Citigroup 10-Q 2008
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SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Commission file number 1-9924
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ý No o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer" and "smaller reporting company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes o No ý
Indicate the number of shares outstanding of each of the issuer's classes of common stock as of the latest practicable date:
Common stock outstanding as of September 30, 2008: 5,449,539,904
Available on the Web at www.citigroup.com
Citigroup Inc. (Citigroup and, together with its subsidiaries, the Company) is a global diversified financial services holding company whose businesses provide a broad range of financial services to consumer and corporate customers. Citigroup has more than 200 million customer accounts and does business in more than 100 countries. Citigroup was incorporated in 1988 under the laws of the State of Delaware.
The Company is a bank holding company within the meaning of the U.S. Bank Holding Company Act of 1956 registered with, and subject to examination by, the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (FRB). Some of the Company's subsidiaries are subject to supervision and examination by their respective federal and state authorities.
This quarterly report on Form 10-Q should be read in conjunction with Citigroup's 2007 Annual Report on Form 10-K and Citigroup's Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q for the quarters ended March 31, 2008 and June 30, 2008. Additional financial, statistical, and business-related information, as well as business and segment trends, is included in a Financial Supplement that was filed as Exhibit 99.2 to the Company's Current Report on Form 8-K, filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) on October 16, 2008.
The principal executive offices of the Company are located at 399 Park Avenue, New York, New York 10043, telephone number 212 559 1000. Additional information about Citigroup is available on the Company's Web site at www.citigroup.com. Citigroup's annual report on Form 10-K, its quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, its current reports on Form 8-K, and all amendments to these reports, are available free of charge through the Company's Web site by clicking on the "Investor Relations" page and selecting "All SEC Filings." The SEC Web site contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding the Company at www.sec.gov.
Citigroup is managed along the following segment and regional lines:
The following are the four regions in which Citigroup operates. The regional results are fully reflected in the segment results.
SUMMARY OF SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA
Certain reclassifications have been made to the prior-period's financial statements to conform to the current period's presentation.
Certain statements in this Form 10-Q, including, but not limited to, statements made in "Management's Discussion and Analysis," are "forward-looking statements" within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. These statements are based on management's current expectations and are subject to uncertainty and changes in circumstances. Actual results may differ materially from those included in these statements due to a variety of factors including, but not limited to, those described in Citigroup's 2007 Annual Report on Form 10-K under "Risk Factors" beginning on page 38.
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS
THIRD QUARTER OF 2008 MANAGEMENT SUMMARY
Citigroup reported a $3.4 billion loss from continuing operations ($0.71 per share) for the third quarter of 2008. The third quarter results were impacted by higher consumer credit costs, continued losses related to the disruption in the fixed income markets, and a general economic slowdown. The net loss of $2.8 billion ($0.60 per share) in the third quarter includes the results of our German Retail Banking Operations and CitiCapital (which are now reflected as discontinued operations).
Revenues were $16.7 billion, down 23% from a year ago. The decline in revenues was driven by $4.4 billion in net write-downs in S&B (after reflection of the gain on Citigroup's liabilities under the fair value option), lower securitization results in North America Cards, and a $612 million write-down related to the auction rates securities (ARS) settlement, partially offset by a $347 million pre-tax gain on the sale of CitiStreet. The prior-year period included a $729 million pre-tax gain on the sale of Redecard shares. Revenues across all businesses reflect the impact of a difficult economic environment and weak capital markets.
Global Cards revenues declined 40%, mainly due to lower securitization results in North America and the absence of a gain on the sale of Redecard shares. Consumer Banking revenues grew 2%, as increased revenues in North America were partially offset by declines in Latin America and Asia. ICG S&B revenues were ($81) million, due to write-downs of $2.0 billion on SIV assets, write-downs of $1.2 billion (net of hedges) on Alt-A mortgages, downward credit value adjustments of $919 million related to exposure to monoline insurers, write-downs of $792 million (net of underwriting fees) on funded and unfunded highly leveraged finance commitments, write-downs of $518 million on commercial real estate positions, and net write-downs of $394 million on subprime-related direct exposures. S&B revenues also included a $306 million write-down related to the ARS settlement. These write-downs were partially offset by a $1.5 billion gain from the change in Citigroup's own credit spreads for those liabilities to which the Company has elected the fair value option. Transaction Services revenues were up 20% to $2.5 billion, reflecting double-digit revenue growth across all regions. GWM revenues decreased 10%, driven by a decline in capital markets and investment revenues, partially offset by higher banking and lending revenues. GWM revenues also included a $347 million pre-tax gain on the sale of CitiStreet, partially offset by a $306 million write-down related to the ARS settlement.
