DTS 10-K 2006
Documents found in this filing:
Washington, D.C. 20549
x ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2005
o TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from to
Commission File Number 000-50335
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)
5171 Clareton Drive
Registrants telephone number, including area code: (818) 706-3525
Securities Registered Pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
Common Stock, par value $.0001 per share
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined by Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes o No x
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes o No x
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes x No o
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrants knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K. o
Indicate by check mark whether registrant is a large accelerated filer, accelerated filer or non-accelerated filer. See definition of accelerated filer and large accelerated filer in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer o Accelerated filer x Non-accelerated filer o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes o No x
The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates of the registrant, as of June 30, 2005 was approximately $309,052,418 (based upon the closing price for shares of the registrants Common Stock as reported by the Nasdaq National Market for that date). Shares of Common Stock held by each officer and director of the outstanding Common Stock have been excluded in that such persons may be deemed affiliates. Exclusion of shares held by any person should not be construed to indicate that such person possesses the power, direct or indirect, to direct or cause the direction of management or policies of the registrant, or that such person is controlled by or under common control with the registrant.
As of March 1, 2006, 17,508,108 shares of common stock were outstanding.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
The information required by Part III of this Report, to the extent not set forth herein, is incorporated herein by reference to the registrants proxy statement relating to the annual meeting of stockholders to be held on May 18, 2006.
Restatement of 2003 Financial Statements
In connection with the preparation of the financial statements for fiscal year 2005, an error was identified in the method used to compute the weighting of common stock options and warrants included in the diluted shares outstanding calculation for the nine months ended September 30, 2003 and the year ended December 31, 2003. This resulted in improperly reporting the weighted average shares used to compute net income attributable to common stockholders per diluted common share and net income attributable to common stockholders per diluted common share.
As a result, the Company has restated its previously issued consolidated financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2003. The consolidated financial statements contained herein for the year ended December 31, 2003 include the effects of this restatement.
The following table sets forth the effects of the restatement adjustments:
The incorrect calculation of diluted weighted average shares outstanding did not affect net income for 2003 or any other period; nor did it affect earnings per share reported for any other period in 2003 or 2004 or 2005.
We have not amended our annual report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2003, or our quarterly report on Form 10-Q for the third quarter of 2003, which were the only periods impacted by the restatement. The information that has been previously filed or otherwise reported for these periods is superseded by the information in this annual report.
This Annual Report on Form 10-K and the documents incorporated herein by reference contain forward-looking statements based on our current expectations, estimates and projections about our industry, beliefs, and certain assumptions made by us. Words such as believes, anticipates, estimates, expects, projections, may, potential, plan, continue and words of similar import, constitute forward-looking statements. The forward-looking statements contained in this report involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause our actual results to be materially different from those expressed or implied by these statements. These factors include those listed under the Risk Factors section contained in Item 7 and elsewhere in this Form 10-K, and the other documents we file with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, including our most recent reports on Form 8-K and Form 10-Q. We cannot guarantee future results, levels of activity, performance or achievements. We do not undertake any obligation to revise these forward-looking statements to reflect future events or circumstances.
We are a leading provider of entertainment technology, products and services to the audio and image entertainment markets worldwide. Multi-channel audio, commonly referred to as surround sound, allows listeners to hear discrete sounds simultaneously through more than two speakers. Our DTS digital multi-channel audio technology delivers compelling surround sound.
We were founded in 1990 and received a key strategic investment in 1993 from investors, including Universal City Studios, Inc. The first DTS audio soundtrack was created for the release of Steven Spielbergs Jurassic Park in 1993. From this initial release, we established a technical and marketing platform for the development of entertainment technology solutions for the motion picture, home theater, and other consumer markets.
We provide products and services to film studios, production companies, and movie theaters to produce, release, distribute, and play back digital multi-channel film soundtracks, pre-show entertainment content, subtitles, captions and descriptive narration. We currently license our sound technology to all major film distributors in the United States. Most major feature films currently released in the United States include a DTS soundtrack. Our playback systems for DTS- formatted soundtracks have been installed in over 27,000 movie screens worldwide. We also provide products and services relating to cinema networking and content delivery as well as digital cinema encoding services.
In 1996, we launched our consumer business, in which we license our technology to consumer electronics products manufacturers for inclusion in products such as audio/video receivers, DVD players, personal computers, car audio products and home theater systems. The consumer products market has since grown to become the largest segment of our business. To date, we have entered into licensing agreements with most of the major consumer audio electronics manufacturers in the world. We also license our technology to many major semiconductor manufacturers. Our technology, trademarks, and know-how have been incorporated in hundreds of millions of consumer electronics products worldwide.
In January 2005, we expanded our business with the acquisition of Lowry Digital Images, Inc. and changed its name to DTS Digital Images. Through this subsidiary, we provide high-quality digital image processing, enhancement and restoration services for motion pictures, digital cinema, and television content. These services enable current or archived content to be restored, repaired or enhanced for high quality presentation in high definition optical media, broadcast or digital cinema applications.
We develop, market, license and sell our proprietary technology, products and services for the following markets:
· Home theater and consumer electronics entertainment devices such as audio/video receivers, DVD players, car audio products, and personal computers.
· Emerging markets for digital multi-channel audio such as digital home networks, video games and consoles, portable electronics devices, and digital satellite and cable broadcast products.
· Professional audio products and services for encoding and decoding digital multi-channel content in our proprietary format.
· Music titles in our digital multi-channel format.
· Audio and video technology, products and services that enable the production and distribution of soundtracks, subtitles, and pre-show or alternative content in our proprietary format.
· Systems for playback and distribution of multi-channel audio soundtracks, pre-show, and alternative video content, subtitling, captioning, and descriptive narration for movie theaters and special venues.
· Services supporting the operation, ingest, delivery and playback of digital content over digital content networks.
· Professional audio and video products and services for production of content for digital cinema that complies with the technical specifications issued by the Digital Cinema Initiative, LLC, or DCI.
Digital Imaging Markets:
· Digital image restoration and enhancement services for film and television content to enable high quality presentation in digital cinema, high definition optical media or broadcast applications.
· Digital intermediate services for the motion picture industry.
· Digital image services to repair and salvage damaged film and television content.
Regardless of the customer or entertainment application that incorporates our technology or services, we facilitate the branded delivery and playback of high-quality digital content. As the transition from analog to digital entertainment technology continues, we believe we are well-positioned to grow our licensing, product, and service businesses worldwide. Our goal is to become essential to the ultimate entertainment experience by enabling the creation of compelling, high-quality content and by incorporating our technology into every device that manages, controls or delivers high-quality digital entertainment.
Over the past 15 years, two trends have greatly impacted the entertainment industry: the transition from analog to digital entertainment content, and technological advancements in digital coding, transmission, signal processing, optical storage, and playback. These trends helped create a technical foundation for the widespread adoption of digital multi-channel audio and high definition video for many forms of entertainment.
Adoption and Growth of Digital Multi-Channel Audio in the Motion Picture Industry
Movie soundtracks were originally presented in mono, or one-channel, audio. In the mid-1970s, stereo was introduced. Stereo consists of two channels and presents sound through discrete left and right
speakers. Stereo was followed by matrix technology that allowed an inexpensive two-track system to bring surround sound to a large number of movie theaters. However, the audio quality and channel separation were limited.
In the early 1990s, the listening experience of movie audiences was significantly enhanced through the introduction of digital multi-channel surround sound technology. This format, commonly known as 5.1, combined high-quality audio with full separation in five channels: left, center, right, left surround, right surround, plus a channel dedicated to low frequency effects known as a subwoofer. Digital discrete surround sound enables movie directors and producers to create a more enveloping and realistic entertainment environment. Many filmmakers recognized the ability of multi-channel audio to enhance the entertainment experience and promoted its widespread adoption.
Digital multi-channel audio is now an industry standard audio format for feature films. Today, all of the major film studios in the United States, and an increasing number of international film studios, release their feature films with digital multi-channel soundtracks. In 2005, over 165 major feature films were released in the United States with a DTS digital multi-channel soundtrack with more than 1,300 films, including foreign films and dubbed language versions of films with DTS soundtracks being released worldwide.
Screen Digest Global Media Intelligence, in its December 2005 Cinema Intelligence report estimates that in 2005 there were more than 141,000 movie theater screens worldwide, and that in 2005 there were more than 40,000 screens in North America. Screen Digest Global Media Intelligence estimates that in 2005, there were approximately 82,000 digital sound screens worldwide. As film studios have increasingly released films with digital multi-channel soundtracks, many movie theaters have purchased and installed digital multi-channel playback systems and cinema processor equipment for both newly constructed and retrofitted movie theaters. A number of other venues also utilize digital multi-channel playback systems and cinema processor equipment to enhance the entertainment experience. These venues include large-screen format theaters, amusement parks, national parks, and museums.
Proliferation of Home Theater Systems
Consumer demand for digital multi-channel capable home theater systems has been fueled by:
· the extensive adoption of digital multi-channel audio in movie theaters;
· declining prices for DVD players, audio/video receivers, and home-theater-in-a-box systems;
· the superior quality and feature sets of DVDs;
· the widespread availability of DVDs released with digital multi-channel soundtracks; and
· the growth of high definition television displays.
According to the DVD Entertainment Group website at dvdinformation.com, annual sales of DVDs surpassed annual sales of prerecorded videocassettes for the first time in 2001. The Digital Entertainment Group in the first quarter of 2006, estimated that as of December 31, 2005, over 73% of U.S. households own one or more DVD-Video players. They further estimate that over 50% of DVD owners now have more than one player, and expect this number to grow to nearly 90% by the end of 2009.
Home theater systems generally consist of a DVD-Video player, a digital multi-channel audio/video receiver, five speakers, and a subwoofer. Home-theater-in-a-box systems are increasingly offered to consumers as an all-in-one home theater package for ease of use and installation.
Development of Robust New Markets for Digital Multi-Channel Sound
Digital multi-channel sound is extending into a growing number of consumer electronics environments, including homes, cars, personal computers, video games and consoles, portable electronics devices, and digital satellite and cable broadcast products. Manufacturers of home audio products, music labels, and recording artists have recognized that a substantial market opportunity exists for digital multi-channel home audio systems and digital multi-channel music content. Currently, there are multiple formats for CD- and DVD-based digital multi-channel audio content, many of which support our format. Nielsen SoundScan estimates that DVD music video sales have grown in unit sales from over 5 million units in 2001 to 27 million units in 2005, a 48% compounded annual growth rate. The DVD Release Report for 2005 estimated that DVD music releases accounted for 12% of total DVD releases with over 6,500 titles released.
Car audio, personal computer, and video game console manufacturers are increasingly incorporating digital multi-channel audio capability into their products. Surround sound technology is also incorporated into portable electronics applications, such as palm-top DVD players, which allow listeners to enjoy a simulated surround sound experience using headphones. These markets represent significant growth opportunities as content providers and consumers become familiar with the capability of digital multi-channel audio to enhance the entertainment experience.
The digital satellite and cable broadcast markets may represent significant opportunities for digital multi-channel audio. ABI Research, in its first quarter 2006 quarterly marketing briefing, estimates that digital satellite or digital cable was installed in approximately 52% of U.S. households at the end of 2005, projected to grow to 65% by the end of 2009, and in approximately 31% of Western European households at the end of 2005, projected to grow to 47% by the end of 2009. We believe a significant market opportunity may exist in all sectors of this market including broadcast hardware, television set-top boxes, and televisions.
Markets for Other Digital Technologies in the Motion Picture and Television Industries
Motion picture exhibitors continue to seek new sources of revenue, independent of feature films. As a result, there is a growing demand for products and services that facilitate the creation, distribution, control, and playback of digital pre-show advertising and alternative content. Pre-show and alternative content presentation can represent a sizable revenue opportunity for exhibitors who have historically been financially challenged by the high cost of modern theater construction and the limited revenue sources available from theater operation. The Los Angeles Business Journal estimates that pre-show advertisements today account for over 80 percent of theater advertising, which they indicate has shown double-digit growth for the past three years. Screen Digest estimates that revenues from pre-show advertising in North America increased by 14% in 2005 to over $450 million.
In response to the growth in sales of high definition displays in homes and the move toward digital cinema presentations, many film and television content owners are seeking to prepare their assets for presentation in high definition. Due to significant resolution differences between the standard and high definition formats, standard definition content often displays poorly when shown on a high definition device. To look compelling, content often must be prepared and enhanced to be appropriate for use in high definition optical media, broadcast, or digital cinema applications. Accordingly, we believe there is a growing market for digital image restoration and enhancement services in the motion picture, television, and home theater markets.
Our proprietary DTS digital audio system provides moviegoers with a high-quality, digital multi-channel audio experience. Film studios and production companies use our technology and services to
encode the soundtracks of their films using our proprietary digital multi-channel sound format. Theater owners purchase and use our products to play back DTS encoded soundtracks through six or more discrete speakers.
Our competitors imprint their proprietary digital multi-channel audio data directly onto the film. This can result in audio degradation or failure from repetitive use or handling. By contrast, we use a dual-medium system whereby we store audio information on CD-ROM discs, which are synchronized to the motion picture film by the use of our proprietary timecode. The timecode is printed on the film, which enables the correlation of single or multiple events, such as audio, light, or motion, to an individual frame of film. By placing audio data on optical media or hard discs rather than directly on film, we ensure reliable high-quality playback that is not subject to film wear or subsequent audio degradation. Our system enables theater operators to easily change audio tracks or languages without changing film printsa process that can take several hours. The use of DTS audio delivered from discs also allows much more data capacity, and consequently higher audio quality, than data-on-film systems.
In addition, we provide products that enable the transmission, scheduling and playback of video-based pre-show advertising and alternative content and systems for the projection and transmission of subtitles, captions, and descriptive narration. Our recently introduced DTS Cinema Media Network is a product suite that will allow exhibitors to purchase a single integrated software and hardware solution for multiple in-theater applications, thereby combining incremental revenue opportunities with cost efficient use of cinema hardware and personnel.
During 2005, DCI, a consortium of major Hollywood Studios, completed and issued its technical specifications for digital cinema. The specification outlines minimum requirements for distribution and playback of digital motion pictures encoded using JPEG2000 compression technology. We subsequently introduced the first DCI-compliant JPEG2000 Variable Bit Rate encoder to meet this need. Our DTS Digital Cinema Encoder provides highly efficient, master quality encodes by optimizing bit-allocation according to user-defined parameters.
In 1996, we introduced our Coherent Acoustics technology to bring advanced digital audio entertainment to the home. Coherent Acoustics is an audio compression/decompression algorithm, or codec, that enables the encoding and decoding of audio tracks in the DTS digital multi-channel sound format. The design architecture of our technology allows us to scale or adapt, adding features or performance while maintaining backward compatibility with earlier implementations of the technology. The encoding process reduces the storage space or transmission bandwidth required for the audio information, while maximizing the quality of the sound. The audio information can then be stored on a digital medium, such as a DVD, or transmitted over a broadband connection or broadcast signal. The encoded content can be played back on digital audio electronics products equipped with a DTS Coherent Acoustics decoder, such as a DVD-based home theater system.
The performance and flexibility of our Coherent Acoustics technology enables easy implementation in a variety of consumer electronics products. Our core technology has also been incorporated into sound systems used in homes, cars, personal computers, video games and consoles, portable electronics devices, and digital satellite and cable broadcast products.
The adoption of digital multi-channel audio depends on the availability of compelling content, along with the devices required to play it. Accordingly, we provide products and services to filmmakers, recording artists, producers, and software developers to facilitate the creation and delivery of audio content in our proprietary digital multi-channel format. We have also entered the content-creation market directly through our DTS Entertainment label to further ensure the availability of high-quality digital multi-channel audio content.
