recognized based on a sell-through method using information provided by them. These distributors and retail partners are generally given business terms that allow them to return a portion of inventory, receive credits for changes in selling prices, and participate in various cooperative marketing programs.
For information regarding risks related to our channels, see Item 1A. Risk Factors, including the risk factors entitled Disruption of or changes in our distribution model could harm our sales and margins and Our inventory management relating to our sales to our two-tier distribution channel is complex, and excess inventory may harm our gross margins.
For information regarding risks relating to our international operations, see Item 1A. Risk Factors, including the risk factors entitled Our operating results may be adversely affected by unfavorable economic and market conditions and the uncertain geopolitical environment; Entrance into new or developing markets exposes us to additional competition and will likely increase demands on our service and support operations; Due to the global nature of our operations, political or economic changes or other factors in a specific country or region could harm our operating results and financial condition; We are exposed to fluctuations in currency exchange rates that could negatively impact our financial results and cash flows; and Man-made problems such as computer viruses or terrorism may disrupt our operations and harm our operating results, among others.
Our service offerings complement our products through a range of consulting, technical, project, quality, and maintenance services, including 24-hour online and telephone support through technical assistance centers.
We provide financing arrangements, such as leases, financed service contracts, and loans, for certain qualified customers to build, maintain, and upgrade their networks. We believe customer financing is a competitive factor in obtaining business, particularly in serving customers involved in significant infrastructure projects. Leases include sales-type, direct financing, and operating leases. We also provide certain qualified customers with the option of financing long-term service contracts, which primarily relate to technical support services and typically range from one to three years. Our loan financing arrangements may include not only financing for the acquisition of our products and services, but also may provide additional funds for other costs associated with network installation and integration of our products and services. For additional information regarding these financing arrangements, see Note 6 to the Consolidated Financial Statements in our 2010 Annual Report to Shareholders. Note 6 is incorporated into this report by reference.
Our product backlog at July 31, 2010, the last day of our 2010 fiscal year, was approximately $4.1 billion, compared with product backlog of approximately $3.9 billion at July 25, 2009, the last day of our 2009 fiscal year. The product backlog includes orders confirmed for products scheduled to be shipped within 90 days to customers with approved credit status. Because of the generally short cycle between order and shipment and occasional customer changes in delivery schedules or cancellation of orders (which are made without significant penalty), we do not believe that our product backlog, as of any particular date, is necessarily indicative of actual net product sales for any future period.
Acquisitions, Investments, and Alliances
The markets in which we compete require a wide variety of technologies, products, and capabilities. The combination of technological complexity and rapid change within our markets makes it difficult for a single company to develop all of the technological solutions that it desires to offer within its family of products and services. We work to broaden the range of products and services we deliver to customers in target markets through acquisitions, investments, and alliances. We employ the following strategies to address the need for new or enhanced networking and communications products and services:
We have acquired many companies, and we expect to make future acquisitions. Mergers and acquisitions of high-technology companies are inherently risky, especially if the acquired company has yet to ship a product. No assurance can be given that our previous or future acquisitions will be successful or will not materially adversely affect our financial condition or operating results. Prior acquisitions have resulted in a wide range of outcomes, from successful introduction of new products and technologies to an inability to do so. The risks associated with acquisitions are more fully discussed in Item 1A. Risk Factors, including the risk factor entitled We have made and expect to continue to make acquisitions that could disrupt our operations and harm our operating results.
Investments in Privately Held Companies
We make investments in privately held companies that develop technology or provide services that are complementary to our products or that provide strategic value. The risks associated with these investments are more fully discussed in Item 1A. Risk Factors, including the risk factor entitled We are exposed to fluctuations in the market values of our portfolio investments and in interest rates; impairment of our investments could harm our earnings.
We pursue strategic alliances with other companies in areas where collaboration can produce industry advancement and acceleration of new markets. The objectives and goals of a strategic alliance can include one or more of the following: technology exchange, product development, joint sales and marketing, or new-market creation. Currently, we have strategic alliances with Accenture Ltd; AT&T Inc.; Cap Gemini S.A.; EMC Corporation; Fujitsu Limited; Intel Corporation; International Business Machines Corporation; Italtel SpA; Johnson Controls Inc.; Microsoft Corporation; Nokia Corporation; Nokia Siemens Networks; Oracle Corporation; SAP AG; Sprint Nextel Corporation; Tata Consultancy Services Ltd.; VMware, Inc.; Wipro Limited; and others. Companies with which we have strategic alliances in some areas may be competitors in other areas. The risks associated with our strategic alliances are more fully discussed in Item 1A. Risk Factors, including the risk factor entitled If we do not successfully manage our strategic alliances, we may not realize the expected benefits from such alliances and we may experience increased competition or delays in product development.
We compete in the networking and communications equipment markets, providing products and services for transporting data, voice, and video traffic across intranets, extranets, and the Internet. These markets are characterized by rapid change, converging technologies, and a migration to networking and communications solutions that offer relative advantages. These market factors represent both an opportunity and a competitive threat to us. We compete with numerous vendors in each product category. The overall number of our competitors providing niche product solutions may increase. Also, the identity and composition of competitors may change as we increase our activity in our advanced technology markets and market adjacencies. As we continue to expand globally, we may see new competition in different geographic regions. In particular, we have experienced price-focused competition from competitors in Asia, especially from China, and we anticipate this will continue.
Our competitors include Alcatel-Lucent; ARRIS Group, Inc.; Aruba Networks, Inc.; Avaya Inc.; Belden Inc.; Brocade Communications Systems, Inc.; Check Point Software Technologies Ltd.; Citrix Systems, Inc.; D-Link Corporation; LM Ericsson Telephone Company; Extreme Networks, Inc.; F5 Networks, Inc.; Force10 Networks, Inc.; Fortinet, Inc.; Hewlett-Packard Company; Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.; International Business Machines Corporation; Juniper Networks, Inc.; LogMeIn, Inc.; Meru Networks, Inc.; Microsoft Corporation; Motorola, Inc.; NETGEAR, Inc.; Polycom, Inc.; Riverbed Technology, Inc.; and Symantec Corporation; among others.
Some of these companies compete across many of our product lines, while others are primarily focused in a specific product area. Barriers to entry are relatively low, and new ventures to create products that do or could compete with our products are regularly formed. In addition, some of our competitors may have greater resources, including technical and engineering resources, than we do. As we expand into new markets, we will face competition not only from our existing competitors but also from other competitors, including existing companies with strong technological, marketing, and sales positions in those markets. We also sometimes face competition from resellers and distributors of our products. Companies with whom we have strategic alliances in some areas may be competitors in other areas. For example, the enterprise data center is undergoing a fundamental transformation arising from the convergence of technologies, including computing, networking, storage, and software, that previously were siloed. Due to several factors, including the availability of highly scalable and general purpose microprocessors, application-specific integrated circuits offering advanced services, standards based protocols, cloud computing and virtualization, the convergence of technologies within the enterprise data center is spanning multiple, previously independent, technology segments. Also, some of our current and potential competitors for enterprise data center business have made acquisitions, or announced new strategic alliances, designed to position them to provide end-to-end technology solutions for the enterprise data center. As a result of all of these developments, we face greater competition in the development and sale of enterprise data center technologies, including competition from entities that are among our long-term strategic alliance partners. Companies that are strategic alliance partners in some areas of our business may acquire or form alliances with our competitors, thereby reducing their business with us.
The principal competitive factors in the markets in which we presently compete and may compete in the future include:
We also face competition from customers to which we license or supply technology and suppliers from which we transfer technology. The inherent nature of networking requires interoperability. As such, we must cooperate and at the same time compete with many companies. Any inability to effectively manage these complicated relationships with customers, suppliers, and strategic alliance partners could have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results, and financial condition, and accordingly affect our chances of success.
Research and Development
We regularly seek to introduce new products and features to address the requirements of our markets. We allocate our research and development budget among routers, switches, advanced technologies, and other product technologies for this purpose. Our research and development expenditures were $5.3 billion, $5.2 billion, and $5.3 billion in fiscal 2010, 2009, and 2008, respectively. These expenditures are applied generally to all product areas, with specific areas of focus being identified from time to time. Recent areas of focus include, but are not limited to, Cisco TelePresence systems products, physical security, digital media, and the Cisco Unified Computing System. Our expenditures for research and development costs were expensed as incurred.
The industry in which we compete is subject to rapid technological developments, evolving standards, changes in customer requirements, and new product introductions and enhancements. As a result, our success depends in part upon our ability, on a cost-effective and timely basis, to continue to enhance our existing products and to develop and introduce new products that improve performance and reduce total cost of ownership. To achieve these objectives, our management and engineering personnel work with customers to identify and respond to customer needs, as well as with other innovators of internetworking products, including universities, laboratories, and corporations. We also expect to continue to make acquisitions and investments, where appropriate, to provide us with access to new technologies. We intend to continue developing products that meet key industry standards and to support important protocol standards as they emerge. Nonetheless, there can be no assurance that we will be able to successfully develop products to address new customer requirements and technological changes, or that those products will achieve market acceptance.
