First Capital 10-K 2008
Documents found in this filing:
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
For the Fiscal Year Ended December 31, 2007
For the transition period from to
Commission File Number: 0-25023
FIRST CAPITAL, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Registrants telephone number, including area code: (812) 738-2198
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes ¨ No x
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes ¨ No x
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes x No ¨
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrants knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K. ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of accelerated filer, large accelerated filer and smaller reporting company in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes ¨ No x
The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates was $46.2 million, based upon the closing price of $18.00 per share as quoted on the Nasdaq Stock Market as of the last business day of the registrants most recently completed second fiscal quarter.
The number of shares outstanding of the registrants common stock as of March 21, 2008 was 2,813,709.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the 2007 Annual Report of Stockholders and of the Proxy Statement for the 2008 Annual Meeting of Stockholders are incorporated by reference in Parts II and III, respectively, of this Form 10-K.
This report contains certain forward-looking statements within the meaning of the federal securities laws. These statements are not historical facts, rather statements based on First Capital, Inc.s current expectations regarding its business strategies, intended results and future performance. Forward-looking statements are preceded by terms such as expects, believes, anticipates, intends and similar expressions.
Forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future performance. Managements ability to predict results or the effect of future plans or strategies is inherently uncertain. Numerous risks and uncertainties could cause or contribute to the Companys actual results, performance and achievements to materially differ from those expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements. Factors which could affect actual results include, but are not limited to, interest rate trends; the general economic climate in the specific market area in which First Capital operates, as well as nationwide; First Capitals ability to control costs and expenses; competitive products and pricing; loan delinquency rates and changes in federal and state legislation and regulation; and other factors disclosed periodically in the Companys filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission. These factors should be considered in evaluating the forward-looking statements and undue reliance should not be placed on such statements, whether included in this report or made elsewhere from time to time by the Company or on its behalf. Except as may be required by applicable law or regulation, First Capital assumes no obligation to update any forward-looking statements.
First Capital, Inc. (the Company or First Capital) was incorporated under Indiana law in September 1998. The Company was organized for the purpose of becoming the holding company for First Federal Bank, A Federal Savings Bank (the Bank) upon the Banks reorganization as a wholly owned subsidiary of the Company resulting from the conversion of First Capital, Inc., M.H.C. (the MHC), from a federal mutual holding company to a stock holding company. On January 12, 2000, the Company completed a merger of equals with HCB Bancorp, the former holding company for Harrison County Bank. The Bank changed its name to First Harrison Bank in connection with the merger. On March 20, 2003, the Company consummated its acquisition of Hometown Bancshares, Inc. (Hometown), a bank holding company located in New Albany, Indiana. The acquisition expanded the Companys presence in the New Albany and Floyd County, Indiana market area and expanded the banking services provided to the existing customers of Hometown.
The Company has no significant assets, other than all of the outstanding shares of the Bank and the portion of the net proceeds from the offering retained by the Company, and no significant liabilities. Management of the Company and the Bank are substantially similar and the Company neither owns nor leases any property, but instead uses the premises, equipment and furniture of the Bank in accordance with applicable regulations.
The Bank is regulated by the Office of Thrift Supervision and the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation. The Banks deposits are federally insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation under the Deposit Insurance Fund. The Bank is a member of the Federal Home Loan Bank System.
Availability of Information
The Companys annual report on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and any amendments to such reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act are made available free of charge on the Companys Internet website, www.firstharrison.com, as soon as practicable after the Company electronically files such material, or furnishes it to, the Securities and Exchange Commission. The contents of the Companys website shall not be incorporated by reference into this Form 10-K or into any reports the Company files with or furnishes to the Securities and Exchange Commission.
Market Area and Competition
The Bank considers Harrison, Floyd, Clark and Washington counties in Indiana its primary market area. All of its offices are located in these four counties, which results in most of the Banks loans being made in these four counties. The main office of the Bank is located in Corydon, Indiana, 35 miles west of Louisville, Kentucky. The Bank aggressively competes for business with local banks, as well as large regional banks. Its most direct competition for deposit and loan business comes from the commercial banks operating in these four counties. The Bank is the leader in deposit market share in Harrison County, its primary county of operation.
General. The Bank is in the process of transforming its balance sheet from that of a traditional thrift institution to that of a commercial bank. On the asset side, this is being accomplished by selling in the secondary market the newly-originated qualified fixed-rate residential mortgage loans while retaining variable rate residential mortgage loans in the portfolio. This transformation is enhanced by an expanded commercial lending staff dedicated to growing commercial real estate and commercial business loans. The Bank also continues to originate consumer loans and residential construction loans for the loan portfolio.
Loan Portfolio Analysis. The following table presents the composition of the Banks loan portfolio by type of loan at the dates indicated.
Residential Loans. The Banks lending activities have concentrated on the origination of residential mortgages, both for sale and retention in the Banks loan portfolio. Residential mortgages secured by multi-family properties are an immaterial portion of the residential loan portfolio. Substantially all residential mortgages are collateralized by properties within the Banks market area.
The Bank offers both fixed-rate mortgage loans and adjustable rate mortgage (ARM) loans typically with terms of 15 to 30 years. The Bank uses loan documents approved by the Federal National Mortgage Corporation (Fannie Mae) and the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (Freddie Mac) whether the loan is originated for investment or sale in the secondary market.
Historically, the Bank has retained its residential loan originations in its portfolio. Retaining fixed-rate loans in its portfolio subjects the Bank to a higher degree of interest rate risk. See Item 1A. Risk FactorsAbove Average Interest Rate Risk Associated with Fixed-Rate Loans for a further discussion of the risks of rising interest rates. Beginning in 2004, one of the Banks strategic goals was to expand its mortgage business by originating mortgage loans for sale, while offering a full line of mortgage products to prospective customers. This practice increases the Banks lending capacity and allows the Bank to more effectively manage its profitability since it is not required to predict the prepayment, credit or interest rate risks associated with retaining either the loan or the servicing asset. During 2005, the Bank hired a mortgage banking manager, charged with hiring more mortgage originators and increasing the Banks secondary market business in Southern Indiana. For the year ended December 31, 2007, the Bank originated and funded $26.6 million of residential mortgage loans for sale in the secondary market. The Bank also originated $7.4 million of residential mortgage loans as an agent for a third-party mortgage company. The third-party mortgage company funded such originations and the Bank received a fee for each loan funded by the third party mortgage company. For a full discussion of the Banks mortgage banking operations, see Item 1. BusinessMortgage Banking Activities.
ARM loans originated have interest rates that adjust at regular intervals of one to five years, with up to 2.0% caps per adjustment period and 6.0% lifetime caps, based upon changes in the prevailing interest rates on United States Treasury Bills. The Bank also originates hybrid ARM loans, which are fixed for an initial period three or five years and adjust annually thereafter. The Bank may occasionally use below market interest rates and other marketing inducements to attract ARM loan borrowers. The majority of ARM loans provide that the amount of any increase or decrease in the interest rate is limited to 2.0% (upward or downward) per adjustment period and generally contains minimum and maximum interest rates. Borrower demand for ARMs versus fixed-rate mortgage loans is a function of the level of interest rates, the expectations of changes in the level of interest rates and the difference between the interest rates and loan fees offered for fixed-rate mortgage loans and interest rates and loan fees for ARM loans. The relative amount of fixed-rate and ARM loans that can be originated at any time is largely determined by the demand for each in a competitive environment.
The Banks lending policies generally limit the maximum loan-to-value ratio on fixed-rate and ARM loans to 80% of the lesser of the appraised value or purchase price of the underlying residential property unless private mortgage insurance to cover the excess over 80% is obtained, in which case the mortgage is limited to 95% (or 97% under a Freddie Mac program) of the lesser of appraised value or purchase price. The loan-to-value ratio, maturity and other provisions of the loans made by the Bank are generally reflected in the policy of making less than the maximum loan permissible under federal regulations, in accordance with established lending practices, market conditions and underwriting standards maintained by the Bank. The Bank requires title, fire and extended insurance coverage on all mortgage loans originated. All of the Banks real estate loans contain due on sale clauses. The Bank generally obtains appraisals on all its real estate loans from outside appraisers.
