FIVE STAR SENIOR LIVING INC. 10-K 2009
Documents found in this filing:
Commission file number 001-16817
FIVE STAR QUALITY CARE, INC.
Registrant's Telephone Number, Including Area Code: 617-796-8387
Securities to be registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes o No ý
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes o No ý
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ý No o
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant's knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K. ý
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See definition of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer" and "smaller reporting company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes o No ý
The aggregate market value of the voting shares of the registrant held by non-affiliates was $147.0 million based on the $4.73 closing price per common share on the NYSE Alternext US LLC on June 30, 2008. For purposes of this calculation, an aggregate of 722,832.6 shares of common stock, including 35,000 shares of common stock held by Senior Housing Properties Trust, are held by the directors and officers of the registrant and have been included in the number of shares of common stock held by affiliates.
Number of the registrant's shares of common stock outstanding as of February 27, 2009: 32,205,604.
Table of Contents
In this Annual Report on Form 10-K, the terms the "Company", "Five Star", "FVE", "we", "us" or "our", include Five Star Quality Care, Inc., and its consolidated subsidiaries, unless the context indicates otherwise.
Certain information required in Items 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14 of Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K is incorporated by reference to our to be filed definitive Proxy Statement for the Annual Meeting of Shareholders scheduled to be held on May 14, 2009, or our definitive Proxy Statement.
THIS ANNUAL REPORT ON FORM 10-K CONTAINS STATEMENTS AND IMPLICATIONS WHICH CONSTITUTE FORWARD LOOKING STATEMENTS WITHIN THE MEANING OF THE PRIVATE SECURITIES LITIGATION REFORM ACT OF 1995 AND OTHER FEDERAL SECURITIES LAWS. ALSO, WHENEVER WE USE WORDS SUCH AS "BELIEVE", "EXPECT", "ANTICIPATE", "INTEND", "PLAN", "ESTIMATE" OR SIMILAR EXPRESSIONS, WE ARE MAKING FORWARD LOOKING STATEMENTS. THESE FORWARD LOOKING STATEMENTS APPEAR IN A NUMBER OF PLACES IN THIS REPORT AND INCLUDE BUT ARE NOT LIMITED TO STATEMENTS REGARDING OUR INTENT, BELIEF OR EXPECTATION, OR THE INTENT, BELIEF OR EXPECTATION OF OUR DIRECTORS AND OFFICERS, WITH RESPECT TO:
THESE FORWARD LOOKING STATEMENTS ARE BASED UPON OUR PRESENT INTENT, BELIEFS OR EXPECTATIONS, BUT FORWARD LOOKING STATEMENTS ARE NOT GUARANTEED TO OCCUR AND MAY NOT OCCUR. ACTUAL RESULTS MAY DIFFER MATERIALLY FROM THOSE CONTAINED IN OR IMPLIED BY OUR FORWARD LOOKING STATEMENTS AS A RESULT OF VARIOUS FACTORS. FACTORS THAT COULD HAVE A MATERIAL ADVERSE EFFECT ON OUR FORWARD LOOKING STATEMENTS AND UPON OUR BUSINESS, RESULTS OF OPERATIONS, FINANCIAL CONDITION, CASH FLOWS, LIQUIDITY AND PROSPECTS INCLUDE, BUT ARE NOT LIMITED TO:
OTHER IMPORTANT FACTORS THAT COULD CAUSE ACTUAL RESULTS TO DIFFER MATERIALLY FROM THOSE IN OUR FORWARD LOOKING STATEMENTS ARE DESCRIBED MORE FULLY UNDER "ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS."
YOU SHOULD NOT PLACE UNDUE RELIANCE UPON FORWARD LOOKING STATEMENTS.
EXCEPT AS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW, WE DO NOT INTEND TO UPDATE OR CHANGE ANY FORWARD LOOKING STATEMENTS AS A RESULT OF NEW INFORMATION, FUTURE EVENTS OR OTHERWISE.
We operate senior living communities, including independent living or congregate care communities, assisted living communities and skilled nursing facilities. As of December 31, 2008, we leased or owned and operated 210 senior living communities containing 22,264 living units, including 161 primarily independent and assisted living communities with 17,854 living units and 49 skilled nursing facilities with 4,410 units.
Of our 161 primarily independent and assisted living communities, we:
Of our 49 skilled nursing facilities, we:
In the aggregate, our 210 senior living communities included 6,304 independent living apartments, 9,682 assisted living suites and 6,278 skilled nursing units. Included in the above counts are two assisted living communities containing 173 living units which have been reclassified to discontinued operations.
We also own and operate institutional pharmacies and we operate two rehabilitation hospitals with 321 beds that we lease from Senior Housing. Our two rehabilitation hospitals provide inpatient services at the two hospitals and three satellite locations. In addition, we operate 15 outpatient clinics affiliated with these two hospitals.
Our principal executive offices are located at 400 Centre Street, Newton, Massachusetts 02458, and our telephone number is (617) 796-8387.
Spin Off From Senior Housing
We were created by Senior Housing in April 2000 to operate 54 skilled nursing facilities and two assisted living communities repossessed from former Senior Housing tenants. We were incorporated in Delaware in April 2000 and reincorporated in Maryland on September 17, 2001. On December 31, 2001, Senior Housing distributed substantially all of our outstanding shares to its shareholders and we became a separate, publicly owned company listed on the American Stock Exchange (now the NYSE Alternext US LLC).
Senior Living Acquisitions and Initiation of Long Term Leases
We have grown our business through acquisitions, primarily through initiation of long term leases, of independent and assisted living communities where residents' private resources account for a large majority of revenues.
In 2002, we commenced operations at 51 senior living communities, including 31 communities then operated by Marriott Senior Living Services, Inc. and subsequently operated by Sunrise Senior Living
Services, Inc., or SLS, a wholly owned subsidiary of Sunrise Senior Living, Inc. We commenced operations at three senior living communities in 2003, 47 senior living communities in 2004, seven senior living communities in 2005, 11 senior living communities in 2006 and one senior living community in 2007.
In 2008, we commenced operations at 47 senior living communities with a total of 4,179 living units. Thirty-six of these communities are assisted living communities (one of which offers some skilled nursing services and one of which offers some independent living services), nine are independent living communities and two are continuing care retirement communities which offer independent living, assisted living and skilled nursing services. Thirty-seven of these communities with a total of 3,273 living units are leased from Senior Housing. We acquired three assisted living communities from Senior Housing with 278 units located in Pennsylvania and New Jersey for a purchase price of $21.4 million. In addition, we purchased six assisted living communities and one independent living community from an unrelated party for $44.0 million. We also purchased land for future development adjacent to three of these communities for a total of $3.9 million.
Between 2003 and 2006, we acquired six institutional pharmacies and one mail order pharmacy located in Wisconsin, Nebraska, California, South Carolina and Virginia.
In December 2007, we decided to sell or cease operating one institutional pharmacy located in California and our mail order pharmacy located in Nebraska. Accordingly, the operating results of these two businesses are now included in discontinued operations. We sold the institutional pharmacy located in California on January 15, 2009. We were unable to sell the mail order pharmacy on acceptable terms and we expect to discontinue all operations on or about March 31, 2009.
In October 2006, we began to operate two rehabilitation hospitals located in Braintree and Woburn, Massachusetts that provide extensive inpatient and outpatient health rehabilitation services. These hospitals are leased from Senior Housing through June 30, 2026.
Termination of SLS Management Agreements
During 2005 and 2006, we terminated management agreements for all of the senior living communities that SLS managed for us and began to directly operate these communities for our own account. In connection with these terminations, we paid SLS termination fees totaling $216.1 million. We no longer pay any fees to SLS.
Between 2003 and 2006, we ceased operations at four skilled nursing facilities, which we previously leased from Senior Housing, and eight assisted living facilities, two of which we previously leased from Senior Housing. If and as these facilities were sold our rent payable to Senior Housing was reduced pursuant to formulas in our multi-facility leases with Senior Housing.
During 2007, we agreed with Senior Housing that it should sell two assisted living communities in Pennsylvania, which we lease from Senior Housing. We and Senior Housing are in the process of selling these assisted living communities and, upon their sale, our annual rent payable to Senior Housing will decrease by approximately 9.5% of the net proceeds of the sale.
As discussed above, in December 2007, we decided to sell one institutional pharmacy located in California and to close our mail order pharmacy located in Nebraska.
Equity and Debt Financings
In 2006, we issued 11,500,000 common shares in an underwritten public offering raising net proceeds of $114.1 million and we issued $126.5 million principal amount of Convertible Senior Notes due 2026, or the Notes. The Notes bear interest at 3.75% per annum, payable semi-annually, and will mature on October 15, 2026. We may prepay the Notes at anytime after October 20, 2011 and the Note holders may require that we purchase all or a portion of these Notes on each of October 15, 2013, 2016 and 2021. On January 20, 2009, we purchased and retired $46.5 million par value of our Notes for approximately $20.0 million plus accrued interest. We expect to report a $25.1 million gain on extinguishment of debt from this transaction in the first quarter of 2009.
OUR GROWTH STRATEGY
We believe that the aging of the United States population will increase demand for independent living properties, assisted living communities, skilled nursing facilities, pharmacies and rehabilitation services. Our principal growth strategy is to profit from this increasing demand by operating properties that provide high quality services to seniors.
We seek to improve the profitability of our existing operations by increasing revenues and improving margins. We attempt to increase revenues by increasing rates and utilization of our facilities and services. We attempt to improve margins by limiting increases in expenses and improving operating efficiencies.
In addition to managing our existing operations, we intend to continue to grow our business through acquisitions, primarily through initiation of long term leases, of independent and assisted living communities where residents' private resources account for a large majority of revenues.
Since we became a public company in late 2001, we have acquired, and continue to own or lease and operate, 158 primarily independent and assisted living communities that as of December 31, 2008 generated approximately 86.3% of their revenue from residents' private resources, rather than from Medicare or Medicaid. We prefer to acquire communities which have achieved or are close to achieving stabilized operations, although we occasionally purchase turn-around facilities where we believe we can make significant improvements in operations. We also seek to make acquisitions where we can realize cost efficiencies by adding communities to existing regional operations.
In October 2006, we began to operate two rehabilitation hospitals located in Braintree and Woburn, Massachusetts. These hospitals offer extensive inpatient and outpatient services. We may seek to acquire additional rehabilitation hospitals or expand our rehabilitation business in our current markets.
Although expansion of our free-standing skilled nursing facility business is not our primary growth strategy, we consider the inclusion of skilled nursing operations in continuing care retirement communities to be a worthwhile growth opportunity.
TYPES OF PROPERTIES
Our present business plan contemplates the ownership, leasing and management of independent living apartments or congregate care communities, assisted living communities, skilled nursing facilities and rehabilitation hospitals. Some of our properties combine more than one type of service in a single building or campus. Our business plan also includes continued operations and growth of our pharmacy and outpatient clinic rehabilitation services businesses. We operate most of our pharmacies and several of our outpatient rehabilitation clinics from leased commercial spaces.
Independent Living Apartments or Congregate Care Communities. Independent living apartments or congregate care communities provide high levels of privacy to residents and require residents to be
capable of relatively high degrees of independence. An independent living apartment usually bundles several services as part of a regular monthly charge. For example, the base charge may include one or two meals per day in a central dining room, weekly maid service or services of a social director. Additional services are generally available from staff employees on a fee for service basis. In some independent living communities, separate parts of the community are dedicated to assisted living or nursing services. As of December 31, 2008, our business included 6,304 independent living apartments in 51 communities.
Assisted Living Communities. Assisted living communities are typically comprised of one bedroom units which include private bathrooms and efficiency kitchens. Services bundled within one charge usually include three meals per day in a central dining room, daily housekeeping, laundry, medical reminders and 24 hour availability of assistance with the activities of daily living such as dressing and bathing. Professional nursing and healthcare services are usually available at the community as requested or at regularly scheduled times. As of December 31, 2008, our business included 9,682 assisted living suites in 144 communities.
Skilled Nursing Facilities. Skilled nursing facilities, or SNFs, generally provide extensive nursing and healthcare services similar to those available in hospitals, without the high costs associated with operating theaters, emergency rooms or intensive care units. A typical purpose built SNF generally includes one or two beds per room with a separate bathroom in each room and shared dining facilities. SNFs are staffed by licensed nursing professionals 24 hours per day. As of December 31, 2008, our business included 6,278 skilled nursing units in 78 communities.
Rehabilitation Hospitals. Rehabilitation hospitals, also known as inpatient rehabilitation facilities, or IRFs, provide intensive physical therapy, occupational therapy and speech language pathology services beyond the capabilities customarily available in SNFs. Patients in IRFs generally receive a minimum of three hours of rehabilitation services daily. IRFs also provide onsite pharmacy, radiology, laboratory, telemetry, hemodialysis and orthotics/prosthetics services. Outpatient satellite clinics are often included as part of the services offered by IRFs. As of December 31, 2008, our two rehabilitation hospitals had 321 beds available for inpatient services and provided services at three satellite locations. In addition, these two hospitals operate 15 affiliated outpatient clinics where patients discharged from hospitals can continue their therapy programs and receive amputee, brain injury, neurorehabilitation, cardio-pulmonary, orthopedic, spinal cord injury and stroke rehabilitation services.
Pharmacies. Institutional pharmacies provide large quantities of drugs at locations where patients with recurring pharmacy requirements are concentrated. Our institutional pharmacies included in continuing operations are located in six leased commercial spaces and one owned commercial space containing a total of approximately 90,709 square feet plus parking areas for our employees and delivery vehicles.
We have three divisional offices which are located throughout the country. Each divisional office is responsible for multiple regions and is headed by a divisional vice president with extensive experience in the senior living industry. We have several regional offices within each division. Each regional office is responsible for multiple communities and is headed by a regional director of operations with extensive experience in the senior living industry. Each regional office is typically supported by a clinical or wellness director, a rehabilitation services director, a regional accounts manager, a human resources specialist and a sales and marketing specialist. Regional staffs are responsible for all our senior living community operations within the region, including:
In addition, a fourth divisional vice president with extensive experience in the pharmacy and rehabilitation industries oversees our pharmacies and IRF businesses from our corporate office.
Our home office staff, located in Massachusetts, performs the following tasks:
As described in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, we have a shared services agreement with RMR pursuant to which RMR provides certain management and administrative services including internal audit, investor relations, tax and information technology services.
Independent and Assisted Living Community Staffing. Each of the independent and assisted living communities we operate has an executive director responsible for the day to day operations of the community, including quality of care, resident services, sales and marketing, financial performance and staff supervision. The executive director is supported by department heads, who oversee the care and service of the residents, a wellness director, who is responsible for coordinating the services necessary to meet the health care needs of our residents and a marketing director, who is responsible for selling our services. Other important staff includes the dining services coordinator, the activities coordinator and the property maintenance coordinator.