We strive to evolve and develop our technology on an ongoing basis. For example, to offer an enhanced experience for existing and new stereo content, we have developed our Neo:6 matrix technology. This technology provides simulated multi-channel playback from stereo content and has been incorporated into home theater, home audio, car electronics, and our movie theater products. More recently, we introduced DTS-HD Master Audio, which extends our technology offerings for next-generation blue laser based optical media formats known as HD DVD and Blu-ray disc in two ways. First, the lossless extension delivers audio which is bit-for-bit identical to the original master content. Secondly, DTS-HD includes a low bit rate mode that extends into spaces where bandwidth and data size can be limiting, such as broadcast and portable devices. Although DTS-HD will be first introduced in HD-DVD and Blu-ray Disc players and home theater systems, these new technologies have application in a wide variety of consumer electronic devices.
In 2005, we entered the image enhancement, restoration and repair market through the acquisition of Lowry Digital Images, a leader in digital image processing. In this division, which is now known as DTS Digital Images, or DTS DI, we apply sophisticated image evaluation and processing algorithms in the digital domain to restore, enhance and repair motion picture and television content for the professional and home entertainment markets. DTS DI processing is used by content owners to restore older content for release on DVD-Video and to repair content damaged in processing or problems encountered during production. Examples of the motion pictures that we have repaired or restored include a number of classic animated features, the original Star Wars trilogy, and the Indiana Jones series. In addition, we believe that DTS DIs process is ideally suited to prepare content of all types for distribution in the HD-DVD or Blu-ray Disc formats or high definition theatrical release. DTS DI processing technologies can also be applied to correct or repair a multitude of photographic flaws that can result from the production and processing of film and digital image content. These include the correction of out-of-focus sequences due to camera problems and removing scratches or other flaws caused by incorrect processing.
We segment our business into consumer markets, cinema markets and digital images markets.
In our consumer business segment, we provide technology that enables digital multi-channel surround sound for home theater, home audio, car audio, personal computer, and other emerging segments of the consumer markets. Our Coherent Acoustics technology was designed for the consumer electronics market. This proprietary technology enables delivery of multiple channels of discrete digital audio, but typically is used to provide from two to eight channels. Coherent Acoustics enables consumers to experience high-quality surround sound in or from their homes, cars, personal computers, or other listening environments.
We license our Coherent Acoustics technology to consumer electronics product manufacturers primarily through two licensing channels. First, we license our software developer kits to semiconductor manufacturers who embed our decoding software into their digital signal processor chips. In turn, these semiconductor manufacturers sell DTS-enabled chips only to hardware manufacturers who have entered into consumer manufacturer licenses with us. As part of the licensing terms for both semiconductor and hardware manufacturer licensees, we typically receive fees for access to our developer kits and for our certification, prior to sale, of the quality and performance of their products. Our business model provides for us to receive a per-unit royalty for hardware products manufactured containing our technology.
Consumer electronics product manufacturers can also design their products to support the passing of a DTS bitstream to another device, such as an audio/video receiver, that contains a DTS decoder. We refer to this pass-through capability as DTS Digital Out. Only devices equipped with a Coherent Acoustics decoder can play back digital multi-channel audio encoded in our format. Like our hardware licensees, our
DTS Digital Out trademark licensees typically pay us fees for access to our developer kits and for our certification, prior to sale, of the quality and performance of their products. Our business model provides that we receive per-unit royalties for products manufactured containing our trademark.
DTS-enabled audio decoders are embedded in popular home theater products including audio/video receivers, home-theater-in-a-box systems and some DVD players. Our technology is also embedded and supported in new and emerging consumer electronics products that use digital multi-channel audio, including home audio systems, car audio systems, personal computers, video games and consoles, portable electronics devices, and digital satellite and cable broadcast products. Importantly, Coherent Acoustics was selected as a mandatory audio format in both next generation high definition optical media formats. As a result, DTS decoding technology will be featured in at least two-channel form in any consumer product that is compatible with either the Blu-ray Disc or HD-DVD formats. Through December 31, 2005, our decoders have been embedded in more than 65 million audio/video devices.
As we enter new product categories, we fine-tune our business model to meet the specific needs of the relevant industry. In 2005, we launched the DTS-Connect program for use in personal computer. DTS-Connect features a real-time DTS encoder and a version of our Neo:6 matrix technology tuned especially for personal computers, which we call Neo:PC. In this business model, integrated circuit manufacturers pay us fixed per unit royalties for each DTS-enabled chip shipped to a DTS licensed personal computer motherboard manufacturer. Each Licensed personal computer motherboard manufacturer reports to us the number of units purchased and manufactured each quarter.
We also market products and services for the creation of digital multi-channel audio content and we produce digital multi-channel audio content. We sell professional audio encoding products to professional audio equipment dealers. We license our encoding technology to professional and professional/consumer product manufacturers who in turn sell the products to content owners and post-production facilities, enabling them to produce and release audio and audio/video products containing DTS digital multi-channel soundtracks. These content owners include home video producers and distributors, individual music artists, and music labels. We also produce digital multi-channel audio content directly through our DTS Entertainment label by licensing popular titles from successful industry artists and re-mixing and releasing digital multi-channel versions of these music titles.
We have historically derived nearly all of our consumer market revenue from licensing our technology for incorporation into home theater products. These products include:
· Audio and Audio/Video Receivers. Embedded DTS decoders enable these products to decode digital multi-channel audio.
· DVD-Video Players. Incorporation of DTS Digital Out capabilities enables these devices to play DTS encoded DVD-Video and 5.1 Music Discs. In addition, some DVD players contain DTS decoding capability.
· DVD Universal Players. These products offer the same functionality as DVD-Video players but also provide the ability to play DVD-Audio or SACD discs.
· Home-Theater-in-a-Box Systems. All-in-one home theater packages typically consist of a DVD player, audio/video receiver, five speakers, and a sub-woofer.
New and Emerging Segments of the Consumer Market
The high quality and flexibility of our Coherent Acoustics algorithm provides for a variety of alternative applications. We are expanding into new and emerging markets for consumer electronics and entertainment products that incorporate high-quality digital multi-channel audio, including:
· Home Audio Systems. Home-based systems that are designed to play digital multi-channel music.
· Car Audio Systems. Currently, most major after-market car audio manufacturers sell products that include our digital multi-channel audio technology. In addition, an increasing number of automobile manufacturers have introduced factory-installed digital multi-channel audio systems as standard equipment or optional upgrades for a number of their new models. A DTS digital multi-channel sound system is a standard feature on both the 2006 Acura TL and RL models, and the Mercedes Benz 2006 S-Class model. In addition, Lexus, Land Rover, BMW, Infinity, Cadillac, Toyota, and Mazda of Japan currently offer DTS-equipped digital multi-channel sound systems as a factory-installed option for certain vehicles. We anticipate growth in this market to continue as these and other manufacturers release vehicles that incorporate our technology.
· Personal Computers. We have licensed our technology for incorporation into both hardware and software products for the personal computer. In the hardware market, we have licensed our decoding technology to a number of hardware peripherals manufacturers who incorporate our technology into sound cards and speaker systems. In the software market, we have licensed our decoding technology to two of the leading software-based DVD player providers, Cyberlink Corporation and Intervideo Inc., who have incorporated our technology into certain of their products. With the mandatory inclusion of our technology in the Blu-ray and HD-DVD specifications, we expect an increased number of companies to introduce additional DTS-enabled software products in the personal computer space.
· Video Games and Consoles. We license our technology for inclusion into gaming hardware and software applications. We believe that the addition of interactive digital multi-channel audio to video games enables a level of realism not provided by conventional audio systems and represents a significant enhancement to the quality of the gaming experience. In the video game hardware market, Sony Corporations PlayStation 2 supports our interactive digital multi-channel sound technology when connected to a DTS-capable audio/video receiver. We expect DTS technology to be an integral part of next generation gaming devices especially as they utilize Blu-ray or HD-DVD drives. In the game software market, we have entered into licensing relationships with several major game publishers, including Activision, Inc., Atari, Inc., and Electronic Arts, Inc., to incorporate our digital multi-channel encoding technology into their PlayStation 2 games.
· Portable Electronics Devices. Our technology is incorporated into some portable electronics devices, such as portable DVD players. We intend to aggressively pursue incorporation of our technology, including the new low bit rate technology, into other portable electronics devices such as camcorders, portable disc players, and music archival devices for stereo and simulated multi-channel playback via headphones.
· Digital Satellite and Cable Broadcast Products. Our technology has been adopted by the European Broadcasting Unions Digital Video Broadcast Project as one of several formats for digital multi-channel audio delivery. This standards group sets digital cable, satellite, and terrestrial broadcast standards for international markets including Europe. We are actively working with other relevant standards organizations for the inclusion of our technology. Such inclusion would enable us to pursue the incorporation of our technology into broadcast hardware, set-top-boxes, and televisions. To date, we have licensed our trademarks and decoding technology for incorporation into television set-top boxes.
New Technologies for Existing and Emerging Consumer Markets
We continue to evolve and develop our technology for the consumer market. Our Neo:6 matrix technology provides simulated multi-channel play back from stereo, or two-channel, content. This technology increasingly is being incorporated into home theater systems, home audio systems, and car audio systems. Our DTS-HD offering extends our Coherent Acoustics technology to full bit-for-bit accurate lossless performance for applications where the highest quality is required, and adds DTS-HD low bit rate technology for applications such as broadcast, portable and other devices where data size and bandwidth are limiting factors. These additional technologies provide us with new revenue opportunities from existing and new customers.
We continue to develop the synergies between the various market segments in which we operate, such as the incorporation of our Coherent Acoustics technology into our cinema products to provide higher quality audio delivery for alternative content presentation in the cinema market.
To support the adoption of our technology, we sell, license, and provide professional audio products and services for encoding and decoding digital multi-channel content in our format. We also produce, market, and sell music titles in our digital multi-channel format under our DTS Entertainment label.
Professional Audio Products and Services. We sell, license, and provide a variety of professional audio products and services for content creators. The ultimate customers for these products are recording artists, music labels, and post-production facilities. In 2005, we continued development and trials of a new set of professional audio products to support the launch of DTS-HD. Additionally, we worked with partners to integrate DTS-HD encoding functionality into a broad array of next generation HD-DVD and Blu-Ray disc authoring systems. The following table lists the professional audio products and services that we currently provide:
DTS Entertainment Label. We re-mix and produce digital multi-channel music content to promote the use of our technology and brand. We license this content and pay a royalty based on the number of discs sold. We have released over 160 titles from artists in different genres of music including classical, jazz, country, pop, rock, and others. These releases include works from classical composers such as Handel and Tchaikovsky, and titles by artists such as Diana Krall, The Crystal Method, Vince Gill, Lyle Lovett, The Eagles, Queen, Sting, and The Blue Man Group.
Under our DTS Entertainment label, we sell the following products:
· 5.1 Music Discs. Our 5.1 Music Discs play in DVD players that are connected to a DTS-capable 5.1 playback system. Due to our patent coverage, we are the only company able to produce 5.1 Music Discs, although we have licensed, and may continue to license, the right to produce 5.1 Music Discs in the future. We have released over 115 titles in this format.
· DVD-Audio Discs. DVD-Audio is a format for music presentation. Our DVD-Audio discs are fully compatible with both DVD-Audio players and DVD-Video players. We have released 45 DVD-Audio discs. We have also released three music title on the DVD-Video format.
· OEM/Commercial Bundling. We provide major consumer electronics products manufacturers targeted digital multi-channel content, which they bundle with their product offerings to highlight a particular feature or capability and to enhance the perceived value of their product.
Relationships with Record Labels. We are pursuing relationships with major record labels whereby we re-mix and produce titles from the label in our multi-channel format and the label distributes these titles. We announced our first such relationship with EMI Music in August 2003. We produce multi-channel recordings from various EMI titles, these products carry the DTS logo, and we receive a per-unit royalty for each unit sold. To date, we have released seven titles with EMI Music under the DTS Signature Series. In addition to its own branded content, DTS-Entertainment also provides services to other labels wishing to enter the surround music category.
In our cinema business segment we license technology and sell products and services to producers and distributors of feature length films and digital content, and to movie theaters and special venues.
Products and Services for Film Producers and Distributors
For film producers and distributors, we license technology to encode a movies audio master into our digital multi-channel format and provide audio CD-ROMs for distribution with film prints to movie theaters. To facilitate synchronization to the film print, we provide the studios with equipment and a license to produce a timecode track which is printed on the film. The discs and the film print have corresponding electronic serial numbers to ensure playback of the correct soundtrack.
We also offer products and services for the encoding of movies in the DCI-specified JPEG2000 format. We currently offer hardware and software and offer technical support to motion picture studios, distribution service providers and digital intermediate facilities engaged in preparation of content for digital cinema exhibition.
Products for Movie Theaters and Special Venues
Digital Audio Playback Systems. In order for a movie theater to play a DTS-encoded soundtrack, the theater must use one of our audio playback systems. These systems are rack-mounted products installed in movie theater projection booths. These playback systems are sold in several configurations that support analog and digital audio play back, and other audio management and theater automation functions.
We sell similar products and services to special venues such as large-format theaters, amusement parks, national parks, and museums. We believe we are a leading supplier in this market due to our high quality and reliability and because we have the only commercially available technology that supports all film sizes and speeds from 8 millimeter to 70 millimeter.
Systems for Subtitling, Captioning, and Descriptive Narration. We also sell our DTS-CSS system to movie theaters. This system delivers feature-film subtitles, captions, and descriptive narration for foreign language and hearing and visually impaired audiences. We believe this proprietary digital system is a cost-effective method to provide subtitles, captions, and descriptive narration for a film because it eliminates the need to permanently imprint, etch, or overlay the subtitles or captions directly onto the film. The DTS-CSS system enables the delivery of open or closed captioning, depending on the output device utilized. For open captions, the DTS-CSS system uses a separate video projector to render subtitles or captions; for closed captions, the system is utilized in conjunction with a rear-wall display device. This product is
designed to address the increasing political and social pressure to provide access to the motion picture experience for the hearing and visually impaired.
This same family of products is also being used for electronic cinema applications including alternative content presentations and pre-show advertising, incorporating both high definition image and audio playback capabilities. These products enable a theater owner to extend its range of revenue opportunities, and help to maximize the utility of equipment in theater projection rooms, saving expense and space. In the pre-show advertising area, both the CSS system and the DTS XD10 Cinema Media Player can be used when coupled with a color projector. The DTS XD10 has an extensive feature set, which includes networking capability to facilitate its integration into a content distribution system. We also offer the DTS Cinema Media Network product suite which incorporates the DTS XD10 Cinema Media Player to manage the creation, transmission/delivery, scheduling, logging, remote system monitoring and playback of all types of digital content including video, audio, subtitles, captions, and descriptive narration.
The chart below lists the products that we sell to movie theaters and special venues:
In our Digital Images division, we provide restoration, enhancement and repair services for motion pictures captured in analog or digital form. Our services enable current or archived film or television content to be restored, enhanced or repaired to enable high quality, high definition presentation in high definition optical media, broadcast, or digital cinema applications. In addition, we believe that DTS DI is uniquely suited for correcting or repairing a multitude of photographic challenges encountered in the production and processing of film and digital image content. These issues range from the correction of out-
of-focus sequences due to camera problems to removing scratches or other flaws caused by incorrect processing.