Construction Loans. Although the Bank originates construction loans that are repaid with the proceeds of a limited number of mortgage loans obtained by the borrower from another lender, the majority of the construction loans that the Bank originates are permanently financed in the secondary market by the Bank. Construction loans originated without a commitment by the Bank to provide permanent financing are generally originated for a term of six to 12 months and at a fixed interest rate based on the prime rate.
The Bank originates speculative construction loans to a limited number of builders operating and based in the Banks primary market area and with whom the Bank has well-established business relationships. At December 31, 2007, speculative construction loans, a construction loan for which there is not a commitment for permanent financing in place at the time the construction loan was originated, amounted to $2.9 million. The Bank limits the number of speculative construction loans outstanding to any one builder based on the builders capacity to service the debt.
Most construction loans are originated with a loan-to-value ratio not to exceed 80% of the appraised estimated value of the completed property. The construction loan documents require the disbursement of the loan proceeds in increments as construction progresses. Disbursements are based on periodic on-site inspections by an independent appraiser.
Construction lending is inherently riskier than one- to four-family mortgage lending. Construction loans, on average, generally have higher loan balances than one- to four-family mortgage loans. In addition, the potential for cost overruns because of the inherent difficulties in estimating construction costs and, therefore, collateral values and the difficulties and costs associated with monitoring construction progress, among other things, are major contributing factors to this greater credit risk. Speculative construction loans have the added risk that there is not an identified buyer for the completed home when the loan is originated, with the risk that the builder will have to service the construction loan debt and finance the other carrying costs of the completed home for an extended time period until a buyer is identified. Furthermore, the demand for construction loans and the ability of construction loan borrowers to service their debt depends highly on the state of the general economy, including market interest rate levels and the state of the economy of the Banks primary market area. A material downturn in economic conditions could be expected to have a material adverse effect on the credit quality of the construction loan portfolio.
Commercial Real Estate Loans. Commercial real estate loans are generally secured by small retail stores, professional office space and, in certain instances, farm properties. Commercial real estate loans are generally originated with a loan-to-value ratio not to exceed 75% of the appraised value of the property. Property appraisals are performed by independent appraisers approved by the Banks board of directors. The Bank seeks to originate commercial real estate loans at variable interest rates based on the United States Treasury Bill rate for terms ranging from ten to 15 years and with interest rate adjustment intervals of five years. The Bank also originates fixed-rate balloon loans with a short maturity, but a longer amortization schedule.
Commercial real estate lending affords the Bank an opportunity to receive interest at rates higher than those generally available from one- to four-family residential lending. However, loans secured by such properties usually are greater in amount, more difficult to evaluate and monitor and, therefore, involve a greater degree of risk than one- to four-family residential mortgage loans. Because payments on loans secured by multi-family and commercial properties are often dependent on the successful operation and management of the properties, repayment of such loans may be affected by adverse conditions in the real estate market or the economy. The Bank seeks to
minimize these risks by limiting the maximum loan-to-value ratio to 75% and strictly scrutinizing the financial condition of the borrower, the quality of the collateral and the management of the property securing the loan. The Bank also obtains loan guarantees from financially capable parties based on a review of personal financial statements.
Commercial Business Loans. Commercial business loans are generally secured by inventory, accounts receivable, and business equipment such as trucks and tractors. Many commercial business loans also have real estate as collateral. The Bank generally requires a personal guaranty of payment by the principals of a corporate borrower, and reviews the personal financial statements and income tax returns of the guarantors. Commercial business loans are generally originated with loan-to-value ratios not exceeding 75%.
Aside from lines of credit, commercial business loans are generally originated for terms not to exceed seven years with variable interest rates based on the prime lending rate. Approved credit lines totaled $27.4 million at December 31, 2007, of which $17.6 million was outstanding. Lines of credit are originated at fixed and variable interest rates for one-year renewable terms.
A director of the Bank is a shareholder of a farm implement dealership that contracts with the Bank to provide sales financing to the dealerships customers. The Bank does not grant preferential credit under this arrangement. During the year ended December 31, 2007, the Bank granted approximately $1.1 million of credit to customers of the dealership and such loans had an aggregate outstanding balance of $1.9 million at December 31, 2007. At December 31, 2007, 15 loans were delinquent 30 days or more with an aggregate outstanding balance of $88,000.
Commercial business lending generally involves greater risk than residential mortgage lending and involves risks that are different from those associated with residential and commercial real estate lending. Real estate lending is generally considered to be collateral-based lending with loan amounts based on predetermined loan-to-collateral values and liquidation of the underlying real estate collateral is viewed as the primary source of repayment in the event of borrower default. Although commercial business loans are often collateralized by equipment, inventory, accounts receivable or other business assets, the liquidation of collateral in the event of a borrower default is often an insufficient source of repayment because accounts receivable may be uncollectible and inventories and equipment may be obsolete or of limited use, among other things. Accordingly, the repayment of a commercial business loan depends primarily on the creditworthiness of the borrower (and any guarantors), while liquidation of collateral is a secondary, and often insufficient, source of repayment. The Bank has three commercial lenders and one commercial credit analyst committed to growing commercial business loans to facilitate the changes desired in the Banks balance sheet. The Bank also uses an outside loan review company to review selected commercial credits on a semi-annual basis.
Consumer Loans. The Bank offers a variety of secured or guaranteed consumer loans, including automobile and truck loans, home equity loans, home improvement loans, boat loans, mobile home loans and loans secured by savings deposits. In addition, the Bank offers unsecured consumer loans. Consumer loans are generally originated at fixed interest rates and for terms not to exceed seven years. The largest portion of the Banks consumer loan portfolio consists of home equity and second mortgage loans followed by automobile and truck loans. Automobile and truck loans are originated on both new and used vehicles. Such loans are generally originated at fixed interest rates for terms up to five years and at loan-to-value ratios up to 80% of the blue book value in the case of used vehicles and 80% of the purchase price in the case of new vehicles.
The Bank originates variable-rate home equity and fixed-rate second mortgage loans generally for terms not to exceed five and ten years, respectively. The loan-to-value ratio on such loans is limited to 95%, taking into account the outstanding balance on the first mortgage loan.
The Banks underwriting procedures for consumer loans includes an assessment of the applicants payment history on other debts and ability to meet existing obligations and payments on the proposed loans. Although the applicants creditworthiness is a primary consideration, the underwriting process also includes a comparison of the value of the security, if any, to the proposed loan amount. The Bank underwrites and originates the majority of its consumer loans internally, which management believes limits exposure to credit risks relating to loans underwritten or purchased from brokers or other outside sources.
Consumer loans generally entail greater risk than do residential mortgage loans, particularly in the case of consumer loans which are unsecured or secured by assets that depreciate rapidly, such as automobiles. In the latter case, repossessed collateral for a defaulted consumer loan may not provide an adequate source of repayment for the outstanding loan and the remaining deficiency often does not warrant further substantial collection efforts against the borrower. In addition, consumer loan collections depend on the borrowers continuing financial stability, and, therefore, are more likely to be adversely affected by job loss, divorce, illness or personal bankruptcy. Furthermore, the application of various federal and state laws, including federal and state bankruptcy and insolvency laws, may limit the amount which can be recovered on such loans. Such loans may also give rise to claims and defenses by the borrower against the Bank as the holder of the loan, and a borrower may be able to assert claims and defenses that it has against the seller of the underlying collateral.
Loan Maturity and Repricing
The following table sets forth certain information at December 31, 2007 regarding the dollar amount of loans maturing in the Banks portfolio based on their contractual terms to maturity, but does not include potential prepayments. Demand loans, loans having neither a stated schedule of repayments nor a stated maturity, and overdrafts are reported as due in one year or less. Loan balances do not include undisbursed loan proceeds, unearned income and allowance for loan losses.
The following table sets forth the dollar amount of all loans due after December 31, 2008, which have fixed interest rates and have floating or adjustable interest rates.
Loan Solicitation and Processing. A majority of the Banks loan originations are made to existing customers. Walk-ins and customer referrals are also a source of loan originations. Upon receipt of a loan application, a credit report is ordered to verify specific information relating to the loan applicants employment, income and credit standing. A loan applicants income is verified through the applicants employer or from the applicants tax returns. In the case of a real estate loan, an appraisal of the real estate intended to secure the proposed loan is undertaken, generally by an independent appraiser approved by the Bank. The mortgage loan documents used by the Bank conform to secondary market standards.
