Citigroup 10-Q 2009
Documents found in this filing:
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Commission file number 1-9924
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ý No o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files). Yes o No o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer" and "smaller reporting company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.:
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes o No ý
Indicate the number of shares outstanding of each of the issuer's classes of common stock as of the latest practicable date:
Common stock outstanding as of March 31, 2009: 5,512,800,000
Available on the Web at www.citigroup.com
FIRST QUARTER OF 2009FORM 10-Q
Table of Contents
Citigroup Inc. (Citigroup and, together with its subsidiaries, the Company, Citi or Citigroup) is a global diversified financial services holding company whose businesses provide a broad range of financial services to consumer and corporate customers. Citigroup has more than 200 million customer accounts and does business in more than 100 countries. Citigroup was incorporated in 1988 under the laws of the State of Delaware.
The Company is a bank holding company within the meaning of the U.S. Bank Holding Company Act of 1956 registered with, and subject to examination by, the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (FRB). Some of the Company's subsidiaries are subject to supervision and examination by their respective federal and state authorities.
This quarterly report on Form 10-Q should be read in conjunction with Citigroup's 2008 Annual Report on Form 10-K. Additional financial, statistical, and business-related information, as well as business and segment trends, are included in a Financial Supplement that was filed as Exhibit 99.2 to the Company's Current Report on Form 8-K, filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) on Apri1 17, 2009. On January 16, 2009, Citigroup announced a realignment of its businesses to be effective, for financial reporting purposes, in the second quarter of 2009. Accordingly, Citi's businesses in this Form 10-Q are presented under the same structure that was reported at December 31, 2008.
The principal executive offices of the Company are located at 399 Park Avenue, New York, New York 10043, telephone number 212 559 1000. Additional information about Citigroup is available on the Company's Web site at www.citigroup.com. Citigroup's recent annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, as well as the Company's other filings with the SEC are available free of charge through the Company's Web site by clicking on the "Investors" page and selecting "All SEC Filings." The SEC Web site contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding the Company at www.sec.gov.
At March 31, 2009, Citigroup was managed along the following segment and product lines:
The following are the four regions in which Citigroup operates. The regional results are fully reflected in the segment results.
CITIGROUP INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
NM Not meaningful
Certain reclassifications have been made to the prior periods' financial statements to conform to the current period's presentation.
Certain statements in this Form 10-Q, including, but not limited to, statements made in "Management's Discussion and Analysis," are "forward-looking statements" within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. These statements are based on management's current expectations and are subject to uncertainty and changes in circumstances. Actual results may differ materially from those included in these statements due to a variety of factors including, but not limited to, those described in Citigroup's 2008 Annual Report on Form 10-K under "Risk Factors."
Within this Form 10-Q, please refer to the indices on pages 1 and 64 for page references to the Management's Discussion and Analysis section and Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements, respectively.
FIRST QUARTER OF 2009 MANAGEMENT SUMMARY
Citigroup reported net income of $1.593 billion for the first quarter of 2009. The results reflected Revenues of $24.8 billion, driven by strong results in ICG, partially offset by net write-downs, $7.3 billion in net credit losses and a $2.7 billion net loan loss reserve builds.
The $0.18 loss per share reflected the reset in January 2009 of the conversion price of $12.5 billion of convertible preferred stock issued in a private offering in January 2008. This did not have an impact on net income or total capital but resulted in a reduction to income available to common shareholders of $1.285 billion or $0.24 per share. Without this reduction, EPS was positive. The loss per share also reflected preferred stock dividends and the quarterly accretion of the Series H warrant discount, which did not impact net income but reduced income available to common shareholders by $1.274 billion.
Revenues of $24.8 billion increased 99% from year-ago levels, with sequential improvement across all regions. Strong trading results and lower net write-downs (partially attributable to a positive credit valuation adjustment (CVA) in respect of the Company's own debt and derivatives) in S&B drove revenues. The difficult economic environment continued to have a negative impact on all businesses.
Net interest revenue declined 1% from the 2008 first quarter, reflecting the smaller balance sheet. Net interest margin in the first quarter of 2009 was 3.30%, up 50 basis points from the first quarter of 2008, reflecting significantly lower cost of funding, partially offset by a decrease in asset yields related to the decrease in the fed funds rate. Non-interest revenue increased $12.5 billion from a year ago, primarily reflecting lower write-downs on highly leveraged finance commitments, subprime-related direct exposures and other fixed income exposures.