Net interest revenue increased 13% from last year, reflecting volume increases across most products. Net interest margin (NIM) in the third quarter of 2008 was 3.13%, up 79 basis points from the third quarter of 2007, reflecting lower cost of funding, partially offset by a decrease in asset yields related to the decrease in the Fed Funds rate. (See discussion of NIM on page 49).
Operating expenses increased 2% from the third quarter of 2007. Expense growth reflected $459 million in repositioning charges, a $100 million fine related to the ARS settlement, and the impact of acquisitions. Expense growth was partially offset by benefits from re-engineering efforts. Expenses declined for the third consecutive quarter, due to lower incentive compensation accruals and continued benefits from re-engineering efforts. Headcount was down 11,000 from June 30, 2008, and approximately 23,000 year-to-date.
Total credit costs of $8.8 billion included NCLs of $4.9 billion up from $2.5 billion in the third quarter of 2007 and a net build of $3.9 billion to credit reserves. The build consisted of $3.2 billion in Consumer ($2.3 billion in North America and $855 million in regions outside of North America), $612 million in ICG and $64 million in GWM. The incremental net charge to increase loan loss reserves of $1.7 billion was mainly due to Consumer Banking and Cards in North America, and S&B. The Consumer loans loss rate was 3.35%, a 153 basis-point increase from the third quarter of 2007. Corporate cash-basis loans were $2.7 billion at September 30, 2008, an increase of $1.4 billion from year-ago levels. The allowance for loan losses totaled $24.0 billion at September 30, 2008, a coverage ratio of 3.35% of total loans.
The effective tax rate of 48% in the third quarter of 2008 primarily resulted from the pretax losses in the Company's S&B business taxed in the U.S. (the U.S. is a higher tax rate jurisdiction). In addition, the tax benefits of permanent differences, including the tax benefit for not providing U.S. income taxes on the earnings of certain foreign subsidiaries that are indefinitely invested, favorably affected the Company's effective tax rate.
Stockholders' equity and trust preferred securities were $149.7 billion at September 30, 2008. We distributed $2.1 billion in dividends to shareholders during the quarter. On October 20, 2008, as previously announced, the Company decreased the quarterly dividend on its common stock to $0.16 per share. Citigroup maintained its "well-capitalized" position with a Tier 1 Capital Ratio of 8.19% at September 30, 2008.
On October 28, 2008, Citigroup raised $25 billion through the sale of non-voting perpetual preferred stock and a warrant to purchase common stock to the U.S. Department of the Treasury as part of the Treasury's previously announced TARP Capital Purchase Program. All of the proceeds will be treated as Tier 1 Capital for regulatory purposes. Taking this issuance into account, on a pro forma basis, at September 30, 2008, Citigroup's Tier 1 Capital ratio would have been approximately 10.4%.
In addition, the pending sale of our German retail banking operation, which is expected to result in an estimated after-tax gain of approximately $4 billion in the fourth quarter of 2008.
Our liquidity position also remained very strong during the third quarter of 2008 and will continue to be enhanced through the sale to the U.S. Department of the Treasury of perpetual preferred stock and a warrant to purchase common stock, the sale of the German Retail Banking Operations and continued balance sheet de-leveraging. At September 30, 2008, we had increased our structural liquidity (equity, long-term debt, and deposits), as a percentage of assets, from 55% at September 30, 2007 to approximately 64% at September 30, 2008.