The Bank requires that borrowers obtain certain types of insurance to protect its interest in the collateral securing the loan. The Bank requires either a title insurance policy insuring that the Bank has a valid first lien on the mortgaged real estate or an opinion by an attorney regarding the validity of title. Fire and casualty insurance is also required on collateral for loans.
The Banks lending practices generally limit the maximum loan to value ratio on conventional residential mortgage loans to 80% (or 90% under a Freddie Mac program) of the appraised value of the property as determined by an independent appraisal or the purchase price, whichever is less, and 75% for commercial real estate loans.
Loan Commitments and Letters of Credit. The Bank issues commitments for fixed- and adjustable-rate single-family residential mortgage loans conditioned upon the occurrence of certain events. Such commitments are made in writing on specified terms and conditions and are honored for up to 60 days from the date of application, depending on the type of transaction. The Bank had outstanding loan commitments of approximately $9.8 million at December 31, 2007.
As an accommodation to its commercial business loan borrowers, the Bank issues standby letters of credit or performance bonds usually in favor of municipalities for whom its borrowers are performing services. At December 31, 2007, the Bank had outstanding letters of credit of $2.0 million.
Loan Origination and Other Fees. Loan fees and points are a percentage of the principal amount of the mortgage loan that is charged to the borrower for funding the loan. The Bank usually charges a fixed origination fee on one- to four-family residential real estate loans and long-term commercial real estate loans. Current accounting standards require loan origination fees and certain direct costs of underwriting and closing loans to be deferred and amortized into interest income over the contractual life of the loan. Deferred fees and costs associated with loans that are sold are recognized as income at the time of sale. The Bank had $205,000 of net deferred loan costs at December 31, 2007.
Mortgage Banking Activities. Mortgage loans originated and funded by the Bank and intended for sale in the secondary market are carried at the lower of aggregate cost or market value. Aggregate market value is determined based on the quoted prices under a best efforts sales agreement with a third party. Net unrealized losses are recognized through a valuation allowance by charges to income. Realized gains on sales of mortgage loans are included in noninterest income.
Commitments to originate and fund mortgage loans for sale in the secondary market are considered derivative financial instruments to be accounted for at fair value. The Banks mortgage loan commitments subject to derivative accounting are fixed rate mortgage commitments at market rates when initiated. At December 31, 2007, the Bank had commitments to originate $1.4 million in fixed-rate mortgage loans intended for sale in the secondary market after the loans are closed. Fair value is estimated based on fees that would be charged on commitments with similar terms.
The Bank also serves as an agent for a third-party mortgage company. In this role, the Bank accepts and processes mortgage loan applications and performs other loan origination activities, except funding, on behalf of the third-party mortgage company. The third-party mortgage company funds such loans and the Bank receives a fee for each loan funded. The fee is typically 1.5% to 2.0% of the loan principal amount.
Delinquencies. The Banks collection procedures provide for a series of contacts with delinquent borrowers. A late charge is assessed and a late charge notice is sent to the borrower after the 15th day of delinquency. After 20 days, the collector places a phone call to the borrower. When a payment becomes 60 days past due, the collector issues a default letter. If a loan continues in a delinquent status for 90 days or more, the Bank generally initiates foreclosure or other litigation proceedings.
Nonperforming Assets. Loans are reviewed regularly and when loans become 90 days delinquent, the loan is placed on nonaccrual status and the previously accrued interest income is reversed unless, in the opinion of management, the outstanding interest remains collectible. Typically, payments received on a nonaccrual loan are applied to the outstanding principal and interest as determined at the time of collection of the loan when the likelihood of further loss on the loan is remote. Otherwise, the Bank applies the cost recovery method and applies all payments as a reduction of the unpaid principal balance.
The following table sets forth information with respect to the Banks nonperforming assets for the periods indicated. During the periods shown, the Bank had no restructured loans within the meaning of Statement of Financial Accounting Standards (SFAS) No. 15.
The Bank accrues interest on loans over 90 days past due when, in the opinion of management, the estimated value of collateral and collection efforts are deemed sufficient to ensure full recovery. The Bank recognized $281,000 in interest income on nonaccrual loans for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2007.
Classified Assets. The Office of Thrift Supervision has adopted various regulations regarding problem assets of savings institutions. The regulations require that each insured institution review and classify its assets on a regular basis. In addition, in connection with examinations of insured institutions, Office of Thrift Supervision examiners have the authority to identify problem assets and, if appropriate, require them to be classified. There are three classifications for problem assets: substandard, doubtful and loss. Substandard assets have one or more defined weaknesses and are characterized by the distinct possibility that the insured institution will sustain some loss if the deficiencies are not corrected. Doubtful assets have the weaknesses of substandard assets with the additional characteristic that the weaknesses make collection or liquidation in full on the basis of currently existing facts, conditions and values questionable, and there is a high possibility of loss. An asset classified as loss is considered uncollectible and of such little value that continuance as an asset of the institution is not warranted. If an asset or portion thereof is classified as loss, the insured institution establishes specific allowances for loan losses for the full amount of the portion of the asset classified as loss. All or a portion of general loan loss allowances established to cover possible losses related to assets classified substandard or doubtful can be included in determining an institutions regulatory capital, while specific valuation allowances for loan losses generally do not qualify as regulatory capital.
Current accounting rules require that impaired loans be measured based on the present value of expected future cash flows discounted at the loans effective interest rate, or if expedient, at the loans observable market price or the fair value of collateral if the loan is collateral dependent. A loan is classified as impaired by management when, based on current information and events, it is probable that the Bank will be unable to collect all amounts due in accordance with the terms of the loan agreement. If the fair value, as measured by one of these methods, is less than the recorded investment in the impaired loan, the Bank establishes a valuation allowance with a provision charged to expense. Management reviews the valuation of impaired loans on a quarterly basis to consider changes due to the passage of time or revised estimates. Assets that do not expose the Bank to risk sufficient to warrant classification in one of the aforementioned categories, but which possess some weaknesses, are required to be designated special mention by management.
An insured institution is required to establish and maintain an allowance for loan losses at a level that is adequate to absorb estimated credit losses associated with the loan portfolio, including binding commitments to lend. General allowances represent loss allowances which have been established to recognize the inherent risk associated with lending activities. When an insured institution classifies problem assets as loss, it is required either to establish an allowance for losses equal to 100% of the amount of the assets, or charge off the classified asset. The amount of its valuation allowance is subject to review by the Office of Thrift Supervision, which can order the establishment of additional general loss allowances. The Bank regularly reviews the loan portfolio to determine whether any loans require classification in accordance with applicable regulations.
At December 31, 2007, 2006 and 2005, the aggregate amounts of the Banks classified assets at those dates were as follows:
Loans classified as impaired in accordance with SFAS 114, Accounting by Creditors for Impairment of a Loan, included in the above regulatory classifications and the related allowance for loan losses are summarized below at the dates indicated:
Foreclosed Real Estate. Foreclosed real estate held for sale is carried at the lower of fair value minus estimated costs to sell, or cost. Costs of holding foreclosed real estate are charged to expense in the current period, except for significant property improvements, which are capitalized. Valuations are periodically performed by management and an allowance is established by a charge to non-interest expense if the carrying value exceeds the fair value minus estimated costs to sell. The net income from operations of foreclosed real estate held for sale is reported in non-interest income. At December 31, 2007, the Bank had foreclosed real estate totaling $833,000.
Allowance for Loan Losses. Loans are the Companys largest concentration of assets and continue to represent the most significant potential risk. In originating loans, the Bank recognizes that losses will be experienced and that the risk of loss will vary with, among other things, the type of loan made, the creditworthiness of the borrower over the term of the loan, general economic conditions and, in the case of a secured loan, the quality of the collateral. The Bank maintains an allowance for loan losses to absorb losses inherent in the loan portfolio. The allowance for loan losses represents managements estimate of probable loan losses based on information available as of the date of the financial statements. The allowance for loan losses is based on managements evaluation of the loan portfolio, including historical loan loss experience, delinquencies, known and inherent risks in the nature and volume of the loan portfolio, information about specific borrower situations, estimated collateral values and economic conditions.