Skilled Nursing Facility Staffing. Each of our SNFs is managed by a state licensed administrator who is supported by other professional personnel, including a director of nursing, an activities director, a marketing director, a social services director, a business office manager, and physical, occupational and speech therapists. Our directors of nursing are state licensed nurses who supervise our registered nurses, licensed practical nurses and nursing assistants. Staff size and composition vary depending on the size and occupancy of each nursing home and on the type of care provided by the nursing home. Our SNFs also contract with physicians who provide certain medical services.
Rehabilitation Hospital Staffing. Each IRF is operated under the leadership of a hospital based chief executive officer with the support of senior staff, including a medical director, chief financial officer, director of patient care services, director of rehabilitation and director of case management.
The hospitals are also staffed with board certified physicians who primarily specialize in internal medicine, neurology or physiatry, as well as other licensed professionals, including rehabilitation nurses, physical therapists, occupational therapists, speech and language pathologists, nutrition counselors, neuropsycologists and pharmacists. Each outpatient clinic associated with our IRFs is managed by an outpatient director who is a registered occupational or physical therapist.
Pharmacy Operations and Staffing. Our institutional pharmacies provide prescriptions, medical supplies, equipment and services only to operators and residents of senior living communities. Each of our pharmacies is managed by an executive director, who is responsible for the day to day operations of each pharmacy, including billings, sales and marketing, financial performance, compliance with regulatory codes regarding the dispensing of controlled substances and staff supervision. Other pharmacy personnel include licensed dispensing pharmacists, a director of pharmacy consultation, a medical records director, a nurse consultant, pharmacy technicians and billing personnel.
As of February 27, 2009, we had approximately 21,062 employees, including 13,939 full time equivalents. Approximately 94 employees, including approximately 79 full time equivalents, are represented under one collective bargaining agreement, which has a remaining term of approximately one year. We have no employment agreements with our employees except for four contracts entered into with former owner operators of certain pharmacies which we acquired. We believe our relations with our union and non-union employees are good.
GOVERNMENT REGULATION AND REIMBURSEMENT
Our operations must comply with numerous federal, state and local statutes and regulations. Also, the healthcare industry depends significantly upon federal and state programs for revenues and, as a result, is vulnerable to the budgetary policies of both the federal and state governments.
Independent Living Communities. Government benefits generally are not available for services at independent living communities and the resident charges in these communities are paid from private resources. However, a number of Federal Supplemental Security Income program benefits pay housing costs for elderly or disabled residents to live in these types of residential communities. The Social Security Act requires states to certify that they will establish and enforce standards for any category of group living arrangement in which a significant number of Supplemental Security Income residents reside or are likely to reside. Categories of living arrangements which may be subject to these state standards include independent living communities and assisted living communities. Because independent living communities usually offer common dining facilities, in many locations they are required to obtain licenses applicable to food service establishments in addition to complying with land use and life safety requirements. In many states, independent living communities are licensed by state or county health departments, social service agencies or offices on aging with jurisdiction over group residential communities for seniors. To the extent that independent living communities include units in which assisted living or nursing services are provided, these units are subject to applicable state licensing regulations, and if the communities receive Medicaid or Medicare funds, to certification standards. In some states, insurance or consumer protection agencies regulate independent living communities in which residents pay entrance fees or prepay for services.
Assisted Living Communities. According to the National Center for Assisted Living and the National Academy for State Health Policy, or the National Academy, a majority of states provide or are approved to provide Medicaid payments for services to some residents in assisted living communities under waivers granted by the Federal Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, or CMS, or under Medicaid state plans. Most other states are planning some Medicaid funding by preparing state plan amendments or requesting waivers. State Medicaid programs control costs for
assisted living and other home and community-based services by various means such as restrictive financial and functional eligibility standards, enrollment limits and waiting lists. Because rates paid to assisted living community operators are generally lower than rates paid to nursing home operators, some states use Medicaid funding of assisted living as a means of lowering the cost of services for residents who may not need the higher intensity of health related services provided in SNFs. States that administer Medicaid programs for services in assisted living communities are responsible for monitoring the services at, and physical conditions of, the participating communities. Different states apply different standards in these matters, but generally we believe these monitoring processes are similar to the concerned states' inspection processes for SNFs.
As a result of the large number of states using Medicaid to purchase services at assisted living communities and the growth of assisted living in recent years, a majority of states have adopted licensing standards applicable to assisted living communities. A majority of states have licensing statutes or standards specifically using the term "assisted living" and have requirements for communities servicing people with Alzheimer's disease or dementia. The majority of states have revised their licensing regulations recently or are reviewing their policies or revising their regulations. State regulatory models vary; there is no national consensus on a definition of assisted living, and no uniform approach by the states to regulating assisted living communities. Most state licensing standards apply to assisted living communities whether or not they accept Medicaid funding. Also, according to the National Academy, a few states require certificates of need from state health planning authorities before new assisted living communities may be developed. Based on our analysis of current economic and regulatory trends, we believe that assisted living communities that become dependent upon Medicaid or other public payments for a majority of their revenues may decline in value because Medicaid rates may fail to keep up with increasing costs. We also believe that assisted living communities located in states that adopt certificate of need requirements or otherwise restrict the development of new assisted living communities may increase in value because these limitations upon development may help ensure higher occupancy and higher non-governmental rates.
The United States Department of Health and Human Services, the Government Accountability Office, or GAO, and the Senate Special Committee on Aging have recently studied and reported on the development of assisted living and its role in the continuum of long term care and as an alternative to SNFs. In 2003, the GAO recommended that CMS strengthen its oversight of state quality assurance in Medicaid home and community-based services waiver programs. Since then, CMS has commenced a series of actions to increase its oversight of state quality assurance programs for assisted living facilities and has provided guidance and technical assistance to the states to improve their ability to monitor and improve the quality of services paid for through Medicaid waiver programs. Also in 2003, a working group of assisted living providers, consumers and regulatory organizations made recommendations to the Senate Special Committee on Aging on a range of subjects, including staffing, funding and regulation of assisted living. We cannot predict whether these activities and reports will result in governmental policy changes or new legislation, or what impact any changes may have. Based upon our analysis of current economic and regulatory trends, we do not believe that the federal government is likely to have a material impact upon the current regulatory environment in which the assisted living industry operates unless it also undertakes expanded funding obligations. Although CMS is implementing provisions of the Deficit Reduction Act of 2005, or the DRA, enacted in February 2006, that encourage state Medicaid programs to expand their use of home and community based services as alternatives to institutional services, we do not believe a materially increased financial commitment from the federal government to fund assisted living is presently likely. However, we do anticipate that assisted living communities will increasingly be licensed and regulated by the various states, and that, in the absence of federal standards, the states' policies will continue to vary widely.
Skilled Nursing FacilitiesReimbursement. About 62% of all SNF revenues in the United States in 2007 (the most recent date for which information is publicly available) came from publicly funded programs, including about 42% from Medicaid programs and 18% from the Medicare program. SNFs are among the most highly regulated businesses in the country. The federal and state governments regularly monitor the quality of care provided at SNFs. State health departments conduct surveys of resident care and inspect the physical condition of nursing home properties. These periodic inspections and occasional changes in life safety and physical plant requirements sometimes require nursing home operators to make significant capital improvements. These mandated capital improvements have in the past usually resulted in Medicare and Medicaid rate adjustments, albeit on the basis of amortization of expenditures over expected useful lives of the improvements. Under the Medicare prospective payment system, or the PPS, capital costs are part of the prospective rate and are not community specific. The PPS and other recent legislative and regulatory actions with respect to state Medicaid rates are limiting the reimbursement levels for some nursing home services. At the same time, federal and state enforcement and oversight of SNFs have been increasing, making licensing and certification of these communities more rigorous.
The PPS was intended to reduce the rate of growth in Medicare payments for SNFs. Under the current Medicare payment system, SNFs receive a fixed payment for each day of care provided to residents who are Medicare beneficiaries. Each resident is assigned to a care group depending on that resident's medical characteristics and service needs. These care groups are known as Resource Utilization Groups, or RUGs. Per diem payment rates are established for each of these care groups. Medicare payments cover substantially all services provided to Medicare residents in SNFs, including ancillary services such as rehabilitation therapies. The PPS is intended to provide incentives to providers to furnish only necessary services and to deliver those services efficiently. According to the GAO, between fiscal year 1998 and fiscal year 1999, the first full year of the changed Medicare payment system phase in, the average Medicare payment per day declined by about 9%.
From November 1999 to January 2006, Congress and CMS provided some periodic relief from the effect of the PPS, through temporary increases in SNF payment rates and temporary moratoria on some therapy limitations for skilled nursing residents covered under Medicare Part B. Effective January 1, 2006, CMS implemented changes to the payment categories it uses to set daily payment rates for Medicare beneficiaries in SNFs. CMS introduced nine new payment categories for medically complex patients, increasing the number of categories from 44 to 53, and made revisions to its payment rates for current RUG. Also effective January 1, 2006, these RUG changes caused the elimination of certain temporary additional payments for certain skilled nursing care and rehabilitation groups. The financial impact of these changes to the Medicare rates on our operations was to effectively eliminate an October 2005 Medicare 3% rate increase; but then in October 2006 and again in October 2007 and October 2008, the Medicare rates were increased by approximately 3%, under a rule adding an annual update to account for inflation in the costs of goods and services included in a SNF stay. CMS had proposed a recalibration of the payment categories for SNFs, which would have resulted in a net reduction of rates by approximately 0.3% in federal fiscal year 2009, but delayed the recalibration in order to continue to evaluate the data.
Under the DRA, the federal government is slowing the growth of Medicare and Medicaid payments for nursing home services by several methods. Medicare bad debt reimbursement has been reduced from 100% to 70% for uncollected cost sharing payments from Medicare beneficiaries who are not eligible for Medicaid. Limits on Medicare payments were also implemented for outpatient therapies in 2006, with an exception process, under which beneficiaries could request an exemption from the cap and be granted the amount of services deemed medically necessary by Medicare. The exemption process has been extended under subsequent laws, and on July 15, 2008, as part of the Medicare Improvements for Patients and Providers Act of 2008, Congress enacted an 18-month extension of the Medicare outpatient therapy exception process through the end of 2009 under which Medicare may approve payments for medically necessary outpatient therapies which exceed the Medicare payment
caps. This law may forestall a reduction in certain therapy revenues we have historically realized. In addition, the DRA increased the "look-back" period for prohibited asset transfers that disqualify individuals from Medicaid nursing home benefits from three to five years. The period of Medicaid ineligibility begins on the date of the prohibited transfer or the date an individual has entered the nursing home and would otherwise be eligible for Medicaid coverage, whichever occurs later, rather than on the date of the prohibited transfer, effectively extending the Medicaid penalty period and placing added burdens on SNFs to collect charges directly from residents and their transferees. The DRA includes a demonstration project that in 2007 awarded competitive grants to a majority of states to provide home and community based long term care services to qualified individuals relocated from SNFs, providing an increased federal medical assistance percentage for 12 months for each qualifying beneficiary, during a grant period of at least two years. The DRA also includes a post acute payment reform demonstration program that will compare and assess costs and outcomes of services at different long term care sites over three years. Effective January 1, 2007, states may include home and community based services as optional services under their Medicaid state plans, rather than only pursuant to waivers or demonstration projects, and such states may cap enrollment, maintain waiting lists and offer the services in only some regions of a state, as they may with waivers. These initiatives will likely decrease the demand for nursing home services and nursing home occupancy levels, which declined slightly from 2000 through 2007, may continue to decline.
Skilled Nursing FacilitiesSurvey and Enforcement. Twenty years ago, Congress enacted major reforms to federal and state regulatory systems for SNFs that participate in the Medicare and Medicaid programs, under the Omnibus Reconciliation Act of 1987. Since then, the GAO reports that, while much progress has been made, substantial problems remain in the effectiveness of federal and state regulatory activities. In July 1998, the GAO issued a report which found inadequate care in a significant portion of California SNFs. Since 1999, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Inspector General has issued several reports concerning quality of care in SNFs and the GAO has issued several reports, most recently in 2008, recommending that CMS and the states strengthen their compliance and enforcement practices, including federal oversight of state actions, to better ensure that SNFs provide adequate care and states act more consistently. The Senate Special Committee on Aging and other congressional committees have also held hearings on these issues, most recently in 2008. As a result, CMS has undertaken an initiative to increase the effectiveness of Medicare and Medicaid nursing home survey and enforcement activities. CMS is taking steps to focus more survey and enforcement efforts on SNFs with findings of substandard care or repeat violations of Medicare and Medicaid standards and to identify chain operated communities with patterns of noncompliance. CMS is increasing its oversight of state survey agencies and requiring state agencies to use enforcement sanctions and remedies more promptly when substandard care or repeat violations are identified, to investigate complaints more promptly, and to survey communities more consistently. In addition, CMS adopted regulations expanding federal and state authority to impose civil monetary penalties in instances of noncompliance. A small number of SNFs with a history of serious quality problems, designated by CMS as "special focus facilities," or SFFs, are inspected more frequently and subject to more stringent enforcement actions. Homes in the SFF initiative for six months or longer are now listed on the Medicare website at www.medicare.gov. The GAO has recommended several steps to make enforcement by CMS and the states more timely and effective, especially for SFFs. Medicare survey results, including fire safety reports and average nursing and nursing assistant staff hours per resident for each nursing home are posted on the Medicare website at www.medicare.gov. CMS issued a rule in August 2008 that requires older SNFs to install sprinkler systems within five years, by August 13, 2013. SNFs that do not have sprinklers or hard-wired smoke detectors are required to install battery powered smoke detectors in the interim. Currently all of our SNFs except one have sprinklers and we believe the one nursing home without sprinklers is in compliance with the current requirements because it has a combination of hard wired and battery operated smoke detectors. When deficiencies under state licensing and Medicare and Medicaid standards are identified, sanctions and remedies such as denials of payment for new Medicare and Medicaid admissions, civil monetary penalties, state
oversight and loss of Medicare and Medicaid participation or licensure may be imposed on nursing home operators. Our communities incur sanctions and penalties from time to time. If we are unable to cure deficiencies which have been identified or that are identified in the future, or if appeals of proposed sanctions or penalties are not successful, additional sanctions or penalties may be imposed, and if imposed, may adversely affect our ability to meet our financial obligations and negatively affect our financial condition and results of operations. CMS has recently added a five-star quality rating system to the information concerning SNFs that it provides to consumers on its website. Ratings are from one to five stars, based on three factors that are separately rated health inspections from the last three years, the average number of hours of daily care provided to each resident by nursing staff, including nursing assistants, and selected physical and clinical measures related to quality of care.
In 2000 and 2002, the Department of Health and Human Services and CMS issued reports linking nursing staffing levels with quality of care. CMS has indicated that it does not intend to impose minimum staffing levels or to increase Medicare or Medicaid rates to cover the costs of increased staffing at this time; however, CMS publishes the nurse and nursing assistant staffing level at each nursing home on the internet at www.medicare.gov to create market pressure to improve nursing home operations.
