Eagle Bancorp 10-Q 2017
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, DC 20549
OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the Quarterly Period Ended June 30, 2017
OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from _________ to_________
Commission File Number 0-25923
Eagle Bancorp, Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
(Former name, former address and former fiscal year, if changed since last report)
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ☒ No ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files). Yes ☒ No ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See definition of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company”) in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer ☒
Accelerated filer ☐
Non-accelerated filer ☐ (Do not mark if a smaller reporting company)
Smaller Reporting Company ☐
Emerging Growth Company ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act
Yes ☐ No ☒
As of July 31, 2017, the registrant had 34,174,009 shares of Common Stock outstanding.
EAGLE BANCORP, INC.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Item 1 – Financial Statements (Unaudited)
EAGLE BANCORP, INC.
(dollars in thousands, except per share data)
See notes to consolidated financial statements.
EAGLE BANCORP, INC.
(dollars in thousands, except per share data)
See notes to consolidated financial statements.
EAGLE BANCORP, INC.
(dollars in thousands)
See notes to consolidated financial statements.
EAGLE BANCORP, INC.
(dollars in thousands except share data)
See notes to consolidated financial statements.
EAGLE BANCORP, INC.
(dollars in thousands)
See notes to consolidated financial statements.
EAGLE BANCORP, INC.
Note 1. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Basis of Presentation
The Consolidated Financial Statements include the accounts of Eagle Bancorp, Inc. and its subsidiaries (the “Company”), EagleBank (the “Bank”), Eagle Commercial Ventures, LLC (“ECV”), Eagle Insurance Services, LLC, and Bethesda Leasing, LLC, with all significant intercompany transactions eliminated.
The Consolidated Financial Statements of the Company included herein are unaudited. The Consolidated Financial Statements reflect all adjustments, consisting of normal recurring accruals that in the opinion of management, are necessary to present fairly the results for the periods presented. The amounts as of and for the year ended December 31, 2016 were derived from audited Consolidated Financial Statements. Certain information and note disclosures normally included in financial statements prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”) have been condensed or omitted pursuant to the rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission. There have been no significant changes to the Company’s Accounting Policies as disclosed in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2016. The Company believes that the disclosures are adequate to make the information presented not misleading. Certain reclassifications have been made to amounts previously reported to conform to the current period presentation.
These statements should be read in conjunction with the audited Consolidated Financial Statements and related notes included in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2016. Operating results for the three and six months ended June 30, 2017 are not necessarily indicative of the results of operations to be expected for the remainder of the year, or for any other period.
Nature of Operations
The Company, through the Bank, conducts a full service community banking business, primarily in the metropolitan Washington, D.C area. The primary financial services offered by the Bank include real estate, commercial and consumer lending, as well as traditional deposit and repurchase agreement products. The Bank is also active in the origination and sale of residential mortgage loans, the origination of small business loans, and the origination, securitization and sale of FHA loans. The Bank offers its products and services through twenty-one banking offices, five lending centers and various electronic capabilities, including remote deposit services and mobile banking services. Eagle Insurance Services, LLC, a subsidiary of the Bank, offers access to insurance products and services through a referral program with a third party insurance broker. Eagle Commercial Ventures, LLC, a direct subsidiary of the Company, provides subordinated financing for the acquisition, development and construction of real estate projects; these transactions involve higher levels of risk, together with commensurate higher returns. Refer to Higher Risk Lending – Revenue Recognition below.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts in the financial statements and accompanying notes. Actual results may differ from those estimates and such differences could be material to the financial statements.
For purposes of reporting cash flows, cash and cash equivalents include cash and due from banks, federal funds sold, and interest bearing deposits with other banks which have an original maturity of three months or less.
Loans Held for Sale
The Company regularly engages in sales of residential mortgage loans and the guaranteed portion of small business loans, guaranteed by the Small Business Administration (“SBA”), and originated by the Bank. The Company has elected to carry loans held for sale at fair value. Fair value is derived from secondary market quotations for similar instruments. Gains and losses on sales of these loans are recorded as a component of noninterest income in the Consolidated Statements of Operations.
The Company’s current practice is to sell residential mortgage loans on a servicing released basis, and, therefore, it has no intangible asset recorded for the value of such servicing as of June 30, 2017, December 31, 2016 and June 30, 2016. The sale of the guaranteed portion of SBA loans on a servicing retained basis, in a transaction apart from the loan’s origination, gives rise to an excess servicing asset, which is computed on a loan by loan basis with the unamortized amount being included in intangible assets in the Consolidated Balance Sheets. This excess servicing asset is being amortized on a straight-line basis (with adjustment for prepayments) as an offset to servicing fees collected and is included in other income in the Consolidated Statements of Operations.
The Company enters into commitments to originate residential mortgage loans whereby the interest rate on the loan is determined prior to funding (i.e. interest rate lock commitments). Such interest rate lock commitments on mortgage loans to be sold in the secondary market are considered to be derivatives. To protect against the price risk inherent in residential mortgage loan commitments, the Company utilizes both “best efforts” and “mandatory delivery” forward loan sale commitments to mitigate the risk of potential decreases in the values of loans that would result from the exercise of the derivative loan commitments. Under a “best efforts” contract, the Company commits to deliver an individual mortgage loan of a specified principal amount and quality to an investor and the investor commits to a price that it will purchase the loan from the Company if the loan to the underlying borrower closes. The Company protects itself from changes in interest rates through the use of best efforts forward delivery commitments, whereby the investor commits to purchase a loan at a price representing a premium on the day the borrower commits to an interest rate with the intent that the buyer/investor has assumed the interest rate risk on the loan. As a result, the Bank is not generally exposed to losses on loans sold utilizing best efforts, nor will it realize gains related to rate lock commitments due to changes in interest rates. The market values of interest rate lock commitments and best efforts contracts are not readily ascertainable with precision because rate lock commitments and best efforts contracts are not actively traded. Because of the high correlation between rate lock commitments and best efforts contracts, no gain or loss should occur on the interest rate lock commitments. Under a “mandatory delivery” contract, the Company commits to deliver a certain principal amount of mortgage loans to an investor at a specified price on or before a specified date. If the Company fails to deliver the amount of mortgages necessary to fulfill the commitment by the specified date, it is obligated to pay the investor a “pair-off” fee, based on then-current market prices, to compensate the investor for the shortfall. The Company manages the interest rate risk on interest rate lock commitments by entering into forward sale contracts of mortgage backed securities, whereby the Company obtains the right to deliver securities to investors in the future at a specified price. Such contracts are accounted for as derivatives and are recorded at fair value in derivative assets or liabilities, carried on the Consolidated Balance Sheet within other assets or other liabilities with changes in fair value recorded in other income within the Consolidated Statements of Operations. The period of time between issuance of a loan commitment to the customer and closing and sale of the loan to an investor generally ranges from 30 to 90 days under current market conditions. The gross gains on loan sales are recognized based on new loan commitments with adjustment for price and pair-off activity. Commission expenses on loans held for sale are recognized based on loans closed.