The loan portfolio is reviewed quarterly by management to evaluate the adequacy of the allowance for loan losses to determine the amount of any adjustment required after considering the loan charge-offs and recoveries for the quarter. Management applies a systematic methodology that incorporates its current judgments about the credit quality of the loan portfolio. In addition, the Office of Thrift Supervision, as an integral part of its examination process, periodically reviews the Banks allowance for loan losses and may require the Bank to make additional provisions for estimated losses based on its judgments about information available to the Office of Thrift Supervision at the time of its examination.
The methodology used in determining the allowance for loan losses includes segmenting the loan portfolio by identifying risk characteristics common to groups of loans, determining and measuring impairment of individual loans based on the present value of expected future cash flows or the fair value of collateral, and determining and measuring impairment for groups of loans with similar characteristics by applying loss factors that consider the qualitative factors which may affect the loss rates. The Allowance for Loan Losses Analysis table below shows changes in the breakdown of the allowance for loan losses by loan category. Management continues to refine the methodology used to allocate loan losses by category and the methodology for allocating loan loss allowances by type of loan.
Specific allowances related to impaired loans and other classified loans are established where management has identified significant conditions or circumstances related to a loan that management believes indicate that a loss will occur. The identification of these loans results from the loan review process that identifies and monitors credits with weaknesses or conditions which call into question the full collection of the contractual payments due under the terms of the loan agreement. Factors considered by management include payment status, collateral value and the probability of collecting scheduled principal and interest payments when due.
For loans evaluated on a group basis, management applies loss factors to groups of loans with common risk characteristics (i.e., residential mortgage loans, home equity loans and credit card loans). The loss factors are derived from the Banks historical loss experience or, where the Bank does not have loss experience, the peer group loss experience. Peer group loss experience is used after evaluating the attributes of the Banks loan portfolio as compared to the peer group. Loss factors are adjusted for significant environmental factors that, in managements judgment, affect the collectibility of the loan portfolio segment. The significant environmental factors include the levels and trends in charge-offs and recoveries, trends in volume and terms of loans, levels and trends in delinquencies, the effects of changes in underwriting standards and other lending practices or procedures, the experience and depth of the lending management and staff, effects of changes in
credit concentration, changes in industry and market conditions and national and local economic trends and conditions. Management evaluates these conditions on a quarterly basis and evaluates and modifies the assumptions used in establishing the loss factors.
The following table sets forth an analysis of the Banks allowance for loan losses for the periods indicated.
Allowance for Loan Losses Analysis
The following table sets forth the breakdown of the allowance for loan losses by loan category at the dates indicated.
Federally chartered savings institutions have authority to invest in various types of liquid assets, including United States Treasury obligations, securities of various federal agencies and of state and municipal governments, deposits at the applicable Federal Home Loan Bank, certificates of deposit of federally insured institutions, certain bankers acceptances and federal funds. Subject to various restrictions, such savings institutions may also invest a portion of their assets in commercial paper, corporate debt securities and mutual funds, the assets of which conform to the investments that federally chartered savings institutions are otherwise authorized to make directly. Savings institutions are also required to maintain minimum levels of liquid assets that vary from time to time. The Bank may decide to increase its liquidity above the required levels depending upon the availability of funds and comparative yields on investments in relation to return on loans.
The Bank is required under federal regulations to maintain a minimum amount of liquid assets and is also permitted to make certain other securities investments. The balance of the Banks investments in short-term securities in excess of regulatory requirements reflects managements response to the significantly increasing percentage of deposits with short maturities. Management intends to hold securities with short maturities in the Banks investment portfolio in order to enable the Bank to match more closely the interest-rate sensitivities of its assets and liabilities.
The Bank periodically invests in mortgage-backed securities, including mortgage-backed securities guaranteed or insured by Ginnie Mae, Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac. Mortgage-backed securities generally increase the quality of the Banks assets by virtue of the guarantees that back them, are more liquid than individual mortgage loans and may be used to collateralize borrowings or other obligations of the Bank. Of the Banks total mortgage-backed securities portfolio, securities with a book value of $106,000 have adjustable rates as of December 31, 2007.
At December 31, 2007, neither the Company nor the Bank had an investment in securities (other than United States Government and agency securities), which exceeded 10% of the Companys stockholders equity at that date.
The following table sets forth the securities portfolio at the dates indicated.
Deposit Activities and Other Sources of Funds
General. Deposits and loan repayments are the major source of the Banks funds for lending and investment activities and for its general business purposes. Loan repayments are a relatively stable source of funds, while deposit inflows and outflows and loan prepayments are significantly influenced by general interest rates and money market conditions. Borrowing may be used on a short-term basis to compensate for reductions in the availability of funds from other sources or may also be used on a longer-term basis for interest rate risk management.
Deposit Accounts. Deposits are attracted from within the Banks primary market area through the offering of a broad selection of deposit instruments, including non-interest bearing checking accounts, negotiable order of withdrawal (NOW) accounts, money market accounts, regular savings accounts, certificates of deposit and retirement savings plans. Deposit account terms vary, according to the minimum balance required, the time periods the funds must remain on deposit and the interest rate, among other factors. In determining the terms of its deposit accounts, the Bank considers the rates offered by its competition, profitability to the Bank, matching deposit and loan products and its customer preferences and concerns. The Bank generally reviews its deposit mix and pricing weekly.
The following table presents the maturity distributions of time deposits of $100,000 or more as of December 31, 2007.
The following table sets forth the balances of deposits in the various types of accounts offered by the Bank at the dates indicated.
The following table sets forth the amount and maturities of time deposits by rates at December 31, 2007.
Borrowings. The Bank has at times relied upon advances from the Federal Home Loan Bank of Indianapolis to supplement its supply of lendable funds and to meet deposit withdrawal requirements. Advances from the Federal Home Loan Bank of Indianapolis are secured by certain first mortgage loans and investment and mortgage-backed securities. The Bank also uses retail repurchase agreements as a source of borrowings.
The Federal Home Loan Bank functions as a central reserve bank providing credit for savings and loan associations and certain other member financial institutions. As a member, the Bank is required to own capital stock in the Federal Home Loan Bank and is authorized to apply for advances on the security of such stock and certain of its mortgage loans and other assets (principally securities which are obligations of, or guaranteed by, the United States) provided certain standards related to creditworthiness have been met. Advances are made pursuant to several different programs. Each credit program has its own interest rate and range of maturities. Depending on the program, limitations on the amount of advances are based either on a fixed percentage of an institutions net worth or on the Federal Home Loan Banks assessment of the institutions creditworthiness. Under its current credit policies, the Federal Home Loan Bank generally limits advances to 20% of a members assets, and short-term borrowing of less than one year may not exceed 10% of the institutions assets. The Federal Home Loan Bank determines specific lines of credit for each member institution.
The following table sets forth certain information regarding the Banks use of Federal Home Loan Bank advances.
The following table sets forth certain information regarding the Banks use of retail repurchase agreements.
As of December 31, 2007, the Bank was the Companys only subsidiary. The Bank is wholly owned by the Company.
The Bank has organized three wholly-owned subsidiaries to manage a portion of the investment securities portfolio. First Harrison Investments, Inc. and First Harrison Holdings, Inc. are Nevada corporations that jointly own First Harrison, LLC, a Nevada limited liability corporation that holds and manages an investment securities portfolio.
As of December 31, 2007, the Bank had 127 full-time employees and 22 part-time employees. A collective bargaining unit does not represent the employees and the Bank considers its relationship with its employees to be good.
REGULATION AND SUPERVISION
As a savings and loan holding company, the Company is required by federal law to report to, and otherwise comply with the rules and regulations of, the Office of Thrift Supervision. The Bank, an insured federal savings association, is subject to extensive regulation, examination and supervision by the Office of Thrift Supervision, as its primary federal regulator, and the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, as the deposit insurer.