We primarily employ an outsourced manufacturing strategy that relies on contract manufacturers for manufacturing services. We presently use a variety of independent third-party companies to provide services related to printed-circuit board assembly, in-circuit test, product repair, and product assembly. Proprietary software on electronically programmable memory chips is used to configure products that meet customer requirements and to maintain quality control and security. The manufacturing process enables us to configure the hardware and software in unique combinations to meet a wide variety of individual customer requirements. The manufacturing process uses automated testing equipment and burn-in procedures, as well as comprehensive inspection, testing, and statistical process controls, which are designed to help ensure the quality and reliability of our products. The manufacturing processes and procedures are generally certified to International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 9001 or ISO 9003 standards.
Our arrangements with contract manufacturers generally provide for quality, cost, and delivery requirements, as well as manufacturing process terms, such as continuity of supply; inventory management; flexibility regarding capacity, quality, and cost management; oversight of manufacturing; and conditions for use of our intellectual property. We have not entered into any significant long-term contracts with any manufacturing service provider. We generally have the option to renew arrangements on an as-needed basis, primarily annually. These arrangements generally do not commit us to purchase any particular amount or any quantities beyond certain amounts covered by orders or forecasts that we submit covering discrete periods of time, defined as less than one year. We experienced longer than normal lead times on several of our products in fiscal 2010 and continue to see challenges at some of our component suppliers. This was attributable in part to increasing demand driven by the improvement in our overall markets, and similar to what is happening in the industry, the longer than normal lead time extensions also stemmed from supplier constraints based upon their labor and other actions taken during the global economic downturn.
Although we primarily employ an outsourced manufacturing strategy, we continue to operate manufacturing facilities, including a principal facility in Juarez, Mexico, for the manufacture of set-top boxes. The manufacturing operations in Juarez range from automated assembly lines for volume production to complete assembly of a particular product by one individual or a small group of individuals.
Patents, Intellectual Property, and Licensing
We seek to establish and maintain our proprietary rights in our technology and products through the use of patents, copyrights, trademarks, and trade secret laws. We have a program to file applications for and obtain patents, copyrights, and trademarks in the United States and in selected foreign countries where we believe filing for such protection is appropriate. We also seek to maintain our trade secrets and confidential information by nondisclosure policies and through the use of appropriate confidentiality agreements. We have obtained a substantial number of patents and trademarks in the United States and in other countries. There can be no assurance, however, that the rights obtained can be successfully enforced against infringing products in every jurisdiction. Although we believe the protection afforded by our patents, copyrights, trademarks, and trade secrets has value, the rapidly changing technology in the networking industry and uncertainties in the legal process make our future success dependent primarily on the innovative skills, technological expertise, and management abilities of our employees rather than on the protection afforded by patent, copyright, trademark, and trade secret laws.
Many of our products are designed to include software or other intellectual property licensed from third parties. While it may be necessary in the future to seek or renew licenses relating to various aspects of our products, we believe, based upon past experience and standard industry practice, that such licenses generally could be obtained on commercially reasonable terms. Nonetheless, there can be no assurance that the necessary licenses would be available on acceptable terms, if at all. Our inability to obtain certain licenses or other rights or to obtain such licenses or rights on favorable terms, or the need to engage in litigation regarding these matters, could have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results, and financial condition. Moreover, inclusion in our products of software or other intellectual property licensed from third parties on a nonexclusive basis can limit our ability to protect our proprietary rights in our products.
The industry in which we compete is characterized by rapidly changing technology, a large number of patents, and frequent claims and related litigation regarding patent and other intellectual property rights. There can be no assurance that our patents and other proprietary rights will not be challenged, invalidated, or circumvented; that others will not assert intellectual property rights to technologies that are relevant to us; or, that our rights will give us a competitive advantage. In addition, the laws of some foreign countries may not protect our proprietary rights to the same extent as the laws of the United States. The risks associated with patents and intellectual property are more fully discussed in Item 1A. Risk Factors, including the risk factors entitled Our proprietary rights may prove difficult to enforce, We may be found to infringe on intellectual property rights of others, and We rely on the availability of third-party licenses.
As of July 31, 2010, we employed approximately 70,700 employees, including approximately 18,250 in manufacturing and service, approximately 21,250 in engineering, approximately 24,600 in sales and marketing, and approximately 6,600 in general and administration. Approximately 38,350 employees are in locations within the United States. We consider the relationships with our employees to be positive. Competition for technical personnel in the industry in which we compete is intense. We believe that our future success depends in part on our continued ability to hire, assimilate, and retain qualified personnel. To date, we believe that we have been successful in recruiting qualified employees, but there is no assurance that we will continue to be successful in the future.
Executive Officers of the Registrant
The following table shows the name, age and position as of August 31, 2010 of each of our executive officers:
Set forth below and elsewhere in this report and in other documents we file with the SEC are descriptions of the risks and uncertainties that could cause our actual results to differ materially from the results contemplated by the forward-looking statements contained in this report.
OUR OPERATING RESULTS MAY FLUCTUATE IN FUTURE PERIODS, WHICH MAY ADVERSELY AFFECT OUR STOCK PRICE
Our operating results have been in the past, and will continue to be, subject to quarterly and annual fluctuations as a result of numerous factors, some of which may contribute to more pronounced fluctuations in an uncertain global economic environment. These factors include:
As a consequence, operating results for a particular future period are difficult to predict, and, therefore, prior results are not necessarily indicative of results to be expected in future periods. Any of the foregoing factors, or any other factors discussed elsewhere herein, could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, and financial condition that could adversely affect our stock price.
OUR OPERATING RESULTS MAY BE ADVERSELY AFFECTED BY UNFAVORABLE ECONOMIC AND MARKET CONDITIONS AND THE UNCERTAIN GEOPOLITICAL ENVIRONMENT
Challenging economic conditions worldwide have from time to time contributed, and may continue to contribute, to slowdowns in the communications and networking industries at large, as well as to specific segments and markets in which we operate, resulting in:
Instability in the global credit markets, including the recent European economic and financial turmoil related to sovereign debt issues in certain countries, the instability in the geopolitical environment in many parts of the world and other disruptions, such as changes in energy costs, may continue to put pressure on global economic conditions. Our operating results in one or more segments may also be affected by uncertain or changing economic conditions particularly germane to that segment or to particular customer markets within that segment. The world has recently experienced a global macroeconomic downturn, and if global economic and market conditions, or economic conditions in key markets, remain uncertain or deteriorate further, we may experience material impacts on our business, operating results, and financial condition.
DURING THE RECENT GLOBAL ECONOMIC DOWNTURN AND WHILE THE RELATED MARKET UNCERTAINTY PERSISTS, WE HAVE BEEN INVESTING IN MARKET ADJACENCIES AND ALSO IN THE UNITED STATES AND TARGETED EMERGING COUNTRIES, AND IF THE RETURN ON THESE INVESTMENTS IS LOWER OR DEVELOPS MORE SLOWLY THAN WE EXPECT, OUR OPERATING RESULTS MAY BE HARMED
We have been realigning and are dedicating resources to focus on certain market adjacencies, such as enterprise data center virtualization, video/visual networking, collaboration architectures, and globalization, primarily in targeted geographic locations and to focus efforts particularly where we believe the economic recovery will progress the fastest, such as the United States and targeted emerging countries, creating opportunities for us even while other countries or markets may not be recovering. However, the return on our investments in such market adjacencies and in such geographic markets may be lower, or may develop more slowly, than we expect. If we do not achieve the benefits anticipated from these investments (including if our selection of areas for investment does not play out as we expect), or if the achievement of these benefits is delayed, our operating results may be adversely affected.
OUR REVENUE FOR A PARTICULAR PERIOD IS DIFFICULT TO PREDICT, AND A SHORTFALL IN REVENUE MAY HARM OUR OPERATING RESULTS
As a result of a variety of factors discussed in this report, our revenue for a particular quarter is difficult to predict, especially in light of the recent global economic downturn and related market uncertainty. Our net sales may grow at a slower rate than in past periods or may decline, which recently occurred in fiscal 2009. Our ability to meet financial expectations could also be adversely affected if the nonlinear sales pattern seen in some of our past quarters recurs in future periods. We have experienced periods of time during which shipments have exceeded net bookings or manufacturing issues have delayed shipments, leading to nonlinearity in shipping patterns. In addition to making it difficult to predict revenue for a particular period, nonlinearity in shipping can increase costs, because irregular shipment patterns result in periods of underutilized capacity and periods in which overtime expenses may be incurred, as well as in potential additional inventory management-related costs. In addition, to the extent that manufacturing issues and any related component shortages result in delayed shipments in the future, and particularly in periods in which we and our contract manufacturers are operating at higher levels of capacity, it is possible that revenue for a quarter could be adversely affected if such matters occur and are not remediated within the same quarter.
The timing of large orders can also have a significant effect on our business and operating results from quarter to quarter, primarily in the United States and in our Emerging Markets theater and other emerging countries. From time to time, we receive large orders that have a significant effect on our operating results in the period in which the order is recognized as revenue. The timing of such orders is difficult to predict, and the timing of revenue recognition from such orders may affect period to period changes in net sales. As a result, our operating results could vary materially from quarter to quarter based on the receipt of such orders and their ultimate recognition as revenue.