In circumstances where the Company does not deliver the whole loan to an investor, but rather elects to retain the loan in its portfolio, the loan is transferred from held for sale to loans at fair value at date of transfer.
The Company originates a small number of FHA loans through the Department of Housing and Urban Development’s Multifamily Accelerated Program (“MAP”). The Company securitizes these loans through the Government National Mortgage Association (“Ginnie Mae”) MBS I program and sells the resulting securities in the open market to Bank authorized dealers in the normal course of business and generally retains the servicing rights. Revenue represents gains from the sale of the Ginnie Mae securities and net revenues earned on the servicing of FHA loans securitizing the Ginnie Mae securities. The gains on Ginnie Mae securities include the realized and unrealized gains and losses on sales of FHA mortgage loans, as well as the changes in fair value of FHA interest rate lock commitments and FHA forward loan sale commitments. Revenue from servicing commercial FHA mortgages is recognized as earned based on the specific contractual terms of the underlying servicing agreements, along with amortization of and changes in impairment of mortgage servicing rights.
The Company has no securities classified as trading, or as held to maturity. Securities available-for-sale are acquired as part of the Company’s asset/liability management strategy and may be sold in response to changes in interest rates, current market conditions, loan demand, changes in prepayment risk and other factors. Securities available-for-sale are carried at fair value, with unrealized gains or losses being reported as accumulated other comprehensive income/(loss), a separate component of shareholders’ equity, net of deferred income tax. Realized gains and losses, using the specific identification method, are included as a separate component of noninterest income in the Consolidated Statements of Operations.
Premiums and discounts on investment securities are amortized/accreted to the earlier of call or maturity based on expected lives, which lives are adjusted based on prepayment assumptions and call optionality if any. Declines in the fair value of individual available-for-sale securities below their cost that are other-than-temporary in nature result in write-downs of the individual securities to their fair value. Factors affecting the determination of whether other-than-temporary impairment has occurred include a downgrading of the security by a rating agency, a significant deterioration in the financial condition of the issuer, or a change in management’s intent and ability to hold a security for a period of time sufficient to allow for any anticipated recovery in fair value. Management systematically evaluates investment securities for other-than-temporary declines in fair value on a quarterly basis. This analysis requires management to consider various factors, which include the: (1) duration and magnitude of the decline in value; (2) financial condition of the issuer or issuers; and (3) structure of the security.
The entire amount of an impairment loss is recognized in earnings only when: (1) the Company intends to sell the security; or (2) it is more likely than not that the Company will have to sell the security before recovery of its amortized cost basis; or (3) the Company does not expect to recover the entire amortized cost basis of the security. In all other situations, only the portion of the impairment loss representing the credit loss must be recognized in earnings, with the remaining portion being recognized in shareholders’ equity as comprehensive income, net of deferred taxes.
Loans are stated at the principal amount outstanding, net of unamortized deferred costs and fees. Interest income on loans is accrued at the contractual rate on the principal amount outstanding. It is the Company’s policy to discontinue the accrual of interest when circumstances indicate that collection is doubtful. Deferred fees and costs are being amortized on the interest method over the term of the loan.
Management considers loans impaired when, based on current information, it is probable that the Company will not collect all principal and interest payments according to contractual terms. Loans are evaluated for impairment in accordance with the Company’s portfolio monitoring and ongoing risk assessment procedures. Management considers the financial condition of the borrower, cash flow of the borrower, payment status of the loan, and the value of the collateral, if any, securing the loan. Generally, impaired loans do not include large groups of smaller balance homogeneous loans such as residential real estate and consumer type loans which are evaluated collectively for impairment and are generally placed on nonaccrual when the loan becomes 90 days past due as to principal or interest. Loans specifically reviewed for impairment are not considered impaired during periods of “minimal delay” in payment (90 days or less) provided eventual collection of all amounts due is expected. The impairment of a loan is measured based on the present value of expected future cash flows discounted at the loan’s effective interest rate, or the fair value of the collateral if repayment is expected to be provided solely by the collateral. In appropriate circumstances, interest income on impaired loans may be recognized on a cash basis.
Higher Risk Lending – Revenue Recognition
The Company has occasionally made higher risk acquisition, development, and construction (“ADC”) loans that entail higher risks than ADC loans made following normal underwriting practices (“higher risk loan transactions”). These higher risk loan transactions are currently made through the Company’s subsidiary, ECV. This activity is limited as to individual transaction amount and total exposure amounts, based on capital levels, and is carefully monitored. The loans are carried on the balance sheet at amounts outstanding and meet the loan classification requirements of the Accounting Standard Executive Committee (“AcSEC”) guidance reprinted from the CPA Letter, Special Supplement, dated February 10, 1986 (also referred to as Exhibit 1 to AcSEC Practice Bulletin No. 1). ECV had three higher risk loan transactions outstanding as of June 30, 2017 and December 31, 2016, amounting to $9.4 million and $9.3 million, respectively.
Allowance for Credit Losses
The allowance for credit losses represents an amount which, in management’s judgment, is adequate to absorb probable losses on loans and other extensions of credit that may become uncollectible. The adequacy of the allowance for credit losses is determined through careful and continuous review and evaluation of the loan portfolio and involves the balancing of a number of factors to establish a prudent level of allowance. Among the factors considered in evaluating the adequacy of the allowance for credit losses are lending risks associated with growth and entry into new markets, loss allocations for specific credits, the level of the allowance to nonperforming loans, historical loss experience, economic conditions, portfolio trends and credit concentrations, changes in the size and character of the loan portfolio, and management’s judgment with respect to current and expected economic conditions and their impact on the existing loan portfolio. Allowances for impaired loans are generally determined based on collateral values. Loans or any portion thereof deemed uncollectible are charged against the allowance, while recoveries are credited to the allowance. Management adjusts the level of the allowance through the provision for credit losses, which is recorded as a current period operating expense. The allowance for credit losses consists of allocated and unallocated components.