Operating expenses decreased 23% from the previous year, reflecting benefits from Citi's ongoing re-engineering efforts, the impact of foreign exchange translation, and a $250 million litigation reserve release. Expenses in the prior-year period included $626 million of net non-recurring charges. Expenses have continued their downward momentum, due to lower compensation costs and continued benefits from re-engineering efforts. Headcount was down 60,000 from March 31, 2008 and 14,000 from December 31, 2008.
The Company's equity capital base and trust preferred securities were $168.5 billion at March 31, 2009. Citigroup's Stockholders' equity increased by $2.3 billion during the first quarter of 2009 to $143.9 billion. The Company issued $3.6 billion in preferred stock and warrants related to the loss-sharing agreement during the first quarter and distributed $1.06 billion in dividends to its preferred shareholders. Citigroup had a Tier 1 Capital Ratio of 11.92% at March 31, 2009.
During the first quarter of 2009, the Company recorded a net build of $2.7 billion to its credit reserves. The net build consisted of $2.3 billion in Global Cards and Consumer Banking ($1.6 billion in North America Consumer and $642 million in regions outside of North America), $313 million in ICG and $94 million in GWM. The Consumer credit loss rate was 4.64%, a 212 basis-point increase from the first quarter of 2008. Corporate cash-basis loans were $10.8 billion at March 31, 2009, an increase of $8.8 billion from year-ago levels. This increase is primarily attributable to the transfer of non-accrual loans from the held-for-sale portfolio to the held-for-investment portfolio during the fourth quarter of 2008. The allowance for loan losses totaled $31.7 billion at March 31, 2009, a coverage ratio of 4.82% of total loans.
The Company's effective tax rate was 32.8% in the first quarter of 2009, which includes a tax benefit of $110 million relating to the conclusion of the audit of certain issues in the Company's 2003-2005 U.S. Federal tax audit.
At March 31, 2009, the Company had increased its structural liquidity (equity, long-term debt and deposits) as a percentage of assets from 66% at December 31, 2008 to approximately 68% at March 31, 2009. Citigroup has continued its deleveraging, reducing total assets from $1,938 billion at December 31, 2008 to $1,823 billion at March 31, 2009.
At March 31, 2009, the maturity profile of Citigroup's senior long-term unsecured borrowings had a weighted average maturity of seven years.
On February 27, 2009, the Company announced an exchange offer of its common stock for up to $27.5 billion of its existing preferred securities and trust preferred securities at a conversion price of $3.25 per share (Exchange Offer). On May 7, 2009, the Company announced that it will expand the Exchange Offer by increasing the maximum amount of preferred securities and trust preferred securities that it will accept in the Exchange Offer by $5.5 billion to a total of $33 billion. All other terms of the Exchange Offer, including that the U.S. government (USG) will match the Exchange Offer up to a maximum of $25 billion of its preferred stock at the same conversion price, remain unchanged. The increase in the Exchange Offer reflects the results of the USG's Supervisory Capital Assessment Program (SCAP) and will further increase the Company's Tier 1 Common without any additional USG investment or conversion of USG securities into common stock.
In April 2009, Citi's shareholders elected four new directors to its board. Additionally, the Company recently announced several senior management appointments, including Edward (Ned) Kelly as Chief Financial Officer, replacing Gary Crittenden, who was appointed Chairman of Citi Holdings.
During the first quarter of 2009, Citi continued to extend significant amounts of credit to U.S. consumers and continued to focus on supporting the U.S. housing market. In the first quarter of 2009, Citi successfully worked with approximately 80,000 borrowers, whose mortgages Citi owns or services, to avoid potential foreclosure through modifications, extensions, forbearances, and reinstatements of loans totaling more than $9 billion. Citi was able to keep more than 9 out of 10 distressed borrowers with Citi mortgages owned by the Company in their homes. Also, Citi's U.S. Cards business is currently providing help to 1.3 million card members to help them manage their credit card debt through a variety of forbearance programs.