At September 30, 2008, the maturity profile of Citigroup's senior long-term unsecured borrowings had a weighted average maturity of seven years. We also reduced our commercial paper program from $35 billion at December 31, 2007 to $29 billion at September 30, 2008.
Our reserves of cash and highly liquid securities stood at approximately $51 billion at September 30, 2008, up from $24 billion at December 31, 2007. Continued de-leveraging and the enhancement of our liquidity position have allowed us to continue to maintain sufficient liquidity to meet all debt obligations maturing within a one-year period without having to access unsecured capital markets. See "Funding" on page 61 for further information on Citigroup's liquidity and funding.
U.S. Department of the Treasury Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP) and FDIC Guarantee
Issuance of $25 Billion of Perpetual Preferred Stock and a Warrant to Purchase Common Stock under TARP On October 28, 2008, Citigroup raised $25 billion through the sale of non-voting perpetual preferred stock and a warrant to purchase common stock to the U.S. Department of the Treasury as part of the Treasury's previously announced Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP) Capital Purchase Program.
All of the proceeds will be treated as Tier 1 Capital for regulatory purposes. Taking this issuance into account, on a pro forma basis, at September 30, 2008, Citigroup's Tier 1 Capital ratio would have been approximately 10.4%.
The preferred stock will have an aggregate liquidation preference of $25 billion and an annual dividend rate of 5% for the first five years, and 9% thereafter. Dividends will be cumulative and payable quarterly. The warrant will have an exercise price of $17.85 and will be exercisable for 210,084,034 shares of common stock, which would be reduced by one-half if Citigroup raises an additional $25 billion through the issuance of Tier 1-qualifying perpetual preferred or common stock by December 31, 2009.
The issuance of the warrant will result in a conversion price reset of the $12.5 billion of 7% convertible preferred stock sold in private offerings in January 2008. See "Capital Resources" beginning on page 57 for a further discussion.
The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) will guarantee until June of 2012 some senior unsecured debt issued by certain Citigroup entities between October 14, 2008 and June 30, 2009, in amounts up to 125% of the qualifying debt for each entity under the terms of the plan. The FDIC will charge a 75bps fee for any new qualifying debt issued with the FDIC guarantee.
Impact on Citigroup's Credit Spreads
As a result of government actions and for other reasons, credit spreads on Citigroup's debt instruments have substantially narrowed since September 30, 2008. Although this may change before the end of the year, if Citigroup's credit spreads are substantially narrower at December 31, 2008 than at September 30, 2008, it could have a meaningful impact on the value of derivative instruments and those liabilities for which the Company has elected the fair value option. See "Derivatives" on page 40 and Note 17 on Fair Value on page 125 for a discussion on the impact of changes in credit spreads in the third quarter.
Auction Rate Securities (ARS) Settlement
In the third quarter of 2008, Citigroup announced an agreement in principle with the New York Attorney General, under which it agreed to offer to purchase the failed ARS of its retail clients for par value. This agreement resulted in a $712 million loss being recorded during the third quarter.
The loss comprises (1) fines of $100 million ($50 million to the State of New York and $50 million to the other state regulatory agencies); (2) an estimated contingent loss of $425 million, recorded at the time of the announcement, reflecting the estimated difference between the fair value and par value of the securities to be purchased; and (3) an incremental loss of $187 million due to the decline in value of these ARS since the time of announcement (mainly due to the widening spreads on municipal obligations).
The securities Citigroup will be purchasing under this agreement have an estimated notional value of $6.2 billion, consisting of $4.2 billion of Preferred Share ARS, $1.8 billion of Municipal ARS and $0.2 billion of Student Loan ARS. The pretax losses of $712 million have been divided equally between S&B and GWM, both in North America.
Write-Downs on Structured Investment Vehicles (SIVs)
During the third quarter of 2008, Citigroup wrote down $2.0 billion on SIV assets, bringing the year-to-date write-downs to $2.2 billion. Citigroup increased its mezzanine financing to $4.5 billion, reflecting an increase of $1.0 billion from the original $3.5 billion financing. This additional mezzanine financing was funded subsequent to September 30, 2008. The total SIV assets as of September 30, 2008 and June 30, 2008 were approximately $27.5 billion and $34.8 billion, respectively. See "Structured Investment Vehicles" on page 74 for a further discussion.
