Downey Financial 10-K 2005
Documents found in this filing:
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Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes þ No ¨
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of Registrant's knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K. ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is an accelerated filer (as defined in Exchange Act Rule 12b-2).
The aggregate market value of the registrants outstanding Common Stock held by non-affiliates on June 30, 2004, based upon the closing sale price on that date of $53.25, as quoted on the New York Stock Exchange, was $1,121,632,121.
At February 28, 2005, 27,853,783 shares of the Registrant's Common Stock, $0.01 par value, were outstanding.
Documents Incorporated by Reference: Portions of the Registrant's Proxy Statement to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission in connection with the Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be held April 27, 2005 are incorporated by reference in Part III hereof.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Certain matters discussed in this Annual Report may constitute forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 and, as such, may involve risks and uncertainties. These forward-looking statements relate to, among other things, expectations of the business environment in which Downey Financial Corp. ("Downey," "we," "us" and "our") operates, projections of future performance, perceived opportunities in the market and statements regarding our mission and vision. Some forward-looking statements may be identified by use of terms such as "expects," "anticipates," "intends," "plans," "believes," "seeks," "estimates," or words of similar meaning, or future or conditional verbs such as "will," "would," "should," "could" or "may." Our actual results, performance or achievements may differ significantly from the results, performance or achievements expressed or implied in such forward-looking statements. We do not undertake to update forward-looking statements to reflect the impact of circumstances or events that arise after the date the forward-looking statements were made. For additional information concerning these factors, see Factors That May Affect Future Results Of Operations on page 18.
ITEM 1. BUSINESS
We were incorporated in Delaware on October 21, 1994. On January 23, 1995, after we obtained necessary stockholder and regulatory approvals, we acquired 100% of the issued and outstanding capital stock of Downey Savings and Loan Association ("Bank") and the Banks stockholders became holders of our stock. Downey was thereafter funded by the Bank and presently operates as the Banks holding company. Our stock is traded on the New York Stock Exchange and Pacific Exchange under the trading symbol "DSL." Corporate governance guidelines, charters for the audit, compensation, and nominating and corporate governance committees of the Board of Directors and code of business conduct and ethics are available free of charge from our internet site, www.downeysavings.com by clicking on "Investor Relations" on our home page and proceeding to "Corporate Governance." Annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and all amendments to those reports are posted on our internet site as soon as reasonably practical after we file them with the SEC and available free of charge under "Corporate Filings" on our "Investor Relations" page.
The Bank was formed in 1957 as a California-licensed savings and loan association and converted to a federal charter in 1995. As of December 31, 2004, it conducts its business primarily through 169 retail deposit branches, including 93 full-service, in-store branches.
The Bank is regulated or affected by the following governmental entities and laws:
General economic conditions, the monetary and fiscal policies of the federal government and the regulatory policies of governmental authorities significantly influence our operations. Additionally, interest rates on competing investments and general market interest rates influence our deposit flows and the costs we incur on interest-bearing liabilities, which represents our cost of funds. Similarly, market interest rates and other factors
that affect the supply of and demand for housing and the availability of funds affect our loan volume, our yields on loans and mortgage-backed securities as well as the valuation of our mortgage servicing rights ("MSRs") associated with the portfolio of loans we service for others.
Our primary business is banking and we are also involved in real estate investments, each of which we discuss further below.
Our primary business is banking. Our banking activities focus on:
These mortgage-backed securities include mortgage pass-through securities issued by other entities and securities issued or guaranteed by government-sponsored enterprises like the Federal National Mortgage Association, the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation and the Government National Mortgage Association.
Our primary sources of revenue from our banking business are:
Our principal expenses in connection with our banking business are:
Our primary sources of funds from our banking business are:
Scheduled payments we receive on our loans and mortgage-backed securities and certain fees from loans and deposits are a relatively stable source of funds. However, the funds we receive from the prepayment of loans and mortgage-backed securities vary widely. Below is a detailed discussion of our banking activities.
Historically, our lending activities have primarily emphasized our origination of first mortgage loans secured by residential properties and retail neighborhood shopping centers. To a lesser extent, our lending activities have emphasized our origination of real estate loans secured by multi-family and commercial properties, including land and other properties with income producing capabilities and consumer loans, primarily home equity loans and home equity lines of credit. In addition, we have provided construction loan financing for single family and multi-family residential properties and commercial retail neighborhood shopping center projects. These construction loan financings have included loans to joint ventures, which were being engaged in by DSL Service Company, a wholly owned subsidiary of the Bank, with other participants. We also originate loans to businesses.
Our primary focus continues to be our origination of adjustable rate single family mortgage loans for portfolio, including subprime loans which carry higher interest rates. In addition, we will originate for portfolio other loans including:
We will also continue our secondary marketing activities of originating and selling single family mortgage loans to various investors.
For more information, see Secondary Marketing and Loan Servicing Activities on page 5. For additional information on the composition of our loan and mortgage-backed securities portfolio, see Loans and Mortgage-Backed Securities on page 35.
Loan and Mortgage-Backed Securities Portfolio
We carry loans receivable held for investment at cost. Our net loans receivable are adjusted for unamortized premiums and unearned discounts, which are amortized into interest income using the interest method. Our investments in mortgage-backed securities represent participating interests in pools of first mortgage loans originated and serviced by the issuers of the securities. We carry mortgage-backed securities held to maturity at unpaid principal balances, which are adjusted for unamortized premiums and unearned discounts. We amortize premiums and discounts on mortgage-backed securities by using the interest method over the remaining period to contractual maturity, adjusted for anticipated prepayments.
We identify loans that may be sold before their maturity. In our balance sheets, we classify these as loans held for sale and record them at the lower of cost or fair value. The cost includes a basis adjustment to the loan at funding resulting from the change in the fair value of the associated interest rate lock derivative from the date of commitment to the date of funding. We recognize net unrealized losses on these loans, if any, in a valuation allowance by making charges to our income.
We carry mortgage-backed securities available for sale at fair value. In stockholders equity, we report net unrealized gains or losses on these securities, net of income taxes, as accumulated other comprehensive income until realized, unless the security is deemed other than temporarily impaired. If the security is determined to be other than temporarily impaired, we charge the amount of the impairment to operations.
Residential Real Estate Lending
Our primary lending activity is our origination of mortgage loans secured by single family residential properties consisting of one-to-four units located primarily in California. Residential loans are originated or purchased:
We provide these loans for borrowers to purchase residences or to refinance their existing mortgages and typically have contractual maturities at origination of 15 to 40 years. To limit the interest rate risk associated with these 15- to 40-year maturities, we, among other things, principally originate adjustable rate mortgages for our own loan portfolio. For more information, see Asset/Liability Management on page 8. We also originate residential fixed rate mortgage loans to meet consumer demand, but we sell the majority of these loans in the secondary market, rather than hold them in our portfolio. We may, however, place residential fixed rate loans in our portfolio of loans held for investment if these fixed rate loans are funded with long-term funds to mitigate interest rate risk. In addition, we originate a small volume of fixed rate loans for our own investment, which may not be funded with
long-term funds, if they meet specific yield and other approved guidelines, or to facilitate our sale of real estate acquired in settlement of loans. The average term of these fixed rate mortgage loans we originate for our own portfolio historically has been significantly shorter than their contractual maturity as a result of home sales, refinancings and prepayments. For more information, see Secondary Marketing and Loan Servicing Activities on page 5.
Our adjustable rate mortgages:
Most of our adjustable rate mortgages adjust the interest rate monthly and the payment amount annually. These monthly adjustable rate mortgages:
If a loan incurs significant negative amortization, the loan-to-value ratio could increase which also increases credit risk, as the fair value of the underlying collateral could be insufficient to satisfy fully the outstanding loan obligation. A loan-to-value ratio is the ratio of the principal amount of the loan to the lower of the sales price or appraised value of the property securing the loan at origination. Our loan contracts limit the amount of negative amortization that can occur. Our current practice imposes a limit on the amount of negative amortization on all our loans we originate to 110% of the original loan amount. However, our loan portfolio held for investment does contain loans previously originated with a contract limit of principal plus negative amortization of 125% of the original loan amount. At year-end 2004, loans with the higher 125% limit on negative amortization represented 11% of our adjustable rate one-to-four unit residential portfolio, while those with the 110% limit represented 71%. We permit adjustable rate mortgages to be assumed by qualified borrowers.
During 2004, approximately 88% of our one-to-four unit residential real estate loans were originated or purchased through outside mortgage brokers with the remaining amount originated by our branch managers and residential loan officers. Mortgage brokers do not operate from our offices and are not our employees.
We require that our residential real estate loans be approved at various levels of management, depending upon the amount of the loan. On a single family residential loan we originate for our portfolio, the maximum amount we generally will lend is $2 million. Our average loan size, however, is much lower. In 2004, our average loan size was $316,000. We generally make loans with loan-to-value ratios not exceeding 80%. We will make loans with loan-to-value ratios of over 80%, if the borrower obtains private mortgage insurance to reduce the effective loan-to-value ratio to between 67% and 80%, consistent with secondary marketing requirements. In addition, we require that borrowers obtain hazard insurance for all residential real estate loans covering the lower of the loan amount or the replacement value of the residence.
In our approval process for the loans we originate or purchase, we assess both the value of the property securing the loan and the applicants ability to repay the loan. Qualified appraisers on our staff or approved outside appraisers establish the value of the collateral through appraisals or alternative valuation formats that meet regulatory requirements. Appraisal reports prepared by outside appraisers are selectively reviewed by our staff appraisers or by approved fee appraisers. We generally obtain information about the applicants income, financial condition, employment and credit history.
We offer one-to-four unit residential loans to borrowers who have or, in the case of purchases, will have equity in their homes but whose credit rating contains exceptions which preclude them from qualifying for
lower or better market interest rates and terms. We refer to these lower rated credits, which we characterize as "Alt. A," "A-," "B" and "C" loans, as subprime loans in our loan portfolio. Our subprime loans are characterized by lower loan-to-value ratios and higher average interest rates than higher credit grade prime loans or "A" loans. We believe these lower credit rated borrowers represent an opportunity for us to earn a higher net return for the risks we assume. For further information, see Regulatory Capital Requirements on page 11.
We currently qualify applicants of our adjustable rate mortgages at the higher of the fully-indexed rate or:
Secondary Marketing and Loan Servicing Activities
As part of our secondary marketing activities, we originate residential real estate adjustable rate mortgages and fixed rate mortgages that we intend to sell. Accordingly, we classify these loans as held for sale and carry them at the lower of cost or fair value. The cost includes a basis adjustment to the loan at funding resulting from the change in the fair value of the associated interest rate lock derivative from the date of commitment to the date of funding. These loans are primarily secured by first liens on one-to-four unit residential properties and generally have maturities of 30 years or less.
We believe that servicing loans for others can be an important asset/liability management tool because it produces operating results which, in response to changes in market interest rates, tend to move opposite to changes in net interest income. Because yields on adjustable rate mortgages take longer to adjust to market interest rates than their funding sources, net interest income associated with these loans is expected to decline in periods of rising interest rates and increase in periods of falling rates. In contrast, the value of a loan servicing portfolio normally:
In addition, increased levels of servicing activities and the opportunity to offer our other financial services in servicing loans for others can provide us with additional income with minimal additional overhead costs.