EVENTS IN 2009
Certain significant events during the first quarter of 2009 had, or could have, an effect on Citigroup's current and future financial condition, results of operations, liquidity and capital resources. These events are summarized below and discussed in more detail throughout this MD&A.
EXCHANGE OFFER AND CONVERSIONS
On February 27, 2009, Citigroup announced an exchange offer of its common stock for up to a total of $27.5 billion of its existing preferred securities and trust preferred securities at a conversion price of $3.25 per share (Exchange Offer). As described above, on May 7, 2009, the Company announced that it will expand the Exchange Offer by increasing the maximum amount of preferred securities and trust preferred securities that it will accept in the Exchange Offer by $5.5 billion to a total of $33 billion. All other terms of the Exchange Offer, including that the USG will match the Exchange Offer up to a maximum of $25 billion of its preferred stock at the same conversion price, remain unchanged. All remaining preferred stock held by the USG that is not converted to common stock in the Exchange Offer will be exchanged into newly issued 8% trust preferred securities.
This transaction could increase Tier 1 Common of the Company from the first quarter of 2009 level of $22.1 billion to as much as $86.2 billion, which assumes the exchange of $33 billion of preferred securities and trust preferred securities, the maximum eligible under the transaction. Citi's tangible common equity (TCE), which was $30.9 billion as of March 31, 2009, will increase by as much as $60.4 billion to up to $91.3 billion.
Based on the maximum participation in the Exchange Offer, the USG would own approximately 34% of Citi's outstanding common stock and existing common stockholders would own approximately 24% of the outstanding common stock.
Citi intends to continue to pay full dividends on the preferred stock up to and including the closing of the public exchange offers, at which point the dividends will be suspended. Citi does not intend to pay common stock dividends during this period. The Company has no plans to suspend distributions at current rates on its trust preferred securities.
The accounting for the Exchange Offer will result in the de-recognition of preferred stock and the recognition of the common stock issued at fair value, in the Common stock and Additional paid-in capital accounts in equity. The difference between the carrying amount of preferred stock and the fair value of the common stock will be recorded in Retained earnings (impacting net income available to common shareholders and EPS) or Additional paid-in capital accounts in equity, depending on whether the preferred stock was originally non-convertible or convertible.
For USG preferred stock that is converted to 8% trust preferred securities, the newly issued trust preferred securities will be initially recorded at fair value as Long-term debt. The difference between the carrying amount of the preferred stock and the fair value of the trust preferred securities will be recorded in Retained earnings after adjusting for appropriate deferred tax liability (impacting net income available to common shareholders and EPS).
On January 23, 2009, pursuant to Citigroup's prior agreement with the purchasers of the $12.5 billion of convertible preferred stock issued in a private offering in January 2008, the conversion price was reset from $31.62 per share to $26.35 per share. The reset will result in Citigroup's issuing up to approximately 79 million additional common shares when the preferred stock is converted. There was no impact to Net income, total Citigroup stockholders' equity or capital ratios due to the reset. However, the reset resulted in a reclassification from Retained earnings to Additional paid-in capital of $1.285 billion reflecting the benefit of the reset to the preferred stockholders. The reclassification of $1.285 billion represents (i) the reset conversion rate ($12.5 billion divided by the reset price of $26.35) multiplied by (ii) the difference between Citi's stock price on the commitment date ($29.06) and the reset price ($26.35). This reclassification resulted in a corresponding reduction of income available to common shareholders during the first quarter of 2009, reducing basic and diluted EPS by approximately 24 cents.
THE SUPERVISORY CAPITAL ASSESSMENT PROGRAM (SCAP)
On May 7, 2009, the USG released the results of its Supervisory Capital Assessment Program (SCAP). The SCAP constituted a comprehensive capital assessment of the 19 largest U.S. financial institutions, including Citi.
Based on the results of the USG's assessment under the SCAP, Citi will be required to increase its Tier 1 Common by an additional $5.5 billion, which the Company intends to accomplish by expanding its previously-announced Exchange Offer (as described above) from $27.5 billion to $33 billion, an action that will require no additional USG investment or conversion of USG preferred securities into Citi common stock.