Write-downs on Alt-A Mortgage Securities in S&B
During the third quarter of 2008, Citigroup recorded additional pretax losses of approximately $1.2 billion, net of hedges, on Alt-A mortgage securities held in S&B, bringing the year-to-date net loss to $2.5 billion. For these purposes, Alt-A mortgage securities are non-agency residential mortgage-backed securities (RMBS) where: (1) the underlying collateral has weighted average FICO scores between 680 and 720, or (2) for instances where FICO scores are greater than 720, RMBS have 30% or less of the underlying collateral composed of full documentation loans.
The Company had $13.6 billion in Alt-A mortgage securities carried at fair value at September 30, 2008, which decreased from $16.4 billion at June 30, 2008. Of the $13.6 billion, $3.4 billion were classified as Trading assets, of which $573 million of fair value write-downs, net of hedging, were recorded in earnings, and $10.2 billion were classified as available-for-sale investments, on which $580 million of write-downs were recorded in earnings due to other-than-temporary impairments. In addition, an incremental $1.5 billion of pretax fair value unrealized losses were recorded in Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income (OCI).
Write-Downs on Monoline Insurers
During the third quarter of 2008, Citigroup recorded pretax write-downs of credit value adjustments (CVA) of $919 million on its exposure to monoline insurers, bringing the year-to-date write-downs to $4.8 billion. CVA is calculated by applying the counterparty's current credit spread to the expected exposure on the trade. The majority of the exposure relates to hedges on super senior positions that were executed
with various monoline insurance companies. See "Direct Exposure to Monolines" on page 38 for a further discussion.
Write-Downs on Highly Leveraged Loans and Financing Commitments
Due to the continued dislocation of the credit markets and the reduced market interest in higher risk/higher yield instruments that began during the second half of 2007, liquidity in the market for highly leveraged financings is very limited. This has resulted in the Company's recording additional pretax write-downs of $792 million on funded and unfunded highly leveraged finance exposures, bringing the total year-to-date write-downs to $4.3 billion.
Citigroup's exposure to highly leveraged financings totaled $23 billion at September 30, 2008 ($10 billion in funded and $13 billion in unfunded commitments), reflecting a decrease of $1 billion from June 30, 2008. See "Highly Leveraged Financing Commitments" on page 78 for further discussion.
Write-Downs on Commercial Real Estate Exposures
S&B's commercial real estate exposure can be split into three categories: assets held at fair value, loans and commitments, and equity and other investments. For assets that are held at fair value, Citigroup recorded an additional $518 million of fair value write-downs on these exposures, net of hedges, during the third quarter of 2008 on commercial real estate exposure, bringing the year-to-date fair value write-downs to $1.6 billion. See "Exposure to Commercial Real Estate" on page 37 for a further discussion.
Write-Downs on Subprime-Related Direct Exposures
During the third quarter of 2008, S&B recorded losses of $394 million pretax, net of hedges, on its subprime-related direct exposures, bringing the total losses year-to-date to $9.7 billion. The Company's remaining $19.6 billion in U.S. subprime net direct exposure in S&B at September 30, 2008 consisted of (a) approximately $16.3 billion of net exposures to the super senior tranches of collateralized debt obligations, which are collateralized by asset-backed securities, derivatives on asset-backed securities or both and (b) approximately $3.3 billion of subprime-related exposures in its lending and structuring business. See "Exposure to U.S. Real Estate" on page 34 for a further discussion of such exposures and the associated losses recorded during the third quarter of 2008.
Losses on Auction Rate Securities (ARS)
As of September 30, 2008, ARS classified as Trading assets totaled $5.2 billion compared to $5.6 billion as of June 30, 2008. A significant majority are ARS where the underlying assets are student loans, while the remainder are ARS where the underlying assets are U.S. municipal securities as well as various other assets.