The Bank is a member of the Federal Home Loan Bank System and, with respect to deposit insurance, of the Deposit Insurance Fund managed by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation. The Bank must file reports with the Office of Thrift Supervision and the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation concerning its activities and financial condition in addition to obtaining regulatory approvals prior to entering into certain transactions such as mergers with, or acquisitions of, other savings associations. The Office of Thrift Supervision and/or the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation conduct periodic examinations to test the Banks safety and soundness and compliance with various regulatory requirements. This regulation and supervision establishes a comprehensive framework of activities in which an institution can engage and is intended primarily for the protection of the insurance fund and depositors. The regulatory structure also gives the regulatory authorities extensive discretion in connection with their supervisory and enforcement activities and examination policies, including policies
with respect to the classification of assets and the establishment of adequate loan loss reserves for regulatory purposes. Any change in such regulatory requirements and policies, whether by the Office of Thrift Supervision, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation or the U.S. Congress, could have a material adverse impact on the Company, the Bank and their operations.
Certain regulatory requirements applicable to the Bank and to the Company are referred to below or elsewhere herein. The description of statutory provisions and regulations applicable to savings associations and their holding companies set forth below and elsewhere in this document does not purport to be a complete description of such statutes and regulations and their effects on the Bank and the Company and is qualified in its entirety by reference to the actual laws and regulations.
Holding Company Regulation
The Company is a non-diversified unitary savings and loan holding company within the meaning of federal law. Under prior law, a unitary savings and loan holding company, such as the Company, was not generally restricted as to the types of business activities in which it may engage, provided that the Bank continued to be a qualified thrift lender. See Federal Savings Association RegulationQTL Test. The Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act of 1999 provided that no company may acquire control of a savings association after May 4, 1999 unless the company engages only in the financial activities permitted for financial holding companies under law or for multiple savings and loan holding companies as described below. Further, the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act specified that existing savings and loan holding companies may only engage in such activities. The Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act, however, grandfathered the unrestricted authority for activities with respect to unitary savings and loan holding companies existing prior to May 4, 1999, so long as the holding companys savings association subsidiary continues to comply with the QTL Test. The Company does qualify for the grandfathering. Upon any non-supervisory acquisition by the Company of another savings association or savings bank that meets the qualified thrift lender test and is deemed to be a savings association by the Office of Thrift Supervision, the Company would become a multiple savings and loan holding company (if the acquired institution is held as a separate subsidiary) and would generally be limited to activities permissible for bank holding companies under Section 4(c)(8) of the Bank Holding Company Act, subject to the prior approval of the Office of Thrift Supervision, and certain activities authorized by Office of Thrift Supervision regulation. However, the Office of Thrift Supervision has issued an interpretation concluding that multiple savings and loan holding companies may also engage in activities permitted for financial holding companies.
A savings and loan holding company is prohibited from, directly or indirectly, acquiring more than 5% of the voting stock of another savings association or savings and loan holding company, without prior written approval of the Office of Thrift Supervision and from acquiring or retaining control of a depository institution that is not insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation. In evaluating applications by holding companies to acquire savings associations, the Office of Thrift Supervision considers factors such as the financial and managerial resources and future prospects of the Company and institution involved, the effect of the acquisition on the risk to the deposit insurance fund, the convenience and needs of the community and competitive effects.
The Office of Thrift Supervision may not approve any acquisition that would result in a multiple savings and loan holding company controlling savings associations in more than one state, subject to two exceptions: (i) the approval of interstate supervisory acquisitions by savings and loan holding companies; and (ii) the acquisition of a savings association in another state if the laws of the state of the target savings association specifically permit such acquisitions. The states vary in the extent to which they permit interstate savings and loan holding company acquisitions.
Although savings and loan holding companies are not currently subject to specific regulatory capital requirements or specific restrictions on the payment of dividends or other capital distributions,
federal regulations do prescribe such restrictions on subsidiary savings associations. The Bank must notify the Office of Thrift Supervision 30 days before declaring any dividend to the Company and comply with the additional restrictions described below. In addition, the financial impact of a holding company on its subsidiary institution is a matter that is evaluated by the Office of Thrift Supervision and the agency has authority to order cessation of activities or divestiture of subsidiaries deemed to pose a threat to the safety and soundness of the institution.
Acquisition of the Company. Under the Federal Change in Control Act, a notice must be submitted to the Office of Thrift Supervision if any person (including a company), or group acting in concert, seeks to acquire direct or indirect control of a savings and loan holding company or savings association. Under certain circumstances, a change of control may occur, and prior notice is required, upon the acquisition of 10% or more of the Companys outstanding voting stock, unless the Office of Thrift Supervision has found that the acquisition will not result in control of the Company. Under the Change in Control Act, the Office of Thrift Supervision generally has 60 days from the filing of a complete notice to act, taking into consideration certain factors, including the financial and managerial resources of the acquirer and the competitive effects of the acquisition. Any company that acquires control would then be subject to regulation as a savings and loan holding company.
Federal Savings Association Regulation
Business Activities. The activities of federal savings banks are governed by federal laws and regulations. Those laws and regulations delineate the nature and extent of the business activities in which federal savings banks may engage. In particular, certain lending authority for federal savings banks, e.g., commercial, non-residential real property loans and consumer loans, is limited to a specified percentage of the institutions capital or assets.
Capital Requirements. The Office of Thrift Supervision capital regulations require savings associations to meet three minimum capital standards: a 1.5% tangible capital to total assets ratio; a 4% tier 1 capital to total assets leverage ratio (3% for institutions receiving the highest rating on the CAMELS examination rating system); and an 8% risk-based capital ratio. In addition, the prompt corrective action standards discussed below also establish, in effect, a minimum 2% tangible capital standard, a 4% leverage ratio (3% for institutions receiving the highest rating on the CAMELS system) and, together with the risk-based capital standard itself, a 4% Tier 1 risk-based capital standard. The Office of Thrift Supervision regulations also require that, in meeting the tangible, leverage and risk-based capital standards, institutions must generally deduct investments in and loans to subsidiaries engaged in activities as principal that are not permissible for a national bank.
The risk-based capital standard for savings associations requires the maintenance of Tier 1 (core) and total capital (which is defined as core capital and supplementary capital less certain specified deductions from total capital such as reciprocal holdings of depository institution capital instruments and equity investments) to risk-weighted assets of at least 4% and 8%, respectively. In determining the amount of risk-weighted assets, all assets, including certain off-balance sheet activities, recourse obligations, residual interests and direct credit substitutes, are multiplied by a risk-weight factor of 0% to 100%, assigned by the Office of Thrift Supervision capital regulation based on the risks believed inherent in the type of asset. Core (Tier 1) capital is generally defined as common stockholders equity (including retained earnings), certain non-cumulative perpetual preferred stock and related surplus and minority interests in equity accounts of consolidated subsidiaries less intangibles other than certain mortgage servicing rights and credit card relationships. The components of supplementary capital (Tier 2 Capital) currently include cumulative preferred stock, long-term perpetual preferred stock, mandatory convertible debt securities, subordinated debt and intermediate preferred stock, the allowance for loan and lease losses limited to a maximum of 1.25% of risk-weighted assets, and up to 45% of unrealized gains on available-for-sale equity securities with readily determinable fair market values. Overall, the amount of supplementary capital included as part of total capital cannot exceed 100% of core capital.
The Office of Thrift Supervision also has authority to establish individual minimum capital requirements in appropriate cases upon a determination that an institutions capital level is or may become inadequate in light of the particular circumstances.
At December 31, 2007, the Bank met each of its capital requirements. The following table presents the Banks capital position at December 31, 2007.