Pursuant to the SCAP, any financial institution that is required to augment its capital as a result of the SCAP must develop a capital plan, to be approved by the Federal Reserve Board in consultation with the FDIC, and will have six months to implement this plan. Capital plans must be submitted and approved by June 8, 2009 and the required capital increase must be established by November 9, 2009. Like other financial institutions, Citi's capital plan must consist of three main elements:
In addition, as required by the SCAP, Citi, like other financial institutions required to augment their capital, will review its existing management and Board of Directors in
order to assure that the leadership of the Company has sufficient expertise and ability to manage the risks presented by the current economic environment and maintain capacity on its balance sheet sufficient to continue prudent lending to meet the credit needs of the economy. This review must be completed by June 8, 2009.
On January 16, 2009, Citigroup issued preferred shares to the U.S. Treasury (UST) and the FDIC, and a warrant to the UST, in exchange for $301 billion of loss protection on a specified pool of Citigroup assets. Under the agreement, the Company will absorb the first $39.5 billion of losses plus 10% of the remaining losses incurred.
The fair value of the preferred shares of $3.529 billion was recorded as Preferred stock; the fair value of the warrant of $88 million was recorded as a credit to Additional paid-in capital at the time of issuance; and an asset related to the loss-sharing agreement of $3.617 billion was recorded in Other assets. See "TARP and Other Regulatory ProgramsU.S. Government Loss-Sharing Agreement." The loss-sharing agreement is accounted for as an indemnification agreement and amortized on a straight line basis over five years for non-residential assets and 10 years for residential assets. Amortization expense of $171 million was recorded in the first quarter of 2009.
The USG has a 120-day confirmation period to finalize the composition of the asset pool from the date that Citi submitted its revised asset pool. The revised asset pool was submitted by Citigroup on April 15, 2009 and, therefore, is expected to be finalized by the USG by August 13, 2009. The advisor to the USG has commenced its review of the assets. In addition, as a result of receipt of principal repayments and charge-offs, the total asset pool has declined by approximately $17 billion from the original $301 billion. Approximately $2.0 billion of losses on the asset pool were recorded in the first quarter of 2009, bringing the agreement-to-date losses to approximately $2.9 billion. See "TARP and Other Regulatory ProgramsU.S. Government Loss-Sharing Agreement."
ITEMS IMPACTING THE SECURITIES AND BANKING BUSINESS
Securities and Banking Significant Revenue Items and Risk Exposure
Subprime-Related Direct Exposures
During the first quarter of 2009, S&B recorded write-downs of $2.296 billion pretax, net of hedges, on its subprime-related direct exposures. The Company's remaining $10.2 billion in U.S. subprime net direct exposure in S&B at March 31, 2009 consisted of (i) approximately $8.5 billion of net exposures to the super senior tranches of CDOs, which are collateralized by asset-backed securities, derivatives on asset-backed securities or both, and (ii) approximately $1.7 billion of subprime-related exposures in its lending and structuring business. See "Exposure to U.S. Residential Real Estate in Securities and Banking" for a further discussion of such exposures and the associated losses recorded.
Private Equity and Equity Investments
In the first quarter of 2009, Citi recognized pretax losses of $1.240 billion on private equity and equity investments, reflecting weakness in the developed global equities markets during the first quarter of 2009. The Company had $8.5 billion in private equity and equity investments securities at March 31, 2009, which decreased $2.8 billion from December 31, 2008.
Monoline Insurers Credit Valuation Adjustment (CVA)
During the first quarter of 2009, Citigroup recorded a pretax loss on CVA of $1.090 billion on its exposure to monoline insurers. CVA is calculated by applying forward default probabilities, which are derived using the counterparty's current credit spread, to the expected exposure profile. The majority of the exposure relates to hedges on super senior subprime exposures that were executed with various monoline insurance companies. See "Direct Exposure to Monolines" for a further discussion.
Alt-A Mortgage Securities
In the first quarter of 2009, Citigroup recorded pretax losses of approximately $490 million, net of hedges, on Alt-A mortgage securities held in S&B. For these purposes, Alt-A mortgage securities are non-agency residential mortgage-backed securities (RMBS) where (i) the underlying collateral has weighted average FICO scores between 680 and 720 or (ii) for instances where FICO scores are greater than 720, RMBS have 30% or less of the underlying collateral composed of full documentation loans.