Depending upon market pricing for servicing, we sell loans either servicing retained or servicing released. When we sell loans servicing retained, we record gains or losses from these loans at the time of sale. We calculate gains or losses from our sale as the difference between the net sales proceeds and the allocated basis of the loans sold. We capitalize MSRs we acquire through either our purchase or origination of mortgage loans we have sold with servicing rights retained. We allocate the total cost of the mortgage loans sold to both the MSRs and to the mortgage loans without MSRs based on their relative fair values. We disclose our MSRs in our financial statements and include them as a component of the gain on sale of loans. We recognize impairment losses on the MSRs through a valuation allowance and record any associated provision as a component of loan servicing income (loss), net category. For further information, see Note 1 on page 75 and Note 11 on page 91 of Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements.
Generally, we use hedging programs to manage the interest rate risk of our secondary marketing activities. For further information, see Asset/Liability Management and Market Risk on page 46.
We may exchange loans we originate for sale with government-sponsored agencies for mortgage-backed securities collateralized by these loans. Our cost for the exchange, a monthly guaranty fee, is expressed as a percentage of the unpaid principal balance and is deducted from interest income. The securities we receive can be used to collateralize various types of our borrowings at rates that frequently are more favorable than rates on other types of liabilities and also carry a lower risk-based capital requirement than whole loans. We carry these mortgage-backed securities available for sale at fair value. However, we record no gain or loss on the
exchange in our statement of income until the securities are sold to a third party, usually that same day. Before we sell these securities to third parties, we show all changes in fair value as a separate component of stockholders equity as accumulated other comprehensive income, net of income taxes.
Multi-Family and Commercial Real Estate Lending
We have provided permanent loans secured by multi-family and retail neighborhood shopping center properties. Our major loan officers conduct our multi-family and commercial real estate lending activities.
Multi-family and commercial real estate loans generally entail additional risks as compared to single family residential mortgage lending. We subject each loan, including loans to facilitate the sale of real estate we own, to our underwriting standards, which generally include:
To protect the value of the security for our loan, we require borrowers to maintain casualty insurance for the lesser of the loan amount or replacement cost. In addition, for non-residential loans in excess of $500,000, we require the borrower to obtain comprehensive general liability insurance. All commercial real estate loans we originate must be approved by at least two of our officers, one of whom must be the originating loan account officer and the other a designated officer with appropriate loan approval authority.
We have provided construction loan financing for single family and multi-family residential properties and commercial real estate projects, like retail neighborhood shopping centers. Our major loan officers principally originate these loans. We generally make construction loans at floating interest rates based upon the prime or reference rate of a major commercial bank. Generally, we require a loan-to-value ratio of 75% or less on construction lending and we subject each loan to our underwriting standards.
Construction loans involve risks different from completed project lending because we advance loan funds based upon the security of the completed project under construction. If the borrower defaults on the loan, then we may have to advance additional funds to finance the projects completion before the project can be sold. Moreover, construction projects are affected by uncertainties inherent in estimating:
When providing construction loans, we require the general contractor to, among other things, carry contractors liability insurance equal to specific prescribed minimum amounts, carry builders risk insurance and have a blanket bond against employee misappropriation.
We maintain traditional private banking credit products and services for our existing high net worth, relationship based customers. Our portfolio emphasis is toward secured, floating rate credit facilities. We also provide commercial deposit account products and services to meet the needs of business relationships maintained at the Bank.
The Bank originates home equity loans and home equity lines of credit, and other consumer loan products. Before we make a consumer loan, we assess the applicants ability to repay the loan and, if applicable, the value of the collateral securing the loan. The risk involved with home equity loans and home equity lines of credit is similar to the risk involved with residential real estate loans. We offer customers a credit card through a third party, who extends the credit and services the loans made to our customers.
As a federally chartered savings association, the Banks ability to make securities investments is prescribed under the OTS regulations and the Home Owners Loan Act. The Banks authorized officers make investment decisions within guidelines established by the Banks Board of Directors. The Bank manages these investments in an effort to produce the highest yield, while at the same time maintaining safety of principal, minimizing interest rate risk and complying with applicable regulations.
We carry securities held to maturity at amortized cost. We adjust these costs for amortization of premiums and accretion of discounts, which we recognize in interest income using the interest method. We carry securities available for sale at fair value. We exclude unrealized holding gains and losses, or valuation allowances established for net unrealized losses, from our earnings and report them as a separate component of our stockholders equity as accumulated other comprehensive income, net of income taxes, unless the security is deemed other than temporarily impaired. If the security is determined to be other than temporarily impaired, we charge the amount of the impairment to operations. For further information on the composition of our investment portfolio, see Investment Securities on page 39.
We prefer to use deposits raised through our retail branch system as our principal source of funds for supporting our lending activities, because the cost of these funds generally is less than that of borrowings or other funding sources with comparable maturities. We traditionally have obtained our deposits primarily from areas surrounding the Banks branch offices. However, we occasionally raise some retail deposits from institutions through Wall Street activities.
General economic conditions affect deposit flows. Funds may flow from depository institutions such as savings associations into direct vehicles like government and corporate securities or other financial intermediaries. Our ability to attract and retain deposits will continue to be affected by money market conditions, prevailing interest rates and available competing investment vehicles. Generally, state or federal regulation does not restrict interest rates we pay on deposits.
For further information, see Deposits on page 42.
Besides deposits, we have utilized other sources to fund our loan origination and other business activities. We have at times relied upon our borrowings from the FHLB of San Francisco or the issuance of corporate debt as an additional source of funds. The FHLB of San Francisco makes advances to us through several different credit programs it offers.
From time to time, we obtain additional sources of funds by selling some of our securities and mortgage loans under agreements to repurchase. These reverse repurchase agreements are generally short-term and are collateralized by our mortgage-backed and investment securities or our mortgage loans. We only deal with investment banking firms that are recognized as primary dealers in U.S. government securities or major commercial banks in connection with these reverse repurchase agreements. In addition, we limit the amounts of our borrowings from any single institution.
Another source of funds has come from the issuance of debt through public underwritten offerings. This includes junior subordinated debentures issued to Downey Financial Capital Trust I ("Trust"), a wholly owned, special purpose entity, whose sole purpose was to raise money through the sale of capital securities. However, we have since redeemed our junior subordinated debentures and in turn redeemed the capital securities with the proceeds received through the issuance of senior debt.
For further information, see Borrowings on page 43.
Our primary source of earnings comes from our net interest income. We determine our net interest income or the interest rate spread by calculating the difference between:
Our net interest income is also determined by the relative dollar amounts of our interest-earning assets and interest-bearing liabilities.
Our effective interest rate spread, which reflects the relative level of our interest-earning assets to our interest-bearing liabilities, equals:
For information regarding our net income and the components thereof and for managements analysis of our financial condition and results of operations, see Managements Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations beginning on page 24. For information regarding the return on our assets and other selected financial data, see Selected Financial Data on page 22.
Savings institutions are affected by interest rate risks to the degree that their interest-bearing liabilities, consisting principally of customer deposits, FHLB advances and other borrowings, mature or reprice on a different basis than their interest-earning assets, which consist predominantly of intermediate or long-term real estate loans. While having liabilities that on average mature or reprice more frequently than assets may be beneficial in times of declining interest rates, this asset/liability structure may result in declining net earnings during periods of rising interest rates. Our principal objectives are to actively monitor and manage the effects of adverse changes in interest rates on our net interest income. To improve the rate sensitivity and maturity balance of our interest-earning assets and liabilities, we have emphasized the origination for investment of loans with adjustable interest rates or relatively short maturities. Loans with adjustable interest rates have the beneficial effect of allowing the yield on our assets to increase during periods of rising interest rates, although these loans have contractual limitations on the frequency and extent of interest rate adjustments.
For further information, see Lending Activities on page 2 and Asset/Liability Management and Market Risk on page 46.
Insurance Agency Activities
Downey Affiliated Insurance Agency was incorporated on January 25, 1995, as Downeys wholly owned subsidiary. We capitalized Downey Affiliated Insurance Agency on February 24, 1995 with $400,000. In the 1995 second quarter, Downey Affiliated Insurance Agency commenced operations at which time representatives of Downey Affiliated Insurance Agency were available in our branches to offer annuity products. During 1996, Downey Affiliated Insurance Agency began offering forced-placed casualty insurance policies on mortgage loans and stopped offering annuity products. The offering of forced-placed casualty insurance policies ceased in April 1999.
REAL ESTATE INVESTMENT ACTIVITIES
In addition to our primary business of banking, which has been described above, we are also involved in real estate investment activities, which are conducted primarily through DSL Service Company, a wholly owned subsidiary of the Bank. DSL Service Company is a diversified real estate development company which was established in 1966 as a neighborhood shopping center and residential tract developer. Today its capabilities include development, construction and property management activities relating to its portfolio of projects primarily within California, but also in Arizona. In addition, DSL Service Company associates with other qualified developers
to engage in joint ventures. The primary revenue sources of our real estate investment activities include net rental income and gains from the sale of real estate investments. The primary expenses of our real estate investment activities are interest expense and general and administrative expense.
Due to federal law, the Bank is prohibited from making new investments in real estate development and joint venture operations and is required to deduct the full amount of its investment in DSL Service Company in calculating its applicable ratios under the core, tangible and risk-based capital standards. Savings associations generally may invest in service corporation subsidiaries, like DSL Service Company, to the extent of 2% of the associations assets, plus up to an additional 1% of assets for investments which serve primarily community, inner-city or community development purposes.
To the extent Downey or a subsidiary of Downey, other than the Bank or its subsidiaries, makes real estate investments, the above-mentioned capital deductions and limitations do not apply, as they only pertain to the specific investments by savings associations or their subsidiaries.
For further information, see Investments in Real Estate and Joint Ventures on page 40.
We face competition both in attracting deposits and in making loans. Our most direct competition for deposits has historically come from other savings institutions and from commercial banks located in our principal market areas, including many large financial institutions based in other parts of the country or their subsidiaries. In addition, we face additional significant competition for investors funds from short-term money market securities and other corporate and government securities. Our ability to attract and retain savings deposits depends, generally, on our ability to provide a rate of return, liquidity and risk comparable to that offered by competing investment opportunities and the appropriate level of customer service.
We experience competition for real estate loans principally from other savings institutions, commercial banks, mortgage banking companies and insurance companies. We compete for loans principally through our interest rates and loan fees we charge and our efficiency and quality of services we provide borrowers and real estate brokers.
At December 31, 2004, we had 2,446 full-time employees and 621 part-time employees. We provide our employees with health and welfare benefits and a retirement and savings plan. Additionally, we offer qualifying employees participation in our stock purchase plan. Our employees are not represented by any union or collective bargaining group, and we consider our employee relations to be good.
Federal and state law extensively regulate savings and loan holding companies and savings associations. This regulation is intended primarily to protect our depositors and the SAIF and is not for the benefit of our stockholders. Below we describe some of the regulations applicable to us and the Bank. We do not claim this discussion is complete and qualify our discussion by reference to applicable statutory or regulatory provisions.
Regulation of Downey
We are a savings and loan holding company and are subject to regulatory oversight by the OTS. We are required to register and file reports with the OTS and are regulated and examined by the OTS. The OTS has enforcement authority over us, which also permits the OTS to restrict or prohibit our activities that it determines to be a serious risk to the Bank.
As a savings and loan holding company with only one savings and loan association subsidiary, we generally are not limited by OTS activity restrictions, provided the Bank satisfies the qualified thrift lender test or meets the definition of a domestic building and loan association in the Internal Revenue Code. If we acquire
control of another savings association as a separate subsidiary of Downey, we would become a multiple savings and loan holding company. As a multiple savings and loan holding company, our activities, other than the activities of the Bank or any other SAIF-insured savings association, would become subject to restrictions applicable to bank holding companies unless these other savings associations were acquired in a supervisory acquisition and each also satisfies the qualified thrift lender test or meets the definition of a domestic building and loan association. Furthermore, if in the future we sold control of the Bank to any other company, such company would not succeed to our grandfathered status as a unitary thrift holding company and would be subject to the same business activity restrictions as a bank holding company. For more information, see Qualified Thrift Lender Test on page 13.