Rehabilitation Hospital Regulation and Rate Setting. Our two IRFs are subject to federal, state and local regulation that affects their business activities and determines the rates they receive for services. These IRFs are subject to periodic inspection by governmental and non-governmental agencies to ensure continued compliance with various licensure and accreditation standards. In addition, these facilities are certified by CMS to participate in the Medicare program and receive a significant portion of their revenues from that program.
On May 7, 2004, CMS issued a rule establishing revised Medicare standards that IRFs are required to meet in order to participate as IRFs in the Medicare program, known as the "75% Rule." An IRF that failed to meet the requirements of the 75% Rule would be subject to reclassification as a different type of healthcare provider and the effect of such reclassification would be to lower Medicare payment rates. Under the Medicare, Medicaid and SCHIP Extension Act of 2007, adopted in December 2007, for cost reporting periods starting on or after July 1, 2007, the 75% requirement for IRFs was permanently rolled back to 60%, and selected secondary medical conditions are included to qualify patients under the 60% requirement. The rule now generally provides that, to be considered an IRF and receive reimbursement for services under the IRF prospective payment system, at least 60% of a facility's total inpatient population must require intensive rehabilitation services associated with treatment of at least one of 13 designated medical conditions. Under the 75% Rule, to maintain their revenue levels many rehabilitation hospitals have needed to reduce the number of non-qualifying patients treated and replace them with qualifying patients, establish other sources of revenues or both. Before the 2007 amendment, the 75% Rule was being phased in over a four year period that began on July 1, 2004. For cost reporting periods starting on and after July 1, 2006, 60% of a facility's inpatient population must have required intensive rehabilitation services for one of CMS' designated medical conditions. For cost reporting periods starting on and after July 1, 2007, the requirement was 65%, and for cost reporting periods starting on and after July 1, 2008, the requirement was 75%. As a result of the rollback amendment, the requirement is now 60% for these and future cost reporting periods. Congress has directed the Secretary of Health and Human Services to report to it by June 2009 on Medicare beneficiaries' access to medically necessary rehabilitation services, the potential effect of the 75% Rule and alternatives or refinements, and any variation in patient outcomes and costs across settings of care. We believe our hospitals have been and are operating in compliance with this rule and we are taking actions to assure continued compliance; however, we can provide no assurance that we will be able to continue to comply with this rule, or that CMS will not make a determination that we were non-compliant in a prior year. Also pursuant to the Medicare, Medicaid and SCHIP Extension Act of 2007, the annual inflation increase factor for Medicare payment rates for IRFs is set at zero percent for each of federal fiscal years 2008 and 2009, except for payment units occurring before
April 1, 2008. Our Medicare inflation increase factor for federal fiscal year 2008 was set at approximately 3.5% effective October 1, 2007, and our rates were reduced by 3.2% effective as of April 1, 2008. On July 1, 2008 CMS issued a rule updating the Medicare IRF prospective rate formulas for the federal fiscal year ending September 30, 2009. The rule recalculates the weights assigned to patient case-mix groups that are used to calculate rates under the IRF prospective payment system, and re-sets the outlier threshold to maintain estimated outlier payments at 3% of total estimated IRF payments for fiscal year 2009. CMS has estimated that the changes contained in the rule will result in a decrease of 0.7% to total Medicare payments to IRFs for federal fiscal year 2009. Although the effects of the rate freeze and the recalibration are counterbalanced by the reduction of the prior law's 65% and 75% minimum percentage requirements to 60% under current law, these changes are affecting the profitability of our rehabilitation operations.
Certificates of Need. Most states limit the number of SNFs and hospitals by requiring developers to obtain certificates of need before new communities may be built and a few states also limit the number of assisted living facilities by requiring certificates of need. Also, states such as California and Texas that have eliminated certificate of need laws often have retained other means of limiting new development, such as the use of moratoria, licensing laws or limitations upon participation in the state Medicaid program. We believe that these governmental limitations may make existing SNFs and hospitals more valuable by limiting competition.
Other Matters. Federal and state efforts to target false claims, fraud and abuse and violations of anti-kickback, physician referral and privacy laws by Medicare and Medicaid providers and providers under other public and private programs have also increased with civil monetary penalties, repayment requirements and criminal sanctions for noncompliance. In March 2000, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office of Inspector General, or OIG, issued compliance guidelines for SNFs to assist them in developing voluntary compliance programs to prevent fraud and abuse. The OIG issued supplemental guidance on September 30, 2008. The OIG issued compliance program guidance for hospitals in 1998 and supplemental guidance in 2005. CMS contractors are expanding the retroactive audits of Medicare claims submitted by IRFs, SNFs and other providers, and recouping alleged overpayments for services determined by auditors not to have been medically necessary or not to meet Medicare coverage criteria as billed. State Medicaid programs and other third party payors are conducting similar medical necessity and compliance audits. Under the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, or HIPAA, rules governing the privacy, use and disclosure of individually identified health information took effect in 2003, and compliance with security rules for electronic personal health information was required by April 20, 2005 with civil monetary penalties and criminal sanctions for noncompliance. Compliance with expanded HIPPA privacy and security requirements recently enacted by Congress will be required in February 2010, and compliance with updated standards for electronic healthcare transactions and pharmacy transactions will be required on January 1, 2012. Any adverse determination concerning any of our licenses or eligibility for Medicare or Medicaid reimbursement or any substantial penalties, repayments or sanctions, and the increasing costs of required compliance with applicable federal and state laws, could adversely affect our ability to meet our financial obligations and negatively affect our financial condition and results of operations.
Under the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement and Modernization Act of 2003, effective January 1, 2006, Medicare beneficiaries may receive prescription drug benefits by enrolling in private health plans or managed care organizations, or if they remain in traditional Medicare, by enrolling in stand alone prescription drug plans. As a result of the implementation of the Medicare Part D drug program in 2006, the government's share of prescription drug expenditures has risen substantially from 28% in 2005 to 36% in 2007 (the most recent date for which this information is publicly available). Of the government funds spent for prescription drugs, Medicare's share was 7% in 2005 and 58% in 2007, while Medicaid's share was 68% in 2005 and 23% in 2007. As of January 2008, approximately 90% of Medicare beneficiaries had Medicare Part D drug coverage, according to the US Department of Health and Human Services. Due to Medicare's growing share of total prescription drug expenditures and
increasing budget pressures on state and federal governments, we believe that government actions to control drug costs are likely to increase, reducing the profitability of providing pharmacy products and services.
A number of legislative proposals that would affect major reforms of the healthcare system have been introduced in Congress and are being considered by some state governments, such as programs for national health insurance, the option of block grants for states rather than federal matching money for certain state Medicaid services, additional policies encouraging state Medicaid programs to use home and community based long term care services rather than SNFs, laws authorizing or directing Medicare to negotiate rate reductions for prescription drugs, additional Medicare and Medicaid enforcement procedures and federal and state cost containment measures, such as freezing Medicare or Medicaid nursing home and rehabilitation hospital payment rates at their current levels and reducing or eliminating annual Medicare or Medicaid inflation allowances or gradually reducing rates for SNFs and rehabilitation hospitals. The current recession and worsening economic conditions are causing budget shortfalls in most states, increasing the likelihood of Medicaid rate reductions, freezes or increases that are insufficient to offset increasing operating costs. Pursuant to the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, adopted February 17, 2009, federal payments to states for Medicaid programs will be temporarily increased retroactively from October 1, 2008 through December 31, 2010, with greater increases for states with more unemployment. Payments to states for Medicaid expenditures on hospitals, SNFs and other specified providers will be conditioned on states paying those providers within 90 days. However, most states project continuing fiscal deficits. The magnitude of the potential Medicare and Medicaid rate reductions and the impact of the failure of these programs to increase rates to match increasing expenses, as well as the impact on us of potential Medicare and Medicaid policy changes proposed by members of Congress, cannot currently be estimated, but they may be material to our operations and may affect our future results of operations.
Litigation against senior living and healthcare companies has increased during the past few years. As a result, liability insurance costs have risen. Also, our insurance costs for workers compensation and employee healthcare have increased. To partially offset these insurance cost increases, we have taken a number of actions including the following:
We self insure up to certain limits for workers compensation and professional liability. Claims in excess of these limits are insured with third party insurance providers up to contractual limits, over which we are self insured. Our current insurance arrangements are generally renewable in June 2009. We do not know if our insurance charges and self insurance reserve requirements will increase, and we cannot now predict the amount of any such increase, or to what extent, if at all, we may be able to offset any increase through use of higher deductibles, retention amounts, self insurance or other means in the future. In order to obtain more control over our insurance costs, we and other companies to which RMR provides management services have recently organized a new insurance company which may begin to underwrite certain of our insurance requirements. For more information about this insurance initiative see Item 9B of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
The senior living services, pharmacy and the rehabilitation hospital businesses are highly competitive. We compete with service providers offering alternate types of services, such as home healthcare services, as well as other companies providing facility based services and rehabilitation services. We may expand our business with Senior Housing and our relationships with Senior Housing and RMR may provide us with competitive advantages. However, Senior Housing is not obligated to provide us with opportunities to lease additional properties. We have large lease obligations and limited financeable assets. Many of our competitors have greater financial resources than we do. Some of our competitors are operated by not for profit entities which have endowment income and may not have the same financial pressures that we experience. For all of these reasons and others, we cannot provide any assurance that we will be able to compete successfully for business.
Under various federal, state and local laws, owners as well as tenants and operators of real estate may be required to investigate and clean up hazardous substances released or otherwise present at a property, and may be held liable to a governmental entity or to third parties for property damage or personal injuries and for investigation and clean up costs incurred in connection with any such hazardous substances. Under our leases with Senior Housing, we have also agreed to indemnify Senior Housing for any such liabilities related to the properties we lease from Senior Housing. In addition, some environmental laws create a lien on a contaminated site in favor of the government for damages and costs it incurs in connection with the contamination, which lien may be senior in priority to our debt obligations or our leases. We have reviewed environmental surveys of all of our leased and owned communities. Based upon that review we do not believe that any of these properties are subject to any material environmental contamination. However, no assurances can be given that a prior owner, operator or occupant of our communities did not create a material environmental condition not known to us which might have been revealed by a more in depth study of the properties or that future uses or conditions (including, without limitation, changes in applicable environmental laws and regulations) will not result in the imposition of environmental liability upon us. The presence or discovery of any material environmental contaminants at our communities could have a material adverse impact on us.
Our internet website address is www.fivestarqualitycare.com. Copies of our governance guidelines, code of business conduct and ethics and the charters of our audit, quality of care, compensation and nominating and governance committees are posted on our website and may be obtained free of charge by writing to our Secretary, Five Star Quality Care, Inc., 400 Centre Street, Newton, MA 02458 or at our website. We make available, free of charge, on our website, our Annual Reports on Form 10-K, our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, our Current Reports on Form 8-K and amendments to these reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, as soon as reasonably practicable after these forms are filed with, or
furnished to, the Securities and Exchange Commission. Any shareholder or other interested party who desires to communicate with our Independent Directors, individually or as a group, may do so by filling out a report on our website. Our board also provides a process for our security holders to send communications to the entire board. Information about the process for sending communications to our board can be found on our website. Our website address and website addresses of one or more unrelated third parties are included several times in this Annual Report on Form 10-K as textual references only and none of the information on any such websites is incorporated by reference into this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Our business faces many risks. The risks described below may not be the only risks we face. Additional risks that we do not yet know of, or that we currently think are immaterial, may also impair our business operations or financial results. If any of the events or circumstances described in the following risks occurs, our business, financial condition or results of operations could suffer and the trading price of our debt or equity securities could decline. Investors and prospective investors should consider the following risks and the information contained under the heading "Warning Concerning Forward Looking Statements" before deciding whether to invest in our securities.
RISKS RELATED TO OUR BUSINESS
A small percentage decline in our revenues or increase in our expenses could have a material negative impact upon our operating results.
For the year ended December 31, 2008, our revenues were $1.10 billion and our operating expenses were $1.09 billion. A small percentage decline in our revenues or increase in our expenses could have a material negative impact upon our operating results.
Our investments in securities have experienced significant losses and we may be unable to access the capital necessary to repay debts or to grow.
We are currently funding our operations and growth strategy through a combination of cash generated from operations, cash on hand, expanded leases with Senior Housing and borrowings. Our business and growth strategies depend, in part, upon our ability to raise additional capital at reasonable cost to repay debts or fund new investments. This ability and cost, in turn, is subject to credit market volatility. We are currently experiencing a global liquidity crisis in the debt and equity capital markets which has had, and may continue to have, at least four consequences to us:
our ARS totaling approximately $12.0 million. Because of our settlement agreement with UBS, substantially all of these recorded losses were recaptured in the fourth quarter of 2008 through the value of our right to require UBS to repurchase our ARS beginning in 2010. However, if we determine that UBS may be unable to honor its obligations to repurchase our ARS, or if, in fact, UBS does not repurchase these ARS, we may record additional net losses to reflect the market value of our put right.
Circumstances that adversely affect the ability of seniors, or their families, to pay for our services could have a material adverse effect on us.
Our residents paid approximately 68% of our senior living revenues during the year ended December 31, 2008 from their private resources. We expect to continue to rely on the ability of our residents to pay for our services from their own financial resources. Inflation, a devalued stock market, rising unemployment, or other circumstances that adversely affect the ability of the elderly or their families to pay for our services could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Seniors' inability to sell real estate may delay their moving into senior living facilities.
Recent and continuing housing price declines and reduced home mortgage availability have negatively affected the United States housing market. Many economists now predict a prolonged period with little or no improvement in housing markets. These current difficulties may have a negative effect on our revenues or lead to increased reliance on Medicare and Medicaid for our revenues. Specifically, if seniors have a difficult time selling their homes, fewer seniors may be able to relocate into our senior living communities or finance their stays at our facilities with private resources.
The failure of Medicare and Medicaid rates to match our costs will reduce our income.
Some of our current operations, especially our SNFs, IRFs and pharmacy operations, receive significant revenues from the Medicare and Medicaid programs. During the year ended December 31, 2008, we received approximately 32% of our senior living revenues, 63% of our hospital revenues and 50% of our pharmacy revenues from these programs. CMS and some members of Congress have proposed Medicare and Medicaid policy changes and rate reductions to be phased in during the next
several years. In addition, some of the states in which we operate either have not raised Medicaid rates by amounts sufficient to offset increasing costs or are expected to freeze or reduce Medicaid rates. The current recession and worsening economic conditions are causing budget shortfalls in most states, increasing the likelihood of Medicaid rate reductions, freezes or increases that are insufficient to offset increasing operating costs. The magnitude of the potential Medicare and Medicaid rate reductions, the impact of the failure of these programs to increase rates to match increasing expenses and the impact on us of potential Medicare and Medicaid policy changes proposed by members of Congress, cannot currently be estimated, but they may be material to our operations and may affect our future results of operations. Also, for discharges on and after April 1, 2008, Medicare increases to IRF rates for inflation are set at zero percent for federal fiscal years 2008 and 2009, and IRF prospective payment formulas have been recalibrated for fiscal year 2009, which could affect the profitability of our rehabilitation operations. We cannot now predict whether future Medicare and Medicaid rates will be sufficient to cover our future cost increases. Future Medicare and Medicaid rate declines or a failure of these rates to cover increasing costs could result in our experiencing lower earnings or losses.