The Company had $12.5 billion in Alt-A mortgage securities at March 31, 2009, which decreased $136 million from December 31, 2008. Of the $12.5 billion, $1.5 billion was classified as Trading account assets, on which $79 million of fair value losses, net of hedging, was recorded in earnings, $0.4 billion was classified as available-for-sale (AFS) investments, and $10.6 billion was classified as held-to-maturity (HTM) investments, on which $411 million of losses was recorded in earnings due to credit impairments.
Highly Leveraged Loans and Financing Commitments
The Company recorded pretax losses of $247 million on funded and unfunded highly leveraged finance exposures in the first quarter of 2009. Citigroup's exposure to highly leveraged financings totaled $9.5 billion at March 31, 2009 ($9.0 billion in funded and $0.5 billion in unfunded commitments), reflecting a decrease of $0.5 billion from December 31, 2008. See "Highly Leveraged Financing Transactions" for a further discussion.
Commercial Real Estate (CRE)
S&B's commercial real estate exposure is split into three categories: assets held at fair value; held to maturity/held for investment; and equity. During the first quarter of 2009, pretax losses of $186 million, net of hedges, were booked on exposures recorded at fair value. S&B had $36.1 billion in CRE positions at March 31, 2009, which decreased $1.4 billion from December 31, 2008. See "Exposure to Commercial Real Estate" for a further discussion.
Credit Valuation Adjustment on Citi's Debt Liabilities for Which Citi Has Elected the Fair Value Option
Under SFAS 157, the Company is required to use its own-credit spreads in determining the current value for its derivative liabilities and all other liabilities for which it has elected the fair value option. When Citi's credit spreads widen (deteriorate), Citi recognizes a gain on these liabilities because the value of the liabilities has decreased. When Citi's credit spreads narrow (improve), Citi recognizes a loss on these liabilities because the value of the liabilities has increased.
During the first quarter of 2009, the Company recorded a gain of approximately $180 million on its fair value option liabilities (excluding derivative liabilities) due to the widening of the Company's credit spreads.
Credit Valuation Adjustment on Derivative Positions, excluding Monoline insurers
During the first quarter of 2009, Citigroup recorded a net gain of approximately $2.7 billion on its derivative positions primarily due to the widening of the Company's credit default swap spread. See "Citigroup Derivatives" for a further discussion.
Non-Credit Accretion on Reclassified Assets
In the fourth quarter of 2008, the Company reclassified $33.3 billion of debt securities from trading securities to HTM investments, $4.7 billion of debt securities from trading securities to AFS, and $15.7 billion of loans from held-for-sale to held-for-investment. All assets were reclassified with an amortized cost equal to the fair value on the date of reclassification. The difference between the amortized cost basis and the expected principal cash flows is treated as a purchase discount and accreted into income over the remaining life of the security or loan. In the first quarter of 2009, the Company recognized approximately $541 million of interest revenue based on this accretion.
Joint Venture with Morgan Stanley
On January 13, 2009, Citi and Morgan Stanley (MS) announced a joint venture (JV) that will combine the Global Wealth Management platform of MS with the Smith Barney, Quilter and Australia private client networks. Citi will sell 100% of these businesses to Morgan Stanley in exchange for a 49% stake in the JV and an estimated $2.7 billion of cash at closing. At the time of the announcement, the estimated pretax gain was $9.5 billion ($5.8 billion after-tax), based on valuations performed at that time. Since the actual gain that will be recorded is dependent upon the value of the JV on the date the transaction closes, it may differ from the estimated amount. The transaction is anticipated to close no later than third quarter of 2009. It is anticipated that Citi will continue to support the clearing and settling of the JV activities for a period of between two to three years.
Sale of Citigroup Technology Services Ltd.
On December 23, 2008, Citigroup announced an agreement with Wipro Limited to sell all of Citigroup's interest in Citi Technology Services Ltd., Citigroup's India-based captive provider of technology infrastructure support and application development, for all cash consideration of approximately $127 million. The transaction closed on January 20, 2009 and resulted in an after-tax loss of $6 million after reflecting an allocation of a portion of the proceeds to the Master Services Agreement.