Our Coherent Acoustics audio technology platform is designed to capture, store, and reproduce audio signals. There are several technical considerations involved in this process, including the frequency of data sampling, the word length, and the bit rate. These factors can control the quality of audio presentation and are commonly managed through compression techniques.
A fundamental challenge with digital audio distribution is that capturing analog signal representations in digital form requires a tremendous amount of data. Therefore, the storage and subsequent transmission of that data presents physical space, efficiency, and economic challenges. We address this challenge by developing coding technology and products that reduce the amount of data required to store and transmit an audio signal and to subsequently reproduce the audio.
The design, architecture, and implementation of this coding solution are complex. Signal coding requires a thorough and combined understanding of the disciplines of electrical engineering, computer science, and psychoacoustics, coupled with significant practical experience. One of our key technical strengths has been our ability to develop a system that enables the transparent reproduction of an original audio signal, meaning that the reproduction sounds indistinguishable from its source.
Emerging applications for digital multi-channel audio, such as video games, the Internet, and recordable media, have limited bandwidth. Our technology architecture is flexible enough to accommodate these needs and optimize quality within the constraints of the application.
We have designed the following attributes into the basic architecture of our technology:
· scalable, meaning that parameters such as data rate can be set over a very wide range, as applications require;
· extensible, meaning that the structure itself accommodates additional data for enhancements both anticipated and unknown; and
· backward compatible, meaning that extensions and enhancements do not preclude the ability of earlier decoders to play the core signal.
We have a substantial base of intellectual property assets covering patents, trademarks, copyrights, and trade secrets. We have 31 individual patent families resulting in more than 125 individual patents and more than 59 patent applications throughout the world. We have more than 87 trademarks and more than 44 trademark applications pending worldwide with additional marks in the pre-application phase. We also have a number of federally registered copyrights and maintain a sizeable library of copyrighted software and other technical materials as well as numerous trade secrets. We have targeted our intellectual property coverage to provide protection in the major manufacturing and commercial centers of the world.
We pursue a general practice of filing patent applications for our technology in the United States and various foreign countries where our customers manufacture, distribute, or sell licensed products. We actively pursue new applications to expand our patent portfolio to address new technological innovations. Most of the patents in our patent portfolio have an average life of 20 years from their date of filing with some having begun to expire in 2005 and others expiring through 2009. However, many of our more substantive patents are relatively young and have expiration dates ranging from 2015 to 2018. We have multiple patents covering unique aspects and improvements for many of our technologies. Accordingly, we
do not believe that the expiration of any single patent is likely to significantly affect our intellectual property position or our ability to generate licensing revenues.
The following table lists our key patents and patent applications and the inventions they cover:
We generally license our technology on standard terms through a two-tiered structure: first to integrated circuit semiconductor manufacturers and then to consumer electronics product manufacturers. We generally license on a non-exclusive, worldwide basis. Our business model provides for hardware manufacturers to pay us for each unit they produce that contains our technology or trademarks. We require that all licensees have their integrated circuits or hardware devices certified by us prior to distribution. We reserve the right to audit their records and quality standards. Licensees are required to use the appropriate DTS trademark on the products they manufacture.
In the consumer products market, we have 59 patents issued and 47 patents pending worldwide spanning the entire spectrum of our technology including the encoding and decoding process, the structure of the DTS audio stream, and media containing DTS encoded material. In addition, we have a number of patents and applications covering extensions of our core technology architecture as well as unique implementation approaches for various product applications.
In the cinema market, we have 43 patents issued and 10 patents pending worldwide covering our cinema system, the DTS time code, and our subtitling method. These patents cover the technology that is utilized in our various cinema products as well as our film license rights. We also have 23 patents and two
patent applications that span both the consumer products and cinema sectors of our business. These rights primarily cover the process of producing media containing DTS and digital multi-channel audio as well as the individual finished product.
In our Digital Images business, we have historically relied primarily on trade secrets to protect our intellectual property. In the future, we expect to seek patent protection for inventions relating to this business and we currently have several patent applications in development.
We have licensed from Audio Processing Technology Limited the rights to the apt-X algorithm on a perpetual, worldwide, non-exclusive basis. The apt-X algorithm is the audio algorithm used by our cinema products to encode and play back our audio tracks.
Our trademarks consist of over 30 individual word marks, logos, and slogans filed throughout the world. The marks cover our various products, technology, improvements, and features as well as the services that we provide. Our trademarks are an integral part of our licensing program and are required to be used on licensed products to identify the existence of the technology and to provide greater consumer awareness. Our trademarks include the following:
We have a significant amount of copyright protected materials including software, textual materials, and master audio materials used to produce our DTS Entertainment products. A number of these products have been federally registered.
We have licensed our Coherent Acoustics technology and trademarks to over 300 consumer electronics products manufacturers for use in hundreds of consumer audio products. Collectively, these manufacturers have sold over 65 million products with DTS digital sound decoding technology. The following list sets forth some of the consumer electronics product manufacturers that have licensed our technology.
We have licensed to over 60 semiconductor manufacturers the right to incorporate our technology in their semiconductors and to sell semiconductors with DTS technology to our hardware manufacturer licensees. Our major semiconductor-manufacturing customers include the following:
We have also provided our Coherent Acoustics technology to many of the leading home video and music content providers including DreamWorks Home Entertainment, New Line Home Entertainment, Inc., and Warner Bros. Records, Inc. To date, thousands of DVD titles have been produced with DTS digital multi-channel audio tracks.
Major retail customers who sell DTS Entertainment labeled music content to consumers include Amazon.com, Best Buy, Musicland, and Tower Records.
The six major film studios in the United States are all customers of ours. According to Exhibitor Relations, these film studios accounted for approximately 86% of admission revenues and 85 of the 100 highest grossing films in the United States in 2005. These studios, which released most of their major feature films in the DTS format in 2005, are listed below.
In addition, we sell our playback equipment to movie theaters, including the following:
Digital Images Markets
Our Digital Images divisions customers primarily include major film and television distributors, including:
We have a licensing team that markets our technology directly to large consumer electronic products manufacturers and semiconductor manufacturers. This team includes employees located in the United States, China, England, Hong Kong, Japan, and Northern Ireland. We believe that by locating staff near the leading consumer electronics and semiconductor manufacturers we can enhance our sales and business development efforts.
We market our digital sound encoding equipment directly to the content providers and audio professionals serving the consumer electronics market. We believe that allowing easy access to DTS encoders will result in more DTS content, which we believe will drive consumer demand for DTS-enabled electronics products.
Film Producers and Distributors
Our post-production department, senior management, and liaison offices market our products and services directly to individual film producers and distributors worldwide.
We sell our cinema playback systems to movie theaters through a direct sales force and a network of independent dealers. To date, most of our sales and marketing efforts have been focused in the United States, Western Europe, and in targeted markets in Asia and Latin America. We have also begun to focus our efforts on pursuing theater companies that have a large concentration of movie theaters in selected foreign countries such as India, China, and Eastern Europe.
We sell music content released under our DTS Entertainment label through distributors. In the United States, Navarre Corporation is our exclusive distributor of DTS Entertainment label products to major national retail accounts. In addition to our in-house staff, we also employ consultants to coordinate sales to independent retailers. Cadiz Music Limited serves as our exclusive distributor of DTS Entertainment label products in Europe and Disc Union serves as our exclusive distributor in Japan. We also sell this music directly to consumers through an online store and other web-based retailers.
We have a group of 58 engineers and scientists, including seven PhDs, focused on research and development. This group oversees our product development efforts and is responsible for implementing our technology into our existing and emerging products. We carry out research and development activities at our corporate headquarters in Agoura Hills, California and at our facilities in Bangor, Northern Ireland and Vancouver, Canada.
Our research and development expenses totaled approximately $5.0 million during 2003, $6.1 million during 2004, and $9.9 million during 2005. We expect that we will continue to commit significant resources
to applications engineering efforts, particularly in support of the new high definition disc standards, and to research and development in the future.
There are a variety of governmental and industry-related organizations that are responsible for adopting system and product standards. Standards are important in many technology-focused industries as they help to assure compatibility across a system or series of products. Generally, standards adoption occurs on either a mandatory basis, requiring the existence of a particular technology or feature, or an optional basis, meaning that a particular technology or feature may be, but is not required to be, utilized.
We actively participate in a variety of standards organizations worldwide, including the DVD Forum, Blu-ray Disc Association, Digital Video Broadcast Project, International Engineering Consortium, Digital Living Network Alliance, High-Definition Multimedia Interface Standard, Media Oriented Systems Transport Bus, Audio Engineering Society and Society for Motion Picture and Television Engineers. We anticipate being involved in a number of other standards organizations as appropriate to facilitate the implementation of our technology.
We believe the market for audio and audio/video products is very standards driven and our active participation with standards organizations is important as we work to include our technology in standards or change our status from optional to mandatory where possible. We believe our standards involvement also provides us early visibility into future opportunities.
In the consumer products area, we are members of the DVD Forum and Blu-ray Disc Association. In both organizations we are specifically involved in several working groups and expert groups, and have obtained mandatory status in both the HD DVD and Blu-ray Disc formats. For DVD-Video, we have obtained optional status for our core Coherent Acoustics technology. Through our participation, we have expanded the supported specification of our codec, increasing the quality and number of channels. Our technology has been accepted as an optional format in the DVD-Audio Recordable specification and we are currently involved in the working groups for Interactive DVD and DVD recording specifications for both audio and high definition video.
In the digital broadcast area, we participate in the Digital Video Broadcast Project, or DVB, and the Advanced Television Systems Committee, or ATSC. In late 2002 our technology was accepted as an optional audio format in the DVB Specification.
We actively participate in the major industry associations that publish research and establish standards. These include the Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers and, in particular, the committees relating to digital cinema, and the Audio Engineering Society.
We have seven employees and consultants focused on standards activities, including one in Europe, one in Japan, one in Korea, and four in the United States. We also employ additional resources as necessary to assist with specific standards-related tasks.
We face intense competition in each of our markets and expect competition to intensify in the future. Our primary competitor is Dolby Laboratories, who develops and markets digital multi-channel audio products and services. Except for image restoration and enhancement, we compete with Dolby in nearly all of our markets and product categories.
Dolby was founded almost 40 years ago and for many years was the only significant provider of audio technologies. Dolbys long-standing market position, brand, business relationships, and inclusion in various industry standards provide it with a strong competitive position.
In addition to Dolby Laboratories, we also compete in specific product markets with Coding Technologies, Fraunhofer Institut Integrierte Schaltungen, Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V., Meridian Audio Limited, Microsoft Corporation, Smart Devices, Inc., Sony Corporation, Thomson, Ultra Stereo Labs, Inc., and various consumer electronics products manufacturers. Many of these competitors have longer operating histories and significantly greater resources or greater name recognition than we do.
We believe that the principal competitive factors in each of our markets include some or all of the following:
· technology performance, flexibility, and range of application;
· quality and reliability of products and services;
· brand recognition and reputation;
· inclusion in industry standards;
· relationships with film producers and distributors and with semiconductor and consumer electronics manufacturers;
· availability of compatible high-quality audio content; and
· timeliness and relevance of new product introductions.
We have been successful in penetrating the consumer, cinema, and digital images markets and building and maintaining significant market share. Most major feature-film releases in the United States are encoded in our format, many top selling and premier edition DVDs contain digital multi-channel soundtracks in our format, a substantial majority of consumer electronics products with digital multi-channel capability incorporate our technology, trademarks, or know-how, and many of the most valuable film properties in the world have been restored using our process. Our success has been due in large part to our ability to position our brand as a premium offering that contains superior proprietary technology, the quality of our customer service, our inclusion in industry standards, and our industry relationships.
We believe there are significant barriers to entry in our key markets. In the cinema market, there are three well-established formatsDTS, Dolby, and Sonyand we believe it would be very difficult for a new entrant to penetrate the market. Key barriers to entry include physical limitations on the film, intellectual property coverage, and the reluctance of the film studios to pay additional license fees and theater operators to purchase additional playback equipment. In the consumer electronics products market, the standards relating to DVD-Video are well established and support a limited number of technologies including DTS Coherent Acoustics. In the digital images market, we believe that we have a significant lead in automating the restoration and enhancement of television and motion picture images through the use of sophisticated proprietary software algorithms.
As of December 31, 2005, we had 314 employees, which includes 58 employees in engineering, technical services, and research and development, 98 employees in production and operations, 88 employees in sales, marketing, service, and support, 35 employees in accounting and information technology, and 35 employees in senior management and administration. Of the 314 total employees, 239 work in the United States and 75 work in our various international locations, including 54 in the United Kingdom. None of our employees are subject to a collective bargaining agreement, and we have never experienced a work stoppage. We believe our relations with our employees are good. Our future success depends on our ability to attract, motivate, and retain highly-qualified technical and management
personnel. From time to time, we also employ independent contractors to support our product development, sales, marketing, business development, and administration organizations.
We maintain an Internet website at www.dts.com. We make available free of charge through our Internet website our annual report on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish it to, the SEC.
Set forth below and elsewhere in this report and in other documents we file with the SEC are risks and uncertainties that could cause our actual results to differ materially from the results contemplated by the forward-looking statements contained in this report and other public statements we make. If any of the following risks actually occurs, our business, financial condition, or results of operations could suffer. In that case, the trading price of our common stock could decline, and you may lose all or part of your investment.
We face intense competition from companies with greater brand recognition and resources.
The digital audio, digital imaging, consumer electronics, and entertainment markets are intensely competitive, subject to rapid change, and significantly affected by new product introductions and other market activities of industry participants. Our principal competitor is Dolby Laboratories, Inc., who competes with us in most of our markets. We also compete with other companies offering:
· digital audio technology incorporated into consumer electronics products and entertainment mediums, including Coding Technologies, Fraunhofer Institut Integrierte Schaltungen, Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. (Philips), Meridian Audio Limited, Microsoft Corporation, Sony Corporation, and Thomson;
· products for cinema markets, such as Smart Devices, Inc., Ultra Stereo Labs, Inc., Eastman Kodak Company, Screenvision Cinema Network LLC, National CineMedia LLC, and Unique Digital Ltd.;
· digital image processing, enhancement and restoration services, including Ascent Media Group, EFILM LLC, Imax Corporation, Laser Pacific Media Corporation, Modern Video Film, Inc., Sunset Digital, Technicolor Media Services, and Warner Bros. Entertainment, Inc.; and
· products for image processing including da Vinci Systems, LLC, Digital Vision AB, Mathematical Technologies, Inc., Pixel Farm Ltd., Snell and Wilcox, Teranex Incorporated, and The Foundry Visionmongers Ltd.
Many of our current and potential competitors, including Dolby, enjoy substantial competitive advantages, including:
· greater name recognition;
· a longer operating history;
· more developed distribution channels and deeper relationships with our common customer base;
· a more extensive customer base;
· digital technologies that provide features that ours do not;
· broader product and service offerings;
· greater resources for competitive activities, such as research and development, strategic acquisitions, alliances, joint ventures, sales and marketing, and lobbying industry and government standards; and
· more technicians and engineers.
As a result, these current and potential competitors may be able to respond more quickly and effectively than we can to new or changing opportunities, technologies, standards, or customer requirements.
In addition to the competitive advantages described above, Dolby also enjoys other unique competitive strengths relative to us. For example, it introduced multi-channel audio technology before we did. It has a larger base of installed movie theaters for its cinema playback equipment. Its technology has been incorporated in significantly more DVD-Video films than our technology. It has also achieved mandatory standard status in product categories that DTS has not, including DVD-Video and DVD-Audio Recordable, for its stereo technology and terrestrial digital television broadcasts in the United States. As a result of these factors, Dolby has a competitive advantage in selling its digital multi-channel audio technology to consumer electronics products manufacturers.