Our rehabilitation hospitals may be subject to Medicare reclassifications resulting in lower Medicare rates, or to retroactive repayments.
A significant amount of the revenues at our rehabilitation hospitals is paid by the Medicare program. For cost reporting periods starting on and after July 1, 2006, 60% of an IRF's total inpatient population must require intensive rehabilitation services associated with treatment of at least one of 13 designated medical conditions. While we believe we are in compliance with the 60% requirement, and we expect to remain in compliance with this rule, we may not be able to remain in compliance, or CMS could determine that we were non-compliant in a prior year. Such an event would result in these hospitals being subject to Medicare reclassification to a different type of provider and our receiving lower Medicare payment rates retroactively or prospectively. Reductions in our Medicare payments as a result of the reclassification of our rehabilitation hospitals would materially and adversely affect our financial conditions and results of operations. Also, retroactive audits of Medicare claims submitted by IRFs and other providers are expanding, and CMS is recouping amounts paid for services determined by auditors not to have been medically necessary or not to meet Medicare criteria for coverage as billed. If our hospitals or clinics were required to make substantial retroactive repayments to Medicare, our earnings may be adversely affected.
Private third party payors continue to try to reduce health care costs.
Private third party payors are continuing their efforts to control health care costs through direct contracts with health care providers, increased utilization review and greater enrollment in managed care programs and preferred provider organizations. These third party payors increasingly are demanding discounted fee structures and the assumption by health care providers of all or a portion of the financial risk. We could be adversely affected by the continuing efforts of third party payors to limit the amount of reimbursement we receive for health care services. Reimbursement payments under third party payor programs may not remain at levels comparable to present levels or be sufficient to cover the costs allocable to patients eligible for reimbursement pursuant to such programs. Future changes in the reimbursement rates or methods of third-party payors, including Medicare, Medicaid and other government programs, or the implementation of other measures to reduce reimbursement for our services could result in a substantial reduction in our net operating revenues. Finally, as a result of competitive pressures, our ability to maintain operating margins through price increases to private patients may be limited.
Increases in our labor costs may have a material adverse effect on us.
Wages and employee benefits for the Company as a whole, represented approximately 53% of our 2008 total operating costs. We compete with other operators of senior living communities and
rehabilitation hospitals with respect to attracting and retaining qualified personnel responsible for the day to day operations of each of our communities. The market for qualified nurses, therapists and other healthcare professionals is highly competitive. A shortage of nurses or other trained personnel may require us to increase the wages and benefits offered to our employees in order to attract and retain these personnel or to hire more expensive temporary personnel. Also, we may have to compete for lesser skilled workers with numerous other employers. Further, when we acquire new facilities, we may be required to pay increased compensation or offer other incentives to retain key personnel and other employees. Employee benefits costs, including employee health insurance and workers' compensation insurance costs, have materially increased in recent years. To help control these costs, we partially self insure our workers compensation insurance and fully self insure our employee health insurance. Although we have determined our self insurance reserves with guidance from third party professionals, our reserves may be inadequate. Increasing employee health and workers' compensation insurance costs and increasing self insurance reserves for labor related insurance may materially negatively affect our earnings. No assurance can be given that our labor costs will not increase or that any increase will be matched by corresponding increases in rates charged to residents. Any significant failure by us to control our labor costs or to pass on any increased labor costs to residents through rate increases could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Successful union organization could adversely affect our business performance and results of operations.
From time to time labor unions attempt to organize our employees. Certain of our employees have already chosen union representation and are represented under one collective bargaining agreement, which has a remaining term of approximately one year. If federal legislation modifies the labor laws to make it much easier for employee groups to unionize, then additional groups of employees may seek union representation. If more of our employees unionize it could result in business interruptions, work stoppages, the degradation of service levels at our senior living communities and rehabilitation hospitals due to work rules, or increased operating expenses that may adversely affect our financial results of operations.
Our business is subject to extensive regulation which increases our costs and may result in losses.
Licensing and Medicare and Medicaid laws require operators of senior living communities, rehabilitation hospitals, clinics, and pharmacies to comply with extensive standards governing operations. There are also various federal and state laws prohibiting fraud and abuse by senior living and rehabilitation hospital and clinic operators and pharmacy providers, including civil and criminal laws that prohibit false claims for Medicare and Medicaid coverage and that regulate patient referrals. In recent years, federal and state governments have devoted increased resources to monitor the quality of care at senior living communities and to anti-fraud investigations. CMS contractors are expanding the retroactive audits of Medicare claims submitted by IRFs, SNFs and other providers, and recouping alleged overpayments for services determined by auditors not to have been medically necessary or not to meet Medicare coverage criteria as billed. State Medicaid programs and other third party payors are conducting similar medical necessity and compliance audits. When quality of care deficiencies are identified or improper billing is uncovered, various remedies or sanctions may be imposed, including denial of new admissions, exclusion from Medicare or Medicaid program participation, monetary penalties, restitution of overpayments, governmental oversight, loss of licensure and criminal penalties. Our communities incur sanctions and penalties from time to time. As a result of this extensive regulatory system and increasing enforcement initiatives, we have experienced increased costs for monitoring quality of care compliance and billing procedures, and we expect these costs may continue to increase. Also, if we become subject to additional regulatory sanctions or repayment obligations at any of our existing facilities, or as a result of purchasing facilities with prior deficiencies which we are
unable to correct or resolve, our business may be adversely affected and we might experience financial losses.
The nature of our business exposes us to litigation risks.
The nature of our business exposes us to litigation, and we are subject to lawsuits in the ordinary course of our business. In several well publicized instances, private litigation by residents of senior living communities for alleged abuses has resulted in large damage awards against other operating companies. Today, some lawyers and law firms specialize in bringing litigation against senior living companies. As a result of this litigation and potential litigation, our cost of liability insurance has increased during the past few years. Medical liability insurance reform has become a topic of political debate and some states have enacted legislation to limit future liability awards. However, if such reforms are not generally adopted, we expect our insurance costs may continue to increase. To reduce costs, we self insure a significant amount of our litigation liability risks. Although our reserves for liability self insurance have been determined with guidance from third party professionals, our reserves may prove inadequate. Increasing liability insurance costs and increasing self insurance reserves may materially negatively affect our results of operations or make those results less consistent.
Our growth strategy may not succeed.
Since our spin off from Senior Housing on December 31, 2001, we have grown rapidly through acquisitions. Our business plan includes acquiring additional senior living communities and possibly additional pharmacies and rehabilitation hospitals. Our growth strategy involves risks, including the following:
For these reasons and others:
When we acquire new communities, we sometimes see a decline in community occupancy and it may take a period of time for us to stabilize acquired community operations. Our efforts to restore occupancy or stabilize acquired communities' operations may not be successful. In addition, rehabilitation hospitals and pharmacies are businesses with which we have limited experience, and our initiatives in these areas may not be successful.
We continue to seek acquisitions and other strategic opportunities that may require a significant amount of management resources and costs.
We continue to seek acquisitions and other strategic opportunities. Accordingly, we are often engaged in evaluating potential transactions and other strategic alternatives. In addition, from time to time, we engage in preliminary discussions that may result in one or more transactions. Although there is uncertainty that any of these discussions will result in definitive agreements or the completion of any transaction, we may devote a significant amount of our management resources to such transactions, which could negatively impact our operations. In addition, we may incur significant costs in connection with seeking acquisitions regardless of whether the acquisition is completed.
Failure to comply with laws governing the privacy and security of personal health information could materially and adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.
We are required to comply with federal and state laws governing the privacy, security, use and disclosure of individually identifiable health information. Under the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, or HIPAA, we are required to comply with the HIPAA privacy rule, security standards, and standards for electronic health care transactions. State laws also govern the privacy of individual health information, and state privacy rights rules may be more stringent. If we fail to comply with applicable federal or state standards, we could be subject to civil sanctions and criminal penalties, which could materially and adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.
Termination of assisted living resident agreements and resident attrition could adversely affect our revenues and earnings.
State regulations governing assisted living facilities typically require a written resident agreement with each resident. Most of these regulations also require that each resident have the right to terminate our assisted living resident agreement for any reason on reasonable notice. Consistent with these regulations, most resident agreements allow residents to terminate their agreements on 30 days' notice. Thus, we cannot contract with assisted living residents to stay for longer periods of time, unlike typical apartment leasing arrangements that involve lease agreements with terms of up to a year or longer. If a large number of residents elected to terminate their resident agreements at or around the same time, our revenues and earnings could be materially and adversely affected. In addition, the advanced age of our average senior living resident means that the resident turnover rate in our senior living communities may be difficult to predict.
Our business requires us to make significant capital expenditures to maintain and improve our facilities.
Our communities sometimes require significant expenditures to address ongoing required maintenance and to make them attractive to residents. Physical characteristics of senior living communities and rehabilitation hospitals are mandated by various governmental authorities; changes in these regulations may require us to make significant expenditures. In addition, we often are required to make significant capital expenditures when we acquire new facilities. Our available financial resources may be insufficient to fund these expenditures. In addition to capital expenditures we are making at some of our senior living communities, we expect to make certain capital expenditures at the rehabilitation hospitals. Senior Housing has historically provided most of the capital we need to improve the properties we lease from them. However, whenever Senior Housing provides such capital, our rent increases and we may be unable to pay the increased rent without experiencing losses.
Our business is highly competitive and we may be unable to operate profitably.
We compete with numerous other companies that provide senior living, rehabilitation hospital and pharmacy services, including home healthcare companies and other real estate based service providers. Although some states require certificates of need to develop new SNFs there are fewer barriers to competition for home healthcare or for independent and assisted living services. Many of our existing competitors are larger and have greater financial resources than us. Some of our competitors are not for profit entities which have endowment income and may not have the same financial pressures that we face. We cannot provide any assurances that we will be able to attract a sufficient number of residents to our communities or that we will be able to attract employees and keep wages and other employee benefits, insurance costs and other operating expenses at levels which will allow us to compete successfully or to operate profitably.
We are subject to possible conflicts of interest; we have engaged in, and expect to continue to engage in, transactions with parties who may be considered related parties.
Our business is subject to possible conflicts of interest as follows:
On December 31, 2001, Senior Housing distributed substantially all of its ownership of our shares to its shareholders. Simultaneously with the spin off, we entered into agreements with Senior Housing and RMR which, among other things, limit ownership of more than 9.8% of our voting shares, restrict our ability to take any action that could jeopardize the tax status of Senior Housing as a real estate
investment trust and limit our ability to acquire real estate of types which are owned by Senior Housing or other businesses managed by RMR. As a result of these agreements, our leases with Senior Housing and our shared services agreement with RMR, Senior Housing, RMR and their respective affiliates have significant roles in our business and we do not anticipate any changes to those roles in the future.
We believe our affiliations with Senior Housing and RMR have been and will be beneficial to us. Although we do not believe the potential conflicts have adversely affected, or will adversely affect, our business, not everyone may agree with our position. In the past, in particular following periods of volatility in the overall market and the market price of a company's securities, shareholder litigation, dissident director nominations and dissident proposals have often been instituted against companies alleging conflicts of interest in business dealings with directors, related persons and entities. Our relationships with Senior Housing, RMR, with Messrs. Portnoy and Martin and with RMR related persons may precipitate such activities. These activities, if instituted against us, could result in substantial costs and a diversion of our management's attention and resources.
Our leases of certain of our senior living communities are subordinated to mortgage debt of Senior Housing, and a default by Senior Housing could result in the termination of those leases.
Our leases with Senior Housing for 28 of our senior living communities, which had 2008 revenues totaling $38.7 million, are subordinated to mortgage financing secured by such communities. As a result, in the event Senior Housing were to default on such mortgage financing, by reason of our default under our leases or for reasons unrelated to us or beyond our control, and its lender were to foreclose on such properties, our leases would terminate as a matter of law. While we may be able to enter into new leases with the lenders or the purchaser or purchasers of such properties, or they may elect to continue our occupancy under the terms of the lease as if there had been no foreclosure, such parties are not obligated to elect either option, and even if we are able to retain possession, the terms of our continued occupancy may not be as favorable to us as those contained in our leases with Senior Housing. If we do not enter into new leases of such communities following a foreclosure, we would lose the right to continue to operate these facilities and may incur material obligations to residents, employees and other parties as a result of such loss, each of which could have a material and adverse effect on our results of operations.
RISKS RELATED TO OUR ORGANIZATION AND STRUCTURE
Ownership limitations and anti-takeover provisions in our governing documents, bylaws and in our material agreements, as well as certain provision of Maryland law, may prevent shareholders from implementing change of control or prevent our shareholders from receiving a takeover premium for their shares.
Our charter places restrictions on the ability of any person or group to acquire beneficial ownership of more than 9.8% (in number of shares or value, whichever is more restrictive) of any class of our equity securities. The terms of our leases with Senior Housing and our shared services agreement with RMR provide that our rights under these agreements may be cancelled by Senior Housing and RMR, respectively, upon the acquisition by any person or group of more than 9.8% of our voting stock, and upon other change in control events, as defined in those documents including, in certain of the Senior Housing leases, the adoption of any proposal or the election to our board of directors of any individual if such proposal or individual was not approved, nominated or appointed, as the case may be, by vote of a majority of our directors in office immediately prior to the making of such proposal or the nomination or appointment of such individual. If the breach of these ownership limitations causes a lease default, shareholders causing the default may become liable to us or to other shareholders for damages. Additionally, on March 10, 2004, we entered into a rights agreement whereby in the event a person or group of persons acquires or attempts to acquire 10% or more of our outstanding common shares, our shareholders, other than such person or group, will be entitled to
purchase additional shares or other securities or property at a discount. In addition, a termination of our shared services agreement is a default under our credit facility unless approved by our lender. These agreements and other provisions in our charter and bylaws may increase the difficulty of acquiring control of us by means of a tender offer, open market purchases, a proxy fight or otherwise, if the acquisition is not approved by our board of directors. Other provisions in our governing documents which may deter takeover proposals include the following:
For all of these reasons, shareholders may be unable to cause a change of control of us or to realize a change of control premium for their securities.
Our rights and the rights of our shareholders to take action against our directors and officers are limited.