Sale of Citi's Nikko Citi Trust and Banking Corporation
On December 16, 2008, Citigroup executed a definitive agreement to sell all of the shares of Nikko Citi Trust and Banking Corporation to Mitsubishi UFJ Trust and Banking Corporation (MUTB). At the closing, MUTB is to pay all cash consideration of ¥25 billion, subject to certain purchase price adjustments. The closing is subject to regulatory approvals and other closing conditions. Citi's announcement on May 1, 2009 of the Nikko Cordial Securities transaction (as described under "Subsequent Event" below) and certain other developments affect the rights of the parties under the agreement with MUTB. As was announced on March 26, 2009, the parties have agreed to extend the closing of the transaction and a new closing date will be announced when determined.
The Company's effective tax rate was 32.8% in the first quarter of 2009, versus 42.9% in the prior-year period, which includes a tax benefit of $110 million relating to the conclusion of the audit of certain issues in the Company's 2003-2005 U.S. federal tax audit.
The Company expects to conclude the audit of its U.S. federal consolidated income tax returns for the years 2003-2005 within the next 12 months. The gross uncertain tax position at March 31, 2009 for the items expected to be resolved is approximately $245 million plus gross interest of about $50 million. The potential net tax benefit to continuing operations could be approximately $225 million. This is in addition to the $110 million benefit booked in the first quarter of 2009 for issues already concluded, discussed above.
The Company's net deferred tax asset of $44.5 billion at December 31, 2008 decreased by approximately $1 billion at March 31, 2009, principally due to $1 billion in compensation deductions under SFAS 123(R) which reduced additional paid-in capital in the first quarter of 2009. Although realization is not assured, the Company believes that the realization of the recognized net deferred tax asset at March 31, 2009 is more likely than not based upon expectations as to future taxable income in the jurisdictions in which it operates and available tax planning strategies.
Sale of Redecard Shares
In the first quarter of 2009, Citigroup sold its entire 17% equity interest in Redecard through a private and public offering. The sale resulted in an after-tax gain of $704 million ($1.116 billion pretax) and was recorded in the Global Cards business in Latin America.
Sale of Nikko Cordial
On May 1, 2009, Citigroup reached a definitive agreement to sell its Japanese domestic securities business, conducted principally through Nikko Cordial Securities Inc., to Sumitomo Mitsui Banking Corporation in a transaction with a total cash value to Citi of approximately $7.9 billion (¥774.5 billion). Citi's ownership interests in Nikko Citigroup Limited, Nikko Asset Management Co., Ltd., and Nikko Principal Investments Japan Ltd. are not included in the transaction. The transaction is expected to generate approximately $2.5 billion of tangible common equity (TCE) for Citi at closing, with Citi expected to recognize an after-tax loss of approximately $0.2 billion. On a pro forma basis, Citi's March 31, 2009 Tier 1 Capital Ratio would have increased by approximately 27 basis points. The transaction is expected to close by the end of the fourth quarter of 2009, subject to regulatory approvals and customary closing conditions.
The following tables show the net income (loss) and revenues for Citigroup's businesses on a segment and product view as well as a regional view:
Citigroup Net Income (Loss)Segment View
NM Not meaningful
Citigroup Net Income (Loss)Regional View
NM Not meaningful
Citigroup RevenuesSegment View
NM Not meaningful
Citigroup RevenuesRegional View
NM Not meaningful
NM Not meaningful
1Q09 vs. 1Q08
Global Cards revenue decreased 10% primarily due to higher credit losses flowing through the securitization trusts in North America. Net Interest Revenue was 1% lower than the prior year driven by lower average loans of 11%. The decline in average loans was primarily due to a 19% decline in purchase sales. Non-Interest Revenue decreased 16% primarily due to lower securitization results in North America, reflecting higher credit costs flowing through the securitization trusts. A $1.1 billion pretax gain on the sale of the Company's remaining stake in Redecard was partially offset by a prior-year pretax gain on sale of Redecard of $663 million and a pretax gain on sale of Visa shares of $439 million.
In North America, a 17% revenue decline was mainly driven by lower securitization revenues, which reflected the impact of higher credit losses in the securitization trusts and the absence of a $349 million pretax gain on the sale of Visa shares. Purchase sales were 18% lower than the prior year reflecting a continued decline in discretionary and non-discretionary consumer spending.