Sony Corporation is both a competitor and a significant customer in most of our markets. If Sony decides to eliminate the use of our technology in its products or to compete with us more aggressively in our markets, the revenues that we derive from Sony would be lower than expected.
Current and future governmental and industry standards may significantly limit our business opportunities.
Technology standards are important in the audio and video industry as they help to assure compatibility across a system or series of products. Generally, standards adoption occurs on either a mandatory basis, requiring a particular technology to be available in a particular product or medium, or an optional basis, meaning that a particular technology may be, but is not required to be, utilized. For example, both our digital multi-channel audio technology and Dolbys have optional status in Standard and High-Definition DVD and Blu-ray. In the emerging standards for high definition-DVD and Blu-ray, both DTS and Dolby technologies have been selected as mandatory standards for two-channel output. However, if either or both of these standards are re-examined or a new standard is developed, we may not be included as mandatory in any such new or revised standard.
Various national governments have adopted or are in the process of adopting standards for all digital television broadcasts, including cable, satellite, and terrestrial. In the United States, Dolbys audio technology has been selected as the sole, mandatory audio standard for terrestrial digital television broadcasts. As a result, the audio for all digital terrestrial television broadcasts in the United States must include Dolbys technology and must exclude any other format, including ours. We do not know whether this standard will be reopened or amended. If it is not, our audio technology may never be included in that standard. Certain large and developing markets, such as China, have not fully developed their digital television standards. Our technology may or may not ultimately be included in these standards.
As new technologies and entertainment media emerge, new standards relating to these technologies or media may develop. New standards may also emerge in existing markets that are currently characterized by competing formats, such as the market for personal computers. We may not be successful in our efforts to include our technology in any such standards.
We may not be able to evolve our technology, products, and services or develop new technology, products, and services that are acceptable to our customers or the changing market.
The market for our technology, products, and services is characterized by:
· rapid technological change;
· new and improved product introductions;
· changing customer demands;
· evolving industry standards; and
· product obsolescence.
Our future success will depend on our ability to enhance our existing technology, products, and services and to develop acceptable new technology, products, and services on a timely basis. The development of enhanced and new technology, products, and services is a complex and uncertain process requiring high levels of innovation, highly-skilled engineering and development personnel, and the accurate anticipation of technological and market trends. We may not be able to identify, develop, market, or support new or enhanced technology, products, or services on a timely basis, if at all. Furthermore, our new technology, products, and services may never gain market acceptance, and we may not be able to respond effectively to evolving consumer demands, technological changes, product announcements by competitors, or emerging industry standards. For example, we may not be able to effectively address concerns in the film and music industries relating to piracy in our current or future products. Any failure to respond to these changes or concerns would likely prevent our technology, products, and services from gaining market acceptance or maintaining market share.
Declining retail prices for consumer electronics products or video content could force us to lower the license or other fees we charge our customers.
The market for consumer electronics products is intensely competitive and price sensitive. Retail prices for consumer electronics products that include our DTS audio technology, such as DVD players and home theater systems, have decreased significantly and we expect prices to continue to decrease for the foreseeable future. Declining prices for consumer electronics products could create downward pressure on the licensing fees we currently charge our customers who integrate our technology into the consumer electronics products that they sell and distribute. Most of the consumer electronics products that include our audio technology also include Dolbys multi-channel audio. As a result of pricing pressure, consumer electronics products manufacturers could decide to exclude our DTS audio technology from their products altogether.
The market for consumer video products is also intensely competitive and price sensitive. Retail prices for consumer video products that have been processed, enhanced or restored by us, such as movies, concerts or animated content released on DVD or other media, have experienced price pressure and we expect this price pressure to continue for the foreseeable future. Declining prices for such video products could create downward pressure on the fees we currently charge our customers for the image processing, enhancement and restoration services we provide. If the motion picture studios, content owners, producers or distributors were to believe that the existing image quality is satisfactory or that the pricing for our services is too high, they could decide to not use our services altogether.
If we fail to protect our intellectual property rights, our ability to compete could be harmed.
Protection of our intellectual property is critical to our success. Patent, trademark, copyright, and trade secret laws and confidentiality and other contractual provisions afford only limited protection and may not adequately protect our rights or permit us to gain or keep any competitive advantage. We face numerous risks in protecting our intellectual property rights, including the following:
· our patents may be challenged or invalidated by our competitors;
· our pending patent applications may not issue, or, if issued, may not provide meaningful protection for related products or proprietary rights;
· we may not be able to prevent the unauthorized disclosure or use of our technical knowledge or other trade secrets by employees, consultants, and advisors;
· we may not be able to practice our trade secrets as a result of patent protection afforded a third-party for such product, technique or processes;
· the laws of foreign countries may not protect our intellectual property rights to the same extent as the laws of the United States, and mechanisms for enforcement of intellectual property rights may be inadequate in foreign countries;
· our competitors may produce competitive products or services that do not unlawfully infringe upon our intellectual property rights; and
· we may be unable to successfully identify or prosecute unauthorized uses of our technology.
As a result, our means of protecting our intellectual property rights and brands may not be adequate. Furthermore, despite our efforts, third parties may violate, or attempt to violate, our intellectual property rights. Infringement claims and lawsuits would likely be expensive to resolve and would require managements time and resources. In addition, we have not sought, and do not intend to seek, patent and other intellectual property protections in all foreign countries. In countries where we do not have such protection, products incorporating our technology may be lawfully produced and sold without a license.
We may be sued by third parties for alleged infringement of their proprietary rights.
Companies that participate in the digital audio, digital image processing, consumer electronics, and entertainment industries hold a large number of patents, trademarks, and copyrights, and are frequently involved in litigation based on allegations of patent infringement or other violations of intellectual property rights. Intellectual property disputes frequently involve highly complex and costly scientific matters, and each party generally has the right to seek a trial by jury which adds additional costs and uncertainty. Accordingly, intellectual property disputes, with or without merit, could be costly and time consuming to litigate or settle, and could divert managements attention from executing our business plan. In addition, our technology and products may not be able to withstand any third-party claims or rights against their use. If we were unable to obtain any necessary license following a determination of infringement or an adverse determination in litigation or in interference or other administrative proceedings, we may need to redesign some of our products to avoid infringing a third partys rights and could be required to temporarily or permanently discontinue licensing our products.
Our operating results may be adversely affected as a result of required compliance with the recently adopted European Union Directives on Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment and the Restriction of the Use of Hazardous Substances in electrical and electronic equipment.
In February 2003, the European Union enacted Directive 2002/96/EC on Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive, known as the WEEE Directive. The WEEE Directive requires producers of certain electrical and electronic equipment to be financially responsible for the future disposal costs of
this equipment. Our cinema products may fall within the scope of this Directive and as such we may incur some financial responsibility for the collection, recycling, treatment and disposal of both new products sold, and products already sold prior to the WEEE Directives enforcement date, to customers within the European Union. The Directive potentially increases our financial liabilities by requiring producers to adopt new approaches for improving sustainable product design and for encouraging recycling or re-use at the end of the products life.
At the same time, the European Union also enacted Directive 2002/95/EC on the Restriction of the use of Hazardous Substances in electrical and electronic equipment, known as the RoHS Directive. This Directive restricts the use of certain hazardous substances, including mercury, lead, cadmium, hexavalent chromium and certain flame retardants, used in the construction of component parts of electrical and electronic equipment. We may need to change our manufacturing processes, and to redesign or reformulate products regulated under the RoHS Directive to eliminate these hazardous substances in our products, in order to be able to continue to offer them for sale within the European Union. For some products, substituting certain components containing regulated hazardous substances may be more difficult or costly, and the additional redesign efforts could result in production delays.
Individual European Union member states are required to transpose the Directives into national legislation. Although not all European Union member states have enacted legislation to implement these two directives, we continue to review the applicability and impact of both directives on the sale of our cinema products within the European Union.
We may incur increased manufacturing costs or production delays to comply with future legislation which implements these directives, but we cannot currently estimate the extent of such increased costs or production delays. However, to the extent that such cost increases or delays are substantial, our operating results could be materially adversely affected. In addition, we are aware of similar legislation which may be enacted in other countries, such as China, and possible new federal and state legislation in the United States, the cumulative impact of which could significantly increase our operating costs and adversely affect our operating results.
The WEEE Directive and the RoHS Directive are aimed mainly at mass market consumer electronics and thus, will impact many of our customers who license our technology and pay us royalties upon the manufacture of electronic products. If the directives result in fewer licensed consumer electronics products being sold, whether due to price increases, production delays, compromised product performance due to reformulation or redesign, or for other reasons, then we will receive less revenue in royalties. If the directives materially impair or inhibit such sales, the reduction in licensing revenue could adversely affect our operating results.
If we are unable to maintain and increase the amount of entertainment content released with DTS audio soundtracks, demand for the technology, products, and services that we offer to consumer electronics products manufacturers may significantly decline.
We expect to derive a significant percentage of our revenues from the technology, products, and services that we offer to manufacturers of consumer electronics products. To date, the most significant driver for the use of our technology in the home theater market has been the release of major movie titles with DTS audio soundtracks. We also believe that demand for our DTS audio technology in emerging markets for multi-channel audio, including homes, cars, personal computers, and video games and consoles, will be based on the number, quality, and popularity of the audio DVDs, computer software programs, and video games released with DTS audio soundtracks. Although we have existing relationships with many leading providers of movie, music, computer, and video game content, we do not have contracts that require any of these parties to develop and release content with DTS audio soundtracks. In addition, we may not be successful in maintaining existing relationships or developing relationships with other existing providers or new market entrants that provide content. As a result, we cannot assure you that a
significant amount of content in movies, audio DVDs, computer software programs, video games, or other entertainment mediums will be released with DTS audio soundtracks. If the amount, variety, and popularity of entertainment content released with DTS audio soundtracks do not increase, consumer electronics products manufacturers that pay us per-unit licensing fees may discontinue offering DTS playback capabilities in the consumer electronics products that they sell.
If our independent registered public accounting firm is unable to provide us with an unqualified report as to the adequacy of our internal controls over financial reporting for future year-ends as required by Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, investors could lose confidence in the reliability of our financial statements, which could result in a decrease in the value of our shares.
As directed by Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, the SEC adopted rules requiring all public companies, including us, to include a report by management on internal control over financial reporting in all annual reports on Form 10-K that contains an assessment by management of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting. In addition, the independent registered public accounting firm auditing our financial statements must attest to and report on our managements assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting and the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting. While we conduct rigorous reviews of our internal control over financial reporting in order to comply with the Section 404 requirements, our independent registered public accounting firm may interpret the Section 404 requirements and the related rules and regulations differently from us, or our independent registered public accounting firm or management may not be satisfied with our internal control over financial reporting or with the level at which these controls are documented, executed or reviewed. In addition, many uncertainties remain regarding the requirements for auditor attestation, and guidance provided by the public accounting profession has changed frequently and materially to date and may continue to change such that we may not be able to comply with these new requirements. Further, the demand for competent audit resources has grown dramatically as a result of the requirements of Section 404, and such demand may exceed available supply. In addition, in January 2005, we acquired Lowry Digital Images, Inc., or LDI, a privately held company with limited financial resources that may not have implemented sufficient internal control over financial reporting. We may in the future make additional acquisitions which may be significant to our operations either individually or in the aggregate. We may face significant challenges in implementing the required processes and procedures in the acquired operations of LDI or any other businesses that we may acquire. As a result, our independent registered public accounting firm may issue an adverse report or a disclaimer on managements assessment of internal control over financial reporting. Management may also identify material weaknesses which would cause management to conclude internal control over financial reporting is not effective. This could result in an adverse reaction in the financial markets due to a loss of confidence in the reliability of our financial statements, which could cause the market price of our shares to decline.
We have limited experience in licensing, re-mixing, marketing, and directly selling multi-channel audio content.
Although we have established relationships with a number of artists and music labels, we do not have any contractual agreements that require artists or music labels to provide us with music content to re-mix and release in our proprietary DTS audio format. Music companies may in the future be unwilling to license titles from their music catalogs to us. In addition, our audio content competes with other multi-channel formats, including Super Audio CD, which is a format developed jointly by Philips and Sony Corporation. As a result, we may have difficulty in obtaining rights to release a significant amount of audio content, and any content that we do release may not be commercially successful.
We have limited experience in image processing, enhancement and restoration.
Although we have established relationships with a number of motion picture studios, content owners, producers and distributors, we do not have any contractual agreements that require them to provide us image content for processing. Further, the demand for image processing, enhancement and restoration of cinema, home video or broadcast television content may not materialize or accelerate as we anticipate, which would have a negative impact on our business.
We have limited control over existing and potential customers and licensees decisions to include our technology in their product offerings.
We are dependent on our customers and licenseesincluding consumer electronics products manufacturers, semiconductor manufacturers, movie theaters, producers and distributors of content for music, films, videos, and gamesto incorporate our technology in their products, purchase our products and services, or release their content in our proprietary DTS audio format. Although we have contracts and license agreements with many of these companies, these agreements do not require any minimum purchase commitments, and are on a non-exclusive basis, and do not require incorporation or use of our technology, trademarks or services. Our customers, licensees and other manufacturers might not utilize our technology or services in the future.
Our revenues from film producers and distributors and from the products and services that we offer to movie theaters would decline if the major U.S. film producers and distributors decrease or delay the number of films they release using DTS technology or services.
Although all six major U.S. film producers and distributors are customers of ours, we generally do not have contractual arrangements that require them to use our DTS audio technology or our digital image services. Our cinema and digital images business depends on our having good relations with these film studios and other content owners. A deterioration in our relationship with any of these customers could cause them to stop using our DTS audio technology or our digital image enhancement services. Any significant decline or delay in the release of motion pictures with DTS audio soundtracks would decrease the demand for and revenues from the playback products and services that we offer to movie theaters. In addition, other motion picture studios, content owners, producers, and distributors throughout the world generally adopt and use the processes and the technologies used by the major U.S. film studios. Therefore, if the major U.S. motion picture studios, content owners, producers or distributors stop using our technology, we would not only lose the per-movie licensing fee we receive from these customers, but may also lose per-movie licensing fees from other film studios throughout the world. Furthermore, poor box-office performance caused by a weak film release calendar or declining consumer interest in the films being released could have a negative impact on the demand for the products and services we sell to the motion picture industry.
If the movie industry adopts new digital cinema technology in place of current film technology, demand for our cinema products and services could decline.
The movie theater industry may transition from film-based media to electronic-based, or digital, media. If this transition occurs, we may be unable to meaningfully respond with competitive product offerings. In addition, if the film industry broadly adopts digital cinema, our technology and current product and service offerings could be rendered obsolete. In such an event, demand by movie theaters for our playback systems, cinema processors, and systems for subtitling, captioning, and descriptive narration as well as film licensing revenue would decline.
The movie theater industry has suffered and may continue to suffer from an oversupply of screens, which has affected and may continue to affect demand for the products and services we offer to movie theaters.
Our cinema business depends in part on the construction of new screens and the renovation of existing theaters that install our DTS playback systems and cinema processors. In recent years, aggressive building of megaplexes by companies that operate movie theaters has generated significant competition and resulted in an oversupply of screens in some domestic and international markets. The resulting oversupply of screens led to significant declines in revenues per screen and, eventually, to an inability by many major film exhibitors to satisfy their financial obligations. Several major movie theater operators have reorganized through bankruptcy proceedings, and many movie theaters have closed. As a result, our playback systems and cinema processors that we previously sold to movie theaters that have reorganized and closed have been relocated to other theaters or have been available for resale in the secondary market to movie theaters that might otherwise have purchased these products directly from us. More recently, the industry has experienced a decline in movie theater attendance. If this decline were to continue, exhibitors could see a decline in revenue per screen and, potentially, an inability to satisfy their financial obligations resulting in the closure of screens. If movie theater operators decide to close a significant number of screens in the future or cut their capital spending, demand for our playback systems and cinema processors will decline.