During the third quarter of 2008, S&B recorded $166 million in pretax losses in Principal transactions, primarily due to widening spreads and reduced liquidity in the market. The total year-to-date net losses on ARS positions was $1.4 billion, a significant majority of which relates to ARS where student loans are the underlying assets.
During the third quarter of 2008, the Company recorded a net build of $3.9 billion to its credit reserves. The build consisted of $3.2 billion in Consumer ($2.3 billion in North America and $855 million in regions outside of North America), $612 million in ICG and $64 million in GWM.
The $2.3 billion build in North America Consumer primarily reflected a weakening of leading credit indicators, including higher delinquencies on first mortgages, unsecured personal loans, credit cards and auto loans. Reserves also increased due to trends in the U.S. macroeconomic environment, including the housing market downturn and rising unemployment rates.
The $855 million build in regions outside of North America was primarily driven by deterioration in Mexico, Brazil and EMEA cards, and India Consumer Banking.
The build of $612 million in ICG primarily reflected loan loss reserves for specific counterparties, as well as a weakening in credit quality in the corporate loan portfolio.
As the environment for consumer credit continues to deteriorate, the Company has taken many actions to manage risks such as tightening underwriting criteria and reducing credit lines. However, credit card losses may continue to rise well into 2009, and it is possible that the Company's loss rates may exceed their historical peaks.
The total allowance for loan losses and unfunded lending commitments totaled $25.0 billion at September 30, 2008.
In the third quarter of 2008, Citigroup recorded repositioning charges of $459 million pretax related to Citigroup's ongoing reengineering plans, which will result in certain branch closings and headcount reductions of approximately 6,300 employees. The year-to-date repositioning charges equal $1.6 billion. Direct staff at September 30, 2008 was approximately 352,000, a decrease of approximately 11,000 from June 30, 2008.
Sale of CitiCapital
On July 31, 2008, Citigroup sold CitiCapital, the equipment finance unit in North America. A pre-tax loss of $517 million was recorded in the second quarter of 2008 in Discontinued Operations on the Company's Consolidated Statement of Income and was reduced by approximately $9 million in the third quarter for various closing adjustments. Approximately $4 million of net income related to CitiCapital was recorded in the third quarter of 2008. In addition, the income statement results of all CitiCapital businesses have been reported as Discontinued Operations for all periods presented.
Sale of CitiStreet
In the third quarter of 2008, Citigroup and State Street Corporation completed the sale of CitiStreet, a benefits servicing business, to ING Group in an all-cash transaction valued at $900 million. CitiStreet is a joint venture formed in 2000, which, prior to the sale, was owned 50 percent each by Citigroup and State Street. The transaction closed on July 1, 2008 and generated an after-tax gain of $222 million ($347 million pretax) that was recorded in GWM.
Sale of Citigroup's German Retail Banking Operation
On July 11, 2008, Citigroup announced the agreement to sell its German retail banking operations to Credit Mutuel for Euro 4.9 billion in cash plus the German retail banks operating net earnings accrued in 2008 through the closing. The transaction is expected to result in an after-tax gain of approximately $4 billion. The sale does not include the corporate and investment banking business or the Germany-based European data center. The sale is expected to close in the fourth quarter of 2008 pending regulatory approvals.
The German retail banking operations generated total revenue of $1.7 billion and $1.6 billion, and pretax earnings of $521 million and $398 million for the nine months ended September 30, 2008 and 2007, respectively. These results are reported in Discontinued operations on the Company's Consolidated Statement of Income. In addition to these results, there was a $330 million pre-tax foreign exchange gain realized during the third quarter of 2008 from hedging the sale proceeds, which are denominated in Euros, and a tax benefit of $279 million that arose as a result of this sale. Including these two items, total revenue and after-tax income from discontinued operations for the nine months ended September 30, 2008 was $2.0 billion and $829 million, respectively. Furthermore, the assets and liabilities as of September 30, 2008 of the German retail banking operations to be sold are included within Assets of discontinued operations held for sale, and liabilities of discontinued operations held for sale, respectively, on the Company's Consolidated Balance Sheet.