Outside of North America, revenues decreased by 16% and 19% in EMEA and Asia, respectively, and increased by 10% in Latin America. The decreases in EMEA and Asia were driven by changes in foreign currency translation (generally referred to throughout this report as "FX translation") related to strengthening of the U.S. dollar, and declines in purchase sales in EMEA and Latin America. While Latin America purchase sales also declined, the pretax gain on sale of Redecard affected Latin America in the current period by $1.1 billion, and by $663 million in the prior-year period. The prior-year period also included pretax gains related to Visa shares of $10 million in Latin America and $81 million in Asia.
Operating expenses decreased 15% primarily due to lower marketing costs, lower business volumes, restructuring efforts and prior-year repositioning charges, which were partially offset by higher credit management costs, the absence of a prior-year pretax Visa-related litigation reserve release of $159 million and a legal vehicle restructuring. Expenses decreased by 11% in North America, 27% in EMEA, 18% in Latin America, and 21% in Asia. Outside of North America, FX translation also contributed to the decrease in expenses.
Provisions for credit losses and for benefits and claims increased $1.202 billion, reflecting increases of $695 million in net credit losses and $485 million in higher loan loss reserve builds. In North America, credit costs increased $840 million, driven by higher net credit losses, up $498 million or
81%, and a higher loan loss reserve build, up $342 million. Higher credit costs reflected a weakening of leading credit indicators, trends in the macro-economic environment, including the housing market downturn, rising unemployment trends and higher bankruptcy filings, and the continued acceleration in the rate at which delinquent customers advanced to write-off. The net credit loss ratio increased by 503 basis points to 10.42%.
Outside of North America, credit costs increased by $261 million and $110 million in EMEA and Asia, respectively, and decreased by $31 million in Latin America. Net credit losses were up $94 million, $61 million and $42 million in EMEA, Latin America and Asia, respectively. Also contributing to the increase were higher loan loss reserve builds, which were up $143 million.
On December 18, 2008, the federal banking regulators adopted final rules under the Federal Truth-in-Lending Act and the Federal Trade Commission Act which represent a substantial overhaul of credit card disclosure rules and lender practices. These rules take effect July 1, 2010 and could have an adverse impact on the Global Cards business. Subsequent to March 31, 2009, the U.S. House of Representatives and the Senate have proposed additional legislation regarding credit card disclosures and practices. These bills, if passed, may further impact the U.S. credit card business.
NM Not meaningful
1Q09 vs. 1Q08
Consumer Banking revenue declined 18% driven by a 42% decline in investment sales, lower volumes and spread compression. A general slowdown in the global capital markets drove the decline in investment sales. Net interest revenue was 14% lower than the prior year with average loans and deposits both down 10%, and net interest margin decreasing as well. Non-interest revenue declined 27%, primarily due to the decline in investment sales. The impact of FX translation also contributed to the overall decline in revenue.
In North America, revenues declined 12% primarily due to lower volumes and spread compression. Net Interest Revenue was 7% lower than the prior-year period, primarily driven by lower loan volumes and spread compression due largely to higher non-accrual loans and lower interest rates on loan modifications. Average loans were down 8% while deposits increased by 4% compared with the prior-year period. The decrease in loan volume was mainly due to a reduction in residential real estate loans. Non-Interest Revenue declined 24%, mainly driven by higher run-off of the servicing portfolio due to mortgage refinancing, a 47% decline in investment sales, and the absence of gains on the sale of assets in the prior-year period. Revenues in EMEA declined 28% as investment sales and assets under management declined 64% and 49%, respectively, mainly due to adverse market conditions. Average loans were down 21% due to tighter underwriting criteria, the exiting from certain markets, and the impact of FX translation. Average deposits were down 35%, reflecting a decline in balances in the UK as customers aligned deposits with government insurance programs and the impact of FX translation. Revenue in Latin America declined 22% and average loans and deposits were down 7% and 19%, respectively, due to the impact of FX translation. In Asia, revenues declined 28% driven by a significant decline in investment revenues, reflecting a continued decline in equity markets across the region. Average loans and deposits declined 19% and 15%, respectively, mainly due to the impact of FX translation.