Restrictions on Acquisitions
We must obtain approval from the appropriate bank regulatory agencies before acquiring control of any insured depository institution. The OTS generally prohibits these types of acquisitions if they result in a multiple savings and loan holding company controlling savings associations in more than one state. However, the OTS permits interstate acquisitions if the acquisition is authorized by specific state authorization or a supervisory acquisition of a failing savings association.
Federal law generally provides that no "person," acting directly or indirectly or through or in concert with one or more other persons, may acquire "control" of a federally insured savings association unless the person gives at least 60 days written notice to the OTS. The OTS then has the opportunity to disapprove the proposed acquisition. In addition, no company may acquire control of this type of an institution without prior OTS approval. These provisions also prohibit, among other things, any director or officer of a savings and loan holding company, or any individual who owns or controls more than 25% of the voting shares of a savings and loan holding company, from acquiring control of any savings association not a subsidiary of the savings and loan holding company, unless the acquisition is approved by the OTS.
The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002
The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 addresses accounting oversight and corporate governance matters, including:
The new legislation and its implementing regulations have resulted in increased costs of compliance, including certain outside professional costs.
Regulation of the Bank
The OTS and the FDIC extensively regulate the Bank because the Bank is a federally chartered, SAIF-insured savings association. The Bank must ensure that its lending activities and its other investments comply with various statutory and regulatory requirements. The Bank is also regulated by the Federal Reserve.
The OTS, in conjunction with the FDIC, regularly examines the Bank and prepares reports for the Banks Board of Directors to consider with respect to any deficiencies the OTS or the FDIC finds in the Banks operations. Federal and state laws also regulate the relationship between the Bank and its depositors and borrowers, especially in matters regarding the ownership of savings accounts and the documents used by the Bank.
The Bank must file reports with the OTS and the FDIC concerning its activities and financial condition. In addition, the Bank must obtain regulatory approvals before entering into some transactions like mergers with or acquisitions of other financial institutions. This regulation and supervision establishes a comprehensive
framework of activities in which an institution may engage and is intended primarily to protect the SAIF and our depositors. The regulatory structure also gives the regulatory authorities extensive discretion in connection with their supervisory and enforcement activities and examination policies, including policies regarding the classification of assets and adequate loan loss reserves for regulatory purposes. Any change in regulations, whether by the OTS, the FDIC, the Federal Reserve or the Congress, could have a material adverse impact on us, the Bank and our operations.
Insurance of Deposit Accounts
The SAIF, as administered by the FDIC, insures the Banks deposit accounts up to the maximum amount permitted by law. The FDIC may terminate insurance of deposits upon a finding that the institution:
The FDIC charges an annual assessment for the insurance of deposits based on the risk a particular institution poses to its deposit insurance fund. Under this system during 2003, SAIF members paid within a range of 0% to 0.27% of insured domestic deposits, depending upon the institutions risk classification. This risk classification is based on an institutions capital group and supervisory subgroup assignment.
The Bank also pays, in addition to its normal deposit insurance premium as a member of the SAIF, assessments towards the retirement of the Financing Corporation Bonds (known as FICO Bonds) issued in the 1980s to assist in the recovery of the savings and loan industry. These assessments will continue until the FICO Bonds mature in 2017. For the fourth quarter of 2004, this assessment was equal to 0.0146% of insured deposits.
Regulatory Capital Requirements
The Bank must meet regulatory capital standards to be deemed in compliance with OTS capital requirements. OTS capital regulations require savings associations to meet the following three capital standards:
The OTS views its capital regulation requirements as minimum standards, and it expects most institutions to maintain capital levels well above the minimum. In addition, the OTS regulations provide that the OTS may establish minimum capital levels higher than those provided in the regulations for individual savings associations, upon a determination that the savings associations capital is or may become inadequate in view of its circumstances. The OTS regulations provide that higher individual minimum regulatory capital requirements may be appropriate in circumstances where, among others, a savings association:
The Bank is not required to meet any individual minimum regulatory capital requirement. At December 31, 2004, the Banks regulatory capital exceeded all minimum regulatory capital requirements.
As a result of a number of federally insured financial institutions extending their lending risk selection standards to attract lower credit quality borrowers due to their loans having higher interest rates and fees, the federal banking regulatory agencies jointly issued Interagency Guidelines on Subprime Lending. Subprime lending involves extending credit to individuals with less than perfect credit histories.
The guidelines consider subprime lending a high-risk activity that is unsafe and unsound if the risks associated with subprime lending are not properly controlled. Specifically, the 2002 guidelines direct examiners to expect regulatory capital one and one-half to three times higher than that typically set aside for prime assets for institutions that:
Our subprime portfolio, pursuant to our definition, represented 114% of Tier 1 capital as of year-end 2004. The OTS notified us that as of March 31, 2003, we were required to risk weight our subprime residential loans at 75% versus their current 50% risk weighting. This change increased the required regulatory capital associated with our subprime loans by one and one-half times that of prime residential loans.
The Home Owners Loan Act permits savings associations not in compliance with the OTS capital standards to seek an exemption from penalties or sanctions for noncompliance. The OTS will grant an exemption only if the savings association meets strict requirements. In addition, the OTS must deny the exemption in some circumstances. If the OTS does grant an exemption, the savings association still may be exposed to enforcement actions for other violations of law or unsafe or unsound practices or conditions.
Prompt Corrective Action
The OTSs prompt corrective action regulation requires the OTS to take mandatory actions and authorizes the OTS to take discretionary actions against a savings association that falls within undercapitalized capital categories specified in the regulation.
The regulation establishes five categories of capital classification:
The regulation uses an institutions risk-based capital, leverage capital and tangible capital ratios to determine the institutions capital classification. At December 31, 2004, the Bank exceeded the capital requirements of a well capitalized institution under applicable OTS regulations.
The term "predatory lending," much like the terms "safety and soundness" and "unfair and deceptive practices," is far-reaching and covers a potentially broad range of behavior. As such, it does not lend itself to a concise or a comprehensive definition. But typically predatory lending involves at least one, and perhaps all three, of the following elements:
Federal Reserve Bank regulations aimed at curbing such lending significantly widen the pool of high-cost home-secured loans covered by the Home Ownership and Equity Protection Act of 1994, a federal law that requires extra disclosures and consumer protections to borrowers. In addition, the regulation bars loan flipping by the same lender or loan servicer within a year. Lenders also will be presumed to have violated the lawwhich says loans should not be made to people unable to repay themunless they document that the borrower has the ability to repay. Lenders that violate the rules face cancellation of loans and penalties equal to the finance charges paid.
We do not expect these rules and potential state action in this area to have a material impact on our financial condition or results of operation.
Savings associations generally are subject to the lending limits applicable to national banks. With limited exceptions, the maximum amount that a savings association or a national bank may lend to any borrower, including some related entities of the borrower, at one time may not exceed:
Savings associations are additionally authorized to make loans to one borrower,
At December 31, 2004, the Banks loans-to-one-borrower limit was $181 million based upon the 15% of unimpaired capital and surplus measurement, or $301 million for loans secured by readily marketable collateral. The Banks largest lending relationship consisted of two loans to a non-related party totaling a commitment of $26 million, of which $16 million had been disbursed as of December 31, 2004.
Qualified Thrift Lender Test
The OTS requires savings associations to meet a qualified thrift lender test. The test may be met either by maintaining a specified level of assets in qualified thrift investments as specified in the Home Owners Loan Act or by meeting the definition of a "domestic building and loan association." Qualified thrift investments are primarily residential mortgages and related investments, including some mortgage-related securities. The required percentage of investments under the Home Owners Loan Act is 65% of assets while the Internal Revenue Code requires investments of 60% of assets. An association must be in compliance with the qualified thrift lender test or the definition of domestic building and loan association on a monthly basis in nine out of every twelve months. Associations failing to meet the qualified thrift lender test are generally allowed only to engage in activities permitted for both national banks and savings associations.
The FHLB also relies on the qualified thrift lender test. A savings association will only enjoy full borrowing privileges from an FHLB if the savings association is a qualified thrift lender. As of December 31, 2004, the Bank was in compliance with its qualified thrift lender test requirement and met the definition of a domestic building and loan association.
Extensions of Credit to Insiders and Transactions with Affiliates
The Federal Reserve Act and Federal Reserve Bank Regulation O place limitations and conditions on loans or extensions of credit to:
Loans and leases extended to any of the above persons must comply with loan-to-one-borrower limits, require prior full board approval when aggregate extensions of credit to the person exceed specified amounts, must be made on substantially the same terms (including interest rates and collateral) as, and follow credit-underwriting procedures that are not less stringent than, those prevailing at the time for comparable transactions with non-insiders, and must not involve more than the normal risk of repayment or present other unfavorable
features. In addition, Regulation O provides that the aggregate limit on extensions of credit to all insiders of a bank as a group cannot exceed the banks unimpaired capital and unimpaired surplus. Regulation O also prohibits the Bank from paying an overdraft on an account of an executive officer or director, except pursuant to a written pre-authorized interest-bearing extension of credit plan that specifies a method of repayment or a written pre-authorized transfer of funds from another account of the officer or director at the Bank.
The Bank also is subject to certain restrictions imposed by federal law on any extensions of credit to, or the issuance of a guarantee or letter of credit on behalf of, any affiliates, the purchase of, or investments in, stock or other securities thereof, the taking of such securities as collateral for loans, and the purchase of assets of any affiliates. Such restrictions prevent any affiliates from borrowing from us unless the loans are secured by marketable obligations of designated amounts. Further, such secured loans and investments by us to or in any affiliate are limited, individually, to 10% of the Banks capital and surplus (as defined by federal regulations), and such secured loans and investments are limited, in the aggregate, to 20% of the Banks capital and surplus. Some entities included in the definition of an affiliate are parent companies, sister banks, sponsored and advised companies, investment companies whereby the bank its affiliate serves as investment advisor, and financial subsidiaries of the Bank. Additional restrictions on transactions with affiliates may be imposed on us under the prompt corrective action provisions of federal law. See Prompt Corrective Action on page 12.
Capital Distribution Limitations
A savings association that is a subsidiary of a savings and loan holding company, such as the Bank, must file an application or a notice with the OTS at least 30 days before making a capital distribution. Savings associations are not required to file an application for permission to make a capital distribution and need only file a notice if the following conditions are met:
Any other situation would require an application to the OTS. The OTS may disapprove an application or notice if the proposed capital distribution would:
Federal banking regulations limit the ability of banks and other financial institutions to disclose non-public information about consumers to nonaffiliated third parties. Pursuant to those rules, financial institutions must provide:
These privacy provisions affect how consumer information is transmitted through diversified financial companies and conveyed to outside vendors.
USA Patriot Act of 2001
The USA Patriot Act of 2001 and its implementing regulations significantly expanded the anti-money laundering and financial transparency laws. Under the USA Patriot Act, financial institutions are subject to
prohibitions regarding specified financial transactions and account relationships as well as enhanced due diligence and "know your customer" standards in their dealings with foreign financial institutions and foreign customers. For example, the enhanced due diligence policies, procedures, and controls generally require financial institutions to take reasonable steps:
Under the USA Patriot Act, financial institutions are required to establish and maintain anti-money laundering programs which include:
The Bank has adopted comprehensive policies and procedures to address the requirements of the USA Patriot Act.