Sale of Citigroup's Interest in Citigroup Global Services Limited
On October 8, 2008, Citigroup announced an agreement with Tata Consultancy Services Limited (TCS) to sell all of Citigroup's interest in Citigroup Global Services Limited (CGSL) for all cash consideration of approximately $505 million, subject to closing adjustments. CGSL is the Citigroup captive provider of business process outsourcing services solely within the Banking and Financial Services sector.
In addition to the sale, Citigroup signed an agreement for TCS to provide, through CGSL, process outsourcing services to Citigroup and its affiliates in an aggregate amount of $2.5 billion over a period of 9.5 years. The agreement builds upon the existing relationship between Citigroup and TCS, whereby TCS provides application development, infrastructure support, help desk and other process outsourcing services to Citigroup. CGSL generated for the full year 2007 approximately $212 million of revenues and pretax earnings of approximately $37 million. CGSL does not qualify as a discontinued operation due to the continued involvement of Citigroup.
The transaction is expected to close in the fourth quarter of 2008 pending regulatory approvals and required consents.
Lehman Brothers Holding, Inc. Bankruptcy
On September 15, 2008, Lehman Brothers Holding, Inc. ("LBHI", and, together with its subsidiaries, "Lehman") filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy in U.S. Federal Court. A number of LBHI subsidiaries have subsequently filed bankruptcy or similar insolvency proceedings in the U.S. and other jurisdictions. Lehman's bankruptcy caused Citigroup to terminate cash management and foreign exchange clearance arrangements, close out approximately 40,000 Lehman foreign exchange, derivative and other transactions and quantify other exposures. Citigroup expects to file claims in the relevant Lehman bankruptcy proceedings, as appropriate. Citigroup's net exposure, after application of available collateral and offsets, is expected to be modest.
The following tables present net income (loss) and revenues for Citigroup's businesses on a segment view and on a regional view:
Citigroup Net Income (Loss)Segment View
Citigroup Net Income (Loss)Regional View
NM Not meaningful
Citigroup RevenuesRegional View
NM Not meaningful
3Q08 vs. 3Q07
Global Cards revenue decreased 40%. Net Interest Revenue was 6% higher than the prior year primarily driven by growth in average loans of 9%. Non-Interest Revenue decreased 75% primarily due to lower securitization results in North America and the absence of a prior-year $729 million pretax gain on sale of Redecard shares.
In North America, a 60% revenue decline was mainly due to lower securitization revenue which was driven primarily by a write-down of $1.4 billion in the residual interest in securitized balances. The residual interest was primarily affected by deterioration in the projected credit loss assumption used to value the asset.
Outside of North America, revenue decreased by 15% primarily due to the absence of a prior-year gain on sale of Redecard shares. Excluding this item, revenue increased 14% with 5% growth in EMEA, 14% in Latin America and 24% in Asia. These increases were driven by growth in purchase sales and average loans in all regions. Revenues also increased driven by foreign currency translation gains related to the strengthening of local currencies (generally referred to hereinafter as "fx translation") and the Bank of Overseas Chinese acquisition.
Operating expenses decreased 1%, primarily due to lower compensation and marketing expenses, partially offset by business volumes, higher credit management costs and repositioning charges, fx translation and acquisitions.
Provision for credit losses and for benefits and claims increased $1.1 billion, reflecting increases of $543 million in net credit losses and $566 million in loan loss reserve builds. In North America, credit costs increased $620 million, driven by higher net credit losses, up $311 million or 68%, and a higher loan loss reserve build, up $309 million. The net charge to increase loan loss reserves included $243 million related to assets that were brought back on to the balance sheet due to rate and liquidity disruptions in the securitization market. Higher credit costs reflected a weakening of leading credit indicators, trends in the macroeconomic environment, including the housing market downturn, higher fuel costs, rising unemployment trends, and higher bankruptcy filings, as the continued acceleration in the rate at which delinquent customers advanced to write-off, a net charge to increase loan loss reserves related to an increase in reported receivables as maturing securitizations resulted in on-balance sheet funding, and also reflected higher business volumes. The net credit loss ratio increased by 293 basis points to 7.30%.