We are dependent on our management team and key technical employees, and the loss of any of them could harm our business.
Our success depends, in part, upon the continued availability and contributions of our management team, particularly Jon Kirchner, our President and Chief Executive Officer, W. Paul Smith, our Senior Vice President, Research and Development, and John Lowry, our Chief Technologist of DTS Digital Images who became an employee upon our acquisition of DTS DI. We also rely on the skills and talents of our engineering and technical personnel because of the complexity of our products and services. Several of our key engineers have been instrumental in the development of our technology. Important factors that could cause the loss of key personnel include:
· our existing employment agreements with the members of our management team allow such persons to terminate their employment with us at any time;
· we do not have employment agreements with a majority of our key engineering and technical personnel;
· significant portions of the stock options held by the members of our management team are vested; and
· stock options held by certain executive officers provide for accelerated vesting in the event of a sale or change of control of our company.
The loss of key personnel or an inability to attract qualified personnel in a timely manner could slow our technology and product development and harm our ability to execute our business plan. We do not generally carry key-man life insurance on any of our employees, with the exception that we are the beneficiary of a $10 million key-man life insurance policy for John Lowry.
We have a limited operating history in many of our key markets.
Although the first movie with a DTS audio soundtrack was released in 1993, we did not enter the home theater market until 1996, and our technology has only recently been incorporated into other consumer electronics markets, such as car audio, personal computers, video games and consoles, portable electronics devices, and digital satellite and cable broadcast products. In addition, while we have completed over 100 digital image processing, enhancement and restoration film projects, it is only recently that a large
number of these projects have been completed. As a result, the demand for our technology, products, and services and the income potential of these businesses are unproven. In addition, because the market for digital audio technology and image services is relatively new and rapidly evolving, we have limited insight into trends that may emerge and affect our business. We may make errors in predicting and reacting to relevant business trends, which could harm our business. Before investing in our common stock, you should consider the risks, uncertainties, and difficulties frequently encountered by companies in new and rapidly evolving markets such as ours. We may not be able to successfully address any or all of these risks.
Our technology and products are complex and may contain errors that could cause us to lose customers, damage our reputation, or incur substantial costs.
Our technology or products could contain errors that could cause our products or technology to operate improperly and could cause unintended consequences. If our products or technology contain errors we could be required to replace them, and if any such errors cause unintended consequences we could face claims for product liability. Although we generally attempt to contractually limit our exposure to incidental and consequential damages, if these contract provisions are not enforced or are unenforceable for any reason, or if liabilities arise that are not effectively limited, we could incur substantial costs in defending and/or settling product liability claims.
Because we expect our operating expenses to increase in the future, we may not be able to sustain or increase our profitability.
Although we have been in business since 1990, we have only achieved profits from our business operations since the third quarter of 2001. We expect our operating expenses to increase as we, among other things:
· expand our domestic and international sales and marketing activities;
· acquire businesses or technologies and integrate them into our existing organization;
· increase our research and development efforts to advance our existing technology, products, and services and develop new technology, products, and services;
· hire additional personnel, including engineers and other technical staff;
· upgrade our operational and financial systems, procedures, and controls; and
· continue to assume the responsibilities of being a public company.
As a result, we will need to grow our revenues in order to maintain and increase our profitability. In addition, we may fail to accurately estimate and assess our increased operating expenses as we grow.
We are subject to additional risks associated with our international operations.
We market and sell our products and services outside the United States, and currently have employees located in Canada, China, England, France, Japan, Hong Kong, Italy, Northern Ireland, and Spain. Many of our customers and licensees are located outside the United States. As a key component of our business strategy, we intend to expand our international sales. We face numerous risks in doing business outside the United States, including:
· unusual or burdensome foreign laws or regulatory requirements or unexpected changes to those laws or requirements;
· tariffs, trade protection measures, import or export licensing requirements, trade embargos, and other trade barriers;
· difficulties in staffing and managing foreign operations;
· dependence on foreign distributors and their sales channels;
· longer accounts receivable collection cycles and difficulties in collecting accounts receivable;
· less effective and less predictable protection of intellectual property;
· changes in the political or economic condition of a specific country or region, particularly in emerging markets;
· fluctuations in the value of foreign currency versus the U.S. dollar and the cost of currency exchange; and
· potentially adverse tax consequences.
Such factors could cause our future international sales to decline.
Our business practices in international markets are also subject to the requirements of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. If any of our employees is found to have violated these requirements, we could be subject to significant fines and other penalties.
Our international revenue is mostly denominated in U.S. dollars. As a result, fluctuations in the value of the U.S. dollar and foreign currencies may make our technology, products, and services more expensive for international customers, which could cause them to decrease their purchases from us. Expenses for our subsidiaries are denominated in their respective local currencies. Significant fluctuations in the value of the U.S. dollar and foreign currencies could have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements. We do not currently engage in currency hedging activities to limit the risk of exchange rate fluctuations.
We face risks in expanding our business operations in China.
One of our key strategies is to expand our business operations in China. However, we may be unsuccessful in implementing this strategy as planned or at all. Factors that could inhibit our successful expansion into China include its historically poor recognition of intellectual property rights and poor performance in stopping counterfeiting and piracy activity. If we are unable to successfully stop unauthorized use of our intellectual property and assure compliance by our Chinese licensees, we could experience increased operational and enforcement costs both inside and outside China.
Even if we are successful in expanding into China, we may be greatly impacted by the political, economic, and military conditions in China, Taiwan, North Korea, and South Korea. These countries have periodically conducted military exercises in or near the others territorial waters and airspace. Such disputes may continue or escalate, resulting in economic embargos, disruptions in shipping, or even military hostilities. This could severely harm our business by interrupting or delaying production or shipment of our products or products that incorporate our technology.
We depend on several suppliers, manufacturers, and distributors for some of our products, and the loss of any of these suppliers, manufacturers, or distributors could harm our business.
We purchase a small number of parts from sole-source suppliers. In addition, our professional audio encoding devices and movie theater playback systems are manufactured according to our specifications by single third-party manufacturers. Because we have no direct control over these third-party suppliers and manufacturers, interruptions or delays in the products and services provided by these third parties may be difficult to remedy in a timely fashion. In addition, if such suppliers or manufacturers are incapable of or unwilling to deliver the necessary parts or products, we may be unable to redesign our technology to work without such parts or find alternative suppliers or manufacturers. In such events, we could experience interruptions, delays, increased costs, or quality control problems.
In addition, we have entered into agreements with three companies to serve as our sole distributors for our DTS Entertainment products in the United States and Canada, Europe and Japan. We have no direct control over these distributors and any problems with their performance may take time to identify and/or remedy, and any remedial measures that we take may be unsuccessful. In addition, if any of these distributors were to go out of business, as one of our previous distributors did, or otherwise becomes incapable of continuing as our distributor, we could experience delays in distributing our DTS Entertainment products to the retail market, loss of inventory, and loss of revenue.
We rely on the accuracy of our customers manufacturing reports for reporting and collecting our revenues, and if these reports are untimely or incorrect, our revenues could be delayed or inaccurately reported.
A significant percentage of our revenues are generated from our consumer electronics products manufacturer customers who license and incorporate our technology in their consumer electronics products. Under our existing arrangements, these customers pay us per-unit licensing fees based on the number of consumer electronics products manufactured that incorporate our technology. We rely on our customers to accurately report the number of units manufactured in collecting our license fees, preparing our financial reports, projections, budgets, and directing our sales and product development efforts. Most of our license agreements permit us to audit our customers, but audits are generally expensive and time consuming and could harm our customer relationships. If any of our customer reports understate the number of products they manufacture, we may not collect and recognize revenues to which we are entitled.
A prolonged economic downturn could materially harm our business.
Negative trends in the general economy, including trends resulting from actual or threatened military action by the United States and threats of terrorist attacks on the United States and abroad, could cause a decrease in consumer spending on entertainment in general. Any reduction in consumer confidence or disposable income in general may affect the demand for consumer electronics products that incorporate our digital audio technology, audio DVDs that we produce and distribute through our DTS Entertainment label, and demand by film studios and movie theaters for our cinema products and services.
We may not successfully address problems encountered in connection with any acquisitions.
We acquired DTS DI in January 2005, and we expect to consider additional opportunities to acquire or make investments in other technologies, products, and businesses that could enhance our technical capabilities, complement our current products and services, or expand the breadth of our markets. We have a limited history of acquiring and integrating businesses. Acquisitions and strategic investments involve numerous risks, including:
· problems assimilating the purchased technologies, products, or business operations;
· significant future charges relating to in-process research and development and the amortization of intangible assets;
· significant amount of goodwill that is not amortizable and is subject to annual impairment review;
· problems maintaining uniform standards, procedures, controls, and policies;
· unanticipated costs associated with the acquisition, including accounting charges, capital expenditures, and transaction expenses;
· diversion of managements attention from our core business;
· adverse effects on existing business relationships with suppliers and customers;
· risks associated with entering markets in which we have no or limited prior experience; and
· potential loss of key employees of acquired organizations.
If we fail to properly evaluate and execute acquisitions and strategic investments, our management team may be distracted from our day-to-day operations, our business may be disrupted, and our operating results may suffer. In addition, if we finance acquisitions by issuing equity or convertible debt securities, our existing stockholders would be diluted.
We may have difficulty managing any growth that we might experience.
We expect to continue to experience growth in the scope of our operations and the number of our employees. If this growth continues, it will place a significant strain on our management team and on our operational and financial systems, procedures, and controls. Our future success will depend in part on the ability of our management team to manage any growth effectively. This will require our management to:
· hire and train additional personnel in the United States and internationally;
· implement and improve our operational and financial systems, procedures, and controls;
· maintain our cost structure at an appropriate level based on the revenues we generate;
· manage multiple concurrent development projects; and
· manage operations in multiple time zones with different cultures and languages.
Any failure to successfully manage our growth could distract managements attention, and result in our failure to execute our business plan. For instance, our acquisition of DTS DI has required significant time and attention from our management team. Any future growth could cause similar management challenges or create distractions.
We may experience fluctuations in our operating results.
We have historically experienced moderate seasonality in our business due to our business mix and the nature of our products. In our consumer business, consumer electronics manufacturing activities are generally lowest in the first calendar quarter of each year, and increase progressively throughout the remainder of the year. Manufacturing output is generally strongest in the third and fourth quarters as our technology licensees increase manufacturing to prepare for the holiday buying season. Since recognition of revenues in our consumer business generally lags manufacturing activity by one quarter, our revenues and earnings from the consumer business are generally lowest in the second quarter. Film licensing revenues are generally strongest in the second and fourth quarters due to the abundance of movies typically released during the summer and year-end holiday seasons. The introduction of new products and inclusion of our technologies in new and rapidly growing markets can distort the moderate seasonality described above. Our revenues may continue to be subject to seasonal fluctuations in the future. Unanticipated fluctuations in seasonality could cause us to miss our earnings projections which could cause our stock price to decline.
In addition, we actively engage in intellectual property compliance and enforcement activities focused on identifying third parties who have either incorporated our technology, trademarks, or know-how without a license or who have underreported to us the amount of royalties owed under license agreements with us. As a result of these activities, from time to time, we recognize royalty revenues that relate to consumer electronics manufacturing activities from prior periods. These royalty recoveries may cause revenues to be higher than expected during a particular reporting period and may not recur in future reporting periods. Such fluctuations in our revenues and operating results may cause declines in our stock price.
Accounting for employee stock options using the fair value method will reduce our net income.
There has been ongoing public debate whether stock options granted to employees should be treated as compensation expense and, if so, how to properly value such charges. Currently, we account for options
using the intrinsic value method, which results in no compensation expense, since we grant employee options with exercise prices equal to the fair market value of the underlying stock at the time of grant. If, however, we had used the fair value method of accounting for stock options granted to employees using a Black-Scholes option valuation formula, our net income for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2005, would have been reduced by $5.4 million, from $7.9 million to $2.5 million for the year. When we adopt SFAS No. 132R, Share-Based Payment, in the first quarter of 2006, we will have on-going accounting charges significantly greater than those we would have recorded under our current method of accounting for stock options, which will have a material adverse affect on our operating results.
We expect that the price of our common stock will fluctuate substantially.
The market price of our common stock is likely to be highly volatile and may fluctuate substantially due to many factors, including:
· actual or anticipated fluctuations in our results of operations;
· announcements of technological innovations or technology standards;
· announcements of significant contracts by us or our competitors;
· changes in our pricing policies or the pricing policies of our competitors;
· developments with respect to intellectual property rights;
· the introduction of new products or product enhancements by us or our competitors;
· the commencement of or our involvement in litigation;
· our sale of common stock or other securities in the future;
· conditions and trends in technology industries;
· changes in market valuation or earnings of our competitors;
· the trading volume of our common stock;
· changes in the estimation of the future size and growth rate of our markets; and
· general economic conditions.
In addition, the stock market in general, and the Nasdaq National Market and the market for technology companies in particular, has experienced extreme price and volume fluctuations that have often been unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of those companies. Further, the market prices of securities of technology companies have been particularly volatile. These broad market and industry factors may materially harm the market price of our common stock, regardless of our operating performance. In the past, following periods of volatility in the market price of a companys securities, securities class-action litigation has often been instituted against that company. Such litigation, if instituted against us, could result in substantial costs and a diversion of managements attention and resources.
Shares of our common stock are relatively illiquid.
As of December 31, 2005, we had 17,472,543 shares of common stock outstanding. As a result of our relatively small public float, our common shares may be less liquid than the common shares of companies with broader public ownership. Among other things, trading of a relatively small volume of our common shares may have a greater impact on the trading price for our shares than would be the case if our public float were larger.
Our future capital needs are uncertain and we may need to raise additional funds in the future, and such funds may not be available on acceptable terms or at all.
Our capital requirements will depend on many factors, including:
· acceptance of, and demand for, our products and technology;
· the costs of developing new products or technology;
· the extent to which we invest in new technology and research and development projects;
· the number and timing of acquisitions and other strategic transactions; and
· the costs associated with our expansion, if any.
In the future, we may need to raise additional funds, and such funds may not be available on favorable terms, or at all. Furthermore, if we issue equity or debt securities to raise additional funds, our existing stockholders may experience dilution, and the new equity or debt securities may have rights, preferences, and privileges senior to those of our existing stockholders. If we cannot raise funds on acceptable terms, we may not be able to develop or enhance our products and services, execute our business plan, take advantage of future opportunities, or respond to competitive pressures or unanticipated customer requirements. This may materially harm our business, results of operations, and financial condition.
Anti-takeover provisions under our charter documents and Delaware law could delay or prevent a change of control and could also limit the market price of our stock.
Our Restated Certificate of Incorporation and Restated Bylaws contain provisions that could delay or prevent a change of control of our company or changes in our Board of Directors that our stockholders might consider favorable. Some of these provisions:
· authorize the issuance of preferred stock which can be created and issued by the board of directors without prior stockholder approval, with rights senior to those of the common stock;
· provide for a classified Board of Directors, with each director serving a staggered three-year term;
· prohibit stockholders from filling board vacancies, calling special stockholder meetings, or taking action by written consent; and
· require advance written notice of stockholder proposals and director nominations.