The components of the allowance for credit losses represent an estimation done pursuant to Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) Topic 450, “Contingencies,” or ASC Topic 310, “Receivables.” Specific allowances are established in cases where management has identified significant conditions or circumstances related to a specific credit that management believes indicate the probability that a loss may be incurred. For potential problem credits for which specific allowance amounts have not been determined, the Company establishes allowances according to the application of credit risk factors. These factors are set by management and approved by the appropriate Board committee to reflect its assessment of the relative level of risk inherent in each risk grade. A third component of the allowance computation, termed a nonspecific or environmental factors allowance, is based upon management’s evaluation of various environmental conditions that are not directly measured in the determination of either the specific allowance or formula allowance. Such conditions include general economic and business conditions affecting key lending areas, credit quality trends (including trends in delinquencies and nonperforming loans expected to result from existing conditions), loan volumes and concentrations, specific industry conditions within portfolio categories, recent loss experience in particular loan categories, duration of the current business cycle, bank regulatory examination results, findings of outside review consultants, and management’s judgment with respect to various other conditions including credit administration and management and the quality of risk identification systems. Executive management reviews these environmental conditions quarterly, and documents the rationale for all changes.
Management believes that the allowance for credit losses is adequate; however, determination of the allowance is inherently subjective and requires significant estimates. While management uses available information to recognize losses on loans, future additions to the allowance may be necessary based on changes in economic conditions. Evaluation of the potential effects of these factors on estimated losses involves a high degree of uncertainty, including the strength and timing of economic cycles and concerns over the effects of a prolonged economic downturn in the current cycle. In addition, various banking agencies, as an integral part of their examination process, and independent consultants engaged by the Bank, periodically review the Bank’s loan portfolio and allowance for credit losses. Such review may result in recognition of additions to the allowance based on their judgments of information available to them at the time of their examination.
Premises and Equipment
Premises and equipment are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation and amortization computed using the straight-line method for financial reporting purposes. Premises and equipment are depreciated over the useful lives of the assets, which generally range from three to seven years for furniture, fixtures and equipment, three to five years for computer software and hardware, and five to twenty years for building improvements. Leasehold improvements are amortized over the terms of the respective leases, which may include renewal options where management has the positive intent to exercise such options, or the estimated useful lives of the improvements, whichever is shorter. The costs of major renewals and betterments are capitalized, while the costs of ordinary maintenance and repairs are expensed as incurred. These costs are included as a component of premises and equipment expenses on the Consolidated Statements of Operations.
Other Real Estate Owned (OREO)
Assets acquired through loan foreclosure are held for sale and are recorded at fair value less estimated selling costs when acquired, establishing a new cost basis. The new basis is supported by appraisals that are generally no more than twelve months old. Costs after acquisition are generally expensed. If the fair value of the asset declines, a write-down is recorded through noninterest expense. The valuation of foreclosed assets is subjective in nature and may be adjusted in the future because of changes in market conditions or appraised values.
Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets
Goodwill represents the excess of the cost of an acquisition over the fair value of the net assets acquired. Other intangible assets represent purchased assets that lack physical substance but can be distinguished from goodwill because of contractual or other legal rights. Intangible assets that have finite lives, such as core deposit intangibles, are amortized over their estimated useful lives and subject to periodic impairment testing. Intangible assets (other than goodwill) are amortized to expense using accelerated or straight-line methods over their respective estimated useful lives.
Goodwill is subject to impairment testing at the reporting unit level, which must be conducted at least annually. The Company performs impairment testing during the fourth quarter of each year or when events or changes in circumstances indicate the assets might be impaired.
The Company performs a qualitative assessment to determine whether it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount. If, after assessing updated qualitative factors, the Company determines it is not more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount, it does not have to perform the two-step goodwill impairment test. Determining the fair value of a reporting unit under the first step of the goodwill impairment test and determining the fair value of individual assets and liabilities of a reporting unit under the second step of the goodwill impairment test are judgmental and often involve the use of significant estimates and assumptions. Similarly, estimates and assumptions are used in determining the fair value of other intangible assets. Estimates of fair value are primarily determined using discounted cash flows, market comparisons and recent transactions. These approaches use significant estimates and assumptions including projected future cash flows, discount rates reflecting the market rate of return, projected growth rates and determination and evaluation of appropriate market comparables. Based on the results of qualitative assessments of all reporting units, the Company concluded that no impairment existed at December 31, 2016. However, future events could cause the Company to conclude that goodwill or other intangibles have become impaired, which would result in recording an impairment loss. Any resulting impairment loss could have a material adverse impact on the Company’s financial condition and results of operations.
Interest Rate Swap Derivatives
The Company is exposed to certain risks arising from both its business operations and economic conditions. The Company principally manages its exposures to a wide variety of business and operational risks through management of its core business activities. The Company manages economic risks, including interest rate, liquidity, and credit risk, primarily by managing the amount, sources, and duration of its assets and liabilities and through the use of derivative financial instruments. Specifically, the Company enters into derivative financial instruments to manage exposures that arise from business activities that result in the receipt or payment of future known and uncertain cash amounts, the value of which are determined by interest rates. The Company’s derivative financial instruments designated as cash flow hedges are used to manage differences in the amount, timing, and duration of the Company’s known or expected cash receipts and its known or expected cash payments principally related to certain variable rate deposits. From time to time, the Company also utilizes stand-alone derivatives to manage changes in the market value of commercial multi-family loan commitments that, once closed, are intended for securitization and sale on the secondary market. Refer to the “Loans Held for Sale” section for a discussion on forward commitment contracts, which are also considered derivatives.
At the inception of a derivative contract, the Company designates the derivative as one of three types based on the Company’s intentions and belief as to likely effectiveness as a hedge. These three types are (1) a hedge of the fair value of a recognized asset or liability or of an unrecognized firm commitment (“fair value hedge”), (2) a hedge of a forecasted transaction or the variability of cash flows to be received or paid related to a recognized asset or liability (“cash flow hedge”), or (3) an instrument with no hedging designation (“stand-alone derivative”). Regarding Interest Rate Swap Derivatives, the Company has no fair value hedges, only cash flow hedges and a stand-alone derivative. For a cash flow hedge, the gain or loss on the derivative is reported in other comprehensive income and is reclassified into earnings in the same period(s) during which the hedged transaction affects earnings (i.e. the period when cash flows are exchanged between counterparties). For both fair value and cash flow hedges, changes in the fair value of derivatives that are not highly effective in hedging the changes in fair value or expected cash flows of the hedged item are recognized immediately in current earnings. Changes in the fair value of derivatives that do not qualify for hedge accounting are reported currently in earnings, as noninterest income.