Consumer Protection Laws and Regulations
The bank regulatory agencies are focusing greater attention on compliance with consumer protection laws and their implementing regulations. Examination and enforcement have become more intense in nature, and insured institutions have been advised to monitor carefully compliance with such laws and regulations. The Bank is subject to many federal consumer protection statutes and regulations, some of which are discussed below.
The Community Reinvestment Act, or CRA, is intended to encourage insured depository institutions, while operating safely and soundly, to help meet the credit needs of their communities. The CRA specifically directs the federal regulatory agencies, in examining insured depository institutions, to assess a banks record of helping meet the credit needs of its entire community, including low- and moderate-income neighborhoods, consistent with safe and sound banking practices. The CRA further requires the agencies to take a financial institutions record of meeting its community credit needs into account when evaluating applications for, among other things, domestic branches, mergers or acquisitions, or holding company formations. The agencies use the CRA assessment factors in order to provide a rating to the financial institution. The ratings range from a high of "outstanding" to a low of "substantial noncompliance." In its last examination for CRA compliance, as of February 25, 2002, the Bank was rated "satisfactory."
The Fair Credit Reporting Act, as amended by the Fair and Accurate Credit Transactions Act, or FACT, requires financial firms to help deter identity theft, including developing appropriate fraud response programs, and gives consumers more control of their credit data. It also reauthorizes a federal ban on state laws that interfere with corporate credit granting and marketing practices. In connection with FACT, financial institution regulatory agencies proposed rules that would prohibit an institution from using certain information about a consumer it received from an affiliate to make a solicitation to the consumer, unless the consumer has been notified and given a chance to opt out of such solicitations. A consumers election to opt out would be applicable for at least five years.
The Check Clearing for the 21st Century Act, or Check 21, facilitates check truncation and electronic check exchange by authorizing a new negotiable instrument called a "substitute check," which is the legal equivalent of an original check. Check 21, effective October 28, 2004, does not require banks to create substitute checks or
accept checks electronically; however, it does require banks to accept a legally equivalent substitute check in place of an original.
The Equal Credit Opportunity Act, or ECOA, generally prohibits discrimination in any credit transaction, whether for consumer or business purposes, on the basis of race, color, religion, national origin, sex, marital status, age (except in limited circumstances), receipt of income from public assistance programs, or good faith exercise of any rights under the Consumer Credit Protection Act.
The Truth in Lending Act, or TILA, is designed to ensure that credit terms are disclosed in a meaningful way so that consumers may compare credit terms more readily and knowledgeably. As a result of the TILA, all creditors must use the same credit terminology to express rates and payments, including the annual percentage rate, the finance charge, the amount financed, the total of payments and the payment schedule, among other things.
The Fair Housing Act, or FH Act, regulates many practices, including making it unlawful for any lender to discriminate in its housing-related lending activities against any person because of race, color, religion, national origin, sex, handicap or familial status. A number of lending practices have been found by the courts to be, or may be considered, illegal under the FH Act, including some that are not specifically mentioned in the FH Act itself.
The Home Mortgage Disclosure Act, or HMDA, grew out of public concern over credit shortages in certain urban neighborhoods and provides public information that will help show whether financial institutions are serving the housing credit needs of the neighborhoods and communities in which they are located. The HMDA also includes a "fair lending" aspect that requires the collection and disclosure of data about applicant and borrower characteristics as a way of identifying possible discriminatory lending patterns and enforcing anti-discrimination statutes.
Finally, the Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act, or RESPA, requires lenders to provide borrowers with disclosures regarding the nature and cost of real estate settlements. Also, RESPA prohibits certain abusive practices, such as kickbacks, and places limitations on the amount of escrow accounts. Penalties under the above laws may include fines, reimbursements and other penalties. Due to heightened regulatory concern related to compliance with the CRA, TILA, FH Act, ECOA, HMDA and RESPA generally, the Bank may incur additional compliance costs or be required to expend additional funds for investments in its local community.
Activities of Subsidiaries
A savings association seeking to establish a new subsidiary, acquire control of an existing company or conduct a new activity through a subsidiary must provide 30 days prior notice to the FDIC and the OTS and conduct any activities of the subsidiary in compliance with regulations and orders of the OTS. The OTS may require a savings association to divest any subsidiary or terminate any activity conducted by a subsidiary that the OTS determines to pose a serious threat to the financial safety, soundness or stability of the savings association or to be otherwise inconsistent with sound banking practices.
Federal Home Loan Bank System
The Bank is a member of the FHLB system. Among other benefits, each FHLB serves as a reserve or central bank for its members within its assigned region. Each FHLB is financed primarily from the sale of consolidated obligations of the FHLB system. Each FHLB makes available loans or advances to its members in compliance with the policies and procedures established by the Board of Directors of the individual FHLB. As an FHLB member, we are required to own a certain amount of capital stock in the FHLB. At December 31, 2004, we were in compliance with the stock requirements.
Federal Reserve System
The Federal Reserve requires all depository institutions to maintain non-interest-bearing reserves at specified levels against their transaction accounts and non-personal time deposits. These transaction accounts include checking, NOW and Super NOW checking accounts. These reserves may also be used to satisfy the OTSs liquidity requirements. At December 31, 2004, the Bank was in compliance with these requirements.
From time to time, new laws are proposed that could have an effect on the financial institutions industry. For example, legislation is currently being considered in the U.S. House of Representatives Financial Institutions Subcommittee which would:
While we cannot predict whether such proposals will eventually become law, they could have an effect on our operations and the way we conduct business.
Regulation of DSL Service Company
DSL Service Company is licensed as a real estate broker under the California Real Estate Law and as a contractor with the Contractors State License Board. Thus, the real estate investment activities of DSL Service Company, including development, construction and property management activities relating to its portfolio of projects, are governed by a variety of laws and regulations. Changes occur frequently in the laws and regulations or their interpretation by agencies and the courts. DSL Service Company must comply with various federal, state and local laws, ordinances, rules and regulations concerning zoning, building design, construction, hazardous waste and similar matters. Environmental laws and regulations also affect the operations of DSL Service Company, including regulations pertaining to availability of water, municipal sewage treatment capacity, land use, protection of endangered species, population density and preservation of the natural terrain and coastlines. These and other requirements could become more restrictive in the future, resulting in additional time and expense in connection with DSL Service Companys real estate activities.
With regard to environmental matters, the construction products industry is regulated by federal, state and local laws and regulations pertaining to several areas including human health and safety and environmental compliance. The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980, as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986, as well as analogous laws in some states, create joint and several liability for the cost of cleaning up or correcting releases to the environment of designated hazardous substances. Among those who may be held jointly and severally liable are:
In general, this liability is imposed in a series of governmental proceedings initiated by the governments identification of a site for initial listing as a "Superfund site" on the National Priorities List or a similar state list and the governments identification of potentially responsible parties who may be liable for cleanup costs. None of the DSL Service Companys project sites is listed as a "Superfund site."
In addition, California courts have imposed warranty-like responsibility upon developers of new housing for defects in structure and the housing site, including soil conditions. This responsibility is not necessarily dependent upon a finding that the developer was negligent.
As a licensed entity, DSL Service Company is also examined and supervised by the California Department of Real Estate and the Contractors State License Board.
Savings institutions are taxed like other corporations for federal income tax purposes, and are required to comply with income tax statutes and regulations similar to those applicable to large commercial banks. The Banks bad debt deduction is determined under the specific charge-off method, which allows the Bank to take an income tax deduction for loans determined to be wholly or partially worthless.
In addition to the regular income tax, corporations are also subject to an alternative minimum tax. This tax is computed at 20% of the corporations regular taxable income, after taking certain adjustments into account.
The alternative minimum tax applies to the extent that it exceeds the regular income tax liability.
A corporation that incurs alternative minimum tax generally is entitled to take this tax as a credit against its regular tax liability in later years to the extent that the regular tax liability in these later years exceeds the alternative minimum tax.
The Bank uses Californias financial corporation income tax rate to compute its California franchise tax liability. This rate is higher than the California non-financial corporation income tax rate because the financial corporation rate reflects an amount "in lieu" of local personal property and business license taxes that are paid by non-financial corporations, but not by banks or other financial corporations. The financial corporation income tax rate was 10.84% for both 2004 and 2003.
The Bank files a California franchise tax return on a combined reporting basis. Additional income and franchise tax returns are filed on a separate-entity basis in various other states.
The Internal Revenue Service has examined the Banks tax returns for all tax years through 2002, while state taxing authorities have reviewed tax returns through 2000. Management believes it has adequately provided for potential exposure to issues that may be raised by tax auditors in years which remain open to review.
FACTORS THAT MAY AFFECT FUTURE RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
In addition to the other information contained in this report, the following risks may affect us. If any of these risks occur, our business, financial condition or operating results could be adversely affected.
Our California business focus and economic conditions in California could adversely affect our operations.
Downey is headquartered in and its operations are concentrated in California. As a result of this geographic concentration, our results depend largely upon economic and business conditions in this state. Deterioration of economic conditions in California could have a material adverse impact on the quality of our loan and real estate portfolios and the demand for our products and services.
Significant changes in interest rates could adversely affect our performance and results of operations.
If interest rates vary substantially from present levels, our results may differ materially from recent levels. Changes in interest rates will influence the growth of loans, investments, deposits and borrowings and affect the rates received on loans and investment securities and paid on deposits and borrowings. Changes in interest rates also affect the value of our recorded MSRs on loans we service for others, generally increasing in value as interest rates rise and declining as interest rates fall. If interest rates were to increase significantly, the economic feasibility of real estate investment activities also could be adversely affected.
We are subject to government regulation and federal monetary policy that could limit or restrict our activities, which could adversely affect our operations.
The financial services industry is subject to extensive federal and state supervision and regulation. Significant new laws or changes in, or repeals of, existing laws may cause our results to differ materially. Further, federal monetary policy, particularly as implemented through the Federal Reserve System, significantly affects credit conditions for Downey, primarily through open market operations in United States government securities, the discount rate for borrowings and reserve requirements. A material change in these conditions would be likely to have a material impact on our results.
Competition may adversely affect our performance.
The banking and financial services business in our market areas is highly competitive. The increasingly competitive environment is a result primarily of changes in regulation, changes in technology and product delivery systems, and the expectation of continued consolidation among financial services providers. Increasing levels of competition in the banking and financial services businesses may reduce our market share or cause the prices we charge for our products to decline. Our results may differ in future periods depending on the nature or level of competition.
If a significant number of borrowers, guarantors and related parties fail to perform as required by the terms of their loans, we will sustain losses.
A significant source of risk arises from the possibility that losses will be sustained because borrowers, guarantors and related parties may fail to perform in accordance with the terms of their loans. While we have adopted underwriting and loan quality monitoring systems, procedures and credit policies, including the establishment and review of the allowance for loan losses, such policies and procedures may not prevent unexpected losses that could materially affect our results.
Because Downey operates as a holding company, changes in the ability of the Bank to pay dividends may adversely affect Downeys ability to pay dividends and service its debt.
Although we have been paying regular quarterly dividends to our stockholders and paying interest on our debt, our ability to do so depends to a large extent upon the dividends we receive from the Bank. Dividends paid by the Bank are subject to restrictions under various federal and state banking laws. In addition, the Bank must maintain certain capital levels, which may restrict the ability of the Bank to pay dividends to us. The Banks regulators have the authority to prohibit the Bank or us from engaging in unsafe or unsound practices in conducting our business. As a consequence, the Bank regulators could deem the payment of dividends by the Bank to be an unsafe or unsound practice, depending on the Banks financial condition or otherwise, and prohibit such payments. If the Bank were unable to pay dividends to us, we might cease paying debt service and dividends to stockholders until such time that the Bank could again pay us dividends.