Our charter limits the liability of our directors and officers to us and our shareholders for money damages to the maximum extent permitted under Maryland law. Under current Maryland law, our directors and officers will not have any liability to us and our shareholders for money damages other than liability resulting from:
Our charter authorizes us to indemnify our directors and officers for actions taken by them in those capacities to the maximum extent permitted by Maryland law. Our charter requires us to indemnify each director or officer, to the maximum extent permitted by Maryland law, from and against any claim or liability to which such person may become subject or which such person may incur by reason of his status as our director or officer. However, except with respect to proceedings to enforce rights to indemnification, we will indemnify any person referenced in the previous sentence in connection with a proceeding initiated by such person against our company only if such proceeding is authorized by our board of directors. In addition, we may be obligated to pay or reimburse the expenses incurred by our directors and officers without requiring a preliminary determination of their ultimate entitlement to indemnification. As a result, we and our shareholders may have more limited rights against our directors and officers than might otherwise exist absent the current provisions in our charter or that might exist with other companies, which could limit your recourse in the event of actions not in your best interest.
RISKS RELATED TO OUR NOTES AND COMMON SHARES
The Notes we issued in October 2006 will be effectively subordinated to the debts of our subsidiaries and to our secured debt.
The Notes we issued in October 2006 are issued by our parent company and guaranteed by certain of our subsidiaries. We are a holding company and conduct substantially all of our operations through subsidiaries. Consequently, our ability to pay debt service on the Notes will be dependent upon the cash flow of our subsidiaries and payments by those subsidiaries to us as dividends or otherwise. Our subsidiaries are separate legal entities and have their own liabilities. Certain of our subsidiaries guarantee our obligations under the Notes and those subsidiaries and additional subsidiaries guarantee our obligations under our revolving credit facility. In addition, as of December 31, 2008, our non-guarantor subsidiaries had approximately $12.6 million of secured indebtedness outstanding, and we may add additional secured indebtedness that would effectively rank senior to the outstanding Notes, and any new notes we may issue. The Notes are unsecured and, as such, effectively subordinated to our secured debt. In addition, non-guarantor subsidiaries have substantial additional obligations, including trade payables and lease obligations, to which the Notes are and will be effectively subordinated.
Our right to receive assets of any of our subsidiaries upon its liquidation or reorganization will be structurally subordinated to the claims of our subsidiaries' creditors, except to the extent that we are recognized as a creditor of such subsidiary, in which case our claims would still be subordinated to any security interests in the assets of such subsidiaries and any indebtedness of our subsidiaries that is senior to that held by us. In the event of our insolvency, bankruptcy, liquidation, reorganization, dissolution or winding up, we and the subsidiaries that guarantee our outstanding Notes, or any new notes we may issue, may not have sufficient assets to pay amounts due on any or all such notes.
We may be required to prepay our debts at the option of Note holders or upon a change of control.
In certain change of control circumstances or if our common shares are no longer traded on a national securities exchange or on an established over the counter market in the United States, holders of our outstanding Notes may have the right to require us to purchase their Notes at their principal amount plus accrued interest. Holders of our Notes also have the right to require us to purchase for cash all or a portion of their Notes on each of October 15, 2013, October 15, 2016 and October 15, 2021; however, we may not have sufficient financial resources at those times to pay the repurchase price and our then existing indebtedness could restrict or prohibit the repurchase. Any notes we may issue in the future may have similar or even more onerous terms.
If we redeem the Notes before maturity, our Note holders may be unable to reinvest proceeds at the same or a higher rate.
We may redeem all or a portion of our outstanding Notes at any time after October 20, 2011. Generally, the redemption price will equal the principal amount being redeemed, plus any accrued and unpaid interest to, but excluding, the redemption date. If a redemption occurs, holders of these Notes may be unable to reinvest the money they receive in the redemption at a rate that is equal to or higher than the rate of return on the redeemed Notes. Notes we may issue in the future may also permit redemption before maturity and create similar risks.
There may be no public market for our Notes.
Although our outstanding Notes are traded in the Private Offerings, Resale and Trading through Automated Linkages Market of the Nasdaq, these Notes are not listed on any securities exchange. We can provide no assurance that an active trading market for these Notes will exist in the future. The limited liquidity of the trading market for our existing Notes, or any notes we may issue in the future,
and the market price quoted for such notes may be adversely affected by changes in the overall market for fixed income securities, by changes in our financial performance or prospects, or by changes in the prospects for the senior living industry generally. Also, we recently purchased and retired $46.5 million face amount of our Notes. This purchase of our Notes by us reduced the number and amount of our Notes outstanding and may decrease the liquidity of our Notes.
Increased leverage may harm our financial condition and results of operations.
Our total consolidated long term debt as of December 31, 2008 was approximately $160.8 million and represented approximately 65% of our total book capitalization as of that date. In addition to our indebtedness, we have substantial lease and other obligations. The indenture governing our outstanding Notes does not limit the amount of additional indebtedness, including senior or secured indebtedness, which we can create, incur, assume or guarantee, nor does the indenture limit the amount of indebtedness or other liabilities that our subsidiaries can create, incur, assume or guarantee.
Our level of indebtedness could have important consequences to our investors, because:
Conversion rights of our outstanding Notes may be detrimental to holders of our common shares.
Our outstanding Notes are convertible into our common shares in various circumstances. The initial conversion rate (equivalent to an initial conversion price of $13.00 per common share) is subject to adjustment upon the occurrence of various events, including if we make dividends or distributions on our common shares. If a holder elects to convert these Notes in connection with a "make whole fundamental change", as defined in the indenture governing these Notes, that occurs on or prior to October 20, 2011, the conversion rate may be increased by a premium based on the market price of our common shares at the time. Make whole fundamental changes include certain transactions constituting a change of control, our liquidation, dissolution or similar events.
The conversion of some or all of our outstanding Notes will dilute the ownership interests of our shareholders. Any sales in the public market of the common shares issuable upon such conversion could adversely affect prevailing market prices of our common shares. In addition, the existence of the outstanding convertible Notes may encourage short selling by market participants because the conversion of these Notes could depress the price of our common shares. These conversion rights also may make more difficult or discourage a party from taking over our company and removing incumbent management and may discourage or impede transactions that might otherwise be in the interests of our common shareholders. Any future issuance of convertible securities by us may create similar risks.
Future issuances of common shares and hedging activities may depress the trading price of our common shares.
We may issue equity securities in the future for a number of reasons, including to finance our operations and growth strategy, to adjust our ratio of debt to equity, to satisfy our obligations upon the
exercise of outstanding warrants or options or for other reasons. Any issuance of equity securities, including the issuance of shares upon conversion of our outstanding Notes as described above, could dilute the interests of our existing shareholders, and could substantially decrease the trading price of our common shares and of the Notes.
We do not intend to pay cash dividends on our common shares in the foreseeable future.
We have never declared or paid any cash dividends on our common shares, and we currently do not anticipate paying any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. Because we do not anticipate paying cash dividends, holders who convert our outstanding Notes into our common shares will not realize a return on their investment unless the trading price of our common shares appreciates.
The price of our common shares has fluctuated, and a number of factors may cause our common share price to decline.
The market price of our common shares has fluctuated and could fluctuate significantly in the future in response to various factors and events, including, but not limited to, the risks set out in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, as well as:
In addition, the stock market in recent years has experienced broad price and volume fluctuations that often have been unrelated to the operating performance of particular companies. These market fluctuations may also cause the market price of our common shares to decline. Shareholders may be unable to resell our common shares at or above price at which they purchased our shares.
OUR SENIOR LIVING COMMUNITIES
As of December 31, 2008, we operated 210 senior living communities which we have categorized into two groups as follows:
Independent and Assisted Living Communities
As of December 31, 2008, we operated 161 independent and assisted living communities. We lease 134 of these communities from Senior Housing and four of these communities from HCPI. We own the remaining 23 communities. These communities have 17,854 living units and are located in 26 states. The following table provides additional information about these communities and their operations as of December 31, 2008:
Skilled Nursing Facilities
As of December 31, 2008, we operated 49 SNFs. We lease 47 of these facilities from Senior Housing and we own the other two communities. These facilities have 4,410 living units and are located
in 11 states. The following table provides additional information about these facilities and their operations as of December 31, 2008:
OUR INPATIENT REHABILITATION HOSPITALS
As of December 31, 2008, we operated two inpatient rehabilitation hospitals that we lease from Senior Housing. These hospitals are located in Braintree and Woburn, Massachusetts and have 321 beds dedicated to inpatient services at the two hospital locations and at three satellite locations. In addition, we operate 15 outpatient clinics affiliated with these hospitals. The hospitals had combined revenues of $98.4 million in the year ended December 31, 2008 and average occupancy was 63%. During the year ended December 31, 2008 approximately 61% of the revenues at these hospitals came from the Medicare program, 2% came from the Medicaid program and the 37% balance came from health insurance companies or other sources.
OUR SENIOR HOUSING LEASES
We have seven leases with Senior Housing. The following table provides a summary of the material terms of our leases. Because it is a summary, it does not contain all of the information that may be important to you. If you would like more information, you should read the leases which are among the exhibits listed in Item 15 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K and incorporated herein by reference.
The following table is a summary of our leases:
Percentage Rent. Six of our seven senior living community leases with Senior Housing require us to pay additional rent equal to 4% of the amount by which adjusted revenues, as defined in our leases, of the communities we operate exceed adjusted revenues in a base year; our lease for seven independent and assisted living communities shown above does not require us to pay percentage rent. Different base years apply to those communities that do pay percentage rent, which is generally set at the first full calendar year after each community is leased. We do not pay percentage rent for our rehabilitation hospitals.
Operating Costs. Each lease is a so-called "triple-net" lease which requires us to pay all costs incurred in the operation of the properties, including the costs of maintenance, personnel, services to residents, insurance and real estate and personal property taxes.
Rent During Renewal Term. Rent during each renewal term is the same as the minimum rent and percentage rent payable during the initial term.
Licenses. Our leases require us to obtain, maintain and comply with all applicable permits and licenses necessary to operate the leased properties.
Maintenance and Alterations. We are required to operate continuously and maintain, at our expense, the leased properties in good order and repair, including structural and nonstructural components. We may request Senior Housing to fund amounts needed for repairs and renovations in return for rent adjustments to provide Senior Housing a return on its investment according to formulas. At the end of each lease term, we are required to surrender the leased properties in substantially the
same condition as existed on the commencement date of the lease, subject to any permitted alterations and ordinary wear and tear.
Assignment and Subletting. Senior Housing's consent is generally required for any direct or indirect assignment or sublease of any of the properties. Also, in the event of any assignment or subletting, we remain liable under the applicable lease.
Indemnification and Insurance. With limited exceptions, we are required to indemnify Senior Housing from all liabilities which may arise from the ownership or operation of the leased properties. We generally are required to maintain commercially reasonable insurance, including captive self insurance, for:
Each lease requires that Senior Housing be named as an additional insured under these insurance policies.
Damage, Destruction, Condemnation and Environmental Matters. If any of the leased properties is damaged by fire or other casualty or taken for a public use, we are generally obligated to rebuild unless the community cannot be restored. If the property cannot be restored, Senior Housing will generally receive all insurance or taking proceeds and we are liable to Senior Housing for the amount of any deductible or deficiency between the replacement cost and the insurance proceeds, and our rent will be adjusted pro rata. We are also required to remove and dispose of any hazardous substance at the leased properties in compliance with all applicable environmental laws and regulations.
Events of Default. Events of default under each lease include the following:
Remedies. Upon the occurrence of any event of default, each lease provides that, among other things, Senior Housing may, to the extent legally permitted:
We are obligated to reimburse Senior Housing for all costs and expenses incurred in connection with any exercise of the foregoing remedies.
Management. We may not enter into any new management agreement affecting any leased property without the prior written consent of Senior Housing.
Lease Subordination. Our leases may be subordinated to any mortgages on properties leased from Senior Housing. As of December 31, 2008, Senior Housing had mortgages on 28 of our communities to which our leases were subordinated. These 28 communities had 1,837 living units and 2008 revenues totaling $38.7 million. Senior Housing's outstanding borrowings secured by mortgages on these 28 communities totaled $95.3 million as of December 31, 2008.
Financing Limitations; Security. Without Senior Housing's consent we may not incur debt secured by our investments in our tenant subsidiaries. Further, our tenant subsidiaries are prohibited from incurring liabilities, other than operating liabilities incurred in the ordinary course of business, liabilities secured by our accounts receivable or purchase money debt. We have pledged 100% of the equity interests of certain of our tenant subsidiaries to Senior Housing and to certain of its lenders, and we may pledge interests in our leases only if the pledge is approved by Senior Housing.
Non-Economic Circumstances. If we determine that continued operations of one or more properties is not economical, we may negotiate with Senior Housing to close or sell that community, including Senior Housing's ownership in the property. In the event of such a sale, Senior Housing receives the net proceeds and our rent for the remaining properties in the affected lease is reduced according to formulas contained in the applicable lease.
In the ordinary course of business we are involved in litigation incidental to our business; however, we are not aware of any material pending legal proceeding affecting us for which we might become liable or the outcome of which we expect to have a material impact on us.
Our common shares are traded on the NYSE Alternext US LLC (symbol: FVE). The following table sets forth for the periods indicated the high and low sale prices for our common shares as reported by the NYSE Alternext US LLC:
The closing price of our common shares on the NYSE Alternext US LLC on February 27, 2009 was $1.53 per share.
As of February 27, 2009, there were 2,900 shareholders of record, and we estimate that as of such date there were almost 31,800 beneficial owners of our common shares.
We have not paid any dividends in the past and do not expect to pay dividends in the future.
Pursuant to our stock option and stock incentive plan, we issued unregistered shares during the fourth quarter. On November 24, 2008, we issued 358,600 shares of common stock, par value $0.01 per share, valued at $1.10 per share (the closing price of our common shares on the NYSE Alternext US LLC on that day) to certain employees and others who provide services to us. We issued these grants pursuant to an exemption from registration contained in Section 4(2) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended.
The following table sets forth selected financial data for the periods and dates indicated. Our comparative results are impacted by community acquisitions and dispositions during the periods shown. This data should be read in conjunction with, and is qualified in its entirety by reference to, management's discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations and the consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
GENERAL INDUSTRY TRENDS
The senior living industry generally is experiencing growth as a result of demographic factors. According to census data, the population in the United States over age 75 is growing much faster than the general population. A large number of independent and assisted living communities were built in the 1990s. This development activity caused an excess supply of new, high priced communities. Longer than projected fill up periods resulted in low occupancy, price discounting and financial distress for many independent and assisted living operators. Development activity was significantly reduced in the early part of this decade. We believe that the nationwide supply and demand for these types of facilities is about balanced today. We believe that the aging of the United States population and the almost complete reliance of independent and assisted living services upon revenues from residents' private resources should mean that these types of facilities can be profitably operated.
The increasing availability of assisted living facilities in the 1990s caused occupancy at many SNFs to decline. This fact, together with restrictions on development of new SNFs by most states, has generally caused nursing care to be delivered in older facilities. We believe that many SNFs currently in operation are becoming physically obsolete and that political pressures from an aging population will eventually cause governmental authorities to permit increased new construction.