Inventory management remains an area of focus. We experienced longer than normal lead times on several of our products in fiscal 2010. This was attributable in part to increasing demand driven by the improvement in our overall markets, and similar to what is happening in the industry, the longer than normal lead time extensions also stemmed from supplier constraints based upon their labor and other actions taken during the global economic downturn. We continue to see challenges at some of our component suppliers. Longer manufacturing lead times in the past have caused some customers to place the same order multiple times within our various sales channels and to cancel the duplicative orders upon receipt of the product, or to place orders with other vendors with shorter manufacturing lead times. Such multiple ordering (along with other factors) or risk of order cancellation may cause difficulty in predicting our sales and, as a result, could impair our ability to manage parts inventory effectively. In addition, our efforts to improve manufacturing lead-time performance may result in corresponding reductions in order backlog. A decline in backlog levels could result in more variability and less predictability in our quarter-to-quarter net sales and operating results. In addition, we have increased our efforts in procuring components in order to meet customer expectations which have contributed to an increase in purchase commitments. Increases in our purchase commitments to shorten lead times could also lead to excess and obsolete inventory charges if the demand for our products is less than our expectations.
We plan our operating expense levels based primarily on forecasted revenue levels. These expenses and the impact of long-term commitments are relatively fixed in the short term. A shortfall in revenue could lead to operating results being below expectations because we may not be able to quickly reduce these fixed expenses in response to short-term business changes.
Any of the above factors could have a material adverse impact on our operations and financial results.
WE EXPECT GROSS MARGIN TO VARY OVER TIME, AND OUR LEVEL OF PRODUCT GROSS MARGIN MAY NOT BE SUSTAINABLE
Our level of product gross margins may not be sustainable and may continue to be adversely affected by numerous factors, including:
Changes in service gross margin may result from various factors such as changes in the mix between technical support services and advanced services, as well as the timing of technical support service contract initiations and renewals and the addition of personnel and other resources to support higher levels of service business in future periods.
SALES TO THE SERVICE PROVIDER MARKET ARE ESPECIALLY VOLATILE, AND WEAKNESS IN SALES ORDERS FROM THIS INDUSTRY MAY HARM OUR OPERATING RESULTS AND FINANCIAL CONDITION
Sales to the service provider market have been characterized by large and sporadic purchases, especially relating to our router sales and sales of certain of our advanced technologies, in addition to longer sales cycles. In the past, we have experienced significant weakness in sales to service providers over certain extended periods of time as market conditions have fluctuated. Sales activity in this industry depends upon the stage of completion of expanding network infrastructures; the availability of funding; and the extent to which service providers are affected by regulatory, economic, and business conditions in the country of operations. Weakness in orders from this industry, including as a result of any slowdown in capital expenditures by service providers (which may be more prevalent during a global economic downturn or periods of economic uncertainty), could have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results, and financial condition. For example, during fiscal 2009, we experienced a slowdown in service provider capital expenditures globally, which may recur in future periods. Orders from this industry could decline for many reasons other than the competitiveness of our products and services within their respective markets. For example, in the past, many of our service provider customers have been materially and adversely affected by slowdowns in the general economy, by overcapacity, by changes in the service provider market, by regulatory developments, and by constraints on capital availability, resulting in business failures and substantial reductions in spending and expansion plans. These conditions have materially harmed our business and operating results in the past, and some of these or other conditions in the service provider market could affect our business and operating results in any future period. Finally, service provider customers typically have longer implementation cycles; require a broader range of services, including design services; demand that vendors take on a larger share of risks; often require acceptance provisions, which can lead to a delay in revenue recognition; and expect financing from vendors. All these factors can add further risk to business conducted with service providers.
DISRUPTION OF OR CHANGES IN OUR DISTRIBUTION MODEL COULD HARM OUR SALES AND MARGINS
If we fail to manage distribution of our products and services properly, or if our distributors financial condition or operations weaken, our revenue and gross margins could be adversely affected.
A substantial portion of our products and services is sold through our channel partners, and the remainder is sold through direct sales. Our channel partners include systems integrators, service providers, other resellers, distributors, and retail partners. Systems integrators and service providers typically sell directly to end users and often provide system installation, technical support, professional services, and other support services in addition to network equipment sales. Systems integrators also typically integrate our products into an overall solution, and a number of service providers are also systems integrators. Distributors stock inventory and typically sell to systems integrators, service providers, and other resellers. In addition, home networking products are generally sold through distributors and retail partners. We refer to sales through distributors and retail partners as our two-tier system of sales to the end customer. Revenue from distributors and retail partners generally is recognized based on a sell-through method using information provided by them. These distributors and retail partners are generally given business terms that allow them to return a portion of inventory, receive credits for changes in selling prices, and participate in various cooperative marketing programs. If sales through indirect channels increase, this may lead to greater difficulty in forecasting the mix of our products and, to a degree, the timing of orders from our customers.
Historically, we have seen fluctuations in our gross margins based on changes in the balance of our distribution channels. Although variability to date has not been significant, there can be no assurance that changes in the balance of our distribution model in future periods would not have an adverse effect on our gross margins and profitability.
Some factors could result in disruption of or changes in our distribution model, which could harm our sales and margins, including the following:
In addition, we depend on our channel partners globally to comply with applicable regulatory requirements. To the extent that they fail to do so, that could have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results, and financial condition.
THE MARKETS IN WHICH WE COMPETE ARE INTENSELY COMPETITIVE, WHICH COULD ADVERSELY AFFECT OUR ACHIEVEMENT OF REVENUE GROWTH
The markets in which we compete are characterized by rapid change, converging technologies, and a migration to networking and communications solutions that offer relative advantages. These market factors represent a competitive threat to us. We compete with numerous vendors in each product category. The overall number of our competitors providing niche product solutions may increase. Also, the identity and composition of competitors may change as we increase our activity in our advanced technology markets and market adjacencies. As we continue to expand globally, we may see new competition in different geographic regions. In particular, we have experienced price-focused competition from competitors in Asia, especially from China, and we anticipate this will continue. For information regarding our competitors, see the section entitled Competition contained in Item 1 of this report.
Some of our competitors compete across many of our product lines, while others are primarily focused in a specific product area. Barriers to entry are relatively low, and new ventures to create products that do or could compete with our products are regularly formed. In addition, some of our competitors may have greater resources, including technical and engineering resources, than we do. As we expand into new markets, we will face competition not only from our existing competitors but also from other competitors, including existing companies with strong technological, marketing, and sales positions in those markets. We also sometimes face competition from resellers and distributors of our products. Companies with whom we have strategic alliances in some areas may be competitors in other areas.
For example, the enterprise data center is undergoing a fundamental transformation arising from the convergence of technologies, including computing, networking, storage, and software, that previously were siloed. Due to several factors, including the availability of highly scalable and general purpose microprocessors, application-specific integrated circuits offering advanced services, standards based protocols, cloud computing and virtualization, the application of these converging technologies is spanning multiple, previously independent, technology segments. Also, some of our current and potential competitors for enterprise data center business have made acquisitions, or announced new strategic alliances, designed to position them to provide end-to-end technology solutions for the enterprise data center. As a result of all of these developments, we face greater competition in the development and sale of enterprise data center technologies, including competition from entities that are among our long-term strategic alliance partners. Companies that are strategic alliance partners in some areas of our business may acquire or form alliances with our competitors, thereby reducing their business with us.
The principal competitive factors in the markets in which we presently compete and may compete in the future include:
We also face competition from customers to which we license or supply technology and suppliers from which we transfer technology. The inherent nature of networking requires interoperability. As such, we must cooperate and at the same time compete with many companies. Any inability to effectively manage these complicated relationships with customers, suppliers, and strategic alliance partners could have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results, and financial condition and accordingly affect our chances of success.
OUR INVENTORY MANAGEMENT RELATING TO OUR SALES TO OUR TWO-TIER DISTRIBUTION CHANNEL IS COMPLEX, AND EXCESS INVENTORY MAY HARM OUR GROSS MARGINS
We must manage our inventory relating to sales to our distributors and retail partners effectively, because inventory held by them could affect our results of operations. Our distributors and retail partners may increase orders during periods of product shortages, cancel orders if their inventory is too high, or delay orders in anticipation of new products. They also may adjust their orders in response to the supply of our products and the products of our competitors that are available to them and in response to seasonal fluctuations in end-user demand. Revenue to our distributors and retail partners generally is recognized based on a sell-through method using information provided by them, and they are generally given business terms that allow them to return a portion of inventory, receive credits for changes in selling price, and participate in various cooperative marketing programs. Inventory management remains an area of focus as we balance the need to maintain strategic inventory levels to ensure competitive lead times against the risk of inventory obsolescence because of rapidly changing technology and customer requirements. We continue to see challenges at some of our component suppliers and have increased our efforts in procuring components in order to meet customer expectations. If we ultimately determine that we have excess inventory, we may have to reduce our prices and write down inventory, which in turn could result in lower gross margins.