In addition, we are governed by the provisions of Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporate Law, which may prohibit certain business combinations with stockholders owning 15% or more of our outstanding voting stock. These and other provisions in our Restated Certificate of Incorporation, Restated Bylaws and Delaware law could make it more difficult for stockholders or potential acquirors to obtain control of our Board or initiate actions that are opposed by the then-current Board, including delay or impede a merger, tender offer, or proxy contest involving our company. Any delay or prevention of a change of control transaction or changes in our Board could cause the market price of our common stock to decline.
Item 2. Properties
Our corporate headquarters and principal offices are located in Agoura Hills, California, where we lease approximately 48,000 square feet. This space is leased under three leases which expire in May 2007 and October 2007. We also lease smaller facilities in other locations including the United States, Canada, China, England, France, Italy, Northern Ireland, Hong Kong and Japan. We believe that our existing space is adequate for our current operations. We believe that suitable replacement and additional space will be available in the future on commercially reasonable terms.
Item 3. Legal Proceedings
In the ordinary course of our business, we actively pursue legal remedies to enforce our intellectual property rights and to stop unauthorized use of our technology and trademarks.
We are not a party to any material legal proceedings. We may, however, become subject to lawsuits from time to time in the course of our business.
We did not submit any matters to a vote of security holders during the fourth quarter of the year ended December 31, 2005.
Our common stock has been traded on the Nasdaq National Market under the symbol DTSI since our initial public offering on July 10, 2003. The following table sets forth, for the periods indicated, the high and low sales prices for our common stock as reported by the Nasdaq National Market:
As of January 25, 2006 there were approximately 3,500 stockholders of record of our common stock. We believe that the number of beneficial owners is substantially greater than the number of record holders because a large portion of our common stock is held of record through brokerage firms in street name.
We have never declared or paid any cash dividends on our common stock. We currently intend to retain all available funds to support our operations and to finance the growth and development of our business. We do not anticipate paying any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. Any future determination relating to dividend policy will be made at the discretion of our board of directors and will depend on a number of factors, including our future earnings, capital requirements, financial condition, future prospects, and other factors as the board of directors may deem relevant.
On July 15, 2003, we completed our initial public offering for the sale of 4,091,410 shares of common stock at a price to the public of $17.00 per share, which resulted in net proceeds of approximately $63.0 million after payment of the underwriters commissions and deductions of offering expenses. All of the shares of Common Stock sold in the offering were registered under the 1933 Act on a Registration Statement on Form S-1 (Reg. No. 333-104761) that was declared effective by the SEC on July 9, 2003 and a Registration Statement filed pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act that was filed on July 10, 2003 (Reg. No. 333-106920). Subsequent to the offering, we used approximately $22.5 million of our net proceeds to redeem all outstanding shares of redeemable preferred stock and to pay all accrued but unpaid dividends on such shares through the date of redemption. The remaining proceeds to us have conformed with our intended use outlined in the prospectus related to the offering. As of December 31, 2005, we have approximately $40.5 million remaining from the proceeds of the offering.
In the table below, we provide you with historical selected consolidated financial data of DTS, Inc. The consolidated statement of operations data for the years ended December 31, 2001 and 2002 and the consolidated balance sheet data as of December 31, 2001, 2002, and 2003 are derived from our audited consolidated financial statements for such periods and dates, which are not included in this Form 10-K. The consolidated statement of operations data for the years ended December 31, 2003, 2004, and 2005 and the consolidated balance sheet data as of December 31, 2004 and 2005 are derived from, and qualified by reference to, our audited consolidated financial statements for such periods and dates, which appear elsewhere in this Form 10-K. It is important that you read the selected consolidated financial data set forth below in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and related notes and Managements Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations included elsewhere in this Form 10-K. Our historical results are not necessarily indicative of the operating results that may be expected in the future. We have described various risks and uncertainties that could affect future operating results under the heading Risk Factors included elsewhere in this Form 10-K.
(1) As restated. See Note 2 included in our audited financial statements included elsewhere in this Form 10-K.
(2) Includes the results of operations for DTS Digital Images, Inc. We acquired this business in January 2005. In connection with this acquisition, we incurred a $2.3 million charge for in-process research and development.
See our consolidated financial statements and related notes for a description of the calculation of the historical net income attributable to common stockholders per common share and the weighted average number of shares used in computing the historical per common share data.
This Annual Report on Form 10-K and the documents incorporated herein by reference contain forward-looking statements based on our current expectations, estimates and projections about our industry, beliefs, and certain assumptions made by us. Words such as believes, anticipates, estimates, expects, projections, may, potential, plan, continue and words of similar import, constitute forward-looking statements. The forward-looking statements contained in this report involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause our actual results to be materially different from those expressed or implied by these statements. These factors include those listed under the Risk Factors section contained elsewhere in this Form 10-K, and the other documents we file with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, including our most recent reports on Form 8-K and Form 10-Q. We cannot guarantee future results, levels of activity, performance or achievements. We do not undertake any obligation to revise these forward-looking statements to reflect future events or circumstances.
You should read the following discussion of our financial condition and results of operations in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and the notes to those statements included elsewhere in this Form 10-K. This discussion may contain forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. Our actual results may differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of certain factors, such as those set forth under Risk Factors and elsewhere in this Form 10-K.
We are a leading provider of entertainment technology, products and services to the audio and image entertainment markets worldwide. Historically we have been focused on high quality digital multi-channel audio, commonly referred to as surround sound, which provides more than two-channels of audio, allowing the listener to simultaneously hear discrete sounds from multiple speakers. Our DTS digital multi-channel audio technology delivers compelling surround sound for the motion picture and consumer electronics markets. With our January 2005 acquisition of Lowry Digital Images, Inc., now DTS Digital Images, Inc., or DTS DI, we have expanded our business into high quality digital image processing, enhancement and restoration for the motion pictures, digital cinema, and televisions content.
We manage our business through three reportable segmentsour consumer business, our cinema business, and our digital images business.
In our consumer business, we derive revenues from licensing our audio technology, trademarks, and know-how under agreements with substantially all of the major consumer audio electronics manufacturers. Our business model provides for these manufacturers to pay us a per-unit amount for DTS-enabled products that they manufacture. We also derive revenues from licensing our technology to consumer semiconductor manufacturers. Through our DTS Entertainment label, we derive revenues from the sale of multi-channel music titles in our digital multi-channel format.
In our cinema business, we derive revenues from sales of our playback equipment and cinema processors to movie theaters and special venues. In addition, we license technology and sell encoding and duplication services to film producers and distributors for the creation of digital multi-channel motion picture soundtracks. We also derive revenues from the sale of systems and encoding services for Digital Cinema, pre-show advertising, alternative content, subtitling, captioning, and descriptive narration.
In our digital images business, we derive revenues from the processing, enhancement and restoration of cinema, home video and broadcast television content. We provide these services to motion picture and television studios and other content owners. We offer our services on either a fixed fee or time and materials basis.
We present revenues in our consolidated financial statements and in this Managements Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations as derived from (1) technology and film licensing and (2) product sales and other revenues. Our technology and film licensing revenues are derived from each of our consumer and cinema business segments. Revenues from technology licensing in connection with our consumer business segment include revenues derived from licensing our audio technology, trademarks, and know-how to consumer electronics, personal computer, video game and console, digital satellite and cable broadcast, and professional audio companies as well as to semiconductor manufacturers. Revenues from technology and film licensing in connection with our cinema business segment include revenues derived from film licensing and services that we provide to film studios for the production of soundtracks in our digital multi-channel format. Our product sales and other revenues are derived from our consumer, cinema and digital images business segments. Revenues from product sales and other revenues in connection with our consumer business segment include revenues derived from sales of music titles that we produce in our digital multi-channel format and sales of our professional audio products and services. Revenues from product sales and other revenues in connection with our cinema business segment include revenues derived from sales of our digital playback systems, cinema processor equipment, and systems for subtitling, captioning, and descriptive narration to movie theaters and special venues. Revenues from product sales and other revenues in connection with our digital images business segment include fees for processing, enhancing and restoring cinema, home video and broadcast television content.
We actively engage in intellectual property compliance and enforcement activities focused on identifying third parties who have either incorporated our technology, trademarks, or know-how without a license or who have under-reported to us the amount of royalties owed under license agreements with us. We continue to invest in our compliance and enforcement infrastructure to support the value of our intellectual property to us and our licensees and to improve the long-term realization of revenue from our intellectual property. As a result of these activities, from time to time, we recognize royalty revenues that relate to consumer electronics manufacturing activities from prior periods. These royalty recoveries may cause revenues to be higher than expected during a particular reporting period and may not occur in subsequent periods. While we consider such revenues to be a regular part our normal operations, we cannot predict the amount or timing of such revenues.
Our cost of goods sold consists primarily of amounts paid for products and materials, salaries and related benefits for production personnel, depreciation of production equipment, amortization of acquired intangibles and payments to third parties for licensing technology and copyrighted material.
Our selling, general, and administrative expenses consist primarily of salaries, commissions, and related benefits for personnel engaged in sales, corporate administration, finance, human resources, information systems, legal, and operations, and costs associated with promotional and other selling activities. Selling, general, and administrative expenses also include professional fees, facility-related expenses, and other general corporate expenses.
Our research and development costs consist primarily of salaries and related benefits for research and development personnel, engineering consulting expenses associated with new product and technology development, and quality assurance and testing costs. Research and development costs are expensed as incurred.
In our consumer business, we have a licensing team that markets our technology directly to large consumer electronics products manufacturers and semiconductor manufacturers. This team includes employees located in the United States, China, England, Japan, Hong Kong and Northern Ireland. We sell music content released under our DTS Entertainment label through exclusive distribution arrangements in the United States, Europe and Japan. We employ consultants to coordinate sales to independent retailers and we sell this music directly to consumers through an online store and other web-based retailers.
In our cinema business, our post-production department, senior management, and liaison offices market our products and services directly to individual film producers and distributors worldwide. We sell our digital multi-channel playback systems to movie theaters through a direct sales force and a network of independent dealers. To date, most of our sales and marketing efforts have been focused in the United States and Canada, Western Europe, and in targeted markets in Asia and Latin America. We have also begun to focus our efforts on pursuing theater companies that have a large concentration of movie theaters in selected foreign countries such as India, China, and Eastern Europe.
In our digital images business, our senior management team markets our services directly to directors, producers and content owners. The sales process typically involves an evaluation of the cinema, home video or broadcast television content to be enhanced or restored and a determination of the scope of services required to achieve the desired result. Our digital images services enable current or archived film content to be enhanced or restored for high quality, high definition presentation in digital cinema, high definition optical media or broadcast applications.
Revenue from our consumer segment constitutes the majority of our total revenues, representing 68% of total revenues in the fiscal years ended December 31, 2003 and 2004, and 64% of total revenues in the fiscal year ended December 31, 2005. Our consumer revenue is primarily dependent upon the home theater and DVD player markets, which have experienced rapid growth over the past several years. However, we have recently experienced softness in our DVD player trademark licensing program, and expect growth rates in this area to decline from recent levels. The success of DVD-Video-based systems and products has fueled a demand for higher quality entertainment in the home, and this demand is extending to the car audio and personal computer markets as well. We expect the recent acceleration of the market for high definition televisions to drive demand for high definition optical disc players beginning in 2006. Because we have been selected as a mandatory technology for next generation players, our consumer revenue growth should more closely track the growth rate of these players over the next several years. We expect that the market for high definition players will yield new growth that provides an offset to the expected decline in the overall growth in DVD player shipments. Further, we believe that expected mandatory inclusion in next generation optical disc standards will help to improve the adoption rate of our technologies in other consumer products such as next generation video game consoles, personal audio and video players, personal computers and in-car entertainment systems. If we are removed from mandatory
status in next generation high definition optical disc standards, it would cause revenue growth in our consumer business to be significantly lower than expected and would have a material adverse effect on our business.
In July 2004, we acquired QDesign Corporation, or QDesign, a company focused on lower bit-rate audio delivery technology. The market for higher quality entertainment is expanding into portable devices that require the use of low-bit rate audio coding systems including portable audio players, PDAs and wireless handset applications. Concurrent with this trend, there is a growing need for a good link between home and portable devices that preserves as much quality as possible and allows consumers a seamless technology solution for the storage and playback of their content. In October 2004, leveraging our existing research and development efforts and the intellectual property acquired in the QDesign acquisition, we launched our DTS-HD initiative. This technology is a scalable coding system that will allow content to be played in home and portable devices. We believe that the broad and robust nature of this offering improves the probability of inclusion of our technologies in next generation products.
Revenue from our cinema segment represented 32% of total revenues in the fiscal years ended December 31, 2003 and 2004, and 29% of total revenues in the fiscal year ended December 31, 2005. In our cinema business, 2005 was a solid year for sales of our playback hardware, with Cinema products and other revenue up 23% over 2004. We expect growth in our cinema audio hardware to continue at a modest pace in 2006. We also believe that the cinema exhibition community has recognized that pre-show entertainment represents a significant revenue growth opportunity that will lead to investment in pre-show solutions over the next several years. Because our XD10 Cinema Media Player can be configured to perform audio playback along with pre-show and subtitling presentation, we believe that we are well-positioned to participate in the anticipated growth in this market.
A trend that we believe will affect our cinema business segment is the long-term trend toward digital distribution of content. We believe this trend will involve the near-term adoption of digital pre-show and/or electronic cinema solutions, followed by longer-term adoption of higher quality digital cinema. Digital distribution of content offers the motion picture industry a means to achieve substantial cost savings, including the printing and distribution of movies, help in combating piracy, and will enable movies to be played repeatedly without degradation. It also provides additional revenue opportunities for cinema operators, as digital content such as advertisements, concerts and sporting events could be shown in or broadcast to digitally equipped theaters. We believe the widespread adoption of digital cinema will be longer-term because of the significant capital investment that will be required by cinema operators to purchase new equipment and solutions. We believe this represents an opportunity for us as we seek to provide products and services in support of the transition from film-based content towards digital cinema. However, our current digital cinema offerings are limited and we may not be successful in developing or selling competitive product offerings. We believe that the addition of our Cinema Media Network and variable bit rate JPEG 2000 encoding tools, along with the services provided by our digital images business, and the pre-show and alternative content capabilities of our XD10 Cinema Media Player, will enhance our ability to participate in the industry transition to high definition sound and images for digital cinema.
Sales of cinema products and film licensing tend to fluctuate based on the underlying trends in the motion picture industry. For instance, in the late 1990s various cinema operators aggressively built megaplexes, which resulted in an oversupply of screens in some domestic and international markets. The resulting oversupply of screens led to significant declines in revenues per screen, and eventually, many theaters were closed. As a result of the closures, sales of our playback systems and cinema processors suffered. As the theater industry has regained health in the last several years, sales of our DTS playback systems and cinema processors have improved. Our film licensing revenues are also subject to fluctuations
based on industry trends, most significantly, the number of films being made by studios and independent filmmakers.
Digital Images Segment
Revenue from our digital images segment, acquired in January 2005, represented 7% of total revenues for the year ended December 31, 2005. We believe that the growing market for high resolution and high definition content in the cinema and the home will create a substantial demand for the type of services provided by DTS DI. We believe that we have a technological advantage over many of our competitors based on the sophistication of our processes and level of automation used to enhance the image quality of entertainment content. Revenues in this business totaled $5.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2005. To date, this business has restored and/or enhanced over 100 feature films, including such major DVD releases as Star Wars and Indiana Jones. Major motion picture and television studios possess libraries containing thousands of titles, which we believe represent a sizable market opportunity for the services performed by DTS DI.