Prompt Corrective Regulatory Action. The Office of Thrift Supervision is required to take certain supervisory actions against undercapitalized institutions, the severity of which depends upon the institutions degree of undercapitalization. Generally, a savings association that has a ratio of total capital to risk weighted assets of less than 8%, a ratio of Tier 1 (core) capital to risk-weighted assets of less than 4% or a ratio of core capital to total assets of less than 4% (3% or less for institutions with the highest examination rating) is considered to be undercapitalized. A savings association that has a total risk-based capital ratio less than 6%, a Tier 1 capital ratio of less than 3% or a leverage ratio that is less than 3% is considered to be significantly undercapitalized and a savings association that has a tangible capital to assets ratio equal to or less than 2% is deemed to be critically undercapitalized. Subject to a narrow exception, the Office of Thrift Supervision is required to appoint a receiver or conservator within specified time frames for an institution that is critically undercapitalized. The regulation also provides that a capital restoration plan must be filed with the Office of Thrift Supervision within 45 days of the date a savings association is deemed to have received notice that it is undercapitalized, significantly undercapitalized or critically undercapitalized. Compliance with the plan must be guaranteed by any parent holding company in the amount of up to the lesser of 5% of the savings associations total assets when it was deemed to be undercapitalized or the amount necessary to achieve compliance with applicable capital requirements. In addition, numerous mandatory supervisory actions become immediately applicable to an undercapitalized institution, including, but not limited to, increased monitoring by regulators and restrictions on growth, capital distributions and expansion. The Office of Thrift Supervision could also take any one of a number of discretionary supervisory actions, including the issuance of a capital directive and the replacement of senior executive officers and directors. Significantly and critically undercapitalized institutions are subject to additional mandatory and discretionary measures.
Insurance of Deposit Accounts. The Banks deposits are insured up to applicable limits by the Deposit Insurance Fund of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation. The Deposit Insurance Fund is the successor to the Bank Insurance Fund and the Savings Association Insurance Fund, which were merged in 2006. The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation recently amended its risk-based assessment system for 2007 to implement authority granted by the Federal Deposit Insurance Reform Act of 2005 (Reform Act). Under the revised system, insured institutions are assigned to one of four risk categories based on supervisory evaluations, regulatory capital levels and certain other factors. An institutions assessment rate depends upon the category to which it is assigned. Risk category I, which contains the least risky depository institutions, is expected to include more than 90% of all institutions. Unlike the other
categories, Risk Category I contains further risk differentiation based on the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporations analysis of financial ratios, examination component ratings and other information. Assessment rates are determined by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation and currently range from five to seven basis points for the healthiest institutions (Risk Category I) to 43 basis points of assessable deposits for the riskiest (Risk Category IV). The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation may adjust rates uniformly from one quarter to the next, except that no single adjustment can exceed three basis points. No institution may pay a dividend if in default of its Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation assessment.
The Reform Act also provided for a one-time credit for eligible institutions based on their assessment base as of December 31, 1996. Subject to certain limitations, credits could be used beginning in 2007 to offset assessments until exhausted. The Banks one-time credit approximated $198,000. The Reform Act also provided for the possibility that the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation may pay dividends to insured institutions once the Deposit Insurance fund reserve ratio equals or exceeds 1.35% of estimated insured deposits.
In addition to the assessment for deposit insurance, institutions are required to make payments on bonds issued in the late 1980s by the Financing Corporation to recapitalize a predecessor deposit insurance fund. That payment is established quarterly and during the calendar year ending December 31, 2007 averaged 1.18 basis points of assessable deposits.
The Reform Act provided the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation with authority to adjust the Deposit Insurance Fund ratio to insured deposits within a range of 1.15% and 1.50%, in contrast to the prior statutorily fixed ratio of 1.25%. The ratio, which is viewed by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation as the level that the fund should achieve, was established by the agency at 1.25% for 2008, which was unchanged from 2007.
The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation has authority to increase insurance assessments. A significant increase in insurance premiums would likely have an adverse effect on the operating expenses and results of operations of the Bank. Management cannot predict what insurance assessment rates will be in the future.
Insurance of deposits may be terminated by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation upon a finding that the institution has engaged in unsafe or unsound practices, is in an unsafe or unsound condition to continue operations or has violated any applicable law, regulation, rule, order or condition imposed by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation or the Office of Thrift Supervision. The management of the Bank does not know of any practice, condition or violation that might lead to termination of deposit insurance.
Loans to One Borrower. Federal law provides that savings associations are generally subject to the limits on loans to one borrower applicable to national banks. Generally, subject to certain exceptions, a savings association may not make a loan or extend credit to a single or related group of borrowers in excess of 15% of its unimpaired capital and surplus. An additional amount may be lent, equal to 10% of unimpaired capital and surplus, if secured by specified readily-marketable collateral.
QTL Test. Federal law requires savings associations to meet a qualified thrift lender test. Under the test, a savings association is required to either qualify as a domestic building and loan association under the Internal Revenue Code or maintain at least 65% of its portfolio assets (total assets less: (i) specified liquid assets up to 20% of total assets; (ii) intangibles, including goodwill; and (iii) the value of property used to conduct business) in certain qualified thrift investments (primarily residential mortgages and related investments, including certain mortgage-backed securities but also including education, credit card and small business loans) in at least 9 months out of each 12 month period.
A savings association that fails the qualified thrift lender test is subject to certain operating restrictions and may be required to convert to a bank charter. As of December 31, 2007, the Bank maintained 80.0% of its portfolio assets in qualified thrift investments and, therefore, met the qualified thrift lender test.
Limitation on Capital Distributions. Office of Thrift Supervision regulations impose limitations upon all capital distributions by a savings association, including cash dividends, payments to repurchase its shares and payments to shareholders of another institution in a cash-out merger. Under the regulations, an application to and prior approval of the Office of Thrift Supervision is required prior to any capital distribution if the institution does not meet the criteria for expedited treatment of applications under Office of Thrift Supervision regulations (i.e., generally, examination and Community Reinvestment Act ratings in the two top categories), the total capital distributions for the calendar year exceed net income for that year plus the amount of retained net income for the preceding two years, the institution would be undercapitalized following the distribution or the distribution would otherwise be contrary to a statute, regulation or agreement with the Office of Thrift Supervision. If an application is not required, the institution must still provide prior notice to the Office of Thrift Supervision of the capital distribution if, like the Bank, it is a subsidiary of a holding company. In the event the Banks capital fell below its regulatory requirements or the Office of Thrift Supervision notified it that it was in need of increased supervision, the Banks ability to make capital distributions could be restricted. In addition, the Office of Thrift Supervision could prohibit a proposed capital distribution by any institution, which would otherwise be permitted by the regulation, if the Office of Thrift Supervision determines that such distribution would constitute an unsafe or unsound practice.
Standards for Safety and Soundness. The federal banking agencies have adopted Interagency Guidelines prescribing Standards for Safety and Soundness in various areas such as internal controls and information systems, internal audit, loan documentation and credit underwriting, interest rate exposure, asset growth and quality, earnings and compensation, fees and benefits. The guidelines set forth the safety and soundness standards that the federal banking agencies use to identify and address problems at insured depository institutions before capital becomes impaired. If the Office of Thrift Supervision determines that a savings association fails to meet any standard prescribed by the guidelines, the Office of Thrift Supervision may require the institution to submit an acceptable plan to achieve compliance with the standard.
Transactions with Related Parties. The Banks authority to engage in transactions with affiliates (e.g., any entity that controls or is under common control with the Bank, including the Company and its other subsidiaries) is limited by federal law. The aggregate amount of covered transactions with any individual affiliate is limited to 10% of the capital and surplus of the savings association. The aggregate amount of covered transactions with all affiliates is limited to 20% of the savings associations capital and surplus. Certain transactions with affiliates are required to be secured by collateral in an amount and of a type specified by federal law. The purchase of low quality assets from affiliates is generally prohibited. Transactions with affiliates must generally be on terms and under circumstances, that are at least as favorable to the institution as those prevailing at the time for comparable transactions with non-affiliated companies. In addition, savings associations are prohibited from lending to any affiliate that is engaged in activities that are not permissible for bank holding companies and no savings association may purchase the securities of any affiliate other than a subsidiary.
The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 generally prohibits loans by the Company to its executive officers and directors. However, the law contains a specific exception for loans by a depository institution to its executive officers and directors in compliance with federal banking laws. Under such laws, the Banks authority to extend credit to executive officers, directors and 10% shareholders (insiders), as well as entities such persons control, is limited. The law limits both the individual and aggregate amount of loans the Bank may make to insiders based, in part, on the Banks capital level and
requires certain board approval procedures to be followed. Such loans are required to be made on terms substantially the same as those offered to unaffiliated individuals and not involve more than the normal risk of repayment. There is an exception for loans made pursuant to a benefit or compensation program that is widely available to all employees of the institution and does not give preference to insiders over other employees. Loans to executive officers are subject to additional limitations based on the type of loan involved.