SUPPLY CHAIN ISSUES, INCLUDING FINANCIAL PROBLEMS OF CONTRACT MANUFACTURERS OR COMPONENT SUPPLIERS, OR A SHORTAGE OF ADEQUATE COMPONENT SUPPLY OR MANUFACTURING CAPACITY THAT INCREASED OUR COSTS OR CAUSED A DELAY IN OUR ABILITY TO FULFILL ORDERS, COULD HAVE AN ADVERSE IMPACT ON OUR BUSINESS AND OPERATING RESULTS, AND OUR FAILURE TO ESTIMATE CUSTOMER DEMAND PROPERLY MAY RESULT IN EXCESS OR OBSOLETE COMPONENT SUPPLY, WHICH COULD ADVERSELY AFFECT OUR GROSS MARGINS
The fact that we do not own or operate the bulk of our manufacturing facilities and that we are reliant on our extended supply chain could have an adverse impact on the supply of our products and on our business and operating results:
A reduction or interruption in supply; a significant increase in the price of one or more components; a failure to adequately authorize procurement of inventory by our contract manufacturers; a failure to appropriately cancel, reschedule, or adjust our requirements based on our business needs; or a decrease in demand for our products could materially adversely affect our business, operating results, and financial condition and could materially damage customer relationships. Furthermore, as a result of binding price or purchase commitments with suppliers, we may be obligated to purchase components at prices that are higher than those available in the current market. In the event that we become committed to purchase components at prices in excess of the current market price when the components are actually used, our gross margins could decrease. We experienced longer than normal lead times on several of our products in fiscal 2010 and we continue to see challenges at some of our component suppliers. See the risk factor above entitled Our revenue for a particular period is difficult to predict, and a shortfall in revenue may harm our operating results.
Our growth and ability to meet customer demands depend in part on our ability to obtain timely deliveries of parts from our suppliers and contract manufacturers. We have experienced component shortages in the past, including shortages caused by manufacturing process issues, that have affected our operations. We may in the future experience a shortage of certain component parts as a result of our own manufacturing issues, manufacturing issues at our suppliers or contract manufacturers, capacity problems experienced by our suppliers or contract manufacturers, or strong demand in the industry for those parts. A return to growth in the economy is likely to create greater pressures on us and our suppliers to accurately project overall component demand and component demands within specific product categories and to establish optimal component levels and manufacturing capacity, especially for labor-intensive components, components for which we purchase a substantial portion of the supply, or re-ramping manufacturing capacity for highly complex products. For example, during fiscal 2010, we experienced longer than normal lead times on several of our products and we continue to see challenges at some of our component suppliers. This was attributable in part to increasing demand driven by the improvement in our overall markets, and similar to what is happening in the industry, the longer than normal lead time extensions also stemmed from supplier constraints based upon their labor and other actions taken during the global economic downturn. If shortages or delays persist or worsen, the price of these components may increase, or the components may not be available at all, and we may also encounter shortages if we do not accurately anticipate our needs. We may not be able to secure enough components at reasonable prices or of acceptable quality to build new products in a timely manner in the quantities or configurations needed. Accordingly, our revenue and gross margins could suffer until other sources can be developed. Our operating results would also be adversely affected if, anticipating greater demand than actually develops, we commit to the purchase of more components than we need, which is more likely to occur in a period of demand uncertainties such as we are currently experiencing. There can be no assurance that we will not encounter these problems in the future. Although in many cases we use standard parts and components for our products, certain components are presently available only from a single source or limited sources, and a global economic downturn and related market uncertainty could negatively impact the availability of components from one or more of these sources, especially during times such as we are currently seeing when there are supplier constraints based on labor and other actions taken during economic downturns. We may not be able to diversify sources in a timely manner, which could harm our ability to deliver products to customers and seriously impact present and future sales.
We believe that we may be faced with the following challenges in the future:
Manufacturing capacity and component supply constraints could continue to be significant issues for us. We purchase components from a variety of suppliers and use several contract manufacturers to provide manufacturing services for our products. During the normal course of business, in order to improve manufacturing lead-time performance and to help ensure adequate component supply, we enter into agreements with contract manufacturers and suppliers that either allow them to procure inventory based upon criteria as defined by us or that establish the parameters defining our requirements. In certain instances, these agreements allow us the option to cancel, reschedule, and adjust our requirements based on our business needs prior to firm orders being placed. We have increased our efforts in procuring components in order to meet customer expectations which have contributed to an increase in purchase commitments. Increases in our purchase commitments to shorten lead times could also lead to excess and obsolete inventory charges if the demand for our products is less than our expectations. If we fail to anticipate customer demand properly, an oversupply of parts could result in excess or obsolete components that could adversely affect our gross margins. For additional information regarding our purchase commitments with contract manufacturers and suppliers, see Note 11 to the Consolidated Financial Statements contained in our 2010 Annual Report to Shareholders, which Note is incorporated into this report by reference.
Our key manufacturing facility for Scientific-Atlantas products is located in Juarez, Mexico, and we may be materially and adversely affected by any prolonged disruption in the operation of this facility.
WE DEPEND UPON THE DEVELOPMENT OF NEW PRODUCTS AND ENHANCEMENTS TO EXISTING PRODUCTS, AND IF WE FAIL TO PREDICT AND RESPOND TO EMERGING TECHNOLOGICAL TRENDS AND CUSTOMERS CHANGING NEEDS, OUR OPERATING RESULTS AND MARKET SHARE MAY SUFFER
The markets for our products are characterized by rapidly changing technology, evolving industry standards, new product introductions, and evolving methods of building and operating networks. Our operating results depend on our ability to develop and introduce new products into existing and emerging markets and to reduce the production costs of existing products. We believe the industry is evolving to enable personal and business process collaboration enabled by networked Web 2.0, the technologies that enable user collaboration, as part of the second major phase of the Internet. As such, many of our strategic initiatives and investments are aimed at meeting the requirements that a network capable of multiple-party, collaborative interaction would demand, and the investments we have made and our architectural approach are designed to enable networked Web 2.0 and the increased use of the network as the platform for all forms of communications and IT. In fiscal 2009 we launched our Cisco Unified Computing System, our next-generation enterprise data center platform architected to unite computing, network, storage access, and virtualization resources in a single system, which is designed to address the fundamental transformation occurring in the enterprise data center. Cisco Unified Computing System is one of several market adjacencies on which we are focusing resources.
The process of developing new technology is complex and uncertain, and if we fail to accurately predict customers changing needs and emerging technological trends our business could be harmed. We must commit significant resources, including the investments we have been making in market adjacencies and in the United States and targeted emerging countries mentioned above, to developing new products before knowing whether our investments will result in products the market will accept. In particular, if our model of the evolution of networking to collaborative systems does not emerge as we believe it will, or if the industry does not evolve as we believe it will, or if our strategy for addressing this evolution is not successful, many of our strategic initiatives and investments may be of no or limited value. Furthermore, we may not execute successfully on that vision because of errors in product planning or timing, technical hurdles that we fail to overcome in a timely fashion, or a lack of appropriate resources. This could result in competitors providing those solutions before we do and loss of market share, net sales, and earnings. The success of new products depends on several factors, including proper new product definition, component costs, timely completion and introduction of these products, differentiation of new products from those of our competitors, and market acceptance of these products. There can be no assurance that we will successfully identify new product opportunities, develop and bring new products to market in a timely manner, or achieve market acceptance of our products or that products and technologies developed by others will not render our products or technologies obsolete or noncompetitive. The products and technologies that we identify as emerging technologies or advanced technologies may not prove to have the market success we anticipate, and we may not successfully identify and invest in other emerging or advanced technologies.
OVER THE LONG TERM WE INTEND TO INCREASE OUR INVESTMENT IN ENGINEERING, SALES, SERVICE, MARKETING AND MANUFACTURING ACTIVITIES, AND THESE INVESTMENTS MAY ACHIEVE DELAYED, OR LOWER THAN EXPECTED BENEFITS WHICH COULD HARM OUR OPERATING RESULTS
While recently we have focused on managing our costs and expenses, we expect to continue to increase our headcount in upcoming quarters, and over the long term we intend to continue to add personnel and other resources to our engineering, sales, service, marketing and manufacturing functions as we focus on developing market adjacencies, emerging technologies, the next wave of advanced technologies, growing the commercial market segment, capitalizing on our emerging market opportunities, enhancing our evolving support model and increasing our market share gains. We are likely to recognize the costs associated with these investments earlier than some of the anticipated benefits, and the return on these investments may be lower, or may develop more slowly, than we expect. If we do not achieve the benefits anticipated from these investments, or if the achievement of these benefits is delayed, our operating results may be adversely affected.
OUR BUSINESS SUBSTANTIALLY DEPENDS UPON THE CONTINUED GROWTH OF THE INTERNET AND INTERNET-BASED SYSTEMS
A substantial portion of our business and revenue depends on growth and evolution of the Internet, including the continued development of networked Web 2.0 as part of the second major phase of the Internet, and on the deployment of our products by customers who depend on such continued growth and evolution. To the extent that an economic slowdown or economic uncertainty and related reduction in capital spending adversely affect spending on Internet infrastructure, as we have recently seen, we could experience material harm to our business, operating results, and financial condition.
Because of the rapid introduction of new products and changing customer requirements related to matters such as cost-effectiveness and security, we believe that there could be performance problems with Internet communications in the future, which could receive a high degree of publicity and visibility. Because we are a large supplier of networking products, our business, operating results, and financial condition may be materially adversely affected, regardless of whether or not these problems are due to the performance of our own products. Such an event could also result in a material adverse effect on the market price of our common stock independent of direct effects on our business.