Managements Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations are based upon our consolidated financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States. The preparation of our financial statements requires us to make estimates and judgments that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues, and expenses, and related disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities. On an on-going basis, estimates are evaluated, including those related to revenue recognition, allowance for doubtful accounts, inventories, goodwill and intangible assets, income taxes, impairment of long-lived assets, product warranty, and stock-based compensation. These estimates are based on historical experience and on various other assumptions that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results may differ from these estimates.
We apply the following critical accounting policies in the preparation of our consolidated financial statements:
· Revenue Recognition. We recognize revenues in accordance with the guidelines of the SEC Staff Accounting Bulletin, or SAB, No. 101 as amended by SAB No. 104 Revenue recognition in Financial Statements. Revenues from multiple-element arrangements involving license fees, up-front payments and milestone payments, which are received and/or billable by us in connection with other rights and services that represent continuing obligations of ours, are deferred until all of the elements have been delivered or until we have established objective and verifiable evidence of the fair value of the undelivered elements.
Arrangements with multiple elements or deliverables must be segmented into individual units of accounting based on the separate deliverables only if there is objective and verifiable evidence of fair value to allocate the consideration received to the deliverables. Accordingly, revenues from multiple-element arrangements involving license fees, up-front payments and milestone payments, which are received and/or billable in connection with other rights and services that represent continuing obligations of ours, are deferred until all of the multiple elements have been delivered or until objective and verifiable evidence of the fair value of the undelivered elements has been established. Upon establishing objective and verifiable evidence of the fair value of the elements in multiple-element arrangements, the fair value is allocated to each element of the arrangement, such as products or additional add-ons, based on the relative fair values of the elements. We determine the fair value of each element in multiple-element arrangements based on objective and verifiable evidence of fair value, which is determined for each element based on the price charged when the same element is sold separately to a third party. If objective
and verifiable evidence of fair value of all undelivered elements exists but objective and verifiable evidence of fair value does not exist for one or more delivered elements, then revenue is recognized using the residual method. Under the residual method, the revenues from delivered elements are not recognized until the fair value of the undelivered element(s) have been determined. Significant contract interpretation is sometimes required to determine the appropriate accounting, including whether the deliverables specified in a multiple element arrangement should be treated as separate units of accounting for revenue recognition purposes, and if so, how the price should be allocated among the deliverable elements, when to recognize revenue for each element, and the period over which revenue should be recognized. Changes in the allocation of the sales price between delivered to undelivered elements might impact the timing of revenue recognition, but would not change the total revenue recognized on the contract.
We are responsible for the licensing and enforcement of our patented technologies and pursue third parties that are utilizing our intellectual property without a license or who have under-reported the amount of royalties owed under a license agreement with us. As a result of these activities, from time to time, we may recognize royalty revenues that relate to infringements that occurred in prior periods. These royalty recoveries may cause revenues to be higher than expected during a particular reporting period and may not occur in subsequent periods. Differences between amounts initially recognized and amounts subsequently audited or reported as an adjustment to those amounts due from licensees, will be recognized in the period such adjustment is determined or contracted, as appropriate, as a change in accounting estimate.
We make estimates and judgments when determining whether the collectibility of license fees receivable from licensees is reasonably assured. We assess the collectibility of accrued license fees based on a number of factors, including past transaction history with licensees and the credit-worthiness of licensees. If it is determined that collection is not reasonably assured, the fee is recognized when collectibility becomes reasonably assured, assuming all other revenue recognition criteria have been met, which is generally upon receipt of cash. Management estimates regarding collectibility impact the actual revenues recognized each period and the timing of the recognition of revenues. Our assumptions and judgments regarding future collectibility could differ from actual events, thus materially impacting our financial position and results of operations.
Revenues from the sale of cinema hardware products are recorded upon shipment, assuming title and risk of loss has transferred to the customer, we have no significant obligations remaining, prices are fixed or determinable, and collection of the related receivable is reasonably assured. The licensing, encoding and duplication of motion picture soundtracks for use in our playback systems is undertaken under arrangements with major film studios. Revenues arising from the licensing and duplication of soundtracks are recognized upon completion, assuming prices are fixed or determinable, we have no significant obligations remaining, and collection of the related receivable is reasonably assured.
Direct costs associated with deferred revenue are deferred and included in other assets. Included in the balance sheet are $2.6 million and $1.7 million of deferred revenue and costs, respectively, at December 31, 2005.
Revenues from licensing audio technology, trademarks, and know-how are generated from licensing agreements with consumer electronics products manufacturers that generally pay a per-unit license fee for products manufactured under those license agreements. Licensees generally report manufacturing information within 30 to 60 days after the end of the quarter in which such activity takes place. Consequently, we recognize revenue from these licensing agreements on a three-month lag basis, generally in the quarter following the quarter of manufacture, provided amounts are fixed or determinable and collection is reasonably assured. Use of this lag method allows for the receipt of licensee royalty reports prior to the recognition of revenue, since we cannot reliably estimate the amount of revenue earned prior to our receipt of such reports. Revenues from the sale of digital
multi-channel audio and video content are recorded upon shipment to retail accounts or end customers, assuming title and risk of loss has transferred, prices are fixed or determinable, we have no significant obligations remaining, and collection of the related receivable is reasonably assured. We provide for returns on product sales based on historical experience and adjust such reserves as considered necessary. To date, there have been no significant sales returns.
Revenues from digital image enhancement, restoration and repair are recognized when elements of a customer order or contract are delivered and accepted by the customer and no significant obligations remain. Prices are established in advance of the work performed and are generally fixed in nature. Revenue related to time and materials contracts is recognized as services are rendered at contract labor rates plus material and other direct costs incurred. If losses are anticipated on a contract, such losses are recognized immediately.
· Allowance for Doubtful Accounts. An allowance for doubtful accounts is maintained for estimated losses resulting from the inability of our customers to make required payments. If the financial condition of our customers were to deteriorate, resulting in an impairment of their ability to make payments, additional allowances may be required. In determining the reserve, we evaluate the collectibility of our accounts receivable based upon a variety of factors. In cases where we become aware of circumstances that may impair a specific customers ability to meet its financial obligations, we record a specific allowance against amounts due. For all other customers, we recognize allowances for doubtful accounts based on our historical write-off experience in conjunction with the length of time the receivables are past due, customer creditworthiness, geographic risk and the current business environment. Our allowances for doubtful accounts at December 31, 2004 and 2005 were not significant.
· Inventories. Inventory levels are based on projections of future demand and market conditions. Any sudden decline in demand and/or rapid product improvements and technological changes can result in excess and/or obsolete inventories. On an ongoing basis, inventories are reviewed and written down for estimated obsolescence or unmarketable inventories equal to the difference between the costs of inventories and the estimated net realizable value based upon forecasts for future demand and market conditions. If actual market conditions are less favorable than our forecasts, additional inventory reserves may be required. Estimates could be influenced by sudden declines in demand due to economic downturns, rapid product improvements, and technological changes. During 2004, we recorded a write-down of approximately $3.9 million related to our monochrome projector inventory as a result of our revised outlook based on declines in future demand and technological obsolescence.
· Goodwill and Intangible Assets. We account for goodwill in accordance with Statement of Financial Accounting Standards, or SFAS, No. 142, Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets, or SFAS 142, which, among other things, establishes new standards for goodwill acquired in a business combination, eliminates the amortization of goodwill and requires the carrying value of goodwill and certain non-amortizing intangibles to be evaluated for impairment on an annual basis. As required by SFAS 142, we perform an impairment test on recorded goodwill by comparing the estimated fair value of each of our reporting units to the carrying value of the assets and liabilities of each unit, including goodwill. We determine fair value of the reporting units principally based upon our managements determination of the value of our company as a whole. This value is determined by considering a number of factors, including our historical and projected financial results, valuation analyses, risks facing us and the liquidity of our common stock. If the carrying value of the assets and liabilities of the reporting units, including goodwill, were to exceed our estimation of the fair value of the reporting units, we would record an impairment charge in an amount equal to the excess of the carrying value of goodwill over the implied fair value of the
goodwill. Included in the balance sheet at December 31, 2005 is $3.6 million of goodwill in connection with our acquisition of DTS DI, which occurred in January 2005.
We account for intangible assets in accordance with SFAS 144. This standard requires that intangible assets with definite lives be amortized over their estimated useful lives and reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate an assets carrying value may not be recoverable. Recoverability of an asset is measured by comparison of its carrying amount to the expected future undiscounted cash flows that the asset is expected to generate. If it is determined that an asset is not recoverable, an impairment loss is recorded in the amount by which the carrying amount of the asset exceeds its fair value. Our intangible assets principally consist of acquired technology, which is being amortized over eleven years. No intangible or long-lived assets were impaired as of December 31, 2005.
· Acquired In-Process Research and Development. The value assigned to acquired in-process research and development is determined by identifying acquired specific in-process research and development projects that would be continued and for which, upon consummation of a business combination, (1) technological feasibility has not been established at the acquisition date, (2) there is no alternative future use, and (3) the fair value is estimable with reasonable reliability.
· Impairment of Long-Lived Assets. We periodically assess potential impairments of our long-lived assets in accordance with the provisions of SFAS 144, Accounting for the Impairment or Disposal of Long-lived Assets. An impairment review is performed whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value may not be recoverable. Factors considered by us include, but are not limited to, significant underperformance relative to expected historical or projected future operating results; significant changes in the manner of use of the acquired assets or the strategy for our overall business; and significant negative industry or economic trends. When we determine that the carrying value of a long-lived asset may not be recoverable based upon the existence of one or more of the above indicators of impairment, we estimate the future undiscounted cash flows expected to result from the use of the asset and its eventual disposition. If the sum of the expected future undiscounted cash flows and eventual disposition is less than the carrying amount of the asset, we recognize an impairment loss. An impairment loss is reflected as the amount by which the carrying amount of the asset exceeds the fair value of the asset, based on the fair market value if available, or discounted cash flows, if not. To date, we have not had an impairment of long-lived assets.
· Product Warranty. We generally warranty our products against defects in materials and workmanship for either a one or three year term after sale and provide for estimated future warranty costs at the time revenues are recognized. Our warranty obligation is affected by the length of product warranties, product failure rates, material usage, and service delivery costs incurred in correcting product failures. Should actual product failure rates, material usage, or service delivery costs differ from our estimates, revisions to the estimated warranty liability would be required. Our warranty reserves at December 31, 2004 and 2005 were not significant.
· Stock-based Compensation. We account for employee stock option and purchase plans in accordance with the provisions of Accounting Principals Board, or APB, Opinion No. 25, Accounting for Stock Issued to Employees and the related interpretations of the Financial Accounting Standards Board, or FASB, Accounting for Certain Transactions Involving Stock Compensation. Accordingly, compensation expense related to employee stock options is recorded if, on the date of the grant, the fair value of the underlying stock exceeds the exercise price. Upon adoption of SFAS 123R in the first quarter of 2006, mentioned in Recently Issued Accounting Standards included elsewhere in this document, we expect to incur significant charges to the statement of operations.
· Income taxes. We must make certain estimates and judgments in determining income tax expense for financial statement purposes. These estimates and judgments occur in the calculation of certain tax assets and liabilities, which arise from differences in the timing of recognition of revenue and expense for tax and financial statement purposes.
We must assess the likelihood that we will be able to recover our deferred tax assets. If recovery is not likely, we must increase our provision for taxes by recording a valuation allowance against the deferred tax assets that we estimate will not ultimately be recoverable. As of December 31, 2005, we believe that all of the deferred tax assets recorded on our balance sheet would ultimately be recovered. However, should there be a change in our ability to recover our deferred tax assets, our tax provision would increase in the period in which we determine that the recovery is not probable.
Income taxes receivable, net at December 31, 2004 and 2005, includes estimated tax contingencies of $1.8 million and $1.4 million, respectively, for both domestic and foreign issues. Inherent uncertainties exist in estimating tax contingencies due to the progress of income tax audits and changes in tax law, both legislated and concluded through the various jurisdictions tax court systems.
Our reportable segment and geographic information is as follows (in thousands):
The following table sets forth, for the periods indicated, long-lived assets by geographic region in which we hold assets (in thousands):
Results of Operations
The following table sets forth our results of operations expressed as a percentage of total revenues:
Comparison of Years Ended December 31, 2005 and 2004
Technology and Film Licensing. Technology and film licensing revenues for the year ended December 31, 2005 increased 14% to $56.9 million from $49.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2004. The increase in revenues from technology and film licensing was primarily attributable to an increase in royalty recoveries of $7.3 million from intellectual property compliance and enforcement activities in the current period relative to the prior year. These activities, which included audits of shipments by certain of our licensees and legal actions taken against licensees and parties who are not our licensees, resulted in recoveries of royalty payments relating to prior periods. We are experiencing good growth in our personal computer licensing and in car audio systems, which posted year over year growth totals of 150% and 21%, respectively, in 2005. We remain cautious in our outlook due to uncertainties surrounding the consumer electronics market. Overall, we continue to expect technology licensing revenues to grow modestly for 2006, based primarily on the expected continuation of growth in our decoder licensing program and from our license enforcement activities. Our film licensing revenues increased slightly in 2005 compared to the prior year due to additional releases in the DTS format and the timing of major feature film releases.
Product Sales and Other. Product sales and other revenues increased 59% to $18.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2005 from $11.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2004. This increase was primarily attributable to revenues generated by DTS DI, which we acquired in January 2005, along with an increase in Cinema hardware sales of $2.1 million. Stronger demand for our XD10 Cinema Media Player and XD10P Cinema Audio Processor were primary drivers of sales. Product sales and other revenue is expected to grow at a modest rate in 2006, as we continue to expect market interest in multi-function playback devices to develop at a measured pace.
Segment Sales. Revenues from our consumer business totaled $48.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2005, an increase of 15% from $41.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2004. The increase in revenues was driven primarily by an increase in royalty recoveries mentioned above as well as the overall growth in our personal computer and car audio markets. Cinema revenues were $21.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2005, an increase of 11% from $19.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2004. The increase in revenues was driven primarily by an increase in cinema hardware revenues. Revenues from our digital images business were $5.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2005, the first year these revenues have been included in our results of operations.
Consolidated gross profit remained consistent between years at 74%, and we expect this trend to continue into 2006. An increase in cinema gross profit, primarily due to an increase in sales of our higher margin XD10 Cinema Media Player, offset the decrease in consolidated gross profit due to the inclusion of DTS DI in our 2005 revenues.
Technology and Film Licensing. Gross profit associated with technology and film licensing revenues increased slightly to 92% for the year ended December 31, 2005, from 91% of related revenues for the year ended December 31, 2004, respectively and we expect this rate to increase slightly during 2006 due to a higher mix of technology licensing relative to film licensing.
Product Sales and Other. Gross profit associated with product sales and other revenues increased to 19% of related revenues for the year ended December 31, 2005 from (2)% in the prior year period due to the inventory write-down in 2004. The current period margin is the result of a loss in our digital images business due to high fixed overhead costs and amortization of acquired intangibles.
Segment Gross Profit. Gross profit for our consumer business remained consistent between years at 95% and we expect this trend to continue into 2006. Our cinema business gross profit increased to 49% of
related revenues for the year ended December 31, 2005 from 28% in the prior year period primarily due to higher margin hardware sales. Our digital images business experienced low gross margins due to lower than anticipated revenues and the amortization of acquired intangibles included in cost of goods sold of $977,000. We expect margins in the digital images business to improve in 2006 as we re-focus on more profitable projects and complete a large project. Gross margins for this project will be unusually high upon completion because all revenue was deferred during 2005, but a significant portion of the restoration costs did not qualify for deferral.