Net cash settlements on derivatives that qualify for hedge accounting are recorded in interest income or interest expense, based on the item being hedged. Net cash settlements on derivatives that do not qualify for hedge accounting are reported in noninterest income. Cash flows on hedges are classified in the cash flow statement the same as the cash flows of the items being hedged.
The Company formally documents the relationship between derivatives and hedged items, as well as the risk-management objective and the strategy for undertaking hedge transactions at the inception of the hedging relationship. This documentation includes linking fair value or cash flow hedges to specific assets and liabilities on the balance sheet or to specific firm commitments or forecasted transactions. The Company also formally assesses, both at the hedge’s inception and on an ongoing basis, whether the derivative instruments that are used are highly effective in offsetting changes in fair values or cash flows of the hedged items. The Company discontinues hedge accounting when it determines that the derivative is no longer highly effective in offsetting changes in the fair value or cash flows of the hedged item, the derivative is settled or terminates, a hedged forecasted transaction is no longer probable, a hedged firm commitment is no longer firm, or treatment of the derivative as a hedge is no longer appropriate or intended.
When hedge accounting is discontinued, subsequent changes in fair value of the derivative are recorded as noninterest income or expense. When a fair value hedge is discontinued, the hedged asset or liability is no longer adjusted for changes in fair value and the existing basis adjustment is amortized or accreted over the remaining life of the asset or liability. When a cash flow hedge is discontinued but the hedged cash flows or forecasted transactions are still expected to occur, gains or losses that were accumulated in other comprehensive income are amortized into earnings over the same periods in which the hedged transactions will affect earnings.
Customer Repurchase Agreements
The Company enters into agreements under which it sells securities subject to an obligation to repurchase the same securities. Under these arrangements, the Company may transfer legal control over the assets but still retain effective control through an agreement that both entitles and obligates the Company to repurchase the assets. As a result, securities sold under agreements to repurchase are accounted for as collateralized financing arrangements and not as a sale and subsequent repurchase of securities. The agreements are entered into primarily as accommodations for large commercial deposit customers. The obligation to repurchase the securities is reflected as a liability in the Company’s Consolidated Balance Sheets, while the securities underlying the securities sold under agreements to repurchase remain in the respective assets accounts and are delivered to and held as collateral by third party trustees.
Marketing and Advertising
Marketing and advertising costs are generally expensed as incurred.
The Company employs the asset and liability method of accounting for income taxes as required by ASC Topic 740, “Income Taxes.” Under this method, deferred tax assets and liabilities are determined based on differences between the financial statement carrying amounts and the tax basis of existing assets and liabilities (i.e., temporary timing differences) and are measured at the enacted rates that will be in effect when these differences reverse. In accordance with ASC Topic 740, the Company may establish a reserve against deferred tax assets in those cases where realization is less than certain, although no such reserves exist at June 30, 2017, December 31, 2016, or June 30, 2016.
Transfer of Financial Assets
Transfers of financial assets are accounted for as sales, when control over the assets has been surrendered. Control over transferred assets is deemed to be surrendered when (1) the assets have been isolated from the Company, (2) the transferee obtains the right (free of conditions that constrain it from taking advantage of that right) to pledge or exchange the transferred assets, and (3) the Company does not maintain effective control over the transferred assets through an agreement to repurchase them before their maturity. In certain cases, the recourse to the Bank to repurchase assets may exist but is deemed immaterial based on the specific facts and circumstances.
Earnings per Common Share
Basic net income per common share is derived by dividing net income by the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding during the period measured. Diluted earnings per common share is computed by dividing net income by the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding during the period measured including the potential dilutive effects of common stock equivalents.
In accordance with ASC Topic 718, “Compensation,” the Company records as compensation expense an amount equal to the amortization (over the remaining service period) of the fair value of option and restricted stock awards computed at the date of grant. Compensation expense on performance based grants is recorded based on the probability of achievement of the goals underlying the performance grant. Refer to Note 10 for a description of stock-based compensation awards, activity and expense.
New Authoritative Accounting Guidance
ASU 2014-09, “Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606).” In May 2014, the FASB and the International Accounting Standards Board (the “IASB”) jointly issued a comprehensive new revenue recognition standard that will supersede nearly all existing revenue recognition guidance under GAAP and International Financial Reporting Standards (“IFRS”). Previous revenue recognition guidance in GAAP consisted of broad revenue recognition concepts together with numerous revenue requirements for particular industries or transactions, which sometimes resulted in different accounting for economically similar transactions. In contrast, IFRS provided limited revenue recognition guidance and, consequently, could be difficult to apply to complex transactions. Accordingly, the FASB and the IASB initiated a joint project to clarify the principles for recognizing revenue and to develop a common revenue standard for U.S. GAAP and IFRS that would: (1) remove inconsistencies and weaknesses in revenue requirements; (2) provide a more robust framework for addressing revenue issues; (3) improve comparability of revenue recognition practices across entities, industries, jurisdictions, and capital markets; (4) provide more useful information to users of financial statements through improved disclosure requirements; and (5) simplify the preparation of financial statements by reducing the number of requirements to which an entity must refer. To meet those objectives, the FASB issued ASU No. 2014-09, “Revenue from Contracts with Customers.” The standard’s core principle is that a company will recognize revenue when it transfers promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the company expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. In doing so, companies generally will be required to use more judgment and make more estimates than under current guidance. These may include identifying performance obligations in the contract, estimating the amount of variable consideration to include in the transaction price and allocating the transaction price to each separate performance obligation. The standard was initially effective for public entities for interim and annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2016; early adoption was not permitted. However, in August 2015, the FASB issued ASU No. 2015-14, “Revenue from Contracts with Customers - Deferral of the Effective Date” which deferred the effective date by one year (i.e., interim and annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2017). For financial reporting purposes, the standard allows for either full retrospective adoption, meaning the standard is applied to all of the periods presented, or modified retrospective adoption, meaning the standard is applied only to the most current period presented in the financial statements with the cumulative effect of initially applying the standard recognized at the date of initial application. In addition, the FASB has begun to issue targeted updates to clarify specific implementation issues of ASU 2014-09. These updates include ASU No. 2016-08, “Principal versus Agent Considerations (Reporting Revenue Gross versus Net),” ASU No. 2016-10, “Identifying Performance Obligations and Licensing,” ASU No. 2016-12, “Narrow-Scope Improvements and Practical Expedients,” and ASU No. 2016-20 “Technical Corrections and Improvements to Topic 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers.” Since the guidance does not apply to revenue associated with financial instruments, including loans and securities that are accounted for under other GAAP, the Company does not expect the new guidance to have a material impact on revenue most closely associated with financial instruments, including interest income and expense. The Company continues its overall assessment of revenue streams and review of contracts potentially affected by the ASU to determine the potential impact the new guidance is expected to have on the Company’s Consolidated Financial Statements. In addition, the Company continues to follow certain implementation issues relevant to the banking industry which are still pending resolution. The Company plans to adopt ASU No. 2014-09 on January 1, 2018 utilizing the modified retrospective approach.