ITEM 2. PROPERTIES
The corporate offices of Downey, the Bank and DSL Service Company are owned by the Bank and located at 3501 Jamboree Road, Newport Beach, California 92660. Part of that corporate facility houses a branch office of the Bank. Certain departments (warehousing, record retention, etc.) are located in other owned and leased facilities in Orange County, California. The majority of our administrative operations, however, are located in our corporate headquarters.
At December 31, 2004, we had 165 branches throughout California and four in Arizona. We owned the building and land occupied by 61 of our branches, we owned one branch building on leased land and we had one branch under construction. We operate branches in 107 locations (including 93 in-store locations) with leases or licenses expiring at various dates through September 2014, with options to extend the terms.
The net book value of our owned branches, including the one on leased land, totaled $84 million at December 31, 2004, and the net book value of our leased branch offices totaled $3 million at December 31, 2004. The net book value of our furniture and fixtures was $9 million at December 31, 2004. We utilize a mainframe computer system and use various internally developed and third-party vendors software for retail deposit operations, loan servicing, accounting and loan origination functions, including our operations conducted over the Internet. The net book value of our electronic data processing equipment, including personal computers and software, was $10 million at December 31, 2004.
For additional information regarding our offices and equipment, see Note 1 on page 75 and Note 8 on page 90 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
On July 23, 2004, two former in-store banking employees brought an action against the Bank in Los Angeles Superior Court, Case No. BC318964, entitled "Michelle Cox and Mary Ann Tierra et al. v. Downey Savings and Loan Association." The complaint seeks unspecified damages for alleged unpaid overtime wages, inadequate meal and rest breaks, and other unlawful business practices and related claims. The plaintiffs also seek class action status to represent all other current and former California employees who held the position of branch manager or assistant manager at in-store branches who (a) were treated as exempt and not paid overtime between July 23, 2000 and November 2002 and (b) allegedly received inadequate meal/rest periods since October 1, 2000. With the Courts approval, the parties have reached an informal agreement to participate in a mediation in March 2005 and to stay the lawsuit, including discovery, until completion of the mediation. Based on a review of the current facts and circumstances with retained counsel, management has provided for what is believed to be a reasonable estimate of the loss exposure for this matter. While acknowledging the uncertainties of litigation, management believes that the ultimate outcome of this matter will not have a material adverse effect on its operations, cash flows or financial position.
We have been named as a defendant in other legal actions arising in the ordinary course of business, none of which, in the opinion of management, is material.
ITEM 4. SUBMISSION OF MATTERS TO A VOTE OF SECURITY HOLDERS
No matters were submitted to stockholders during the fourth quarter of 2004.
ITEM 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANTS COMMON EQUITY AND RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS
Our common stock is traded on the New York Stock Exchange ("NYSE") and the Pacific Exchange ("PCX") under the trading symbol "DSL." At February 28, 2005, we had approximately 933 stockholders of record (not including the number of persons or entities holding stock in nominee or street name through various brokerage firms) and 27,853,783 outstanding shares of common stock.
The following table sets forth for the quarters indicated the range of high and low sale prices per share of our common stock as reported on the NYSE Composite Tape.
During 2004, we paid quarterly cash dividends of $0.10 per share, or $0.40 per share annually, compared to quarterly cash dividends of $0.09 per share, or $0.36 per share annually during 2003. Total cash dividends were $11.2 million in 2004 and $10.1 million in 2003. On February 25, 2005, we paid a $0.10 per share quarterly cash dividend, aggregating $2.8 million.
We may pay additional dividends out of funds legally available therefor at such times as the Board of Directors determines that dividend payments are appropriate. The Board of Directors policy is to consider the declaration of dividends on a quarterly basis.
The payment of dividends by the Bank to Downey is subject to OTS regulations. For further information regarding these regulations, see Capital Distribution Limitations on page 14.
On July 24, 2002, the Board of Directors authorized a share repurchase program of up to $50 million of our common stock. To initially fund the program, the Bank paid a special $50 million dividend during the third quarter of 2002 to the holding company. The shares were repurchased from time-to-time in open market transactions. The timing, volume and price of purchases were made at our discretion, and were contingent upon our overall financial condition, as well as market conditions in general. On September 27, 2004, the Board of Directors terminated the stock repurchase authorization due to significant asset growth this year. A total of 420,800 shares of our common stock were repurchased at an aggregate cost of $43.68 per share. During 2004, 39,561 shares of treasury stock were reissued below cost upon the exercise of Downey stock options at an average exercise price of $21.32.
Common stock repurchases were as follows:
ITEM 6. SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA
(b) During the fourth quarter of 2002, we adopted SFAS 147, which required us to cease the amortization of goodwill as of January 1, 2002.
(c) The amount of general and administrative expense expressed as a percentage of net interest income plus other income, excluding income associated with real estate held for investment, loss on extinguishment of debt and litigation award.
ITEM 6. SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA (CONTINUED)
ITEM 7. MANAGEMENTS DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Certain statements under this caption may constitute "forward-looking statements" under the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, which involve risks and uncertainties. Forward-looking statements do not relate strictly to historical information or current facts. Some forward-looking statements may be identified by use of terms such as "expects," "anticipates," "intends," "plans," "believes," "seeks," "estimates," or words of similar meaning, or future or conditional verbs such as "will," "would," "should," "could" or "may." Our actual results may differ significantly from the results discussed in such forward-looking statements. Factors that might cause such a difference include, but are not limited to, economic conditions, competition in the geographic and business areas in which we conduct our operations, fluctuations in interest rates, credit quality and government regulation. We do not undertake to update forward-looking statements to reflect the impact of circumstances or events that arise after the date the forward-looking statements were made. For additional information concerning these factors, see Factors That May Affect Future Results Of Operations on page 18.
Our net income for 2004 totaled $107.7 million or $3.85 per share on a diluted basis, up 6% from last years $101.7 million or $3.64 per share. A key contributor to the increase between years was a lower effective tax rate, due to a $5.6 million reduction in current year federal income tax expense associated with the settlement of prior-year tax returns.
Pre-tax income was little changed between years, up $0.7 million, primarily reflecting:
Those favorable pre-tax items were partially offset by:
For 2004, our return on average assets was 0.77% and our return on average equity was 11.37%. These compare to our 2003 returns of 0.89% on average assets and 11.65% on average equity.
Our loan originations, including purchases, increased from $11.3 billion in 2003 to a record $15.7 billion in 2004, of which $6.8 billion were originated for sale in the secondary market. Of the 2004 total, $8.3 billion represented originations of single family loans for portfolio, of which $828 million were subprime credits. In addition to single family loans, we originated $629 million of other loans during the year, including $528 million of home equity lines of credit.
Our assets increased $4.0 billion or 34% during 2004 to $15.6 billion at year end, following a 3% decline during 2003. The increase was primarily in loans held for investment, as originations outpaced payoffs and the fourth quarter sale of approximately $1 billion of our single family loans on a servicing released basis. The loans sold were seasoned adjustable rate mortgages tied to the 12-month moving average of annual yields on actively traded U.S. Treasury securities adjusted to a constant maturity of one year ("MTA"). Prior to the end of the first quarter of 2005, we expect to replace the MTA loans sold and to meet our previously stated objective of managing balance sheet growth in line with the growth of retained earnings. We expect to replace these MTA loans with higher yielding loans to achieve a breakeven point for lost interest income in the second quarter of 2005 when considering the 2004 fourth quarter gain from this loan sale.
Additionally, in the fourth quarter of 2004, we sold approximately 80% of our MSRs on loans we service for others. Those sales are expected to reduce our earnings volatility, since the amount of MSRs we now own is significantly lower. Given that reduced volatility, we also sold securities that we had purchased as a partial economic hedge against future value changes in our MSRs.
Deposits increased $1.4 billion or 16% during 2004 to a year-end level of $9.7 billion, following a 10% decline during 2003. Borrowings increased $2.5 billion or 111% to a year-end level of $4.8 billion, following a 29% increase in 2003. In June 2004, we issued $200 million 6.5% 10-year senior notes. On July 23, 2004, we used a portion of the net proceeds from the senior notes to redeem, in whole, our 10.0% junior subordinated debentures before maturity at a price of 100% of principal amount plus accrued and unpaid interest and contemporaneously redeemed all the outstanding capital securities and common securities issued by Downey Financial Capital Trust I, a wholly owned special purpose entity. In connection with our redemption of the capital securities, we incurred in the current year a pre-tax charge of $4.1 million. This charge represented the recognition of the remaining unamortized issuance cost for the capital securities. That charge, however, will be offset within a year due to the lower interest rate being paid on the funds that were used to redeem the capital securities. The remaining net proceeds from the senior notes as well as other cash at the holding company was used during the year to make a $117 million equity contribution into Downey Savings and Loan Association, F.A. (the "Bank") to support our asset growth.
Non-performing assets totaled $34 million at December 31, 2004, down from $49 million a year ago. The decrease was due primarily to a decline in our residential non-performers. When measured as a percentage of total assets, our non-performing assets dropped to 0.22% at year-end 2004 from 0.42% at year-end 2003.
At December 31, 2004, the Bank exceeded all regulatory capital tests, with capital-to-asset ratios of 7.09% for both tangible and core capital and 13.71% for risk-based capital. These capital levels are significantly above the "well capitalized" standards defined by the federal banking regulators of 5% for core and tangible capital and 10% for risk-based capital. For further information, see Insurance of Deposit Accounts on page 11, Investments in Real Estate and Joint Ventures on page 40 and Regulatory Capital Compliance on page 63.
Critical Accounting Policies
We have established various accounting policies, which govern the application of accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America, in the preparation of our financial statements. Our significant accounting policies are described in Note 1 of Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements beginning on page 75. Certain accounting policies require us to make significant estimates and assumptions which could have a material impact on the carrying value of certain assets and liabilities, and we consider these to be critical accounting policies. The estimates and assumptions we use are based on historical experience and other factors, which we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances. Actual results could differ significantly from these estimates and assumptions which could have a material impact on the carrying value of assets and liabilities at the balance sheet dates and our results of operations for the reporting periods. Management has discussed the development and selection of these critical accounting policies with the Audit Committee of our Board of Directors.
We believe the following are critical accounting policies that require the most significant estimates and assumptions, which are particularly susceptible to significant change in the preparation of our financial statements:
Net Interest Income
Net interest income is the difference between the interest and dividends earned on loans, mortgage-backed securities and investment securities ("interest-earning assets") and the interest paid on deposits and borrowings ("interest-bearing liabilities"). The spread between the yield on interest-earning assets and the cost of interest-bearing liabilities and the relative dollar amounts of these assets and liabilities principally affects net interest income.
Our net interest income totaled $317.9 million in 2004, up $29.3 million or 10.1% from 2003 and $2.9 million or 0.9% from 2002. The improvement during 2004 reflected higher average interest-earning assets which increased by $2.5 billion or 22.7% to $13.6 billion. Our effective interest rate spread averaged 2.34% in 2004, down from 2.61% in 2003 and 2.91% in 2002. The decline in 2004 was due to our yield on interest-earning assets declining more rapidly than our cost of funds. Although the market indices to which our adjustable rate loans are tied began to rise in mid-2004, on average they were lower in 2004 than 2003. Lower indices along with our positive interest rate gap (i.e., more interest-earning assets reprice to market interest rates within one year than do interest-bearing liabilities) were the primary contributors to our more rapid decline in our yield on interest-earning assets. In addition, the decline in our effective interest rate spread also reflected a higher proportion of lower yielding adjustable rate mortgages tied to MTA that had lower fully-indexed yields than those tied to the FHLB Eleventh District Cost of Funds Index ("COFI") and a lower percentage of higher yielding subprime loans. During the fourth quarter of 2004, we sold approximately $1 billion of MTA loans. While the sale temporarily results in assets growing more slowly than growth in retained earnings, we expect asset growth to be more in line with the growth in retained earnings and we expect to replace the MTA loans that were sold by the end of the first quarter of 2005. Initially, the sale will reduce net interest income until the loans are replaced. However, it is expected a breakeven point for the lost net interest income will occur by mid-year 2005, when considering the gain from this sale. After mid-2005, overall profits should be enhanced from the higher yielding loans.