Selling, General and Administrative
Selling, general and administrative expenses increased 23% to $34.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2005, compared to $27.7 million in the prior year period. The increase is primarily due to increases in salaries and related costs of $3.5 million as we increased headcount to support our growth. Other expenses related to growth of our operations, such as depreciation, travel and entertainment, increased approximately $828,000. Also contributing to the increase was $1.6 million relating to the inclusion of DTS DI in our results of operations.
We expect selling, general and administrative expenses to increase as a whole to support our growth initiatives including acquisitions, international expansion and intellectual property enforcement activities.
Research and Development
For the year ended December 31, 2005, research and development expenses were $9.9 million, compared to $6.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2004. The increase is primarily due to increased labor costs associated with new product initiatives, the optimization of our Coherent Acoustics technology, and the development of tools associated with next generation optical disc standards. Also contributing to the increase was $1.1 million relating to the inclusion of DTS DI research and development activities in our results of operations.
We expect to continue to increase our investment in applications engineering and research and development activities overall in future periods, primarily in support of new product initiatives, the roll out of next generation optical disc standards and the continued optimization of our Coherent Acoustics technology.
In-Process Research and Development
In-process research and development of $2.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2005, relates to development projects that had not reached technological feasibility, were of no future alternative use and which were expensed upon consummation of the acquisition of DTS DI. Developed technology and in-process research and development were identified and valued through extensive interviews, analysis of data provided by DTS DI concerning development projects, their stage of development, the time and resources needed to complete them, if applicable, and their expected income generating ability and associated risks. Where development projects had reached technological feasibility, they were classified as developed technology and the value assigned to developed technology was capitalized. The income approach, which includes an analysis of the cash flows and risks associated with achieving such cash flows, was the primary technique utilized in valuing acquired in-process research and development. Key assumptions for in-process research and development included a discount rate of 30% and estimates of revenue growth, cost of sales, operating expenses and taxes.
Interest (Income) Expense, Net
Interest income, net, for the year ended December 31, 2005 increased significantly over the same period of the prior year due to the generally improved interest rate environment.
Income From Legal Settlement
In May 2004, we reached a settlement with Mintek for $3.5 million for trademark infringement, false designation of origin, trademark dilution, and unfair competition relating to Minteks distribution of DVD players bearing our registered trademarks without obtaining a license from us. In the year ended December 31, 2004 we recognized $899,000 in revenue under the settlement agreement for royalties due on known units that could be identified as using our trademark and accounted for the remaining $2.6 million as other income.
For the year ended December 31, 2005, we recorded an income tax provision of $4.3 million on pre-tax income of $12.2 million. This resulted in an annualized effective tax rate of 35%. For the year ended December 31, 2004, we recorded an income tax provision of $5.5 million on pre-tax income of $15.5 million. This resulted in an annualized effective tax rate of 36%. These rates differed from the statutory rates primarily due to state income taxes offset by benefits associated with the foreign rate differentials and research and development credits. We expect the effective tax rate for 2006 will be in the range of 37% to 38%.
Technology and Film Licensing. Technology and film licensing revenues for the year ended December 31, 2004 increased 18% to $49.9 million from $42.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2003. The increase in revenues from technology and film licensing was primarily attributable to continued growth in consumer electronics licensing, driven by an increase in the number of DVD-based home entertainment systems that incorporate DTS technology, such as audio/video receivers, DVD players, and home-theater-in-a-box systems. The increase also related to revenues recognized as a result of intellectual property compliance and enforcement activities. In addition, our film licensing revenues increased moderately in 2004 due to revenues generated from increases in the number of U.S. films released, foreign language dubbed versions of major films, and foreign original-version films released with a DTS soundtrack.
Product Sales and Other. Product sales and other revenues increased 22% to $11.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2004 from $9.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2003. This increase was primarily attributable to increased purchases by theater operators of our cinema processors and playback equipment by theater operators as a result of the film exhibition industrys return to growth as well as solid interest in our XD10 Cinema Media Player.
Segment Sales. Revenues from our consumer business totaled $41.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2004, an increase of 18% from $35.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2003. The increase in revenues was driven by the growth in consumer electronics technology licensing as mentioned above. Cinema revenues were $19.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2004, up 20% from the same period in the prior year due primarily to growth in the sales of our cinema audio products, driven by the film exhibition industry return to growth, as mentioned above.
Consolidated gross profit decreased to 74% of revenues for the year ended December 31, 2004, from 79% for the year ended December 31, 2003. The decrease was primarily due to the write-down of our monochrome projector inventory of approximately $3.9 million in 2004 that was a result of our revised outlook based on declines in future demand and technological obsolescence.
Technology and Film Licensing. Gross profit associated with technology and film licensing revenues increased slightly to 91% for the year ended December 31, 2004, from 90% of related revenues for the year ended December 31, 2003.
Product Sales and Other. Gross profit associated with product sales and other revenues decreased to (2)% of related revenues for the year ended December 31, 2004 from 29% in the prior year period due to the inventory write-down discussed above.
Segment Gross Profit. Gross profit for our consumer business remained consistent between years at 95%. Our cinema business gross profit decreased to 28% of related revenues for the year ended December 31, 2004 from 44% in the prior year period primarily due to the write-down of the monochrome projector inventory discussed above. The impact of this write-down on gross profit was partially offset by the increase in revenue for our cinema business year-over-year relative to fixed costs.
Selling, General and Administrative
Selling, general and administrative expenses increased 35% to $27.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2004, compared to $20.5 million in the prior year period. The increase was primarily due to increases in professional services of $2.5 million, which includes costs associated with our increased intellectual property compliance and enforcement activities, Sarbanes-Oxley related costs and other costs associated with operating as a public company. Also contributing to the increase was an increase of $2.2 million in salaries and related costs as we increased headcount to support our growth. The increase also includes increases in advertising and promotion costs related to new product introductions, and insurance costs. Salaries and related costs include stock-based compensation, which decreased to $273,000 for the year ended December 31, 2004 from $497,000 in the prior year period. Stock-based compensation for the prior period primarily consisted of a charge related to the issuance of a warrant. Included in professional services for the year ended December 31, 2004 was approximately $300,000 in legal costs related to our settlement with Mintek that was reached in May 2004.
Costs of compliance with the Sarbanes-Oxley Act were approximately $899,000 for the year ended December 31, 2004.
Research and Development
For the year ended December 31, 2004, research and development expenses were $6.1 million, compared to $5.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2003. The increase was primarily due to increased labor costs associated with new product initiatives and the optimization of our Coherent Acoustics technology for new consumer electronics applications and development of tools associated with next generation optical disc standards.
Interest (Income) Expense, Net
Interest income, net, for the year ended December 31, 2004 increased significantly over the previous year due to increased investment income relating to proceeds from our initial and follow-on public offerings in July and November of 2003.
Income From Legal Settlement
In May 2004, we reached our settlement with Mintek for $3.5 million. In the year ended December 31, 2004, we recognized $899,000 in revenue under the settlement agreement for royalties due on known units that could be identified as using our trademark and accounted for the remaining $2.6 million as other income. Selling, general and administrative expenses for the year ended December 31, 2004 included
approximately $300,000 in legal fees related to the Mintek case. Legal fees related to Mintek were approximately $200,000 for 2003.
For the year ended December 31, 2004, we recorded an income tax provision of $5.5 million on pre-tax income of $15.6 million. This resulted in an annualized effective tax rate of 36%. For the year ended December 31, 2003, we recorded an income tax provision of $5.4 million on pre-tax income of $15.3 million. This resulted in an annualized effective tax rate of 35%. These rates differed from the statutory rates primarily due to state income taxes offset by benefits associated with the foreign rate differentials and research and development credits.
At December 31, 2005, we had cash, cash equivalents, and short-term investments of $111.4 million, compared to $114.3 million at December 31, 2004. In addition, we had long-term investments of $2.7 at December 31, 2004.
Since our inception, we have financed our operations through sales of redeemable preferred stock, borrowings under bank line of credit arrangements, internally generated cash flows and proceeds from our initial and follow-on public offerings. At December 31, 2005, we had no outstanding borrowings under our bank facility, which expires on June 30, 2006 and is renewable annually . The bank facility provides for working capital financing and is unsecured. The bank agreement requires us to comply with certain covenants including a tangible effective net worth of $60.0 million increasing by 50% of net income on an annual basis. The covenants also require us to keep $2.0 million in cash or securities at the bank. Availability under this facility was $10.0 million at December 31, 2005. Future borrowings will bear interest based on either of the two options selected at the time of advances: 1) a rate equal to 2% above the Banks LIBOR, or 2) a rate equal to the Base Rate as quoted from the bank less one-half percent.
Through December 31, 2005, we have raised $14.7 million in cash through the sale of mandatorily redeemable preferred stock, net proceeds of $63.0 million from our initial public offering and net proceeds of $48.9 million from our follow-on public offering. The preferred stock was redeemable at the original issuance price of $2.019 per share plus dividends accumulating at 8% per annum through October 24, 2002 and 10% per annum from October 25, 2002 through the date of redemption. We used approximately $22.5 million from the proceeds of our initial public offering to redeem all shares of the preferred stock and to pay all accrued but unpaid dividends on such shares through the date of redemption.
Net cash provided by operating activities was $9.2 million, $17.6 million and $9.6 million for the years ended December 31, 2003, 2004 and 2005, respectively. Accounts receivable increased $2.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2005 due to royalty recoveries and other accrued license fees. Our tax benefit from the exercise of options decreased $4.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2005, compared to the prior year. Our income tax receivable increased $2.6 million as a result of overpayments in the later portion of 2005. Included in 2004 was an unusually high volume of option exercises during the year subsequent to our initial public offering lockup release in early 2004. Additionally, lower average market prices for shares of our common stock in 2005 relative to the same period in 2004 resulted in lower option exercise activity during 2005. As part of the acquisition of DTS DI, we assumed $1.8 million in liabilities and a significant portion of these liabilities were paid during 2005. Upon the adoption of SFAS 123R, the tax benefits for employee benefit plans will be included as a financing activity.
We use cash in investing activities primarily to purchase office equipment, fixtures, computer hardware and software, engineering and manufacturing test and certification equipment, for securing patent and trademark protection for our proprietary technology and brand name, and to purchase short-term investments such as bank certificates of deposit, municipal bonds and auction rate securities. Cash
used in investing activities totaled $62.0 million and $36.8 million in the years ended December 31, 2003 and 2004, respectively. Cash provided by investing activities totaled $1.4 million in the year ended December 31, 2005. The increase in cash provided by investing activities is primarily the result of investment sales and maturities, net of purchases, of $17.5 million in the year ended December 31, 2005, compared to cash used for investment purchases, net of sales and maturities, of $61.0 million and $32.6 million in the years ended December 31, 2003 and 2004, respectively. In December 2004, in advance of our acquisition of DTS DI in January 2005, we provided bridge financing of approximately $1.3 million to DTS DI and also acquired QDesign for net cash of $1.4 million during 2004. The principal and interest outstanding under the bridge loan reduced the amount we paid to acquire DTS DI by the aggregate amount due. In January 2005, we used $11.0 million for our purchase of DTS DI. We continue to invest in property and equipment, including office equipment and fixtures, engineering and manufacturing test equipment, and computer hardware and software.
Net cash flows used in financing activities totaled $90.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2003. For the years ended December 31, 2004 and 2005, cash provided by financing activities were $1.3 million and $1.1 million, respectively. For the year ended December 31, 2003, cash provided by financing activities was $90.1 million representing net proceeds of $63.0 million from our initial public offering and proceeds of $48.9 million from our follow-on public offering. These cash inflows were partially offset by cash dividends paid to our preferred stockholders totaling $6.8 million as well as payments of $15.8 million to redeem the principal value of our mandatorily redeemable preferred stock. For the year ended December 31, 2004, cash provided by financing activities primarily consisted of proceeds from the issuance of common stock under our option and employee stock purchase plans. For the year ended December 31, 2005, cash provided by financing activities primarily consists of the exercise of stock options and purchases of stock under our employee stock purchase plan.
We entered into an agreement for the purchase and implementation of a new enterprise resource planning system, or ERP, for approximately $747,000. We expect that we will incur additional costs in the range of $2 to $4 million over the next several years in connection with our ERP implementation.
We believe that our cash, cash equivalents, short-term investments, funds available under our existing bank line of credit facility, and cash flows from operations will be sufficient to satisfy our working capital and capital expenditure requirements for at least the next twelve months. Beyond the next twelve months, additional financing may be required to fund working capital and capital expenditures. Changes in our operating plans, lower than anticipated revenues, increased expenses, acquisition of companies, products or technologies or other events, including those described in Risk Factors included herein and in any other filings may cause us to seek additional debt or equity financing on an accelerated basis. Financing may not be available on acceptable terms, or at all, and our failure to raise capital when needed could negatively impact our growth plans and our financial condition and results of operations. Additional equity financing may be dilutive to the holders of our common stock and debt financing, if available, may involve significant cash payment obligations and financial or operational covenants that restrict our ability to operate our business.
Future payments due under non-cancelable lease obligations and commitments at of December 31, 2005 are described below (in thousands):
Purchase orders or contracts for the purchase of raw materials and other goods and services are not included in the table above. We are not able to determine the aggregate amount of such purchase orders that represent contractual obligations, as purchase orders may represent authorizations to purchase rather than binding agreements. Our purchase orders are typically based on our current needs and are typically fulfilled by our vendors within short time horizons.
We also enter into contracts with manufacturers to provide certain manufacturing services. If we were to have terminated these contracts at December 31, 2005, we would have to make payments of approximately $1.9 million.
We believe that our cash and cash equivalents, short-term investments, funds available under our existing bank line of credit facility, and cash flows from operations will be sufficient to satisfy our working capital and capital expenditure requirements for at least the next twelve months. Beyond the next twelve months, additional financing may be required to fund working capital and capital expenditures. Changes in our operating plans, lower than anticipated revenues, increased expenses, acquisitions of companies, products or technologies or other events, including those described in Risk Factors, may cause us to seek additional debt or equity financing on an accelerated basis. Financing may not be available on acceptable terms, or at all, and our failure to raise capital when needed could negatively impact our growth plans and our financial condition and results of operations. Additional equity financing may be dilutive to the holders of our common stock and debt financing, if available, may involve significant cash payment obligations and covenants and/or financial ratios that restrict our ability to operate our business.
The following table sets forth the unaudited quarterly results of operations for each of the eight quarters ended December 31, 2005, as well as the same data expressed as a percentage of our total revenues for the periods indicated. This information includes all adjustments management considers necessary for the fair presentation of such data. The information for each quarter is unaudited and we have prepared it on the same basis as the audited consolidated financial statements appearing elsewhere in this Form 10-K. In the opinion of management, all necessary adjustments, consisting only of normal recurring adjustments, have been included to present fairly the unaudited quarterly results. The results of historical periods are not necessarily indicative of results for any future period.
Generally, consumer electronics manufacturing activities are lowest in the first calendar quarter of each year, and increase progressively throughout the remainder of the year. The third and fourth quarters are typically the strongest in terms of manufacturing output as our technology licensees increase their manufacturing output to prepare for the holiday buying season. Since recognition of revenues in our consumer business generally lags manufacturing activity by one quarter, our revenues and earnings are generally lowest in the second quarter. Film licensing revenues are typically strongest in the second and fourth quarters due to the abundance of movies typically released during the summer and year-end holiday seasons. In general, the introduction of new products and inclusion of DTS technologies in new and rapidly
growing markets can have a material effect on quarterly revenues and profits, and can distort the moderate seasonality described above.