Enforcement. The Office of Thrift Supervision has primary enforcement responsibility over savings associations and has authority to bring actions against the institution and all institution-affiliated parties, including stockholders, and any attorneys, appraisers and accountants who knowingly or recklessly participate in wrongful action likely to have an adverse effect on an insured institution. Formal enforcement action may range from the issuance of a capital directive or cease and desist order to removal of officers and/or directors to institution of receivership, conservatorship or termination of deposit insurance. Civil penalties cover a wide range of violations and can amount to $25,000 per day, or even $1 million per day in especially egregious cases. The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation has the authority to recommend to the Director of the Office of Thrift Supervision that enforcement action to be taken with respect to a particular savings association. If action is not taken by the Director, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation has authority to take such action under certain circumstances. Federal law also establishes criminal penalties for certain violations.
Assessments. Savings associations are required to pay assessments to the Office of Thrift Supervision to fund the agencys operations. The general assessments, paid on a semi-annual basis, are computed based upon the savings associations (including consolidated subsidiaries) total assets, financial condition and complexity of its portfolio. The Bank paid Office of Thrift Supervision assessments of $110,000 for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2007.
Federal Home Loan Bank System
The Bank is a member of the Federal Home Loan Bank System, which consists of (12) regional Federal Home Loan Banks. The Federal Home Loan Bank provides a central credit facility primarily for member institutions. The Bank, as a member of the Federal Home Loan Bank, is required to acquire and hold shares of capital stock in that Federal Home Loan Bank. The Bank was in compliance with this requirement with an investment in Federal Home Loan Bank stock at December 31, 2007 of $3.6 million.
The Federal Home Loan Banks are required to provide funds for the resolution of insolvent thrifts in the late 1980s and to contribute funds for affordable housing programs. These requirements could reduce the amount of dividends that the Federal Home Loan Banks pay to their members and could also result in the Federal Home Loan Banks imposing a higher rate of interest on advances to their members. If dividends were reduced, or interest on future Federal Home Loan Bank advances increased, the Banks net interest income would likely also be reduced.
Federal Reserve System
The Federal Reserve Board regulations require savings associations to maintain non-interest earning reserves against their transaction accounts (primarily Negotiable Order of Withdrawal (NOW) and regular checking accounts). The regulations generally provide that reserves be maintained against aggregate transaction accounts as follows: a 3% reserve ratio is assessed on net transaction accounts up to and including $43.9 million; a 10% reserve ratio is applied above $43.9 million. The first $9.3 million of otherwise reservable balances (subject to adjustments by the Federal Reserve Board) are exempted from the reserve requirements. The amounts are adjusted annually. The Bank complies with the foregoing requirements.
FEDERAL AND STATE TAXATION
General. The Company and the Bank report their income on a fiscal year basis using the accrual method of accounting and are subject to federal income taxation in the same manner as other corporations with some exceptions, including particularly the Banks reserve for bad debts, as discussed below. The following discussion of tax matters is intended only as a summary and does not purport to be a comprehensive description of the tax rules applicable to the Bank or the Company. The Bank has not been audited by the Internal Revenue Service in the past five years.
Bad Debt Reserve. For taxable years beginning after December 31, 1995, the Bank is entitled to take a bad debt deduction for federal income tax purposes which is based on its current or historic net charge-offs by applying the experience reserve method for banks. For tax years beginning prior to December 31, 1995, the Bank as a qualifying thrift had been permitted to establish a reserve for bad debts and to make annual additions to such reserve, which were deductible for federal income tax purposes. Under such prior tax law, generally the Bank recognized a bad debt deduction equal to 8% of taxable income.
Under the 1996 Tax Act, the Bank was required to recapture all or a portion of its additions to its bad debt reserve made subsequent to the base year (which is the Banks last taxable year beginning before January 1, 1988). This recapture was required to be made, after a deferral period based on certain specified criteria, ratably over a six-year period commencing in the Banks calendar 1998 tax year. All post-1987 additions to the statutory bad debt reserve have been recaptured in taxable income as of December 31, 2002.
Potential Recapture of Base Year Bad Debt Reserve. The Banks bad debt reserve as of the base year is not subject to automatic recapture as long as the Bank continues to carry on the business of banking. If the Bank no longer qualifies as a bank, the balance of the pre-1988 reserves (the base year reserves) are restored to income over a six-year period beginning in the tax year the Bank no longer qualifies as a bank. Such base year bad debt reserve is subject to recapture to the extent that the Bank makes non-dividend distributions that are considered as made from the base year bad debt reserve. To the extent that such reserves exceed the amount that would have been allowed under the experience method (Excess Distributions), then an amount based on the amount distributed will be included in the Banks taxable income. Non-dividend distributions include distributions in excess of the Banks current and accumulated earnings and profits, distributions in redemption of stock, and distributions in partial or complete liquidation. However, dividends paid out of the Banks current or accumulated earnings and profits, as calculated for federal income tax purposes, will not be considered to result in a distribution from the Banks bad debt reserve. Thus, any dividends to the Company that would reduce amounts appropriated to the Banks bad debt reserve and deducted for federal income tax purposes would create a tax liability for the Bank. The amount of additional taxable income created from an Excess Distribution is an amount that, when reduced by the tax attributable to the income, is equal to the amount of the distribution. If the Bank makes a non-dividend distribution, then approximately one and one-half times the amount so used would be includable in gross income for federal income tax purposes, assuming a 34% corporate income tax rate (exclusive of state and local taxes). The Bank does not intend to pay dividends that would result in a recapture of any portion of its bad debt reserve.
Corporate Alternative Minimum Tax. The Internal Revenue Code imposes a tax on alternative minimum taxable income (AMTI) at a rate of 20%. The excess of the bad debt reserve deduction claimed by the Bank over the deduction that would have been allowable under the experience method is treated as a preference item for purposes of computing the AMTI. Only 90% of AMTI can be offset by net operating loss carry-overs, of which the Bank currently has none. AMTI is increased by an amount
equal to 75% of the amount by which the Banks adjusted current earnings exceeds its AMTI (determined without regard to this preference and prior to reduction for net operating losses). In addition, for taxable years beginning after June 30, 1986 and before January 1, 1996, an environmental tax of 0.12% of the excess of AMTI (with certain modifications) over $2.0 million is imposed on corporations, including the Bank, whether or not an Alternative Minimum Tax (AMT) is paid. The Bank does not expect to be subject to the AMT.
Dividends Received Deduction and Other Matters. The Company may exclude from its income 100% of dividends received from the Bank as a member of the same affiliated group of corporations. The corporate dividends received deduction is generally 70% in the case of dividends received from unaffiliated corporations with which the Company and the Bank will not file a consolidated tax return, except that if the Company or the Bank own more than 20% of the stock of a corporation distributing a dividend, then 80% of any dividends received may be deducted.
Indiana imposes an 8.5% franchise tax based on a financial institutions adjusted gross income as defined by statute. In computing adjusted gross income, deductions for municipal interest, United States Government interest, the bad debt deduction computed using the reserve method and pre-1990 net operating losses are disallowed. During the past five years, the Banks Indiana state income tax returns for the years 2003 through 2005 were audited, with no changes made.
Above average interest rate risk associated with fixed-rate loans
At December 31, 2007, approximately 35.6% of the Banks assets consisted of residential mortgage loans held for investment. Such loans represented 47.1% of the total loan portfolio at that date. While generally considered to involve less risk than other types of lending, such as commercial mortgage loans, commercial business loans and consumer loans, residential mortgage loans provide relatively lower yields. The Banks loan portfolio also includes a significant amount of loans with fixed rates of interest. At December 31, 2007, $215.7 million, or 62.9%, of the Banks total loans receivable had fixed interest rates all of which were held for investment. The Bank offers ARM loans and fixed-rate loans. Unlike ARM loans, fixed-rate loans carry the risk that, because they do not reprice to market interest rates, their yield may be insufficient to offset increases in the Banks cost of funds during a rising interest rate environment. Accordingly, a material and prolonged increase in market interest rates could be expected to have a greater adverse effect on the Banks net interest income compared to other institutions that hold a materially larger portion of their assets in ARM loans or fixed-rate loans that are originated for committed sale in the secondary market. For a discussion of the Banks loan portfolio, see Item 1. Business Lending Activities.