The following table presents for the years indicated the total dollar amount of:
The table also sets forth our net interest income, interest rate spread and effective interest rate spread. The effective interest rate spread reflects the relative level of interest-earning assets to interest-bearing liabilities and equals:
The table also sets forth our net interest-earning balancethe difference between the average balance of interest-earning assets and the average balance of total deposits and borrowingsfor the years indicated. We included non-accrual loans in the average interest-earning assets balance. We included interest from non-accrual loans in interest income only to the extent we received payments and believe we will recover the remaining principal balance of the loans. We computed average balances for the year using the average of each months daily average balance during the years indicated.
(b) Included amounts swept into money market deposit accounts.
(c) Starting in the first quarter of 2004, the impact of interest rate swap contracts was included, with notional amounts totaling $430 million of receive-fixed, pay-3-month LIBOR variable interest, which contracts serve as a permitted hedge against a portion of our FHLB advances.
(d) In June 2004, we issued $200 million of 6.5% 10-year senior notes. In July 2004, we redeemed our junior subordinated debentures before their maturity.
Changes in our net interest income are a function of changes in both rates and volumes of interest-earning assets and interest-bearing liabilities. The following table sets forth information regarding changes in our interest income and expense for the years indicated. For each category of interest-earning assets and interest-bearing liabilities, we have provided information on changes attributable to:
Interest-earning asset and interest-bearing liability balances used in the calculations represent annual average balances computed using the average of each months daily average balance during the years indicated.
Provision for Loan Losses
During 2004, provision for loan losses totaled $2.9 million, compared to a $3.7 million reversal in 2003 and an expense of $0.9 million in 2002. The current year provision for loan losses was due to growth in our loan portfolio.
For further information, see Allowance for Losses on Loans and Real Estate on page 55.
Our total other income was $91.4 million in 2004, up from $90.9 million in 2003 and $67.1 million in 2002. The $0.4 million increase from 2003 primarily reflected:
Those favorable items were partially offset by:
Total other income increased $23.9 million during 2003 due primarily to a $15.6 million increase from gains on sales of loans, a $12.6 million improvement in loan servicing activities, a $5.9 million increase in loan and deposit related fees and a $2.9 million litigation award. These favorable items were partially offset by a $10.4 million loss from trading securities and a $1.6 million decline in our other income category.
Below is a further discussion of the major other income categories.
Loan and Deposit Related Fees
Loan and deposit related fees totaled $60.5 million in 2004, up $7.5 million from 2003 and $13.3 million from 2002. During 2004, our loan related fees increased $4.9 million due to higher loan prepayment fees and our deposit related fees increased $2.6 million, due primarily to higher fees from our checking accounts.
The following table presents a breakdown of loan and deposit related fees during the years indicated.
Real Estate and Joint Ventures Held for Investment
Income from our real estate and joint ventures held for investment totaled $13.9 million in 2004, up $4.1 million from 2003 and $3.7 million from 2002. The current year increase was primarily attributed to a $4.0 million increase in gains from sales to $11.2 million (a $2.3 million increase in gains from sales of wholly owned real estate and a $1.7 million increase in gains related to joint venture projects reported within equity in net income from joint ventures).
The table below sets forth the key components comprising our income from real estate and joint venture operations during the years indicated.
For additional information, see Investments in Real Estate and Joint Ventures on page 40, Allowance for Losses on Loans and Real Estate on page 55 and Note 6 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements on page 87.
Secondary Marketing Activities
We recorded a loss of $19.2 million in loan servicing from our portfolio of loans serviced for others during 2004, which was an improvement of $7.8 million from 2003 and $20.4 from 2002. Contributing to the improvement in 2004 were declines of $7.0 million in the amortization of MSRs and $6.0 million in payoff and curtailment interest cost, both of which were impacted by lower prepayments. Most of our loan servicing agreements require us to pay interest to the investor for an entire month, even if the loan we service for others prepays prior to the end of a month. That additional interest cost is what we call payoff and curtailment interest cost. However, we benefit from the use of those proceeds from the time of repayment until we are required to remit the funds to the investor. That benefit results in an increase to our net interest income. In each of the three years, the fair value of our MSRs declined due to the drop in long-term interest rates that resulted in an increase in the actual and projected rate loans we service for others prepay, thereby shortening their expected average life. Those declines in the fair value required us to record a provision for impairment in each year. In 2004, the addition totaled $16.8 million, up $4.9 million from 2003, partially offsetting the improvement in other components of our loan servicing activities. During the fourth quarter of 2004, we sold approximately 80% of our MSRs. We believe those sales should reduce our earnings volatility, since the amount of MSRs we now own is significantly lower. At December 31, 2004, loans we service with capitalized MSRs totaled $2.1 billion, down from $9.3 billion at December 31, 2003 and $8.1 billion at December 31, 2002. In addition to the $2.1 billion of loans we serviced for others with capitalized MSRs at December 31, 2004, we serviced $4.5 billion of loans on a sub-servicing basis for which we have no risk associated with changing MSR values. On loans we sub-service, we receive a fixed fee per loan each month from the owner of the MSRs.
The following table presents a breakdown of the components of our loan servicing loss for the years indicated.
Sales of loans and mortgage-backed securities we originated increased in 2004 to a record $6.9 billion, up from $6.6 billion in 2003 and $6.0 billion in 2002. Net gains associated with these sales totaled $54.4 million in 2004, down from $61.4 million in 2003, but up from $45.9 million in 2002. Included in these gains was the SFAS 133 impact of valuing derivatives associated with the sale of loans, for which we recorded a loss of $2.4 million in 2004 and $0.9 million in 2003, compared to income of $6.1 million in 2002. Excluding the SFAS 133 impact, a gain of $56.8 million or 0.82% of loans sold was realized in 2004, down from 0.95% in 2003, but up from 0.66% in 2002. Net gains included capitalized MSRs of $32.0 million in 2004, compared to $61.1 million in 2003 and $53.2 million in 2002.
The following table presents a breakdown of the components of our net gains on sales of loans and mortgage-backed securities for the years indicated.
For additional information concerning MSRs, see Note 11 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements on page 91.
Securities Available for Sale and Trading Securities
In both 2004 and 2003, we purchased and sold securities as a partial economic hedge against value changes in our MSRs. In 2004, the securities were classified as available for sale, while in 2003 they were classified as trading securities. Losses from the sales in 2004 totaled $16.1 million, a $5.7 million unfavorable change from the loss in 2003. No securities were held as a partial economic hedge at year-end 2004 due to the sale of approximately 80% of our MSRs.
Our operating expense totaled $229.5 million in 2004, up from $207.1 million in 2003 and $186.7 million in 2002. The current year increase was due to higher general and administrative expense, which increased by $21.8 million or 10.5%. That increase was primarily associated with a rise of $13.6 million or 10.1% in salaries and related costs and a $5.2 million increase in our other general and administrative expense category, which included an accrual for pending litigation. For further information, see Item 3. Legal Proceedings on page 20.
The following table presents a breakdown of key components comprising operating expense during the years indicated.
Provision for Income Taxes
Our effective tax rate was 39.1% for 2004, down from 42.3% for both 2003 and 2002. The decline in the effective tax rate reflects a reduction to federal tax expense of $5.6 million during the year from the settlement of prior year tax return issues. See Note 1 on page 75 and Note 19 on page 96 of Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements for a further discussion of income taxes and an explanation of the factors which impact our effective tax rate.
Business Segment Reporting
The previous discussion and analysis of the Results of Operations pertained to our consolidated results. This section discusses and analyzes the results of operations of our two business segmentsbanking and real estate investment. For a description of these business segments and the accounting policies used, see Business on page 1 and Note 1 on page 75 and Note 25 on page 109 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
The following table presents by business segment our net income for the years indicated.
Net income from our banking operations totaled $99.5 million in 2004, up from $95.5 million in 2003, but down from $106.1 million in 2002. Contributing to the increase between 2004 and 2003 was a lower effective tax rate, due to a $5.6 million reduction in the current year federal income tax expense associated with the settlement of prior-year tax returns. Pre-tax income declined $2.6 million in 2004 primarily due to the following:
Those unfavorable items were partially offset by the following:
During 2003, net income from our banking operations declined $10.6 million. The decrease was primarily due to a $26.2 million decline in net interest income, a $20.3 million increase in operating expense and a $10.4 million loss from trading securities. These unfavorable items were partially offset by a $15.6 million increase in net gains on sales of loans, a $12.6 million improvement in loan servicing activities, a $5.2 million increase in loan and deposit related fees, a $4.7 million improvement in provision for loan losses and a $2.9 million litigation award.
The table below sets forth banking operational results and selected financial data for the years indicated.
Real Estate Investment
Net income from our real estate investment operations totaled $8.2 million in 2004, up from $6.3 million in 2003 and $6.2 million in 2002. The increase during 2004 was primarily due to a $4.0 million increase from gains on sales.
During 2003, net income from our real estate investment operations was virtually unchanged from 2002 primarily due to higher gains from sales and interest from joint ventures being offset by an unfavorable change in provision for losses on real estate and joint ventures and lower net rental income.
The table below sets forth real estate investment operational results and selected financial data for the years indicated.
For a further discussion regarding income from real estate investment, see Real Estate and Joint Ventures Held For Investment on page 30, and for information regarding related assets, see Investments in Real Estate and Joint Ventures on page 40.
Loans and Mortgage-Backed Securities
Total loans and mortgage-backed securities, including those we hold for sale, increased $4.1 billion or 39.9% from year-end 2003 to a total of $14.5 billion or 92.9% of total assets at December 31, 2004. The increase occurred in both loans held for investment and loans held for sale. Loans held for investment increased $3.3 billion, as portfolio originations exceeded repayments and a reduction due to a sale, and loans held for sale increased $839 million.
Our loan originations, including loans purchased, totaled a record $15.7 billion in 2004, up from $11.3 billion in 2003 and $10.9 billion in 2002. This current year increase primarily reflected record originations of one-to-four unit residential loans of $15.1 billion, of which $8.3 billion or 55% were for portfolio, with the balance for sale in the secondary market. Our origination of subprime loans totaled $828 million in 2004, up from $318 million in 2003. Our prepayment speed, which measures the annualized percentage of loans repaid, for one-to-four unit residential loans held for investment was 39% during 2004, compared to 51% during 2003 and 39% during 2002. Refinancing activities related to residential one-to-four unit loans, including new loans to refinance existing loans which we or other lenders originated, constituted 78% of originations during 2004 compared to 83% during 2003 and 78% during 2002. Refinancing activities increased from $9.1 billion in 2003 to $11.7 billion in 2004, as a lower interest rate environment existed throughout most of the year.
We originate one-to-four unit residential adjustable rate mortgages both with and without loan origination fees. In adjustable rate mortgage transactions for which we charge no origination fees, we receive a larger interest margin over the rate index to which the loan pricing is tied than in those for which we charge fees. In addition, a prepayment fee on loans with no origination fees is generally required if prepaid within the first three years. These loans generally result in deferrable loan origination costs exceeding loan origination fees.