CHANGES IN INDUSTRY STRUCTURE AND MARKET CONDITIONS COULD LEAD TO CHARGES RELATED TO DISCONTINUANCES OF CERTAIN OF OUR PRODUCTS OR BUSINESSES AND ASSET IMPAIRMENTS
In response to changes in industry and market conditions, we may be required to strategically realign our resources and consider restructuring, disposing of, or otherwise exiting businesses. Any decision to limit investment in or dispose of or otherwise exit businesses may result in the recording of special charges, such as inventory and technology-related write-offs, workforce reduction costs, charges relating to consolidation of excess facilities, or claims from third parties who were resellers or users of discontinued products. Our estimates with respect to the useful life or ultimate recoverability of our carrying basis of assets, including purchased intangible assets, could change as a result of such assessments and decisions. Further, our estimates relating to the liabilities for excess facilities are affected by changes in real estate market conditions. Additionally, we are required to perform goodwill impairment tests on an annual basis and between annual tests in certain circumstances, and future goodwill impairment tests may result in a charge to earnings.
WE HAVE MADE AND EXPECT TO CONTINUE TO MAKE ACQUISITIONS THAT COULD DISRUPT OUR OPERATIONS AND HARM OUR OPERATING RESULTS
Our growth depends upon market growth, our ability to enhance our existing products, and our ability to introduce new products on a timely basis. We intend to continue to address the need to develop new products and enhance existing products through acquisitions of other companies, product lines, technologies, and personnel. Acquisitions involve numerous risks, including the following:
Acquisitions may also cause us to:
Mergers and acquisitions of high-technology companies are inherently risky and subject to many factors outside of our control, and no assurance can be given that our previous or future acquisitions will be successful and will not materially adversely affect our business, operating results, or financial condition. Failure to manage and successfully integrate acquisitions could materially harm our business and operating results. Prior acquisitions have resulted in a wide range of outcomes, from successful introduction of new products and technologies to a failure to do so. Even when an acquired company has already developed and marketed products, there can be no assurance that product enhancements will be made in a timely fashion or that pre-acquisition due diligence will have identified all possible issues that might arise with respect to such products.
From time to time, we have made acquisitions that resulted in charges in an individual quarter. These charges may occur in any particular quarter, resulting in variability in our quarterly earnings. In addition, our effective tax rate for future periods is uncertain and could be impacted by mergers and acquisitions. Risks related to new product development also apply to acquisitions. Please see the risk factors above, including the risk factor entitled We depend upon the development of new products and enhancements to existing products, and if we fail to predict and respond to emerging technological trends and customers changing needs, our operating results and market share may suffer for additional information.
ENTRANCE INTO NEW OR DEVELOPING MARKETS EXPOSES US TO ADDITIONAL COMPETITION AND WILL LIKELY INCREASE DEMANDS ON OUR SERVICE AND SUPPORT OPERATIONS
As we focus on new market opportunitiesfor example, storage; wireless; security; transporting data, voice, and video traffic across the same network; and other advanced technologies, emerging technologies and market adjacencieswe will increasingly compete with large telecommunications equipment suppliers as well as startup companies. Several of our competitors may have greater resources, including technical and engineering resources, than we do. Additionally, as customers in these markets complete infrastructure deployments, they may require greater levels of service, support, and financing than we have provided in the past, especially in the Emerging Markets theater. Demand for these types of service, support, or financing contracts may increase in the future. There can be no assurance that we can provide products, service, support, and financing to effectively compete for these market opportunities.
Further, provision of greater levels of services, support and financing by us may result in a delay in the timing of revenue recognition. In addition, entry into other markets, including our entry into the consumer market, has subjected and will subject us to additional risks, particularly to those markets, including the effects of general market conditions and reduced consumer confidence.
INDUSTRY CONSOLIDATION MAY LEAD TO INCREASED COMPETITION AND MAY HARM OUR OPERATING RESULTS
There has been a trend toward industry consolidation in our markets for several years. We expect this trend to continue as companies attempt to strengthen or hold their market positions in an evolving industry and as companies are acquired or are unable to continue operations. For example, some of our current and potential competitors for enterprise data center business have made acquisitions, or announced new strategic alliances, designed to position them with the ability to provide end-to-end technology solutions for the enterprise data center. Companies that are strategic alliance partners in some areas of our business may acquire or form alliances with our competitors, thereby reducing their business with us. We believe that industry consolidation may result in stronger competitors that are better able to compete as sole-source vendors for customers. This could lead to more variability in our operating results and could have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results, and financial condition. Furthermore, particularly in the service provider market, rapid consolidation will lead to fewer customers, with the effect that loss of a major customer could have a material impact on results not anticipated in a customer marketplace composed of more numerous participants.
PRODUCT QUALITY PROBLEMS COULD LEAD TO REDUCED REVENUE, GROSS MARGINS, AND NET INCOME
We produce highly complex products that incorporate leading-edge technology, including both hardware and software. Software typically contains bugs that can unexpectedly interfere with expected operations. There can be no assurance that our preshipment testing programs will be adequate to detect all defects, either ones in individual products or ones that could affect numerous shipments, which might interfere with customer satisfaction, reduce sales opportunities, or affect gross margins. In the past, we have had to replace certain components and provide remediation in response to the discovery of defects or bugs in products that we had shipped. Although the cost of such remediation has not been material in the past, there can be no assurance that such a remediation, depending on the product involved, would not have a material impact. An inability to cure a product defect could result in the failure of a product line, temporary or permanent withdrawal from a product or market, damage to our reputation, inventory costs, or product reengineering expenses, any of which could have a material impact on our revenue, margins, and net income.
DUE TO THE GLOBAL NATURE OF OUR OPERATIONS, POLITICAL OR ECONOMIC CHANGES OR OTHER FACTORS IN A SPECIFIC COUNTRY OR REGION COULD HARM OUR OPERATING RESULTS AND FINANCIAL CONDITION
We conduct significant sales and customer support operations in countries outside of the United States; maintain a manufacturing facility for a substantial portion of our video systems products in Juarez, Mexico; and also depend on non-U.S. operations of our contract manufacturers, component suppliers and distribution partners. Although sales in our Emerging Markets theater decreased during the recent global economic downturn, our Emerging Markets theater generally has been a relatively fast growing theater, and we have announced plans to expand our commitments and expectations in this theater. As such, our growth depends in part on our increasing sales into this theater. We also intend to expand our level of business activity in two large emerging countries, India and China, and our growth in the Asia Pacific theater will also depend in part upon our increasing sales in these countries. Our future results could be materially adversely affected by a variety of factors relating to our operations outside the United States, any or all of which could have a material adverse effect on our operating results and financial condition, including, among others, the following:
WE ARE EXPOSED TO THE CREDIT RISK OF SOME OF OUR CUSTOMERS AND TO CREDIT EXPOSURES IN WEAKENED MARKETS, WHICH COULD RESULT IN MATERIAL LOSSES
Most of our sales are on an open credit basis, with typical payment terms of 30 days in the United States and, because of local customs or conditions, longer in some markets outside the United States. We monitor individual customer payment capability in granting such open credit arrangements, seek to limit such open credit to amounts we believe the customers can pay, and maintain reserves we believe are adequate to cover exposure for doubtful accounts. Beyond our open credit arrangements, we have also experienced demands for customer financing and facilitation of leasing arrangements. We expect demand for customer financing to continue, and recently we have been experiencing an increase in this demand as the credit markets have been impacted by the recent global economic downturn and related market uncertainty, including increased demand from customers in certain countries within our Emerging Markets theater. We believe customer financing is a competitive factor in obtaining business, particularly in serving customers involved in significant infrastructure projects. Our loan financing arrangements may include not only financing the acquisition of our products and services but also providing additional funds for other costs associated with network installation and integration of our products and services.
Our exposure to the credit risks relating to our financing activities described above may increase if our customers are adversely affected by a global economic downturn or periods of economic uncertainty. Although we have programs in place that are designed to monitor and mitigate the associated risk, including monitoring of particular risks in certain geographic areas, there can be no assurance that such programs will be effective in reducing our credit risks.
In the past, there have been significant bankruptcies among customers both on open credit and with loan or lease financing arrangements, particularly among Internet businesses and service providers, causing us to incur economic or financial losses. There can be no assurance that additional losses will not be incurred. Although these losses have not been material to date, future losses, if incurred, could harm our business and have a material adverse effect on our operating results and financial condition. A portion of our sales is derived through our distributors and retail partners. These distributors and retail partners are generally given business terms that allow them to return a portion of inventory, receive credits for changes in selling prices, and participate in various cooperative marketing programs. We maintain estimated accruals and allowances for such business terms. However, distributors tend to have more limited financial resources than other resellers and end-user customers and therefore represent potential sources of increased credit risk, because they may be more likely to lack the reserve resources to meet payment obligations. Additionally, to the degree that turmoil in the credit markets makes it more difficult for some customers to obtain financing, those customers ability to pay could be adversely impacted, which in turn could have a material adverse impact on our business, operating results, and financial condition.