ASU 2016-13, “Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments (Topic 326).” This ASU significantly changes how entities will measure credit losses for most financial assets and certain other instruments that are not measured at fair value through net income. In issuing the standard, the FASB is responding to criticism that today’s guidance delays recognition of credit losses. The standard will replace today’s “incurred loss” approach with an “expected loss” model. The new model, referred to as the current expected credit loss (“CECL”) model, will apply to: (1) financial assets subject to credit losses and measured at amortized cost, and (2) certain off-balance sheet credit exposures. This includes, but is not limited to, loans, leases, held-to-maturity securities, loan commitments, and financial guarantees. The CECL model does not apply to available-for-sale (“AFS”) debt securities. For AFS debt securities with unrealized losses, entities will measure credit losses in a manner similar to what they do today, except that the losses will be recognized as allowances rather than reductions in the amortized cost of the securities. As a result, entities will recognize improvements to estimated credit losses immediately in earnings rather than as interest income over time, as they do today. The ASU also simplifies the accounting model for purchased credit-impaired debt securities and loans. ASU 2016-13 also expands the disclosure requirements regarding an entity’s assumptions, models, and methods for estimating the allowance for loan and lease losses. In addition, entities will need to disclose the amortized cost balance for each class of financial asset by credit quality indicator, disaggregated by the year of origination. ASU No. 2016-13 is effective for interim and annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2019; early adoption is permitted for interim and annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2018. Entities will apply the standard’s provisions as a cumulative-effect adjustment to retained earnings as of the beginning of the first reporting period in which the guidance is effective (i.e., modified retrospective approach). The Company is currently evaluating the provisions of ASU No. 2016-13 to determine the potential impact the new standard will have on the Company’s Consolidated Financial Statements.
ASU 2016-01, “Financial Instruments—(Subtopic 825-10): Recognition and Measurement of Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities.” ASU 2016-01 addresses certain aspects of recognition, measurement, presentation, and disclosure of financial instruments by making targeted improvements to GAAP as follows: (1) require equity investments (except those accounted for under the equity method of accounting or those that result in consolidation of the investee) to be measured at fair value with changes in fair value recognized in net income. However, an entity may choose to measure equity investments that do not have readily determinable fair values at cost minus impairment, if any, plus or minus changes resulting from observable price changes in orderly transactions for the identical or a similar investment of the same issuer; (2) simplify the impairment assessment of equity investments without readily determinable fair values by requiring a qualitative assessment to identify impairment. When a qualitative assessment indicates that impairment exists, an entity is required to measure the investment at fair value; (3) eliminate the requirement to disclose the fair value of financial instruments measured at amortized cost for entities that are not public business entities; (4) eliminate the requirement for public business entities to disclose the method(s) and significant assumptions used to estimate the fair value that is required to be disclosed for financial instruments measured at amortized cost on the balance sheet; (5) require public business entities to use the exit price notion when measuring the fair value of financial instruments for disclosure purposes; (6) require an entity to present separately in other comprehensive income the portion of the total change in the fair value of a liability resulting from a change in the instrument-specific credit risk when the entity has elected to measure the liability at fair value in accordance with the fair value option for financial instruments; (7) require separate presentation of financial assets and financial liabilities by measurement category and form of financial asset (that is, securities or loans and receivables) on the balance sheet or the accompanying notes to the financial statements; and (8) clarify that an entity should evaluate the need for a valuation allowance on a deferred tax asset related to available-for-sale securities in combination with the entity’s other deferred tax assets. ASU No. 2016-01 is effective for interim and annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2017. Early application is permitted as of the beginning of the fiscal year of adoption only for provisions (3) and (6) above. Early adoption of the other provisions mentioned above is not permitted. The Company has performed a preliminary evaluation of the provisions of ASU No. 2016-01. Based on this evaluation, the Company has determined that ASU No. 2016-01 is not expected to have a material impact on the Company’s Consolidated Financial Statements; however, the Company will continue to closely monitor developments and additional guidance.
ASU 2016-02, “Leases (Topic 842).” Under the new guidance, lessees will be required to recognize the following for all leases (with the exception of short-term leases): (1) a lease liability, which is the present value of a lessee’s obligation to make lease payments, and (2) a right-of-use asset, which is an asset that represents the lessee’s right to use, or control the use of, a specified asset for the lease term. Lessor accounting under the new guidance remains largely unchanged as it is substantially equivalent to existing guidance for sales-type leases, direct financing leases, and operating leases. Leveraged leases have been eliminated, although lessors can continue to account for existing leveraged leases using the current accounting guidance. Other limited changes were made to align lessor accounting with the lessee accounting model and the new revenue recognition standard. All entities will classify leases to determine how to recognize lease-related revenue and expense. Quantitative and qualitative disclosures will be required by lessees and lessors to meet the objective of enabling users of financial statements to assess the amount, timing, and uncertainty of cash flows arising from leases. The intention is to require enough information to supplement the amounts recorded in the financial statements so that users can understand more about the nature of an entity’s leasing activities. ASU 2016-02 is effective for interim and annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2018; early adoption is permitted. All entities are required to use a modified retrospective approach for leases that exist or are entered into after the beginning of the earliest comparative period in the financial statements. They have the option to use certain relief; full retrospective application is prohibited. The Company is currently evaluating the provisions of ASU 2016-02 and will be closely monitoring developments and additional guidance to determine the potential impact the new standard will have on the Company’s Consolidated Financial Statements.