Beginning in 2007, problems in certain domestic credit markets presaged a global credit crisis that has led to recession in the United States and abroad. The recession has resulted in aggressive government spending in the United States, significant corporate layoffs, reduced availability of credit on reasonable terms in most markets, and lower real estate prices. At this time, the depth and duration of this recession cannot be determined. This economic weakness has dampened demand for some types of senior living communities in certain markets and our occupancy rates have modestly declined. Also, we have seen some pricing pressures from competition. At the same time, we believe our business to be inherently healthy and that the anticipated decline in senior housing construction may have an offsetting effect to any decline in demand.
Rehabilitation hospitals provide intensive medical services, including physical therapy, occupational therapy and speech language services beyond the capability customarily available in SNFs. We believe that if we are successful in our operation of our rehabilitation hospitals, our reputation in the rehabilitation business (including providing outpatient rehabilitation services) will be enhanced. A reputation for providing high quality rehabilitation services may help create opportunities to acquire additional IRFs or to provide increasing amounts of rehabilitation services at our senior living communities.
Institutional pharmacies provide large quantities of drugs at locations where patients with recurring pharmacy requirements are concentrated. The business rationale for an institutional pharmacy is to deliver drugs and pharmacy services more efficiently and at lower costs than from expensive retail locations which cater to short term requirements. The aging of the population and recent pharmacological innovations have created rapidly growing demand for pharmacy drugs and services. The Medicare Part D prescription drug benefit was implemented in 2006 pursuant to the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003, or MMA, and by December 2008, approximately 90% of Medicare beneficiaries had enrolled in Medicare Part D, according to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. In 2007, (the most recent date for which information is publicly available) the government share of all prescription drug expenditures in the United States rose to approximately 36%, including approximately 21% from the Medicare program and approximately 8% from Medicaid programs. Because the MMA has increased Medicare expenditures for prescription drugs, we anticipate that the federal government and Congress will seek to implement various cost control measures and as a result, the profitability of providing pharmacy goods and services may be reduced.
We earn our senior living revenue primarily by providing housing and services to our senior living residents. During 2008, approximately 32% of our senior living revenues came from the Medicare and Medicaid programs and approximately 68% of our senior living revenues came from residents' private resources. We bill all private pay residents in advance for the housing and services to be provided in the following month.
Our material expenses are:
Our reportable segments consist of our senior living community business and our rehabilitation hospital business. In the senior living community segment, we operate independent living or congregate care communities, assisted living communities and SNFs. Our rehabilitation hospital segment provides inpatient health rehabilitation services at two hospital locations and three satellite locations and outpatient rehabilitation services at 15 outpatient clinics. We do not consider our pharmacy operations to be a material, separately reportable segment of our business but we report our pharmacy revenues and expense as separate items within our corporate and other activities. All of our operations and assets are located in the United States, except with regard to our two captive insurance companies which participate in our workers compensation and liability insurance programs and are located in Bermuda and the Cayman Islands.
We use segment operating profit as an important measure to evaluate our performance and for business decision making purposes. Segment operating profit excludes interest and other income, interest expense and certain corporate expenses.
Year ended December 31, 2008 versus year ended December 31, 2007
The following tables present an overview comparison of our operations for the years ended December 31, 2008 and 2007:
Senior living communities:
Comparable Communities (communities that we operated continuously since January 1, 2007):
Corporate and Other(1):
Year ended December 31, 2008, Compared to year ended December 31, 2007
Senior living communities:
The 15.5% increase in senior living revenues for the year ended December 31, 2008 was due primarily to revenues from the 47 communities we began to operate in 2008 and increased per diem charges, partially offset by a decrease in occupancy. The 3.4% increase in senior living revenue at the communities that we have operated continuously since January 1, 2007 was due primarily to increased per diem charges to residents, partially offset by a decrease in occupancy.
Our 13.8% increase in senior living wages and benefits costs for the year ended December 31, 2008 was primarily due to wages and benefits at the 47 communities we began to operate in 2008 and wage increases. The 16.5% increase in other senior living operating expenses, which include utilities, housekeeping, dietary, maintenance, insurance and community level administrative costs, primarily results from the operating expenses at the 47 communities we began to operate in 2008 and increased charges from third parties. The senior living community expenses for the senior living communities that we have operated continuously since January 1, 2007 have increased by 3.5%, due primarily to increases in wages and benefits and utility expenses. The 25.3% rent expense increase was due to the 37 communities that we began to lease during 2008 and our payment of additional rent for senior living community capital improvements purchased by Senior Housing since January 1, 2007.
The 8.4% increase in depreciation and amortization for the year ended December 31, 2008 was primarily attributable to our purchase of furniture and fixtures for our owned communities.
Our interest and other income increased by $692,000, or 335.9%, for the year ended December 31, 2008, primarily as a result of recognition of an $840,000 gain related to the 2003 sale of a property that was previously deferred until the buyer paid in full our note receivable related to the sale during the first quarter of 2008.
Our interest and other expense decreased by 25.9%, for the year ended December 31, 2008, primarily due to our September 2008 prepayment of two United States Department of Housing, or HUD, insured mortgages secured by one of our communities. We paid $2.4 million in principal and interest to retire these two mortgages. Because we had recorded these mortgages at a premium to their face value, we recognized a gain of $743,000 in connection with this early extinguishment of debt.
The 3.5% decrease in hospital revenues for the year ended December 31, 2008 was primarily due to lower Medicare reimbursement rates as well as the closing of several unprofitable outpatient clinics
offset by a slight increase in occupancy. We are currently experiencing losses from our operation of our hospitals and we may be unable to operate these hospitals profitably. Sixty percent (60%) of the patients at our hospitals are required to meet certain Medicare criteria related to their need for inpatient rehabilitation services. We believe that we are in compliance with these current Medicare requirements. Effective for discharges after April 1, 2008, Medicare inflationary rate increases for IRFs have been set at zero percent for federal fiscal years 2008 and 2009. Our hospitals had received a Medicare rate increase of 3.5% effective October 1, 2007 but their rates were reduced by 3.2% effective for discharges after April 1, 2008. Also, on July 1, 2008, CMS issued a rule updating the Medicare IRF prospective rate formulas for federal fiscal year 2009, which CMS estimated would result in a decrease of 0.7% to total Medicare payments to IRFs for the year.
The 1.4% decrease in hospital expenses for the year ended December 31, 2008 was primarily due to reductions in labor and benefit expenses and the closing of several unprofitable outpatient clinics.
The 4.5% rent expense increase in the year ended December 31, 2008 was due to our payment of additional rent for hospital capital improvements purchased by Senior Housing since January 1, 2007.
The 13.1% decrease in depreciation and amortization expense for the year ended December 31, 2008 was primarily attributable to our write off of long lived assets offset by our purchase of furniture and fixtures and information technology systems for our rehabilitation hospitals.
During our annual review of long lived and other intangible assets, we identified and recorded an impairment of long lived assets related to our two rehabilitation hospitals of $1.8 million.
Corporate and other:
The 15.4% increase in pharmacy revenues for the year ended December 31, 2008 was primarily the result of adding new customers from both our existing senior living and third party communities partially offset by the establishment of a contractual allowance reserve of $1.0 million. We recorded this allowance in order to fairly state the realizable value of our pharmacy receivables which are primarily billed under Medicare Part D.
The 19.9% increase in pharmacy expenses for the year ended December 31, 2008 was primarily due to adding new customers.
The 10.3% increase in general and administrative expenses for the year ended December 31, 2008 was primarily the result of the costs associated with the 47 communities we began to operate in 2008.
The 15.2% increase in depreciation and amortization expense for the year ended December 31, 2008 was primarily attributable to our purchase of furniture and fixtures and information technology systems for our pharmacies and corporate and regional offices.
During the year ended December 31, 2008, we recognized:
Our interest and other income decreased by $929,000, or 15.6%, for the year ended December 31, 2008, compared to the year ended December 31, 2007, primarily as a result of lower cash available for investment and lower interest rates earned on our cash investments.
For the year ended December 31, 2008, we recognized tax expenses of $1.4 million, which includes:
Loss from discontinued operations for the year ended December 31, 2008 increased $2.2 million to $4.9 million, compared to a loss of $2.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2007. The losses in both years are primarily due to operating expenses we incurred as a result of our shutting down operations at two communities in each of 2007 and 2006 and two pharmacies in 2007. The loss for the year ended December 31, 2008 also includes a $300,000 impairment loss of goodwill at our pharmacy located in California and the write down of fixed assets of $1.8 million at one of our assisted living communities.
Year ended December 31, 2007 versus year ended December 31, 2006
The following tables present an overview comparison of our operations for the years ended December 31, 2007 and 2006:
Senior living communities:
Comparable Communities (communities that we operated continuously since January 1, 2006):
Corporate and Other(1):
Year ended December 31, 2007, Compared to year ended December 31, 2006
Senior living communities:
The 8.7% increase in senior living revenues for the year ended December 31, 2007 was due primarily to revenues from the 11 communities we acquired in the third and fourth quarters of 2006, the one community we acquired in April 2007 and higher per diem charges to residents, partially offset by a decrease in occupancy. The 5.1% increase in senior living revenue at the communities that we operated continuously from January 1, 2006 was due primarily to higher per diem charges to residents, partially offset by a decrease in occupancy.
Our 7.4% increase in senior living wages and benefits costs for the year ended December 31, 2007 was primarily due to wages and benefits at the 11 communities we acquired in the third and fourth quarters of 2006, the one community we acquired in April 2007 and wage increases. The 8.5% increase in other senior living operating expenses, which include utilities, housekeeping, dietary, maintenance, insurance and community level administrative costs, primarily results from the operating expenses at the 11 communities we acquired in the third and fourth quarters of 2006, the one community we acquired in April 2007, and increased charges from third parties. The senior living community expenses for the senior living communities that we operated continuously from January 1, 2006 have increased by 3.7%, principally due to wage and benefit increases. Management fees to SLS were eliminated after our termination of the last of our management agreements with SLS in 2006. The 11.4% rent expense increase in 2007 over 2006 is due to the communities that we began to lease in 2006, percentage rent payment in 2007 and our payment of additional rent for senior living community capital improvements purchased by Senior Housing since January 1, 2006.
The 21.8% increase in depreciation and amortization for the year ended December 31, 2007 was primarily attributable to our purchase of furniture and fixtures for our communities as well as the one community we acquired in April 2007.
Our interest and other expense decreased by 47.5% for the year ended December 31, 2007 because in February 2007 we prepaid six HUD insured mortgages that were secured by five of our communities. We recognized a net gain of $3.6 million on extinguishments of these mortgages that consisted of the elimination of $4.3 million of debt premium offset by $725,000 in prepayment penalties. In April 2007, we prepaid an additional HUD insured mortgage that was secured by one of our communities. We recognized a net gain of $934,000 on extinguishment of this mortgage that consisted of the elimination of $1.0 million of debt premium offset by $116,000 in prepayment penalties. This decrease was partially offset by interest we incurred on a $4.6 million HUD insured mortgage that we assumed in connection with the community we acquired in April 2007.
The increase in hospital revenues, hospital expenses, rent expense and depreciation and amortization expense from our hospitals in 2007 over 2006 was a result of our beginning operations at our hospitals in October 2006. We are currently experiencing losses from our operation of these rehabilitation hospitals and we may be unable to operate these hospitals profitably. The percentage of patients at one of our hospitals who are required to meet certain Medicare criteria increased to 65% on July 1, 2007 and this percentage requirement was scheduled to increase to 65% at the other hospital on January 1, 2008, and to 75% at both of our hospitals in the future. However, in December 2007 this Medicare requirement was retroactively rolled back to 60% for both hospitals for fiscal years starting on and after July 1, 2007. We believe that we are in compliance with these current Medicare requirements.
Corporate and other:
The 34.9% increase in pharmacy revenues and 30.1% increase in pharmacy expenses for the year ended December 31, 2007 was primarily the result of our acquiring one pharmacy in each of May 2006 and November 2006.
The 28.2% increase in general and administrative expenses for the year ended December 31, 2007 over the same period in 2006 primarily results from the administrative costs associated with the 11 communities we began to operate in 2006, from the communities we began to operate in 2006 that were previously managed for us by SLS and from the rehabilitation hospitals we began to operate in October 2006.
The 52.8% increase in depreciation and amortization expense for the year ended December 30, 2007 over the same period in 2006 is primarily attributable to increases in assets associated with our pharmacy acquisitions.
Our interest and other income decreased by $418,000, or 6.6%, for the year ended December 31, 2007, compared to the year ended December 31, 2006, primarily as a result of a $2.4 million payment from HealthSouth Corporation in 2006 to settle numerous transition matters and claims related to our assumption of the operations of the two rehabilitation hospitals, offset by interest income on higher levels of investable cash in 2007 resulting from our Notes offering.
Our interest and other expense increased by $3.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2007, due to the issuance of the Notes in October 2006.
For the year ended December 31, 2007, we recognized taxes of $1.4 million, which includes $1.2 million of alternative minimum taxes and certain state taxes that are payable without regard to our tax loss carry forwards and $239,000 of a deferred tax liability arising from the amortization of goodwill for tax purposes but not for book purposes.
Loss from discontinued operations for the year ended December 31, 2007 decreased $4.3 million to $2.8 million, compared to a loss of $7.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2006. The losses in both years are primarily due to operating expenses we incurred as a result of our shutting down operations at two communities in each of 2007 and 2006 and two pharmacies in 2007. These losses were lower in 2007 because we sold two of the communities which incurred losses in 2006, in 2006.
LIQUIDITY AND CAPITAL RESOURCES
For the three months and year ended December 31, 2008, we recorded $1.8 million and $46.1 million, respectively, of cash from continuing operations. At year end we had unrestricted cash and cash equivalents of $16.1 million. We had no amounts outstanding on our $40.0 million revolving line of credit and $21.9 million outstanding on $38.0 million available under our line with UBS. We believe that our operations will continue to provide us with adequate cash flow to run our businesses
and invest in and maintain our properties. If, however, our revenues continue to decline and we are unable to generate positive cash flow for some period of time, we intend to further reduce costs across the Company and to borrow funds from our outstanding lines of credit.
Recent Developments: Investments
At December 31, 2008, we had $62.9 million invested in student loan ARS with a par value of $74.8 million which we classified as long term investments in trading securities. Starting in February 2008, auctions affecting our ARS failed to close on their settlement dates. On March 31, 2008, we reclassified our ARS from current assets to non-current assets due to our belief that the market for student loan collateralized instruments may take in excess of 12 months to recover.