WE ARE EXPOSED TO FLUCTUATIONS IN CURRENCY EXCHANGE RATES THAT COULD NEGATIVELY IMPACT OUR FINANCIAL RESULTS AND CASH FLOWS
Because a significant portion of our business is conducted outside the United States, we face exposure to adverse movements in foreign currency exchange rates. These exposures may change over time as business practices evolve, and they could have a material adverse impact on our financial results and cash flows. Historically, our primary exposures have related to nondollar-denominated sales in Japan, Canada, and Australia and certain nondollar-denominated operating expenses and service cost of sales in Europe, Latin America, and Asia, where we sell primarily in U.S. dollars. Additionally, we have exposures to emerging market currencies, which can have extreme currency volatility. An increase in the value of the dollar could increase the real cost to our customers of our products in those markets outside the United States where we sell in dollars, and a weakened dollar could increase the cost of local operating expenses and procurement of raw materials to the extent that we must purchase components in foreign currencies.
Currently, we enter into foreign exchange forward contracts and options to reduce the short-term impact of foreign currency fluctuations on certain foreign currency receivables, investments, and payables. In addition, we periodically hedge anticipated foreign currency cash flows. Our attempts to hedge against these risks may not be successful, resulting in an adverse impact on our net income.
OUR PROPRIETARY RIGHTS MAY PROVE DIFFICULT TO ENFORCE
We generally rely on patents, copyrights, trademarks, and trade secret laws to establish and maintain proprietary rights in our technology and products. Although we have been issued numerous patents and other patent applications are currently pending, there can be no assurance that any of these patents or other proprietary rights will not be challenged, invalidated, or circumvented or that our rights will, in fact, provide competitive advantages to us.
Furthermore, many key aspects of networking technology are governed by industrywide standards, which are usable by all market entrants. In addition, there can be no assurance that patents will be issued from pending applications or that claims allowed on any patents will be sufficiently broad to protect our technology. In addition, the laws of some foreign countries may not protect our proprietary rights to the same extent as do the laws of the United States. The outcome of any actions taken in these foreign countries may be different than if such actions were determined under the laws of the United States. Although we are not dependent on any individual patents or group of patents for particular segments of the business for which we compete, if we are unable to protect our proprietary rights to the totality of the features (including aspects of products protected other than by patent rights) in a market, we may find ourselves at a competitive disadvantage to others who need not incur the substantial expense, time, and effort required to create innovative products that have enabled us to be successful.
WE MAY BE FOUND TO INFRINGE ON INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS OF OTHERS
Third parties, including customers, have in the past and may in the future assert claims or initiate litigation related to exclusive patent, copyright, trademark, and other intellectual property rights to technologies and related standards that are relevant to us. These assertions have increased over time as a result of our growth and the general increase in the pace of patent claims assertions, particularly in the United States. Because of the existence of a large number of patents in the networking field, the secrecy of some pending patents, and the rapid rate of issuance of new patents, it is not economically practical or even possible to determine in advance whether a product or any of its components infringes or will infringe on the patent rights of others. The asserted claims and/or initiated litigation can include claims against us or our manufacturers, suppliers, or customers, alleging infringement of their proprietary rights with respect to our existing or future products or components of those products. Regardless of the merit of these claims, they can be time-consuming, result in costly litigation and diversion of technical and management personnel, or require us to develop a non-infringing technology or enter into license agreements. Where claims are made by customers, resistance even to unmeritorious claims could damage customer relationships. There can be no assurance that licenses will be available on acceptable terms and conditions, if at all, or that our indemnification by our suppliers will be adequate to cover our costs if a claim were brought directly against us or our customers. Furthermore, because of the potential for high court awards that are not necessarily predictable, it is not unusual to find even arguably unmeritorious claims settled for significant amounts. If any infringement or other intellectual property claim made against us by any third party is successful, if we are required to indemnify a customer with respect to a claim against the customer, or if we fail to develop non-infringing technology or license the proprietary rights on commercially reasonable terms and conditions, our business, operating results, and financial condition could be materially and adversely affected.
Our exposure to risks associated with the use of intellectual property may be increased as a result of acquisitions, as we have a lower level of visibility into the development process with respect to such technology or the care taken to safeguard against infringement risks. Further, in the past, third parties have made infringement and similar claims after we have acquired technology that had not been asserted prior to our acquisition.
WE RELY ON THE AVAILABILITY OF THIRD-PARTY LICENSES
Many of our products are designed to include software or other intellectual property licensed from third parties. It may be necessary in the future to seek or renew licenses relating to various aspects of these products. There can be no assurance that the necessary licenses would be available on acceptable terms, if at all. The inability to obtain certain licenses or other rights or to obtain such licenses or rights on favorable terms, or the need to engage in litigation regarding these matters, could have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results, and financial condition. Moreover, the inclusion in our products of software or other intellectual property licensed from third parties on a nonexclusive basis could limit our ability to protect our proprietary rights in our products.
OUR OPERATING RESULTS AND FUTURE PROSPECTS COULD BE MATERIALLY HARMED BY UNCERTAINTIES OF REGULATION OF THE INTERNET
Currently, few laws or regulations apply directly to access or commerce on the Internet. We could be materially adversely affected by regulation of the Internet and Internet commerce in any country where we operate. Such regulations could include matters such as voice over the Internet or using IP, encryption technology, sales taxes on Internet product sales, and access charges for Internet service providers. The adoption of regulation of the Internet and Internet commerce could decrease demand for our products and, at the same time, increase the cost of selling our products, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results, and financial condition.
CHANGES IN TELECOMMUNICATIONS REGULATION AND TARIFFS COULD HARM OUR PROSPECTS AND FUTURE SALES
Changes in telecommunications requirements, or regulatory requirements in other industries in which we operate, in the United States or other countries could affect the sales of our products. In particular, we believe that there may be future changes in U.S. telecommunications regulations that could slow the expansion of the service providers network infrastructures and materially adversely affect our business, operating results, and financial condition.
Future changes in tariffs by regulatory agencies or application of tariff requirements to currently untariffed services could affect the sales of our products for certain classes of customers. Additionally, in the United States, our products must comply with various requirements and regulations of the Federal Communications Commission and other regulatory authorities.
In countries outside of the United States, our products must meet various requirements of local telecommunications and other industry authorities. Changes in tariffs or failure by us to obtain timely approval of products could have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results, and financial condition.
FAILURE TO RETAIN AND RECRUIT KEY PERSONNEL WOULD HARM OUR ABILITY TO MEET KEY OBJECTIVES
Our success has always depended in large part on our ability to attract and retain highly skilled technical, managerial, sales, and marketing personnel. Competition for these personnel is intense, especially in the Silicon Valley area of Northern California. Stock incentive plans are designed to reward employees for their long-term contributions and provide incentives for them to remain with us. Volatility or lack of positive performance in our stock price or equity incentive awards, or changes to our overall compensation program, including our stock incentive program, resulting from the management of share dilution and share-based compensation expense or otherwise, may also adversely affect our ability to retain key employees. As a result of one or more of these factors, we may increase our hiring in geographic areas outside the United States, which could subject us to additional geopolitical and exchange rate risk. The loss of services of any of our key personnel; the inability to retain and attract qualified personnel in the future; or delays in hiring required personnel, particularly engineering and sales personnel, could make it difficult to meet key objectives, such as timely and effective product introductions. In addition, companies in our industry whose employees accept positions with competitors frequently claim that competitors have engaged in improper hiring practices. We have received these claims in the past and may receive additional claims to this effect in the future.
ADVERSE RESOLUTION OF LITIGATION OR GOVERNMENTAL INVESTIGATIONS MAY HARM OUR OPERATING RESULTS OR FINANCIAL CONDITION
We are a party to lawsuits in the normal course of our business. Litigation can be expensive, lengthy, and disruptive to normal business operations. Moreover, the results of complex legal proceedings are difficult to predict. For example, Brazilian authorities have investigated our Brazilian subsidiary and certain of our current and former employees, as well as a Brazilian importer of our products, and its affiliates and employees, relating to alleged evasion of import taxes and alleged improper transactions involving the subsidiary and the importer. Brazilian authorities have assessed claims against our Brazilian subsidiary based on a theory of joint liability with the Brazilian importer for import taxes and related penalties. The claims are for calendar years 2003 through 2007 and aggregate to approximately $190 million for the alleged evasion of import taxes, approximately $85 million for interest, and approximately $1.6 billion for various penalties, all determined using an exchange rate as of July 31, 2010. We have completed a thorough review of the matter and believe the asserted tax claims against us are without merit, and we intend to defend the claims vigorously. While we believe there is no legal basis for our alleged liability, due to the complexities and uncertainty surrounding the judicial process in Brazil and the nature of the claims asserting joint liability with the importer, we are unable to determine the likelihood of an unfavorable outcome against us and are unable to reasonably estimate a range of loss, if any. We have investigated the alleged improper transactions referred to above. We communicated with United States authorities to provide information and report on our findings and the United States authorities have investigated such allegations. An unfavorable resolution of lawsuits or governmental investigations could have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results, or financial condition. For additional information regarding certain of the matters in which we are involved, see Item 3, Legal Proceedings, contained in Part I of this report.