ASU 2016-09, “Improvements to Employee Share-Based Payment Accounting (Topic 718).” ASU 2016-09 includes provisions intended to simplify various aspects related to how share-based payments are accounted for and presented in the financial statements. Some of the key provisions of this new ASU include: (1) companies will no longer record excess tax benefits and certain tax deficiencies in additional paid-in capital (“APIC”). Instead, they will record all excess tax benefits and tax deficiencies as income tax expense or benefit in the income statement, and APIC pools will be eliminated. The guidance also eliminates the requirement that excess tax benefits be realized before companies can recognize them. In addition, the guidance requires companies to present excess tax benefits as an operating activity on the statement of cash flows rather than as a financing activity; (2) increase the amount an employer can withhold to cover income taxes on awards and still qualify for the exception to liability classification for shares used to satisfy the employer’s statutory income tax withholding obligation. The new guidance also requires an employer to classify the cash paid to a tax authority when shares are withheld to satisfy its statutory income tax withholding obligation as a financing activity on its statement of cash flows (prior guidance did not specify how these cash flows should be classified); and (3) permit companies to make an accounting policy election for the impact of forfeitures on the recognition of expense for share-based payment awards. Forfeitures can be estimated, as required today, or recognized when they occur. ASU 2016-09 was effective for the Company on January 1, 2017 and the adoption of this new standard (ASU 2016-09) resulted in a $460 thousand, or $0.01 per share, reduction to income tax expense for the six months ended June 30, 2017.
Note 2. Cash and Due from Banks
Regulation D of the Federal Reserve Act requires that banks maintain noninterest reserve balances with the Federal Reserve Bank based principally on the type and amount of their deposits. During 2017, the Bank maintained balances at the Federal Reserve sufficient to meet reserve requirements, as well as significant excess reserves, on which interest is paid.
Additionally, the Bank maintains interest bearing balances with the Federal Home Loan Bank of Atlanta and noninterest bearing balances with domestic correspondent banks as compensation for services they provide to the Bank.
Note 3. Investment Securities Available-for-Sale
Amortized cost and estimated fair value of securities available-for-sale are summarized as follows:
In addition, at June 30, 2017, the Company held $28.6 million in equity securities in a combination of Federal Reserve Bank (“FRB”) and Federal Home Loan Bank (“FHLB”) stocks, which are required to be held for regulatory purposes and which are not marketable, and therefore are carried at cost.
Gross unrealized losses and fair value by length of time that the individual available-for-sale securities have been in a continuous unrealized loss position are as follows:
The unrealized losses that exist are generally the result of changes in market interest rates and interest spread relationships since original purchases. The weighted average duration of debt securities, which comprise 99.9% of total investment securities, is relatively short at 3.4 years. If quoted prices are not available, fair value is measured using independent pricing models or other model-based valuation techniques such as the present value of future cash flows, adjusted for the security’s credit rating, prepayment assumptions and other factors such as credit loss assumptions. The Company does not believe that the investment securities that were in an unrealized loss position as of June 30, 2017 represent an other-than-temporary impairment. The Company does not intend to sell the investments and it is more likely than not that the Company will not have to sell the securities before recovery of its amortized cost basis, which may be at maturity.
The amortized cost and estimated fair value of investments available-for-sale at June 30, 2017 and December 31, 2016 by contractual maturity are shown in the table below. Expected maturities for residential mortgage backed securities will differ from contractual maturities because borrowers may have the right to call or prepay obligations with or without call or prepayment penalties.
For the six months ended June 30, 2017, gross realized gains on sales of investments securities were $750 thousand and gross realized losses on sales of investment securities were $219 thousand. For the six months ended June 30, 2016, gross realized gains on sales of investments securities were $1.3 million and gross realized losses on sales of investment securities were $184 thousand.
Proceeds from sales and calls of investment securities for the six months ended June 30, 2017 were $58.0 million, and in 2016 were $87.7 million.
The carrying value of securities pledged as collateral for certain government deposits, securities sold under agreements to repurchase, and certain lines of credit with correspondent banks at June 30, 2017 was $440.2 million, which is well in excess of required amounts in order to operationally provide significant reserve amounts for new business. As of June 30, 2017 and December 31, 2016, there were no holdings of securities of any one issuer, other than the U.S. Government and U.S. agency securities, which exceeded ten percent of shareholders’ equity.
Note 4. Mortgage Banking Derivative
As part of its mortgage banking activities, the Bank enters into interest rate lock commitments, which are commitments to originate loans where the interest rate on the loan is determined prior to funding and the customers have locked into that interest rate. The Bank then locks in the loan and interest rate with an investor and commits to deliver the loan if settlement occurs (“best efforts”) or commits to deliver the locked loan in a binding (“mandatory”) delivery program with an investor. Certain loans under interest rate lock commitments are covered under forward sales contracts of mortgage backed securities (“MBS”). Forward sales contracts of MBS are recorded at fair value with changes in fair value recorded in noninterest income. Interest rate lock commitments and commitments to deliver loans to investors are considered derivatives. The market value of interest rate lock commitments and best efforts contracts are not readily ascertainable with precision because they are not actively traded in stand-alone markets. The Bank determines the fair value of interest rate lock commitments and delivery contracts by measuring the fair value of the underlying asset, which is impacted by current interest rates, taking into consideration the probability that the interest rate lock commitments will close or will be funded.
Certain additional risks arise from these forward delivery contracts in that the counterparties to the contracts may not be able to meet the terms of the contracts. The Bank does not expect any counterparty to any MBS to fail to meet its obligation. Additional risks inherent in mandatory delivery programs include the risk that, if the Bank does not close the loans subject to interest rate risk lock commitments, it will still be obligated to deliver MBS to the counterparty under the forward sales agreement. Should this be required, the Bank could incur significant costs in acquiring replacement loans or MBS and such costs could have an adverse effect on mortgage banking operations.
The fair value of the mortgage banking derivatives is recorded as a freestanding asset or liability with the change in value being recognized in current earnings during the period of change.
At June 30, 2017 the Bank had mortgage banking derivative financial instruments with a notional value of $58.6 million related to its forward contracts as compared to $121.0 million at June 30, 2016. The fair value of these mortgage banking derivative instruments at June 30, 2017 was $47 thousand included in other assets and $47 thousand included in other liabilities as compared to $519 thousand included in other assets and $693 thousand included in other liabilities at June 30, 2016.
Included in other noninterest income for the three and six months ended June 30, 2017 was a net loss of $26 thousand and a net loss of $264 thousand, relating to mortgage banking derivative instruments as compared to a net gain of $110 thousand and $319 thousand for the three and six months ended June 30, 2016. The amount included in other noninterest income for the three and six months ended June 30, 2017 pertaining to its mortgage banking hedging activities was a net realized loss of $53 thousand and $899 thousand as compared to a net realized loss of $139 thousand and $306 thousand for the same periods in June 30, 2016.
Note 5. Loans and Allowance for Credit Losses
The Bank makes loans to customers primarily in the Washington, D.C. metropolitan area and surrounding communities. A substantial portion of the Bank’s loan portfolio consists of loans to businesses secured by real estate and other business assets.