Operating expenses declined 18%, reflecting the benefits from re-engineering efforts and the impact of FX translation. The prior-year period also included a $221 million expense benefit related to a legal vehicle restructuring in Mexico.
In North America, Expenses were 14% lower than the prior-year period, with benefits from re-engineering efforts and the absence of a $126 million repositioning charge in the prior-year period being partially offset by higher collection and credit-related expenses. In EMEA, expenses were 40% lower than the prior-year period due to benefits of re-engineering efforts, the impact of FX translation and the absence of a $71 million repositioning charge in the prior-year period. In Latin America, expenses were 5% higher due to the absence of a $221 million expense benefit related to a legal vehicle restructuring, partially offset by the benefits of reengineering efforts and the impact of FX translation. In Asia, expenses were 26% lower than the prior-year period due to the benefits of re-engineering efforts including Consumer Finance Japan (CFJ).
Provisions for credit losses and for benefits and claims increased $1.6 billion or 43% mainly due to higher net credit losses in North America residential real estate. The $1.2 billion net loan loss reserve build in the first quarter reflected the continued weakening of leading credit indicators, including a continued rise in delinquencies.
Credit costs in North America increased 51%, due to higher net credit losses, up 88% or $1.4 billion, and a $989 million net loan loss reserve build, driven primarily by residential real estate. The loan loss reserve build was $44 million lower than the prior-year period. Credit costs reflected a continued weakening of leading credit indicators, including a continued rise in delinquencies in first and second mortgages, personal, and commercial loans. Credit costs also reflected trends in the macro-economic environment, including the housing market downturn. The net credit loss ratio increased 213 basis points to 4.15%.
In EMEA, credit costs nearly doubled as a result of higher net credit losses and an incremental net loan loss reserve build of $100 million. Higher credit costs reflected continued credit deterioration, particularly in Spain, Greece and the UK. The net credit loss ratio increased 256 basis points to 5.11%. In Latin America, credit costs increased 15% due to a $20 million incremental net loan loss reserve build. The net credit loss ratio increased 32 basis points to 4.10%. In Asia, credit costs were down slightly as higher net credit losses, mainly in India, were offset by a net loan loss reserve release in CFJ.
NM Not meaningful
1Q09 vs. 1Q08
Revenues, net of interest expense, were $7.2 billion in S&B mainly due to $4.7 billion of fixed income markets revenues reflecting strong trading results. Included in fixed income markets revenues is a $2.5 billion positive credit value adjustment (CVA) on derivative positions, excluding monolines and Citi debt liabilities, offset partially by $2.3 billion of net write-downs on subprime-related direct exposures, $1.2 billion in private equity and equity investment losses and $1.1 billion downward CVA related to exposure to monoline insurers and other revenue write-downs and losses detailed under "Items Impacting the Securities and Banking Business." Also included in S&B is $1.9 billion in equity markets revenues, primarily driven by derivatives, convertibles and equity trading, and $1.2 billion of net investment banking revenues mainly from debt underwriting. Revenue growth was offset partially by lending revenues of negative $364 million driven by losses on credit default swap hedges and $247 million of net write-downs and impairments on highly leveraged finance commitments. Transaction Services revenues declined 1% to $2.3 billion and average deposits and other customer liability balances declined 2%. Growth in both revenues and deposits, driven by double-digit revenue growth in North America and strong growth in EMEA, was more than offset by the impact of FX translation. Assets under custody declined 20% largely due to declining equity markets.
Operating expenses decreased 39% in S&B and included a $250 million litigation reserve release. The prior-year period included a $202 million write-down of the Old Lane intangible asset and $305 million of repositioning charges. Excluding these items from both periods, expenses declined 25%, driven by lower compensation due to headcount reductions and benefits from re-engineering and expense management. Transaction Services expenses declined 15%, driven by headcount reductions and re-engineering benefits, as well as the impact of FX translation.
The provision for credit losses in S&B increased significantly to $1.8 billion. Net credit losses were up $1.4 billion mainly due to the write-off of LyondellBasell. The $306 million net loan loss reserve build was driven by a $1.2 billion build for specific counterparties and a $506 million build to reflect a general weakening in the corporate credit environment, largely offset by a $1.4 billion release for specific counterparties, mainly LyondellBasell.