CHANGES IN OUR PROVISION FOR INCOME TAXES OR ADVERSE OUTCOMES RESULTING FROM EXAMINATION OF OUR INCOME TAX RETURNS COULD ADVERSELY AFFECT OUR RESULTS
Our provision for income taxes is subject to volatility and could be adversely affected by earnings being lower than anticipated in countries that have lower tax rates and higher than anticipated in countries that have higher tax rates; by changes in the valuation of our deferred tax assets and liabilities; by expiration of or lapses in the R&D tax credit laws; by transfer pricing adjustments, including the effect of acquisitions on our intercompany R&D cost sharing arrangement and legal structure; by tax effects of nondeductible compensation; by tax costs related to intercompany realignments; by changes in accounting principles; or by changes in tax laws and regulations, including possible U.S. changes to the taxation of earnings of our foreign subsidiaries, the deductibility of expenses attributable to foreign income, or the foreign tax credit rules. Significant judgment is required to determine the recognition and measurement attribute prescribed in the accounting guidance for uncertainty in income taxes. The accounting guidance for uncertainty in income taxes applies to all income tax positions, including the potential recovery of previously paid taxes, which if settled unfavorably could adversely impact our provision for income taxes or additional paid-in capital. Further, as a result of certain of our ongoing employment and capital investment actions and commitments, our income in certain countries is subject to reduced tax rates and in some cases is wholly exempt from tax. Our failure to meet these commitments could adversely impact our provision for income taxes. In addition, we are subject to the continuous examination of our income tax returns by the Internal Revenue Service and other tax authorities. We regularly assess the likelihood of adverse outcomes resulting from these examinations to determine the adequacy of our provision for income taxes. There can be no assurance that the outcomes from these continuous examinations will not have an adverse effect on our operating results and financial condition.
OUR BUSINESS AND OPERATIONS ARE ESPECIALLY SUBJECT TO THE RISKS OF EARTHQUAKES, FLOODS, AND OTHER NATURAL CATASTROPHIC EVENTS
Our corporate headquarters, including certain of our research and development operations are located in the Silicon Valley area of Northern California, a region known for seismic activity. Additionally, a certain number of our facilities are located near rivers that have experienced flooding in the past. Also certain of our suppliers and logistics centers are located in regions that may be affected by recent volcanic activity which could disrupt the flow of components and delivery of products. A significant natural disaster, such as an earthquake, a hurricane, volcano, or a flood, could have a material adverse impact on our business, operating results, and financial condition.
MAN-MADE PROBLEMS SUCH AS COMPUTER VIRUSES OR TERRORISM MAY DISRUPT OUR OPERATIONS AND HARM OUR OPERATING RESULTS
Despite our implementation of network security measures our servers are vulnerable to computer viruses, break-ins, and similar disruptions from unauthorized tampering with our computer systems. Any such event could have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results, and financial condition. Efforts to limit the ability of malicious third parties to disrupt the operations of the Internet or undermine our own security efforts may meet with resistance. In addition, the continued threat of terrorism and heightened security and military action in response to this threat, or any future acts of terrorism, may cause further disruptions to the economies of the United States and other countries and create further uncertainties or otherwise materially harm our business, operating results, and financial condition. Likewise, events such as widespread blackouts could have similar negative impacts. To the extent that such disruptions or uncertainties result in delays or cancellations of customer orders or the manufacture or shipment of our products, our business, operating results, and financial condition could be materially and adversely affected.
WE ARE EXPOSED TO FLUCTUATIONS IN THE MARKET VALUES OF OUR PORTFOLIO INVESTMENTS AND IN INTEREST RATES; IMPAIRMENT OF OUR INVESTMENTS COULD HARM OUR EARNINGS
We maintain an investment portfolio of various holdings, types, and maturities. These securities are generally classified as available-for-sale and, consequently, are recorded on our Consolidated Balance Sheets at fair value with unrealized gains or losses reported as a component of accumulated other comprehensive income, net of tax. Our portfolio includes fixed income securities and equity investments in publicly traded companies, the values of which are subject to market price volatility to the extent unhedged. If such investments suffer market price declines, as we experienced with some of our investments during fiscal 2009, we may recognize in earnings the decline in the fair value of our investments below their cost basis when the decline is judged to be other than temporary. For information regarding the sensitivity of and risks associated with the market value of portfolio investments and interest rates, refer to the section titled Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk included in our 2010 Annual Report to Shareholders, which section is incorporated by reference into this report. Our investments in private companies are subject to risk of loss of investment capital. These investments are inherently risky because the markets for the technologies or products they have under development are typically in the early stages and may never materialize. We could lose our entire investment in these companies.
IF WE DO NOT SUCCESSFULLY MANAGE OUR STRATEGIC ALLIANCES, WE MAY NOT REALIZE THE EXPECTED BENEFITS FROM SUCH ALLIANCES AND WE MAY EXPERIENCE INCREASED COMPETITION OR DELAYS IN PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT
We have several strategic alliances with large and complex organizations and other companies with which we work to offer complementary products and services and have established a joint venture to market services associated with our Cisco Unified Computing System products. These arrangements are generally limited to specific projects, the goal of which is generally to facilitate product compatibility and adoption of industry standards. There can be no assurance we will realize the expected benefits from these strategic alliances or from the joint venture. If successful, these relationships may be mutually beneficial and result in industry growth. However, alliances carry an element of risk because, in most cases, we must compete in some business areas with a company with which we have a strategic alliance and, at the same time, cooperate with that company in other business areas. Also, if these companies fail to perform or if these relationships fail to materialize as expected, we could suffer delays in product development or other operational difficulties. Joint ventures can be difficult to manage, given the potentially different interests of joint venture partners.
OUR STOCK PRICE MAY BE VOLATILE
Historically, our common stock has experienced substantial price volatility, particularly as a result of variations between our actual financial results and the published expectations of analysts and as a result of announcements by our competitors and us. Furthermore, speculation in the press or investment community about our strategic position, financial condition, results of operations, business, security of our products, or significant transactions can cause changes in our stock price. In addition, the stock market has experienced extreme price and volume fluctuations that have affected the market price of many technology companies, in particular, and that have often been unrelated to the operating performance of these companies. These factors, as well as general economic and political conditions and the announcement of proposed and completed acquisitions or other significant transactions, or any difficulties associated with such transactions, by us or our current or potential competitors, may materially adversely affect the market price of our common stock in the future. Additionally, volatility, lack of positive performance in our stock price or changes to our overall compensation program, including our stock incentive program, may adversely affect our ability to retain key employees, virtually all of whom are compensated, in part, based on the performance of our stock price.
THERE CAN BE NO ASSURANCE THAT OUR OPERATING RESULTS AND FINANCIAL CONDITION WILL NOT BE ADVERSELY AFFECTED BY OUR INCURRENCE OF SENIOR UNSECURED DEBT
In February 2006, we issued senior unsecured notes in an aggregate principal amount of $6.5 billion, of which $500 million matured in February 2009, $3.0 billion will mature in February 2011, and the balance will mature in February 2016. In addition, in February 2009 we issued an aggregate of $4.0 billion of senior unsecured notes that mature at specific dates in 2019 and 2039. A portion of the proceeds of the notes issued in February 2009 was used to repay in full the notes that matured that month. Also, in November 2009, we issued senior unsecured notes in an aggregate principal amount of $5.0 billion, of which $500 million will mature in November 2014, $2.5 billion will mature in January 2020, and the balance will mature in January 2040. The outstanding notes bear fixed-rate interest payable semiannually. The fair value of the long-term debt is subject to market interest rate volatility. The instruments governing the notes contain certain covenants applicable to us and our subsidiaries that may adversely affect our ability to incur certain liens or engage in certain types of sale and leaseback transactions. In addition, we will be required to have available in the United States sufficient cash to repay these notes on maturity. There can be no assurance that our incurrence of this debt will be a better means of providing liquidity to us than would our use of our existing cash resources, including cash currently held offshore. Further, we cannot be assured that our maintenance of this indebtedness will not adversely affect our operating results or financial condition. In addition, changes by any rating agency to our credit rating can negatively impact the value and liquidity of both our debt and equity securities.
ITEM 2. Properties
Our headquarters are located at an owned site in San Jose, California. In addition to this site, we own certain sites in the United States, which include facilities in the surrounding areas of San Jose, California; Boston, Massachusetts; Richardson, Texas; Lawrenceville, Georgia; and Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. We also own land for expansion in some of these locations. In addition, we lease office space in several U.S. locations.
Outside the United States our operations are conducted primarily in leased sites, such as our Globalisation Centre East campus in Bangalore, India. Other significant sites are located in Australia, Belgium, China, Germany, India, Israel, Italy, Japan, Norway, and the United Kingdom.
We own and lease certain Scientific-Atlanta manufacturing facilities with a principal manufacturing facility, which we own, located in Juarez, Mexico. We believe that our existing facilities, including both owned and leased, are in good condition and suitable for the conduct of our business.
For additional information regarding obligations under operating leases, see Note 11 to the Consolidated Financial Statements in our 2010 Annual Report to Shareholders. Note 11 is incorporated by reference herein. For additional information regarding properties by operating segment, see Note 15 to the Consolidated Financial Statements in our 2010 Annual Report to Shareholders. Note 15 is incorporated by reference herein.