Loans, net of unamortized net deferred fees, at June 30, 2017, December 31, 2016, and June 30, 2016 are summarized by type as follows:
*Includes land loans
Unamortized net deferred fees amounted to $22.4 million, $22.3 million, and $20.2 million at June 30, 2017, December 31, 2016, and June 30, 2016, respectively.
As of June 30, 2017 and December 31, 2016, the Bank serviced $123.1 million and $128.8 million, respectively, of SBA loans and other loan participations which are not reflected as loan balances on the Consolidated Balance Sheets.
Loan Origination / Risk Management
The Company’s goal is to mitigate risks in the event of unforeseen threats to the loan portfolio as a result of economic downturn or other negative influences. Plans for mitigating inherent risks in managing loan assets include: carefully enforcing loan policies and procedures, evaluating each borrower’s business plan during the underwriting process and throughout the loan term, identifying and monitoring primary and alternative sources for loan repayment, and obtaining collateral to mitigate economic loss in the event of liquidation. Specific loan reserves are established based upon credit and/or collateral risks on an individual loan basis. A risk rating system is employed to proactively estimate loss exposure and provide a measuring system for setting general and specific reserve allocations.
The composition of the Company’s loan portfolio is heavily weighted toward commercial real estate, both owner occupied and income producing real estate. At June 30, 2017, owner occupied - commercial real estate and construction - C&I (owner occupied) represent approximately 13% of the loan portfolio. At June 30, 2017, non-owner occupied commercial real estate and real estate construction represented approximately 60% of the loan portfolio. The combined owner occupied and commercial real estate loans represent approximately 73% of the loan portfolio. These loans are underwritten to mitigate lending risks typical of this type of loan such as declines in real estate values, changes in borrower cash flow and general economic conditions. The Bank typically requires a maximum loan to value of 80% and minimum cash flow debt service coverage of 1.15 to 1.0. Personal guarantees may be required, but may be limited. In making real estate commercial mortgage loans, the Bank generally requires that interest rates adjust not less frequently than five years.
The Company is also an active traditional commercial lender providing loans for a variety of purposes, including working capital, equipment and account receivable financing. This loan category represents approximately 22% of the loan portfolio at June 30, 2017 and was generally variable or adjustable rate. Commercial loans meet reasonable underwriting standards, including appropriate collateral and cash flow necessary to support debt service. Personal guarantees are generally required, but may be limited. SBA loans represent approximately 2% of the commercial loan category of loans. In originating SBA loans, the Company assumes the risk of non-payment on the unguaranteed portion of the credit. The Company generally sells the guaranteed portion of the loan generating noninterest income from the gains on sale, as well as servicing income on the portion participated. SBA loans are subject to the same cash flow analyses as other commercial loans. SBA loans are subject to a maximum loan size established by the SBA.
Approximately 2% of the loan portfolio at June 30, 2017 consists of home equity loans and lines of credit and other consumer loans. These credits, while making up a small portion of the loan portfolio, demand the same emphasis on underwriting and credit evaluation as other types of loans advanced by the Bank.
Approximately 3% of the loan portfolio consists of residential mortgage loans. The repricing duration of these loans was 20 months. These credits represent first liens on residential property loans originated by the Bank. While the Bank’s general practice is to originate and sell (servicing released) loans made by its Residential Lending department, from time to time certain loan characteristics do not meet the requirements of third party investors and these loans are instead maintained in the Bank’s portfolio until they are resold to another investor at a later date or mature.
Loans are secured primarily by duly recorded first deeds of trust or mortgages. In some cases, the Bank may accept a recorded junior trust position. In general, borrowers will have a proven ability to build, lease, manage and/or sell a commercial or residential project and demonstrate satisfactory financial condition. Additionally, an equity contribution toward the project is customarily required.
Construction loans require that the financial condition and experience of the general contractor and major subcontractors be satisfactory to the Bank. Guaranteed, fixed price contracts are required whenever appropriate, along with payment and performance bonds or completion bonds for larger scale projects.
Loans intended for residential land acquisition, lot development and construction are made on the premise that the land: 1) is or will be developed for building sites for residential structures, and; 2) will ultimately be utilized for construction or improvement of residential zoned real properties, including the creation of housing. Residential development and construction loans will finance projects such as single family subdivisions, planned unit developments, townhouses, and condominiums.
Commercial land acquisition and construction loans are secured by real property where loan funds will be used to acquire land and to construct or improve appropriately zoned real property for the creation of income producing or owner user commercial properties. Borrowers are generally required to put equity into each project at levels determined by the appropriate Loan Committee.
Substantially all construction draw requests must be presented in writing on American Institute of Architects documents and certified either by the contractor, the borrower and/or the borrower’s architect. Each draw request shall also include the borrower’s soft cost breakdown certified by the borrower or their Chief Financial Officer. Prior to an advance, the Bank or its contractor inspects the project to determine that the work has been completed, to justify the draw requisition.
Commercial permanent loans are generally secured by improved real property which is generating income in the normal course of operation. Debt service coverage, assuming stabilized occupancy, must be satisfactory to support a permanent loan. The debt service coverage ratio is ordinarily at least 1.15 to 1.0. As part of the underwriting process, debt service coverage ratios are stress tested assuming a 200 basis point increase in interest rates from their current levels.
Commercial permanent loans generally are underwritten with a term not greater than 10 years or the remaining useful life of the property, whichever is lower. The preferred term is between 5 to 7 years, with amortization to a maximum of 25 years.
The Company’s loan portfolio includes ADC real estate loans including both investment and owner occupied projects. ADC loans amounted to $1.15 billion at June 30, 2017. A portion of the ADC portfolio, both speculative and non-speculative, includes loan funded interest reserves at origination. ADC loans are serviced by loan funded interest reserves and represent approximately 75% of the outstanding ADC loan portfolio at June 30, 2017. The decision to establish a loan-funded interest reserve is made upon origination of the ADC loan and is based upon a number of factors considered during underwriting of the credit including: (1) the feasibility of the project; (2) the experience of the sponsor; (3) the creditworthiness of the borrower and guarantors; (4) borrower equity contribution; and (5) the level of collateral protection. When appropriate, an interest reserve provides an effective means of addressing the cash flow characteristics of a properly underwritten ADC loan. The Company does not significantly utilize interest reserves in other loan products. The Company recognizes that one of the risks inherent in the use of interest reserves is the potential masking of underlying problems with the project and/or the borrower’s ability to repay the loan. In order to mitigate this inherent risk, the Company employs a series of reporting and monitoring mechanisms on all ADC loans, whether or not an interest reserve is provided, including: (1) construction and development timelines which are monitored on an ongoing basis which track the progress of a given project to the timeline projected at origination; (2) a construction loan administration department independent of the lending function; (3) third party independent construction loan inspection reports; (4) monthly interest reserve monitoring reports detailing the balance of the interest reserves approved at origination and the days of interest carry represented by the reserve balances as compared to the then current anticipated time to completion and/or sale of speculative projects; and (5) quarterly commercial real estate construction meetings among senior Company management, which includes monitoring of current and projected real estate market conditions. If a project has not performed as expected, it is not the customary practice of the Company to increase loan funded interest reserves.