Commercial business lending risks
At December 31, 2007, the Banks commercial business loan portfolio amounted to $24.2 million, or 7.1% of total loans. Subject to market conditions and other factors, the Bank intends to expand its commercial business lending activities within its primary market area. Commercial business lending is inherently riskier than one- to four-family mortgage lending. Although commercial business loans are often collateralized by equipment, inventory, accounts receivable or other business assets, the liquidation value of these assets in the event of a borrower default is often an insufficient source of repayment because accounts receivable may be uncollectible and inventories and equipment may be obsolete or of limited use, among other things. See Item 1. BusinessLending ActivitiesCommercial Business Loans.
Commercial real estate lending risks
At December 31, 2007, the Banks commercial real estate loan portfolio amounted to $64.9 million, or 18.9% of total loans. Commercial real estate lending is inherently riskier than one- to-four family mortgage lending. Because payments on loans secured by commercial properties often depend upon the successful operation and management of the properties, repayment of such loans may be affected by adverse conditions in the real estate market or the economy, among other things. See Item 1. BusinessLending ActivitiesCommercial Real Estate Loans.
A downturn in the local economy or a decline in real estate values could hurt the Companys profits.
Nearly all of the Banks loans are secured by real estate or made to businesses in our primary market area. As a result of this concentration, a downturn in the local economy could cause significant increases in nonperforming loans, which would hurt profit. In recent periods, there has been a decrease in real estate values in our market area, following a period of appreciation in real estate values. A continuing decline in real estate values could cause some of the Banks mortgages to become inadequately collateralized, which would expose the Company to a greater risk of loss.
Strong competition within the Banks market area could hurt the Companys profit and growth.
The Bank faces intense competition both in making loans and attracting deposits. This competition has made it more difficult for it to make new loans and at times has forced it to offer higher deposit rates. Price competition for loans and deposits might result in the Bank earning less on loans paying more on deposits, which would reduce net interest income. Competition also makes it more difficult to grow loans and deposits. Some of the institutions with which the Bank competes have substantially greater resources and lending limits than it has and may offer services that the Bank does not provide. Future competition will likely increase because of legislative, regulatory and technological changes and the continuing trend of consolidation in the financial services industry. The Companys profitability depends upon the Banks continued ability to compete successfully in its market area.
The Bank and the Company operate in a highly regulated environment and may be adversely affected by changes in laws and regulations.
The Company and the Bank are subject to extensive regulation, supervision and examination by the Office of Thrift Supervision, their chartering authority, and by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, as insurer of the Banks deposits. The Company and the Bank are both subject to regulation and supervision by the Office of Thrift Supervision. Such regulations and supervision governs the activities in which an institution and its holding company may engage, and are intended primarily for the protection of the insurance fund and depositors. Regulatory authorities have extensive discretion in their supervisory and enforcement activities, including to imposition of restrictions on operations, the classification of assets and determination of the level of allowance for loan losses. Any change in such regulation and oversight, whether in the form of regulatory policy, regulations, legislation or supervisory claim may have a material impact on the Banks operations.
The following table sets forth certain information regarding the Banks offices as of December 31, 2007.
At December 31, 2007, neither the Company nor the Bank was involved in any pending legal proceedings believed by management to be material to the Companys financial condition or results of operations. From time to time, the Bank is involved in legal proceedings occurring in the ordinary course of business. Such routine legal proceedings, in the aggregate, are believed by management to be immaterial to the Companys financial condition, results of operations or cash flows.
No matters were submitted to a vote of security holders during the fourth quarter of the fiscal year ended December 31, 2007.
The information regarding the market for First Capitals common equity and related stockholder matters is incorporated herein by reference to First Capitals 2007 Annual Report to Stockholders at Corporate Information.
The following table provides certain information with regard to shares repurchased by the Company in the fourth quarter of 2007.
Since September 30, 2002, the Company has had in place a stock repurchase program, authorized by its board of directors, to repurchase up to 345,000 shares of its outstanding common stock. The stock repurchase program will expire upon the purchase of the maximum number of shares authorized under the program, unless the board of directors terminates the program earlier.
The information regarding selected financial data is incorporated herein by reference to First Capitals 2007 Annual Report to Stockholders in the section captioned Selected Financial and Other Data.
The information regarding managements discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operation is incorporated herein by reference to First Capitals 2007 Annual Report to Stockholders in the section captioned Managements Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.
The information required by this item is incorporated herein by reference to the section captioned Managements Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations in the 2007 Annual Report to Stockholders.
The financial statements required by this item are incorporated by reference to the Companys Audited Financial Statements and the notes thereto found in First Capitals 2007 Annual Report to Stockholders.
The management of the Company is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting. The internal control process has been designed under our supervision to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of the Companys financial statements for external reporting purposes in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.
Management conducted an assessment of the effectiveness of the Companys internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2007, utilizing the framework established in Internal Control Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO). Based on this assessment, management has determined that the Companys internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2007 is effective.
Our internal control over financial reporting includes policies and procedures that pertain to the maintenance of records that accurately and fairly reflect, in reasonable detail, transactions and dispositions of assets; and provide reasonable assurances that: (1) transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States; (2) receipts and expenditures are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and the directors of the Company; and (3) unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the Companys assets that could have a material effect on the Companys financial statements are prevented or timely detected.
All internal control systems, no matter how well designed, have inherent limitations. Therefore, even those systems determined to be effective can provide only reasonable assurance with respect to financial statement preparation and presentation. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.
This annual report does not include an attestation report of the Companys independent registered public accounting firm regarding internal control over financial reporting. Managements report was not subject to attestation by the Companys independent registered public accounting firm pursuant to temporary rules of the Securities and Exchange Commission that permit the Company to provide only managements report in this annual report.
There have been no changes in the Companys internal control over financial reporting during the quarter ended December 31, 2007 that have materially affected, or are reasonably likely to materially affect, the Companys internal control over financial reporting.
The information relating to the directors of First Capital, information regarding compliance with Section 16(a) of the Exchange Act and information regarding the audit committee and audit committee financial expert is incorporated herein by reference to First Capitals Proxy Statement for the 2008 Annual Meeting of Stockholders.
Executive Officers Who Are Not Directors
M. Chris Frederick has been affiliated with the Bank since June 1990 and has served in his present position since 1997.
Joel E. Voyles has been affiliated with the Bank since December 1996 and has served in his present position since 1997.
Dennis L. Thomas has been affiliated with the Bank since January 2000. He was employed by Harrison County Bank from 1981 until its merger with the Bank.
Code of Ethics
The Company maintains a Code of Ethics and Business Conduct that applies to all directors, officers and employees of the Company and its affiliates. The Code of Ethics and Business Conduct is posted on the Companys Internet website, www.firstharrison.com.
The information regarding executive compensation, compensation committee interlocks and insider participation and compensation committee report is incorporated herein by reference to First Capitals Proxy Statement for the 2008 Annual Meeting of Stockholders.
Information required by this item is incorporated herein by reference to the section captioned Stock Ownership in First Capitals Proxy Statement for the 2008 Annual Meeting of Stockholders.
Information required by this item is incorporated herein by reference to the section captioned Stock Ownership in First Capitals Proxy Statement for the 2008 Annual Meeting of Stockholders.
Management of the Company knows of no arrangements, including any pledge by any person or securities of the Company, the operation of which may at a subsequent date result in a change in control of the registrant.
Equity Compensation Plan Information as of December 31, 2007
The Company does not maintain any equity compensation plans that have not been approved by security holders.
The information relating to certain relationships and related transactions and director independence is incorporated herein by reference to First Capitals Proxy Statement for the 2008 Annual Meeting of Stockholders.
The information relating to the principal accountant fees and expenses is incorporated herein by reference to First Capitals Proxy Statement for the 2008 Annual Meeting of Stockholders.
Pursuant to the requirements of Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, the Registrant has duly caused this report to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized.
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, this report has been signed below by the following persons on behalf of the Registrant and in the capacities and on the dates indicated.