ITEM 3. Legal Proceedings
Brazilian authorities have investigated our Brazilian subsidiary and certain of our current and former employees, as well as a Brazilian importer of our products, and its affiliates and employees, relating to alleged evasion of import taxes and alleged improper transactions involving the subsidiary and the importer. Brazilian authorities have assessed claims against our Brazilian subsidiary based on a theory of joint liability with the Brazilian importer for import taxes and related penalties. The claims are for calendar years 2003 through 2007 and aggregate to approximately $190 million for the alleged evasion of import taxes, $85 million for interest, and approximately $1.6 billion for various penalties, all determined using an exchange rate as of July 31, 2010. We have completed a thorough review of the matter and believe the asserted tax claims against us are without merit, and we intend to defend the claims vigorously. While we believe there is no legal basis for our alleged liability, due to the complexities and uncertainty surrounding the judicial process in Brazil and the nature of the claims asserting joint liability with the importer, we are unable to determine the likelihood of an unfavorable outcome against us and are unable to reasonably estimate a range of loss, if any. We do not expect a final judicial determination for several years.
We have investigated the alleged improper transactions referred to above. We communicated with United States authorities to provide information and report on our findings and the United States authorities have investigated such allegations.
We and other defendants were subject to patent claims asserted by Network-1 Security Solutions, Inc. on February 7, 2008 in the Federal District Court for the Eastern District of Texas. Network-1 alleged that various of our products implement a method for remotely powering equipment that infringes United States Patent No. 6,218,930. Network-1 sought monetary damages. The trial on these claims began on July 12, 2010. During trial, we and Network-1 settled our dispute on terms that are not material to us, and the lawsuit was dismissed with prejudice on August 6, 2010.
In addition, we are subject to legal proceedings, claims, and litigation arising in the ordinary course of business, including intellectual property litigation. While the outcome of these matters is currently not determinable, we do not expect that the ultimate costs to resolve these matters will have a material adverse effect on our consolidated financial position, results of operations, or cash flows. For additional information regarding intellectual property litigation, see Part I, Item 1A. Risk FactorsWe may be found to infringe on intellectual property rights of others herein.
ITEM 5. Market for Registrants Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters, and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
(a) The market price and related Cisco shareholder information required by this item are incorporated by reference to the section entitled Stock Market Information on page 77 of our 2010 Annual Report to Shareholders.
(b) Not Applicable.
(c) Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities (in millions, except per-share amounts):
ITEM 6. Selected Financial Data
The information required by this item is incorporated by reference to page 7 of our 2010 Annual Report to Shareholders.
ITEM 7. Managements Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
The information required by this item is incorporated by reference to pages 8 to 35 of our 2010 Annual Report to Shareholders.
ITEM 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
The information required by this item is incorporated by reference to pages 36 to 38 of our 2010 Annual Report to Shareholders.
ITEM 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
The information required by this item is incorporated by reference to pages 39 to 76 and the section entitled Supplementary Financial Data (Unaudited) on page 77 of our 2010 Annual Report to Shareholders.
ITEM 9A. Controls and Procedures
Evaluation of Disclosure Controls and Procedures
Based on our managements evaluation (with the participation of our principal executive officer and principal financial officer), as of the end of the period covered by this report, our principal executive officer and principal financial officer have concluded that our disclosure controls and procedures (as defined in Rules 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e) under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, (the Exchange Act)) are effective to ensure that information required to be disclosed by us in reports that we file or submit under the Exchange Act is recorded, processed, summarized and reported within the time periods specified in Securities and Exchange Commission rules and forms and is accumulated and communicated to our management, including our principal executive officer and principal financial officer, as appropriate to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosure.
Internal Control Over Financial Reporting
Managements report on our internal control over financial reporting and the report of our independent registered public accounting firm on our internal control over financial reporting are incorporated by reference to the portion of page 5 under the caption Managements Report on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting and to page 6, respectively, of our 2010 Annual Report to Shareholders.
There was no change in our internal control over financial reporting during our fourth quarter of fiscal 2010 that has materially affected, or is reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting.
ITEM 9B. Other Information
The information required by this item relating to our directors and nominees is included under the captions Proposal No. 1: Election of DirectorsGeneral, Business Experience and Qualifications of Nominees, and Board Committees and MeetingsNomination and Governance Committee in our Proxy Statement related to the 2010 Annual Meeting of Shareholders and is incorporated herein by reference.
The information required by this item regarding our Audit Committee is included under the caption Proposal No. 1: Election of DirectorsBoard Committees and Meetings in our Proxy Statement related to the 2010 Annual Meeting of Shareholders and is incorporated herein by reference.
Pursuant to General Instruction G(3) of Form 10-K, the information required by this item relating to our executive officers is included under the caption Executive Officers of the Registrant in Part I of this report.
The information required by this item regarding compliance with Section 16(a) of the Securities Act of 1934 is included under the caption Ownership of SecuritiesSection 16(a) Beneficial Ownership Reporting Compliance in our Proxy Statement related to the 2010 Annual Meeting of Shareholders and is incorporated herein by reference.
We have adopted a code of ethics that applies to our principal executive officer and all members of our finance department, including the principal financial officer and principal accounting officer. This code of ethics, which consists of the Special Ethics Obligations for Employees with Financial Reporting Responsibilities section of our Code of Business Conduct that applies to employees generally, is posted on our website. The Internet address for our website is www.cisco.com, and the code of ethics may be found from our main webpage by clicking first on About Cisco and then on Corporate Governance under Investor Relations, next on Code of Business Conduct under Corporate Governance, and finally on Special Ethics Obligations for Employees with Financial Reporting Responsibilities.
We intend to satisfy any disclosure requirement under Item 5.05 of Form 8-K regarding an amendment to, or waiver from, a provision of this code of ethics by posting such information on our website, on the webpage found by clicking through to Code of Business Conduct as specified above.
The information appearing under the headings Proposal No. 1: Election of DirectorsDirector Compensation and Executive Compensation and Related Information in our Proxy Statement related to the 2010 Annual Meeting of Shareholders is incorporated herein by reference.
The information required by this item relating to security ownership of certain beneficial owners and management is included under the caption Ownership of Securities, and the information required by this item relating to securities authorized for issuance under equity compensation plans is included under the caption Equity Compensation Plan Information, in each case in our Proxy Statement related to the 2010 Annual Meeting of Shareholders, and is incorporated herein by reference.
The information required by this item relating to review, approval or ratification of transactions with related persons is included under the caption Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and the information required by this item relating to director independence is included under the caption Proposal No. 1: Election of DirectorsIndependent Directors, in each case in our Proxy Statement related to the 2010 Annual Meeting of Shareholders, and is incorporated herein by reference.
The information required by this item is included under the captions Proposal No. 3: Ratification of Independent Registered Public Accounting FirmPrincipal Accountant Fees and Services and Policy on Audit Committee Pre-Approval of Audit and Permissible Non-Audit Services of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm in our Proxy Statement related to the 2010 Annual Meeting of Shareholders, and is incorporated herein by reference.
The Index to Financial Statements and Financial Statement Schedule on page 37 is incorporated herein by reference as the list of financial statements required as part of this report.
The Index to Financial Statements and Financial Statement Schedule on page 37 is incorporated herein by reference as the list of financial statement schedules required as part of this report.
The exhibit list in the Index to Exhibits is incorporated herein by reference as the list of exhibits required as part of this report.
INDEX TO FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
AND FINANCIAL STATEMENT SCHEDULE
VALUATION AND QUALIFYING ACCOUNTS
REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM
ON FINANCIAL STATEMENT SCHEDULE
To the Board of Directors and Shareholders of Cisco Systems, Inc.:
Our audits of the consolidated financial statements and of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting referred to in our report dated September 20, 2010 appearing in the 2010 Annual Report to Shareholders of Cisco Systems, Inc. (which report and consolidated financial statements are incorporated by reference in this Annual Report on Form 10-K) also included an audit of the financial statement schedule listed in Item 15(a)(2) of this Form 10-K. In our opinion, this financial statement schedule presents fairly, in all material respects, the information set forth therein when read in conjunction with the related consolidated financial statements.
/s/ PRICEWATERHOUSECOOPERS LLP
San Jose, California
September 20, 2010
Pursuant to the requirements of Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, the registrant has duly caused this Report on Form 10-K to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized.
POWER OF ATTORNEY
KNOW ALL PERSONS BY THESE PRESENTS, that each person whose signature appears below constitutes and appoints John T. Chambers and Frank A. Calderoni, jointly and severally, his attorney-in-fact, each with the full power of substitution, for such person, in any and all capacities, to sign any and all amendments to this Annual Report on Form 10-K, and to file the same, with all exhibits thereto and other documents in connection therewith, with the Securities and Exchange Commission, granting unto said attorney-in-fact and agent full power and authority to do and perform each and every act and thing requisite and necessary to be done in connection therewith, as fully to all intents and purposes as he might do or could do in person hereby ratifying and confirming all that each of said attorneys-in-fact and agents, or his substitute, may do or cause to be done by virtue hereof.
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, this Report on Form 10-K has been signed below by the following persons on behalf of the registrant and in the capacities and on the dates indicated.
INDEX TO EXHIBITS