From time to time the Company may make loans for its own portfolio or through its higher risk loan affiliate, ECV. Such loans, which are made to finance projects (which may also be financed at the Bank level), may have higher risk characteristics than loans made by the Bank, such as lower priority interests and/or higher loan to value ratios. The Company seeks an overall financial return on these transactions commensurate with the risks and structure of each individual loan. Certain transactions may bear current interest at a rate with a significant premium to normal market rates. Other loan transactions may carry a standard rate of current interest, but also earn additional interest based on a percentage of the profits of the underlying project or a fixed accrued rate of interest.
The following tables detail activity in the allowance for credit losses by portfolio segment for the three and six months ended June 30, 2017 and 2016. Allocation of a portion of the allowance to one category of loans does not preclude its availability to absorb losses in other categories.
The Company’s recorded investments in loans as of June 30, 2017, December 31, 2016 and June 30, 2016 related to each balance in the allowance for loan losses by portfolio segment and disaggregated on the basis of the Company’s impairment methodology was as follows:
At June 30, 2017, nonperforming loans acquired from Fidelity & Trust Financial Corporation (“Fidelity”) and Virginia Heritage Bank (“Virginia Heritage”) have a carrying value of $304 thousand and $533 thousand, and an unpaid principal balance of $354 thousand and $1.6 million, respectively, and were evaluated separately in accordance with ASC Topic 310-30, “Loans and Debt Securities Acquired with Deteriorated Credit Quality.” The various impaired loans were recorded at estimated fair value with any excess being charged-off or treated as a non-accretable discount. Subsequent downward adjustments to the valuation of impaired loans acquired will result in additional loan loss provisions and related allowance for credit losses.
Credit Quality Indicators
The Company uses several credit quality indicators to manage credit risk in an ongoing manner. The Company’s primary credit quality indicators are to use an internal credit risk rating system that categorizes loans into pass, watch, special mention, or classified categories. Credit risk ratings are applied individually to those classes of loans that have significant or unique credit characteristics that benefit from a case-by-case evaluation. These are typically loans to businesses or individuals in the classes which comprise the commercial portfolio segment. Groups of loans that are underwritten and structured using standardized criteria and characteristics, such as statistical models (e.g., credit scoring or payment performance), are typically risk rated and monitored collectively. These are typically loans to individuals in the classes which comprise the consumer portfolio segment.
The following are the definitions of the Company’s credit quality indicators:
Classified (b) Doubtful - Loans that have all the weaknesses inherent in a loan classified substandard, with the added characteristic that the weaknesses make collection or liquidation in full, on the basis of currently existing facts, conditions, and values, highly questionable and improbable. The possibility of loss is extremely high, but because of certain important and reasonably specific pending factors, which may work to the advantage and strengthening of the assets, its classification as an estimated loss is deferred until its more exact status may be determined.
The Company’s credit quality indicators are updated generally on a quarterly basis, but no less frequently than annually. The following table presents by class and by credit quality indicator, the recorded investment in the Company’s loans and leases as of June 30, 2017, December 31, 2016 and June 30, 2016.
Nonaccrual and Past Due Loans
Loans are considered past due if the required principal and interest payments have not been received as of the date such payments were due. Loans are placed on nonaccrual status when, in management’s opinion, the borrower may be unable to meet payment obligations as they become due, as well as when required by regulatory provisions. Loans may be placed on nonaccrual status regardless of whether or not such loans are considered past due. Interest income is subsequently recognized only to the extent cash payments are received in excess of principal due. Loans are returned to accrual status when all the principal and interest amounts contractually due are brought current and future payments are reasonably assured.
The following table presents, by class of loan, information related to nonaccrual loans as of June 30, 2017, December 31, 2016 and June 30, 2016.
The following table presents, by class of loan, an aging analysis and the recorded investments in loans past due as of June 30, 2017 and December 31, 2016.
Loans are considered impaired when, based on current information and events, it is probable the Company will be unable to collect all amounts due in accordance with the original contractual terms of the loan agreement, including scheduled principal and interest payments. Impairment is evaluated in total for smaller-balance loans of a similar nature and on an individual loan basis for other loans. If a loan is impaired, a specific valuation allowance is allocated, if necessary, so that the loan is reported net, at the present value of estimated future cash flows using the loan’s existing rate or at the fair value of collateral if repayment is expected solely from the collateral. Interest payments on impaired loans are typically applied to principal unless collectability of the principal amount is reasonably assured, in which case interest is recognized on a cash basis. Impaired loans, or portions thereof, are charged off when deemed uncollectible.
The following table presents, by class of loan, information related to impaired loans for the periods ended June 30, 2017, December 31, 2016 and June 30, 2016.
A modification of a loan constitutes a TDR when a borrower is experiencing financial difficulty and the modification constitutes a concession. The Company offers various types of concessions when modifying a loan. Commercial and industrial loans modified in a TDR often involve temporary interest-only payments, term extensions, and converting revolving credit lines to term loans. Additional collateral, a co-borrower, or a guarantor is often requested. Commercial mortgage and construction loans modified in a TDR often involve reducing the interest rate for the remaining term of the loan, extending the maturity date at an interest rate lower than the current market rate for new debt with similar risk, or substituting or adding a new borrower or guarantor. Construction loans modified in a TDR may also involve extending the interest-only payment period. As of June 30, 2017, all performing TDRs were categorized as interest-only modifications.
Loans modified in a TDR for the Company may have the financial effect of increasing the specific allowance associated with the loan. An allowance for impaired consumer and commercial loans that have been modified in a TDR is measured based on the present value of expected future cash flows discounted at the loan’s effective interest rate, the loan’s observable market price, or the estimated fair value of the collateral, less any selling costs, if the loan is collateral dependent. Management exercises significant judgment in developing these estimates.
The following table presents by class, information related to loans modified in a TDR during the three months ended June 30, 2017 and 2016.