Originations of adjustable rate residential one-to-four unit loans for portfolio, including loans purchased, totaled $8.3 billion in 2004, up from $4.6 billion in 2003 and $4.4 billion in 2002. Of the 2004 total:
The following table sets forth loans originated, including purchases, for investment and for sale during the years indicated.
At December 31, 2004, $11.3 billion of our one-to-four unit adjustable rate mortgages were subject to negative amortization, of which $37 million represented the amount of negative amortization included in the loan
balance. The amount of negative amortization declined $11 million during 2004 as borrowers paid off loans or repaid previously capitalized interest. For further information, see Residential Real Estate Lending on page 3.
The following table sets forth our investment portfolio of residential one-to-four unit adjustable rate loans by index, excluding our adjustablefixed for 3-5 year loans which are still in their initial fixed rate period, at the dates indicated.
Origination of loans secured by multi-family properties, including loans purchased, totaled $22 million in 2004, down from $85 million in 2003, but up from $3 million in 2002. Our origination of commercial real estate loans, including loans purchased, totaled $10 million in 2004, up from $4 million in 2003 and $1 million in 2002.
During 2004, we originated $37 million of construction loans, principally for entry level and first time move-up residential tracts. This compares to $80 million in 2003 and $124 million in 2002. Our origination of land development loans totaled $28 million in 2004, compared to $20 million in 2003 and $56 million in 2002.
Origination of non-mortgage commercial loans totaled $1 million in 2004, down from $3 million in 2003 and $14 million in 2002.
As we entered the fourth quarter of 2004, we decided to slow our asset growth to maintain a strong capital position and to manage asset growth more in line with the growth in our retained earnings. In November, we sold approximately $1 billion of our residential one-to-four unit loans on a servicing released basis leaving $12.8 billion in our portfolio held for investment. The loans sold were seasoned adjustable rate mortgages tied to MTA that we expect to replace with higher yielding adjustable rate product. While this sale temporarily resulted in assets growing more slowly than the growth of our retained earnings, we expect to replace the MTA loans sold and to achieve more comparable growth in assets and retained earnings before the end of first quarter 2005. Initially, the sale will result in a reduction of net interest income until the loans are replaced. However, we expect a breakeven point for the lost net interest income to occur within approximately six months following the sale date, when considering the 2004 fourth quarter gain from this loan sale. After the initial approximate six month period, overall profits should be enhanced from the higher yielding loans. We will continue to originate significant volumes of adjustable rate mortgages to the extent we can profitably sell the amount in excess of our balance sheet needs in the secondary market.
At December 31, 2004, our unfunded loan application pipeline totaled $3.0 billion. Within that pipeline, we had commitments to borrowers for short-term interest rate locks, excluding expected fallout, of $1.2 billion, of which $476 million were related to residential one-to-four unit loans being originated for sale in the secondary market. Furthermore, we had commitments for undrawn lines of credit of $412 million and loans in process of $46 million. We believe our current sources of funds will enable us to meet these obligations.
The following table sets forth the origination, purchase and sale activity relating to our loans and mortgage-backed securities during the years indicated.
(b) Primarily included changes in undisbursed funds for lines of credit and construction loans, changes in loss allowances, loans transferred to real estate acquired in settlement of loans or from (to) the held for sale portfolio, and the change in interest capitalized on loans (negative amortization). During the fourth quarter of 2004, we transferred to our sale portfolio and sold approximately $1 billion of our loans held for investment. Also included in 2000 was $367 million of net automobile loans sold as part of the sale of subsidiary.
(c) Reflected the change in fair value of the rate lock derivative from the date of commitment to the date of funding.
At December 31, 2004, approximately 90% of our real estate loans were secured by properties located in California, principally in Los Angeles, San Diego, Orange, Santa Clara and Riverside counties. This compares to 95% at year-end 2003. Also, approximately 63% of our residential one-to-four unit loans held for investment were originated in 2004, with an additional 18% originated in 2003.
The following table sets forth the composition of our loan and mortgage-backed securities portfolio at the dates indicated.
We carry loans for sale at the lower of cost or fair value. At December 31, 2004, no valuation allowance was required as the fair value exceeded book value on an aggregate basis.
At December 31, 2004, our residential one-to-four units subprime portfolio consisted of approximately 95% "Alt. A and A-" credit, 4% "B" credit and 1% "C" credit loans. The average loan-to-value ratio at origination for these loans was 71%.
We carry mortgage-backed securities available for sale at fair value which, at December 31, 2004, was essentially equal to our cost basis.
The table below sets forth the scheduled contractual maturities, including principal amortization, of our loan and mortgage-backed securities portfolio at December 31, 2004.
(b) Included $263 million of residential one-to-four unit adjustablefixed for 3-5 year loans still in their initial fixed rate period.
(c) Included home equity loans, which are interest only, with balances due at the end of the term. All or part of the outstanding balances may be paid off at any time during the term without penalty.
At December 31, 2004, the maximum amount the Bank could have loaned to any one borrower, and related entities, under regulatory limits was $181 million or $301 million for loans secured by readily marketable collateral, compared to $147 million or $245 million for loans secured by readily marketable collateral at year-end 2003. We do not expect that these regulatory limitations will adversely impact our proposed lending activities during 2005.
The following table sets forth the composition of our investment securities portfolio at the dates indicated.
The fair value of temporarily impaired securities, the amount of unrealized losses and the length of time these unrealized losses existed as of December 31, 2004 are presented in the following table. The $79,000 unrealized loss on the security that has been in a loss position for less than 12 months is due to changes in market interest rates. We have the intent and ability to hold the security until that temporary impairment is eliminated.
The following table sets forth the maturities of our investment securities and their weighted average yields at December 31, 2004.
Investments in Real Estate and Joint Ventures
DSL Service Company participates as an owner of, or a partner in, a variety of real estate development projects, principally retail neighborhood shopping centers and residential developments, most of which are located in California. For additional information regarding these real estate investments, see Note 6 of Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements on page 87. We have substantially completed and leased most of the neighborhood shopping center projectswith a weighted average occupancy rate of 89% at December 31, 2004. At December 31, 2004, the Bank had no loan commitments to the joint ventures.
DSL Service Company is entitled to interest on its equity invested in its joint venture projects on a priority basis after third-party debt and shares profits and losses with the developer partner, generally on an equal basis. DSL Service Company has obtained guarantees from the principals of the developer partners. Partnership equity or deficit accounts are affected by current period results of operations, additional partner advances, partnership distributions and partnership liquidations. We have analyzed our variable interests in these joint venture projects and we have determined based on the dispersal of risks among the parties involved that we are not the primary beneficiary of any of these variable interest entities. Therefore, the joint venture projects are not consolidated into our financial results, but rather are accounted for under the equity method.
As of December 31, 2004, DSL Service Company was involved with one joint venture partner. This partner was the operator of four residential housing development projects. DSL Service Company had four wholly owned retail neighborhood shopping centers located in California and Arizona.
Our investment in real estate and joint ventures amounted to $55 million at December 31, 2004, compared to $36 million at December 31, 2003 and $34 million at December 31, 2002. The increase during 2004 was primarily attributed to new investments of $22 million in joint venture projects and $14 million in wholly owned projects, our share of joint venture profits of $6 million, investments of $3 million in affordable housing funds and
investments of $2 million in existing wholly owned projects. Those increases were partially offset by a $21 million return of capital from two of our existing joint ventures and the sale of one wholly owned project with a carrying value of $7 million. The increase during 2003 was primarily attributed to a $6 million investment in existing shopping centers, a $5 million investment in a new joint venture and our share of joint venture profits of $3 million. Those increases were partially offset by a $7 million return of capital from one of our existing joint ventures and the sale of wholly owned projects with a carrying value of $5 million.
The following table sets forth the condensed balance sheet of DSL Service Companys residential joint ventures at December 31, 2004, on a historical cost basis.
(b) The aggregate other partners equity of $2 million represents their equity interest in the accumulated retained earnings of the respective joint ventures. Those results include the net profit on sales and the operating results of the real estate assets, net of depreciation and funding costs. Except for any secured financing which has been obtained, DSL Service Company has provided all other financing. As part of our internal asset review process, we compare the fair value of the joint venture real estate assets to the secured notes payable to the Bank and DSL Service Companys equity investment. To the extent the fair value of the real estate assets is less than the aggregate of those amounts, we make a provision to create a valuation allowance. No valuation allowance was required at December 31, 2004.
The following table sets forth by property type our investments in real estate and related allowances for losses at December 31, 2004. For further information regarding the establishment of loss allowances, see Allowance for Losses on Loans and Real Estate on page 55.
Real estate investments entail risks similar to those our construction and commercial lending activities present. In addition, California courts have imposed warranty-like responsibility upon developers of new housing for defects in structure and the housing site, including soil conditions. This responsibility is not necessarily dependent upon a finding that the developer was negligent. Owners of real property also may incur liabilities with respect to environmental matters, including financial responsibility for clean-up of hazardous waste or other conditions, under various federal and state laws.
Our deposits increased $1.4 billion or 16.4% in 2004 and totaled $9.7 billion at December 31, 2004. Compared to the year-ago period, our certificates of deposit increased $2.3 billion or 72.2%, which was partially offset by a decrease in our lower-rate transaction accountsi.e., checking, money market and regular passbookof $963 million or 19.0%. Given the relatively low level of interest rates, certain of our depositors in prior periods moved monies from certificates of deposit to transaction accounts as they seemed more interested in liquidity. Now that short-term market interest rates have begun to rise, those monies are now beginning to flow back into certificates of deposit. During 2004:
At December 31, 2004, the total number of branches was 169, of which 165 were in California and four were in Arizona. The average deposit size of our 76 traditional branches was $103 million, while the average deposit size of our 93 in-store branches was $19 million.
The following table sets forth information concerning our deposits and weighted average rates paid at the dates indicated.
The following table shows at December 31, 2004 our certificates of deposit maturities by interest rate category.
At December 31, 2004, borrowings totaled $4.8 billion, up from $2.3 billion at year-end 2003 and $1.7 billion at year-end 2002. The increase during 2004 was due primarily to an increase of $2.4 billion in FHLB advances. During 2004, the holding company issued $200 million of 6.5% 10-year unsecured senior notes. The net proceeds, after deducting underwriting discounts and our offering expenses, were approximately $198 million. Those proceeds were used to redeem our $124 million of 10% junior subordinated debentures prior to their maturity and in turn to redeem the related capital securities, and to make a capital investment in the Bank to support its asset growth. We redeemed our junior subordinated debentures because of the lower interest rate at which we were able to issue the senior debt, which will result in lower future interest expense.
The following table sets forth information concerning our FHLB advances and other borrowings at the dates indicated.
(b) On July 23, 2004, we redeemed our junior subordinated debentures before maturity.
The following table sets forth certain information with respect to our short-term borrowings.
At year-end 2004, intermediate and long-term borrowings totaled $1.2 billion, down from $1.3 billion at December 31, 2003. The weighted average rate on our intermediate and long-term borrowings at year-end 2004 was 4.70%.
The following table sets forth the maturities of our intermediate and long-term borrowings at December 31, 2004.
Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements
We consolidate majority-owned subsidiaries that we control. We account for other affiliates, including joint ventures, in which we do not exhibit significant control or have majority ownership, by the equity method of accounting. For those relationships in which we own less than 20%, we generally carry them at cost. In the course of our business, we participate in real estate joint ventures through our wholly-owned subsidiary, DSL Service Company. Our real estate joint ventures do not require consolidation as a result of applying the provisions of Financial Accounting Standards Board Interpretation 46 (revised December 2003). For further information regarding our real estate joint venture partnerships, see Note 6 of Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements on page 87.