Outside of North America, credit costs increased by $79 million, $303 million, and $107 million in EMEA, Latin
America, and Asia, respectively. These increases were driven by higher net credit losses, which were up $5 million, $185 million, and $42 million in EMEA, Latin America, and Asia, respectively. Higher net credit losses were driven by Mexico, Brazil, and India. Also contributing to the increase were higher loan loss reserve builds, which were up $74 million, $118 million, and $65 million in EMEA, Latin America, and Asia, respectively, as well as higher business volumes.
2008 YTD vs. 2007 YTD
Global Cards revenue decreased 7%. Net Interest Revenue was 12% higher than the prior year primarily driven by growth in average loans of 16% and purchase sales of 6%. Non-Interest Revenue decreased by 23% primarily due to lower securitization results in North America. Results were also impacted by the following pre-tax gains: sale of Mastercard shares in the first, second and third quarters of 2007 totaling $322 million, sales of Redecard shares $729 million in the third quarter of 2007 and $663 million in the first quarter of 2008, IPO and subsequent sales of Visa shares in the first and third quarter of 2008 totaling $523 million, Upromise Cards portfolio sale in the second quarter of 2008 of $170 million and DCI sale of $111 million in the second quarter of 2008.
In North America, a 25% revenue decline was driven by lower securitization revenues, which reflected the impact of higher funding costs and higher credit losses in the securitization trusts, the absence of a $257 million prior year gain on sale of Mastercard shares, partially offset by a current period gain from sale of Visa shares, the Upromise Cards portfolio sale, and the DCI sale resulting in pre-tax gains of $349 million, $170 million and $29 million, respectively. Average loans were up 2% while purchase sales remained flat.
Outside of North America, revenues increased by 29%, 16%, and 26% in EMEA, Latin America, and Asia, respectively. These increases were driven by double-digit growth in purchase sales and average loans in all regions. The pretax gain on sale of DCI in the second quarter of 2008 impacted EMEA, Latin America, and Asia by $34 million, $17 million, and $31 million, respectively. The pretax gain on sale of Visa shares in the first and third quarters of 2008 impacted Latin America and Asia by $37 million and $138 million, respectively. Current-year revenues were unfavorably impacted by a $66 million pretax lower gain on sales of Redecard shares in Latin America and the absence of the prior-year pretax gain on sale of MasterCard shares of $7 million, $37 million and $21 million for EMEA, Latin America and Asia, respectively. Results include the impact of fx translation, as well as the acquisitions of Egg, Grupo Financiero Uno, Grupo Cuscatlán, and Bank of Overseas Chinese.
Operating expenses increased 5%, primarily due to business volumes, higher credit management costs, the impact of acquisitions, repositioning charges and the impact of fx translation. These increases were partially offset by a $159 million Visa Litigation reserve release and $36 million legal vehicle restructuring in Mexico, both in the first quarter of 2008.
Provision for credit losses and for benefits and claims increased $2.9 billion reflecting an increase of $1.5 billion in net credit losses and $1.4 billion in loan loss reserve builds. In North America, credit costs increased $1.4 billion, driven by higher net credit losses, up $674 million or 48%, and a higher loan loss reserve build, up $764 million. Higher credit costs reflected a weakening of leading credit indicators, trends in the macro-economic environment, including the housing market downturn, higher fuel costs, rising unemployment trends, higher bankruptcy filings, the continued acceleration in the rate at which delinquent customers advanced to write-off a net charge to increase loan loss reserves related to an increase in reported receivables as maturing securitizations resulted in on-balance sheet funding, and also reflected higher business volumes.
Outside of North America, credit costs increased by $277 million, $894 million, and $237 million in EMEA, Latin America, and Asia, respectively. These increases were driven by higher net credit losses, which were up $170 million, $542 million, and $105 million in EMEA, Latin America, and Asia, respectively. Higher net credit losses were driven by Mexico, Brazil, and India, as well as the impact of acquisitions. Also contributing to the increase were higher loan loss reserve builds, which were up $107 million, $352 million, and $132 million in EMEA, Latin America, and Asia, respectively, and higher business volumes.