Our ARS consist primarily of bonds issued by various entities to fund student loans pursuant to the Federal Family Education Loan Program. The maturities of our ARS range from 2032 to 2047. All of our ARS were rated "AAA" by at least one nationally recognized debt rating agency when we made these investments, and, to our knowledge, none of these ratings have been reduced. Based upon our analysis of impairment factors through December 31, 2008, we have recognized an unrealized loss of $12.0 million on our investments in these securities.
The funds which we invested in ARS were held to invest in potential acquisitions. Accordingly, these funds are not needed to fund our current operations and we do not expect the failure of auctions affecting our ARS holdings to have a material adverse impact upon our day to day operations.
In November 2008, we entered into a settlement with UBS regarding our ARS made through UBS. The settlement offer was made in connection with UBS' settlement with the Securities and Exchange Commission, the New York Attorney General and other state agencies related to UBS' sale and marketing of ARS. Under the terms of the settlement, we obtained a put right pursuant to which UBS will repurchase our ARS at 100% of par value (including accrued and unpaid interest, if any) at our option during the period beginning June 2010 and ending July 2012. In certain circumstances, UBS has the right to purchase these securities earlier at par. As part of the settlement terms, we released UBS from all claims arising from its marketing of the ARS to us. In connection with the settlement, UBS provided us with a non-recourse credit facility secured by our investments in these ARS. The principal amount available to us under the credit facility is up to 60% of the market value of the ARS from time to time. As of December 31, 2008, the estimated fair value of our investment in ARS was $62.9 million and $21.9 million was outstanding under the credit facility. Our interest rate under the credit facility varies depending on the interest payable to us on the ARS, but will not exceed LIBOR plus 50 basis points.
We expect to sell our ARS by exercising our put right with UBS. However, if we do not exercise our put right before July 2, 2012, it will expire and UBS will have no further right or obligation to buy our ARS. We recorded a gain of $11.0 million for the fair value of the put right we received. The value of the put right is the difference between our estimated value of UBS' repurchase obligation and our estimate of the fair value of the ARS. Accordingly, the value of the put right may increase or decrease in the future as our estimate of the value of UBS' repurchase obligation and our estimate of the fair value of the ARS changes. We will reassess the fair values in future reporting periods based on several factors, including auction and investment redemption experience, changes in credit ratings of UBS and our ARS investments, market risk and other factors. Based on our expected operating cash flows and other sources of cash, we do not believe that illiquidity of our ARS will have a material impact on our overall ability to meet our liquidity needs.
In January 2009, we purchased and retired $46.5 million par value, or 36.8%, of our outstanding Notes for $20.0 million, plus accrued interest. We financed this purchase, principally by borrowings under our UBS credit facility. As a result of this transaction, we expect to record a gain of approximately $25.1 million net of related unamortized costs on early extinguishment of debt in the first quarter of 2009.
Assets and Liabilities
Our total current assets at December 31, 2008 were $114.3 million, compared to $186.0 million at December 31, 2007. At December 31, 2008, we had cash and cash equivalents of $16.1 million compared to $31.0 million at December 31, 2007. Our current liabilities were $129.1 million at December 31, 2008 compared to $104.1 million at December 31, 2007. The decrease in current assets was primarily the result of our reclassifying our investments in ARS from current to long term assets.
Cash provided from continuing operations was $46.1 million at December 31, 2008 compared to $44.3 million at December 31, 2007. Excluding cash flows associated with our investment securities, cash provided from continuing operations was $58.9 million and $63.1 million for the years ended December 31, 2008 and 2007, respectively. Acquisitions of property plant and equipment, including the acquisition of senior living communities, on a net basis after considering the proceeds from sales of fixed assets to Senior Housing, were $73.1 million and $25.8 million for the years ended December 31, 2008 and 2007, respectively. During the years ended 2008 and 2007, as a result of an early repayment of debt, we repaid long term debt of $2.7 million and $28.8 million, respectively.
Acquisitions (including the initiation of long term leases) and Related Financings
In 2006, we began to lease from Senior Housing 11 senior living communities with 1,284 units which Senior Housing acquired from third parties. Three of these communities are assisted living communities, three are assisted living communities which offer some skilled nursing services, three are only independent living communities and two are congregate care retirement communities which offer independent living, assisted living and skilled nursing services. Our initial rent payable to Senior Housing for these 11 communities is $9.0 million per year, plus future increases calculated as a percentage of the revenue increases at these communities after 2007.
In April 2007, we acquired a 48 unit assisted living community located in Tennessee for $5.0 million. We financed the acquisition by assuming a $4.5 million non recourse HUD insured mortgage and paying the balance of the purchase price with cash on hand. The interest rate on the assumed HUD insured mortgage is 7.65%. Residents pay substantially all of our charges at this community from their private resources.
In 2008, we leased from Senior Housing 37 senior living communities with a total of 3,273 living units. Twenty-seven of these communities are assisted living communities (one of which offers some skilled nursing services and one of which offers some independent living services), eight are independent living communities and two are continuing care retirement communities which offer independent living, assisted living and skilled nursing services. Our rent payable to Senior Housing for these 37 communities is $38.2 million per year, plus future increases calculated as a percentage of the revenue increases for 30 of these communities after 2010. We added 21 of these communities to our existing lease with Senior Housing which has a term ending in 2024, with a renewal option thereafter, and we added nine of these communities to our lease with Senior Housing which has a term ending in 2022, with a renewal option thereafter.
In connection with one of the leases we initiated in 2008, we also acquired from the prior owner of the communities its ownership interest in certain operating companies, working capital, certain long term liabilities, and operating practices and processes, especially in the memory care area. We accounted for this transaction as a business combination in accordance with SFAS 141 and after allocating the purchase price to applicable assets and liabilities based on their fair value, recorded as goodwill the $1.0 million excess consideration over fair value of identifiable assets.
Included in the 37 senior living communities described above are seven assisted living communities with 717 units located in Pennsylvania and New Jersey that were previously operated by NewSeasons Assisted Living Communities, Inc., or NewSeasons, under a lease from Senior Housing. We leased these communities in July 2008 for annual rent of approximately $7.6 million per year. In consideration of our lease assumption, NewSeasons paid us $10.0 million and transferred title to certain personal property located at the communities. We recorded the NewSeasons consideration as a deferred credit on our balance sheet, which we are amortizing as a reduction of rent expense over the remaining lease term.
Simultaneously with leasing these seven communities from Senior Housing, we purchased three additional NewSeasons communities from Senior Housing with 278 units located in Pennsylvania and New Jersey for $21.4 million. We allocated the purchase price of these communities to land, building and equipment. The purchase price of these properties equaled the seller's net book value and the fair market value of these properties based on appraisals by an independent appraiser. The ten NewSeasons communities complement our business strategy of focusing our operations in high quality senior living assets where residents pay for our services with private resources. The majority of the revenues from these communities come from residents' private resources.
In December 2008, we acquired seven independent and assisted living communities, with a total of 628 living units, located in North Carolina and South Carolina for a purchase price of $44.0 million plus closing costs. We financed the acquisition with cash on hand and drawings under our recently established credit facility with UBS.
Our Leases with Senior Housing
As of December 31, 2008, we leased 181 senior living communities and two rehabilitation hospitals from Senior Housing under seven leases (in four combinations). Our leases with Senior Housing require us to pay minimum rent of $172.9 million annually and percentage rent for most senior living communities but not for our rehabilitation hospitals. We paid approximately $3.3 million and $2.1 million in percentage rent to Senior Housing for the years ended December 31, 2008 and 2007, respectively.
Upon our request, Senior Housing may purchase capital improvements made at the properties we lease from Senior Housing and increase our rent pursuant to contractual formulas. During the year ended December 31, 2008, Senior Housing reimbursed us $69.4 million for capital expenditures made at the properties leased from Senior Housing and these purchases resulted in our annual rent being increased by $5.8 million.
On June 30, 2008, we and Senior Housing realigned our three principal combination leases. The aggregate rent payable by us to Senior Housing is unchanged as a result of this lease realignment and the rent on future sales of property to Senior Housing, if and as Senior Housing purchases improvements to the leased properties, will be set at the greater of 8.0% per annum or the 10 year Treasury rate plus 300 basis points.
Our revenues from services to residents at our senior living communities and patients of our rehabilitation hospitals and clinics are our primary source of cash to fund our operating expenses, including rent, principal and interest payments on our debt and our capital expenditures.
During the past year, our occupancy has been negatively affected by worsening economic conditions in many of the markets that we serve. These conditions appear to be impacting many companies both within and outside of our industry and there can be no certainty as to when current economic conditions may improve.
At some of our communities and at our rehabilitation hospitals and clinics, operating revenues for skilled nursing and rehabilitation services are received from the Medicare and Medicaid programs. Medicare and Medicaid revenues were earned primarily at our SNFs and our two rehabilitation hospitals. We derived 35% and 38% of our revenues from these programs for the years ended December 31, 2008 and 2007, respectively.
Our net Medicare revenues from services to senior living community residents totaled $137.3 million and $124.5 million for the years ended December 31, 2008 and 2007, respectively. In October 2008 and 2007, our senior living community Medicare rates increased by approximately 3.5%
and 3.6%, respectively, over the prior period. Our net Medicaid revenues from services to senior living community residents totaled $156.6 million and $147.1 million for the years ended December 31, 2008 and 2007, respectively. Federal agencies and some members of Congress have proposed Medicare and Medicaid policy changes and freezes on rate increases or rate reductions to be phased in during the next several years. In addition, some of the states in which we operate either have not raised Medicaid rates by amounts sufficient to offset increasing costs or are expected to freeze or reduce Medicaid rates. The current recession and worsening economic conditions are causing budget shortfalls in many states, increasing the likelihood of Medicaid rate reductions, freezes on rate increases, or increases that are insufficient to offset increasing operating costs. The magnitude of the potential Medicare and Medicaid rate reductions and the impact on us of the failure of these programs to increase rates to match increasing expenses, as well as the impact on us of the potential Medicare and Medicaid policy changes, cannot currently be estimated, but they may be material to our operations and may affect our future results of operations. Effective as of October 1, 2008, CMS increased Medicare rates for SNFs by approximately 3.5% for the federal fiscal year ending September 30, 2009, under a rule adding an annual update to account for inflation in the cost of goods and services included in a SNF stay. CMS had proposed a recalibration of the payment categories for SNFs, which would have resulted in a net reduction of rates by approximately 0.3% in federal fiscal year 2009, but delayed the recalibration in order to continue to evaluate the data. On July 15, 2008, as part of the Medicare Improvements for Patients and Providers Act of 2008, Congress enacted an 18-month extension of the Medicare outpatient therapy exception process through the end of 2009, under which Medicare may approve payments for medically necessary outpatient therapies which exceed the Medicare payment caps. This July 15, 2008 law forestalls a reduction in certain therapy revenues that we have historically realized.
We began to operate two rehabilitation hospitals in October 2006. Approximately 63% and 69% of our revenues from these hospitals came from the Medicare and Medicaid programs for the years ended December 31, 2008 and 2007, respectively. In October 2007, the Medicare rates at our IRFs increased by approximately 3.2% over the prior period. However, this increase was later rescinded and, for payments on and after April 1, 2008, the Medicare rate increase was reset to zero per cent for federal fiscal years 2008 and 2009. Also, on July 1, 2008, CMS issued a rule updating the Medicare IRF prospective rate formulas for the federal fiscal year 2009. The rule revises the weights assigned to patient case-mix groups that are used to calculate rates under the IRF prospective payment system, and re-sets the outlier threshold to maintain estimated outlier payments at 3% of total estimated IRF payments for the year. CMS estimated that the rule would result in a decrease of 0.7% to total Medicare payments to IRFs for the year. In May 2004, CMS issued the "75% Rule" establishing revised Medicare criteria that rehabilitation hospitals are required to meet in order to participate as IRFs in the Medicare program. As recently amended, the rule requires that for cost reporting periods starting on and after July 1, 2006, 60% of a facility's inpatient population must require intensive rehabilitation services for one of the CMS's designated medical conditions. An IRF that fails to meet the requirements of this rule is subject to reclassification as a different type of healthcare provider; and the effect of such reclassification would be to lower Medicare payment rates. As of December 31, 2008 and February 27, 2009, we believe we are in compliance with the CMS requirements to remain an IRF. However, the actual percentage of patients at these hospitals who meet these Medicare requirements may not be or remain as high as we believe or anticipate or may decline. Our failure to remain in compliance, or a CMS finding of noncompliance, if it occurs, will result in our receiving lower Medicare rates than we currently receive at our hospitals.
Termination of SLS Management Agreements
To better understand the results of our ongoing operating business for the year ended December 31, 2006 and to enable investors to more readily compare our operating results from 2006 to subsequent years, we believe it may be useful to consider what our results of operations would have been in 2006, excluding our termination payments to SLS. The information in the following chart should not be considered as an alternative to income (loss) from continuing operations or income (loss)
from continuing operations per share or any other operating or performance measure established by accounting principles generally accepted in the United States.
Increases over time in the costs of insurance, especially tort liability insurance, workers' compensation and employee health insurance, have had an adverse impact upon our results of operations. Although we self insure a large portion of these costs, our costs have increased as a result of the higher costs that we incur to settle claims and to purchase re-insurance for claims in excess of the self insurance amounts. These increased costs may continue in the future. For more information about our existing insurance see Item 1 "BusinessInsurance" of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. To obtain control over our insurance costs, we and other companies to which RMR provides management services have recently formed an insurance company which may begin to underwrite certain of our insurance requirements. For more information about this insurance initiative see Item 9B of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Between 2003 and 2006, we acquired six institutional pharmacies and one mail order pharmacy located in Wisconsin, Nebraska, California, South Carolina and Virginia. Our total purchase price for these pharmacies was $15.8 million, including $5.9 million in 2006. Certain of our pharmacy businesses have been discontinued, as described below.
We commenced operations at our two hospitals on October 1, 2006.
During 2007, we agreed with Senior Housing that it should sell two assisted living communities in Pennsylvania, which we currently lease. We and Senior Housing are in the process of selling these assisted living communities and, upon their sale, our annual rent payable to Senior Housing will decrease by an amount equal to 9.5% of the net proceeds of the sale to Senior Housing. As of December 31, 2007, we have disposed of substantially all of our assets and settled all liabilities related to their two senior living communities.
In December 2007, we decided to sell our institutional pharmacy located in California and our mail order pharmacy located in Nebraska. The assets and liabilities related to these two pharmacies are presented separately in the consolidated balance sheet. We sold the institutional pharmacy located in California on January 15, 2009. We have been unable to sell the mail order pharmacy on acceptable terms and we expect to discontinue all its operations on or about March 31, 2009.
We have reclassified the consolidated statement of operations for all periods presented to show the results of operations of the communities and pharmacies which have been sold or are expected to be
sold as discontinued. A summary of the operating results of these discontinued operations included in the financial statements for the years ended December 31, 2008, 2007 and 2006 is:
Contractual Obligations Table
As of December 31, 2008, our contractual obligations were as follows (dollars in thousands):
Equity and Debt Financings and Covenants
In April 2006, we issued 11,500,000 common shares in an underwritten public offering raising net proceeds of $114.0 million. We used a portion of the proceeds raised in this offering to pay $89.8 million in termination fees for 10 SLS management agreements we terminated in June 2006, and we added the remainder to our cash balances.