We also utilize financial instruments with off-balance sheet risk in the normal course of business to meet the financing needs of our customers. These financial instruments include commitments to originate fixed and variable rate mortgage loans held for investment, undisbursed loan funds, lines and letters of credit, and commitments to purchase loans and mortgage-backed securities for our portfolio. The contract or notional amounts of these instruments reflect the extent of involvement we have in particular classes of financial instruments. For further information regarding these commitments, see Asset/Liability Management and Market Risk on page 46, Contractual Obligations and Other Commitments on page 62 and Note 23 of Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements on page 102.
We use the same credit policies in making commitments to originate or purchase loans, lines of credit and letters of credit as we do for on-balance sheet instruments. For commitments to originate loans held for investment, the contract amounts represent exposure to loss from market fluctuations as well as credit loss. In
regard to these commitments, adverse changes from market fluctuations are generally not hedged. We control the credit risk of our commitments to originate loans held for investment through credit approvals, limits and monitoring procedures.
We do not dispose of troubled loans or problem assets by means of unconsolidated special purpose entities.
Transactions with Related Parties
There are no related party transactions required to be disclosed in accordance with FASB Statement No. 57, Related Party Disclosures. Loans to our executive officers and directors were made in the ordinary course of business and were made on substantially the same terms as comparable transactions.
Asset/Liability Management and Market Risk
Market risk is the risk of loss from adverse changes in market prices and interest rates. Our market risk arises primarily from interest rate risk in our lending and deposit taking activities. Interest rate risk primarily occurs to the degree that our interest-bearing liabilities reprice or mature on a different basis than our interest-earning assets. Since our earnings depend primarily on our net interest income, which is the difference between the interest and dividends earned on interest-earning assets and the interest paid on interest-bearing liabilities, our principal objectives are to actively monitor and manage the effects of adverse changes in interest rates on net interest income. Our primary strategy to manage interest rate risk is to emphasize the origination for investment of adjustable rate mortgages or loans with relatively short maturities. Interest rates on adjustable rate mortgages are primarily tied to COFI, MTA, LIBOR and CMT. We also may execute swap contracts to change interest rate characteristics of our interest-earning assets or interest-bearing liabilities to better manage interest rate risk.
In addition to the interest rate risk associated with our lending for investment and deposit taking activities, we also have market risk associated with our secondary marketing activities. Changes in mortgage interest rates, primarily fixed rate mortgages, impact the fair value of loans held for sale as well as our interest rate lock commitment derivatives, where we have committed to an interest rate with a potential borrower for a loan we intend to sell. Our objective is to hedge against fluctuations in interest rates through use of forward sale and purchase contracts with government-sponsored enterprises and whole loan sale contracts with various parties. These contracts are typically obtained at the time the interest rate lock commitments are made. Therefore, as interest rates fluctuate, the changes in the fair value of our interest rate lock commitments and loans held for sale tend to be offset by changes in the fair value of the hedge contracts. We continue to hedge as previously done before the issuance of SFAS 133. As applied to our risk management strategies, SFAS 133 may increase or decrease reported net income and stockholders equity, depending on interest rates and other variables affecting the fair values of derivative instruments and hedged items, but will have no effect on the overall economics of the transactions. The method used for assessing the effectiveness of a hedging derivative, as well as the measurement approach for determining the ineffective aspects of the hedge, is established at the inception of the hedge. We generally do not enter into hedging contracts for speculative purposes.
Changes in mortgage interest rates also impact the value of our MSRs. Rising interest rates typically result in slower prepayment speeds on the loans being serviced for others which increase the value of MSRs. Declining interest rates typically result in faster prepayment speeds which decrease the value of MSRs. During the first quarter of 2004, we implemented a fairly simple hedging strategy by purchasing securities classified as available for sale as a partial economic hedge against future value changes in our MSRs. During periods when long-term interest rates decline, the value of our MSRs will fall and the resultant MSR valuation addition will, in general, be partially offset by securities gains. However, if long-term interest rates rise causing MSR values to improve, the securities will be in a loss position and may be sold with the intention to reset the hedge at a higher market interest rate. Any realized loss from the securities sales will be mitigated by the favorable earnings impact associated with the recapture of any existing MSR valuation allowance. While this strategy is not constructed to be a perfect hedge, it is expected to reduce earnings volatility from changing MSR values. Over time, we may use derivatives in lieu of securities, or a combination of both, to provide an economic hedge against value changes in our MSRs. In addition, the dollar amount used as an economic hedge may vary as we reset the hedge due to changes in the volume of MSRs or their sensitivity to changes in market interest rates. In connection with the sale of approximately 80% of our MSRs during the fourth quarter of 2004 which thereby reduced the risk of changing MSR values, the partial economic hedge established in the first quarter of 2004 was closed in October 2004.
Our Asset/Liability Management Committee is responsible for implementing the interest rate risk management policy which sets forth limits established by the Board of Directors of acceptable changes in net interest income and net portfolio value from specified changes in interest rates. The OTS defines net portfolio value as the present value of expected net cash flows from existing assets minus the present value of expected net cash flows from existing liabilities plus the present value of expected cash flows from existing off-balance sheet contracts. Our Asset/Liability Management Committee reviews, among other items, economic conditions, the interest rate outlook, the demand for loans, the availability of deposits and borrowings, and our current operating results, liquidity, capital and interest rate exposure. In addition, our Asset/Liability Management Committee monitors asset and liability maturities and repricing characteristics on a regular basis and performs various simulations and other analyses to determine the potential impact of various business strategies in controlling interest rate risk and the potential impact of those strategies upon future earnings under various interest rate scenarios. Based on these reviews, our Asset/Liability Management Committee formulates a strategy that is intended to implement the objectives set forth in our business plan without exceeding the net interest income and net portfolio value limits set forth in our interest rate risk policy.
One measure of our exposure to differential changes in interest rates between assets and liabilities is shown in the following table which sets forth the repricing frequency of our major asset and liability categories as of December 31, 2004, as well as other information regarding the repricing and maturity differences between our interest-earning assets and the total of deposits and borrowings in future periods. We refer to these differences as "gap." We have determined the repricing frequencies by reference to projected maturities, based upon contractual maturities as adjusted for scheduled repayments and "repricing mechanisms"provisions for changes in the interest and dividend rates of assets and liabilities. We assume prepayment rates on substantially all of our loan portfolio based upon our historical loan prepayment experience and anticipated future prepayments. Repricing mechanisms on a number of our assets are subject to limitations, such as caps on the amount that interest rates and payments on our loans may adjust, and accordingly, these assets do not normally respond to changes in market interest rates as completely or rapidly as our liabilities. The interest rate sensitivity of our assets and liabilities illustrated in the following table would vary substantially if we used different assumptions or if actual experience differed from the assumptions set forth.
(b) Based upon contractual maturity, repricing date and projected repayment and prepayments of principal.
(c) Included amounts swept into money market deposit accounts and is subject to immediate repricing.
(d) Subject to immediate repricing.
(e) Based upon contractual maturity and repricing date.
Our six-month gap at December 31, 2004 was a positive 17.05%. This means that more interest-earning assets mature or reprice within six months than the total of deposits and borrowings. This is up from a positive six-month gap of 14.95% at December 31, 2003 and 16.80% at December 31, 2002. We originated and purchased for investment loans and mortgage-backed securities with adjustable interest rates or maturities of five years or less of approximately $8.9 billion during 2004, $5.0 billion during 2003 and $4.7 billion during 2002. These loans represented essentially all loans and mortgage-backed securities originated and purchased for investment during 2004, 2003 and 2002.
At December 31, 2004, 2003 and 2002, essentially all of our interest-earning assets mature, reprice or are estimated to prepay within five years. At December 31, 2004, $13.2 billion or 99% of our loans held for investment and mortgage-backed securities portfolios consisted of adjustable rate loans and loans with a due date of five years or less, compared to $10.0 billion or 99% at December 31, 2003 and $10.1 billion or 98% at December 31, 2002. During 2005, we will continue to offer residential fixed rate loan products to our customers to meet customer demand. We primarily originate fixed rate loans for sale in the secondary market and price them accordingly to create loan servicing income and to increase opportunities for originating adjustable rate mortgages. However, we may originate fixed rate loans for investment when funded with long-term funds to mitigate interest rate risk and small volumes to facilitate the sale of real estate acquired through foreclosure or that meet required yield and other approved guidelines. For further information, see Secondary Marketing and Loan Servicing Activities on page 5.
We are better protected against rising interest rates with a positive six-month gap. However, we remain subject to possible interest rate spread compression, which would adversely impact our net interest income if interest rates rise. This is primarily due to the lag in repricing of the indices to which our adjustable rate loans and mortgage-backed securities are tied, as well as the repricing frequencies and periodic interest rate caps on these adjustable rate loans and mortgage-backed securities. The amount of such interest rate spread compression would depend upon the frequency and severity of such interest rate fluctuations.
In addition to measuring interest rate risk via a gap analysis, we establish limits on, and measure the sensitivity of, our net interest income and net portfolio value to changes in interest rates. Changes in interest rates are defined as instantaneous and sustained movements in interest rates in 100 basis point increments. We utilize an internally maintained asset/liability management simulation model to make the calculations which, for net portfolio value, are calculated on a discounted cash flow basis. First, we estimate our net interest income for the next twelve months and the current net portfolio value assuming no change in interest rates from those at period end. Once the base case has been estimated, we make calculations for each of the defined changes in interest rates, to include any associated differences in the anticipated prepayment speed of loans. We then compare those results against the base case to determine the estimated change to net interest income and net portfolio value due to the changes in interest rates. The following are the estimated impacts to net interest income and net portfolio value from various instantaneous, parallel shifts in interest rates based upon our asset and liability structure as of year-ends 2004 and 2003. Since we base these estimates upon numerous assumptions, like the expected maturities of our interest-bearing assets and liabilities and the shape of the period-end interest rate yield curve, our actual sensitivity to interest rate changes could vary significantly if actual experience differs from those assumptions used in making the calculations.
(b) The percentage change in this column represents the net portfolio value of the Bank in a stable interest rate environment versus the net portfolio value in the various rate scenarios.
(c) The change in interest rates is not applicable due to their low level.
The following table shows our financial instruments that are sensitive to changes in interest rates, categorized by expected maturity, and the instruments fair values at December 31, 2004. This data differs from that in the gap table as it does not incorporate the repricing characteristics of assets and liabilities. Rather, it only reflects contractual maturities adjusted for anticipated prepayments and call provisions for investment securities. Market risk sensitive instruments are generally defined as on and off balance sheet derivatives and other financial instruments. Our assets and liabilities that do not have a stated maturity date, such as certain deposits, are considered to be long term in nature and are reported in the "thereafter" column. We do not consider these financial instruments to be materially sensitive to interest rate fluctuations, and historically, the balances have remained fairly constant over various economic conditions. The weighted average interest rates for the various fixed-rate and variable-rate assets and liabilities presented are based on the actual rates that existed at December 31, 2004. The fair value of our financial instruments is determined as follows:
The degree of market risk inherent in loans with prepayment features may not be completely reflected in the disclosures. Although we have taken into consideration our historical prepayment trends adjusted for current market conditions to determine expected maturity categories, prepayment features are triggered by changes in the market rates of interest. Unexpected changes may increase the rate of prepayments above those anticipated. As such, the potential loss from such market rate changes may be significantly larger.