In April 2007, we financed the acquisition of a 48 unit assisted living community located in Tennessee for $5.0 million by assuming a $4.5 million non recourse HUD insured mortgage and paying the balance of the purchase price with cash on hand. The coupon interest rate on the assumed HUD insured mortgage is 7.65% and its effective market rate is 5.75%.
In October 2006, we issued $126.5 million principal amount of Notes. Our net proceeds from this issuance were approximately $122.6 million. We used the proceeds raised to pay $40.1 million in termination fees for the remaining 20 management agreements with SLS, and we added the remainder to our cash balances. These Notes are convertible into our common shares at any time. The initial conversion rate, which is subject to adjustment, is 76.9231 common shares per $1,000 principal amount of Notes, which represents an initial conversion price of $13.00 per share. The Notes are guaranteed by certain of our wholly owned subsidiaries. These Notes mature on October 15, 2026. We may prepay the Notes at any time after October 20, 2011 and the Note holders may require that we purchase all or a portion of these Notes on each of October 15 of 2013, 2016 and 2021. We issued these Notes pursuant
to an indenture which contains various customary covenants. As of December 31, 2008 and February 27, 2009, we believe we are in compliance with all applicable covenants of this indenture.
In January 2009, we purchased and retired $46.5 million par value, or 36.8%, of our outstanding Notes for approximately $20.0 million plus accrued interest. We financed this purchase, principally by borrowings under our UBS credit facility. As a result of this transaction, we expect to record a gain of approximately $25.1 million net of related unamortized costs on early extinguishment of debt in the first quarter of 2009.
We have a $40.0 million revolving secured credit facility with a financial institution available for general business purposes, including acquisitions and working capital, which is currently scheduled to expire in May 2010. The amount we are able to borrow at any time is subject to limitations based upon qualifying collateral. We are the borrower under this revolving credit facility and certain of our subsidiaries guarantee our obligations under the facility, which is secured by our and our guarantor subsidiaries' accounts receivable, deposit accounts and related assets. The facility contains covenants requiring us to maintain collateral, minimum net worth and certain other financial ratios; and this facility also places limits on our ability to incur or assume debt or create liens with respect to certain of our assets and has other customary provisions. In certain circumstances and subject to available collateral and lender approvals, the maximum amounts which we may borrow under this credit facility may be increased to $80.0 million. The termination date may be extended twice, in each case by twelve months upon our payment of extension fees and other conditions, including lender's approvals. As of December 31, 2008 and February 27, 2009, no amounts were outstanding with $40.0 million available under this credit facility. As of December 31, 2008 and February 27, 2009, we believe we are in compliance with all applicable covenants under this credit facility.
We may borrow additional amounts under the facility before it expires in May 2010. If we have outstanding borrowings under the facility and are unable to extend it when it expires, we would need to explore alternatives for the repayment of amounts due. Such alternatives may include incurring additional debt and engaging in sale leaseback transactions relating to some or all of our owned communities. While we believe we will be able to extend this facility or raise funds to repay any outstanding borrowings, there can be no assurance that we will be able to do so or that our cost associated with any such transaction will be reasonable. If current capital market conditions continue or worsen, our lender under this facility may be unable or unwilling to fund advances which we request or we may not be able to access additional capital. Impacts such as these and general capital market conditions could impair our ability to make future acquisitions and make our current growth plans unachievable. Also, the current market conditions have led to materially increased credit spreads which, if they continue, may result in a material increase in the interest rate under this facility when it is renewed or extended.
In November 2008, we entered into a non-recourse credit facility with UBS which is available for acquisitions, working capital and general business purposes. The amount we are able to borrow is 60% of the fair value of the ARS which are collateral for the loan and such amount may vary over time. Our interest rate under the credit facility will also vary depending on the interest payable to us on the ARS, but will not exceed LIBOR plus 50 basis points. As of December 31, 2008, the estimated fair value of our investment in ARS was $62.9 million. As of December 31, 2008 and February 27, 2009, we have $21.9 million and $37.7 million outstanding under this credit facility, respectively and $15.9 million and approximately $2.1 million remained available for drawing as of December 31, 2008 and February 27, 2009, respectively. As of December 31, 2008 and February 27, 2009 we believe we are in compliance with all applicable covenants under this credit facility.
In 2007, we prepaid seven mortgages that were secured by six of our senior living communities. We paid $28.9 million to retire these seven mortgages, which consisted of approximately $28.0 million in principal and interest and $840,000 in prepayment penalties. Because we had carried these mortgages at a premium to their face value, we recognized a net gain of $4.5 million in connection with the early extinguishment of debt.
In September 2008, we prepaid two HUD insured mortgages that were secured by one of our senior living communities. We paid $2.4 million in principal and interest to retire these two mortgages, and no prepayment penalty was required. Because we had recorded these mortgages at a premium to their face value under applicable accounting rules, we recognized a net gain of $743,000 in connection with this early extinguishment of debt.
At December 31, 2008, three of our communities remained encumbered by HUD insured mortgages totaling $12.6 million. The weighted average interest rate on these mortgages is 6.22%. Payments of principal and interest are due monthly until maturities at varying dates ranging from June 2035 to July 2043. These mortgages contain standard HUD mortgage covenants. As of December 31, 2008 and February 27, 2009, we believe we are in compliance with all covenants of these mortgages.
Off Balance Sheet Arrangements
As of December 31, 2008, we had no off balance sheet arrangements, commercial paper, derivatives, swaps, hedges, third party guarantees, material joint ventures or partnerships.
Related Person Transactions
We were a 100% owned subsidiary of Senior Housing before December 31, 2001. On December 31, 2001, Senior Housing distributed substantially all of our then outstanding shares to its shareholders. At the time of our spin off, all of the persons serving as our directors were trustees of Senior Housing. In order to effect this spin off and to govern relations after the spin off, we entered into agreements with Senior Housing and others. Since then we have entered into various leases and other agreements which confirm and modify these undertakings. Among other matters, these agreements provide that:
Senior Housing is our largest landlord. In addition to providing management services to us, RMR also manages Senior Housing. One of our directors, Mr. Barry Portnoy, is currently a managing trustee of Senior Housing. Because of these and other relationships we and Senior Housing may be considered related persons. Also, because of these relationships all of our transactions with Senior Housing are separately approved by our Independent Directors and Senior Housing's Independent Trustees.
Of the 210 senior living communities we operated on December 31, 2008, 181 are leased from Senior Housing for total annual rent of $161.7 million. In addition, we also lease our two rehabilitation hospitals from Senior Housing for a total minimum rent of $11.2 million.
Since January 1, 2008, we have entered into several transactions with Senior Housing, including:
RMR provides certain management and administrative services to us under a shared services agreement which is subject to annual review and approval by our Independent Directors. RMR is compensated at an annual rate equal to 0.6% of our total revenues. In May 2008, the shared services agreement was amended to include compensation for personnel involved with management information systems, or MIS. RMR is compensated at a rate equal to 80% of the employment expenses of RMR's employees, other than its Chief Information Officer, actively engaged in servicing MIS. Aggregate fees paid by us to RMR for management, administrative and information system services during 2008, 2007 and 2006, were $8.3 million, $6.1 million and $4.9 million, respectively. In addition, RMR also provides the internal audit function for us and for other publicly owned companies to which it provides management services. Our audit committee appoints our director of internal audit and our compensation committee approves his salary. Our compensation committee also approves the allocated costs we pay with respect to our internal audit function. Our pro rata share of RMR's costs in providing that function for the years ended 2008, 2007 and 2006 was $223,000, $169,000 and $173,000, respectively. The fact that RMR has responsibilities to other entities, including our most significant landlord, Senior Housing, could create conflicts; and in the event of such conflicts between Senior Housing and us, our shared services agreement with RMR allows RMR to act on behalf of Senior Housing rather than on our behalf. A termination of our shared services agreement is an event of default under our revolving credit facility. RMR is beneficially owned by Messrs. Barry M. Portnoy, one of our managing directors, and his son, Adam D. Portnoy, who is President and Chief Executive Officer and a director of RMR and a managing trustee of Senior Housing. Messrs. Barry Portnoy and Gerard Martin, our managing directors, are directors of RMR.
Our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer are also officers and employees of RMR. These officers devote a substantial majority of their business time to our affairs and the remainder to RMR's business which is separate from our business. We believe the compensation we paid to these officers reasonably reflects their division of business time; however, periodically, these individuals may divide their business time differently than they do currently and their compensation from us may become disproportionate to this division.
An affiliated entity of RMR is the owner of the buildings in which our corporate headquarters are located. These leases expire in 2011. We incurred rent, which includes our proportional share of utilities and real estate taxes, under this lease during 2008, 2007 and 2006 of $1.1 million, $1.3 million and $938,000, respectively. This lease has been amended at various times to take into account our needs for increasing space and all amendments to this lease have been approved by our Independent Directors.
We, RMR and other companies to which RMR provides management services are in the process of forming and licensing an insurance company in the State of Indiana. All of our directors are currently serving on the board of directors of this insurance company. We expect that RMR, in addition to being a shareholder, will enter into a management agreement with this insurance company, pursuant to which RMR will provide the insurance company certain management and administrative services. In addition, it is expected that the insurance company and RMR Advisors, Inc., or Advisors and a company affiliated with RMR will enter an investment advisory agreement pursuant to which Advisors will act as the insurance company's investment advisor. Subsequent to year end, we have invested $25,000 to date in the insurance company and are committed to invest another $4,975,000, and we currently own and intend to own approximately 16.67% of this insurance company. We may invest additional amounts in the insurance company in the future if the expansion of this insurance business requires additional capital, but we are not obligated to do so. Over time we expect to transfer some or all of our insurance business to this company. By participating in this insurance business with RMR and the other companies to which RMR provides management services, we expect that we may benefit financially by possibly reducing insurance expenses and/or by having our pro-rata share of the profits realized by this insurance business. See Item 9B of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for additional information regarding this insurance initiative and our part in this insurance company.
One of our hospitals' outpatient clinics leases space from HRPT Properties Trust, or HRPT, a REIT managed by RMR. We incurred rent, which includes our proportional share of utilities and real estate taxes, under this lease during 2008 and 2007 of $57,700 and $52,500, respectively.
In December 2006, we began leasing space for a regional office in Atlanta, Georgia from HRPT. Our lease for this space expires in 2011. We incurred rent, which includes our proportional share of utilities and real estate taxes, under this lease during 2008 and 2007 of $60,000 and $61,000, respectively.
We believe that all transactions with all parties are on reasonable commercial terms. We also believe that our relationship with Senior Housing and RMR benefits us and, in fact, provide us competitive advantages in operating and growing our businesses.
Policies and Procedures Concerning Conflicts of Interest and Related Person Transactions
Our code of business conduct and ethics, or Code of Conduct, and governance guidelines address review and approval of activities, interests or relationships that interfere with, or appear to interfere with, our interests. Persons subject to our Code of Conduct and governance guidelines are under a continuing obligation to disclose any such conflicts of interest and may pursue a transaction or relationship which involves such conflicts of interest only if the transaction or relationship has been approved as follows:
Critical Accounting Policies
Our critical accounting policies concern revenue recognition, our assessment of the net realizable value of our accounts receivable, evaluation of goodwill and other intangibles, accounting for long term care contracts, our assessment of reserves related to our self insurance programs, our evaluation of impairment factors affecting our ARS and "other than temporary" impairment considerations on our available for sale securities.
Our revenue recognition policies involve judgments about Medicare and Medicaid rate calculations. These judgments are based principally upon our experience with these programs and our
knowledge of current rules and regulations applicable to these programs. We recognize revenues when services are provided and these amounts are reported at their estimated net realizable amounts. Some Medicare and Medicaid revenues are subject to audit and retroactive adjustment, and sometimes retroactive legislative changes.
Our policies for valuing accounts receivable involve significant judgments based upon our experience, including consideration of the age of the receivables, the terms of the agreements with our residents, their third party payors or other obligors, the residents or payors stated intent to pay, the residents or payors financial capacity and other factors which may include litigation or rate and payment appeal proceedings.
We review the carrying value of long lived assets for impairment at least annually or whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. If there is an indication that the carrying value of an asset is not recoverable, we determine the amount of impairment loss, if any, by comparing the historical carrying value of the asset to its estimated fair value. We determine estimated fair value through an evaluation of recent financial performance, recent sales of similar assets, market conditions and projected undiscounted cash flows that our asset or asset groups are expected to generate. This process requires that estimates be made and errors in our judgments or estimates could have a material effect on our financial statements. As a result of this test we determined to reduce the value of our long lived assets reported on our balance sheet related to our rehabilitation hospitals as of December 31, 2008 by $1.8 million.
We review goodwill annually during our fourth quarter, or more frequently if events or changes in circumstances exist, for impairment. Factors we consider important to trigger a review for impairment include the following:
If our review indicates that the carrying amount of goodwill exceeds its fair value, we reduce the carrying amount to fair value.
We evaluate goodwill for impairment at the reporting unit level, which we determined to be the three segments we operate. We evaluate goodwill for impairment by comparing the fair value of the reporting unit as determined by its discounted cash flows and market approaches, such as capitalization rates and earnings multiples, with its carrying value. The key assumptions used in the discounted cash flow include future revenue growth, gross margins and our weighted average cost of capital. We selected a growth rate based on our view of the growth prospect of each of our segments. If the carrying value of the reporting unit exceeds its fair value, we compare the implied fair value of the reporting unit's goodwill with its carrying amount to measure the amount of impairment loss. Our estimates of discounted cash flows may differ from actual cash flows due to, among other things, economic conditions, changes to our business model or changes in operating performance.
Recently, our market capitalization has declined and was significantly below book value during the fourth quarter. As a result, we determined an interim impairment test was necessary and performed the interim test on all of our reporting units as of December 31, 2008. In our evaluation we weighed all known quantitative and qualitative factors in determining if an impairment occurred. As a result, we determined to reduce the value of goodwill reported on our balance sheet related to our pharmacies as of December 31, 2008 by $5.9 million.
We routinely evaluate our ARS to determine if they have been impaired and we expect to do so regularly until our ARS are sold to UBS or are otherwise no longer owned by us. If there is an indication that the carrying value of our ARS is less than their estimated fair value, we record a loss in our consolidated statement of operations. We determine the estimated fair value of our ARS by considering various factors including market prices, the ratings of the securities we hold and the credit characteristics of any guarantors of our ARS.
We routinely evaluate our available for sale investments (currently, such investments are carried only at our captive insurance companies) to determine if they have been impaired and we expect to do so regularly. If the book or carrying value of an investment is less than its estimated fair value and that that situation is expected to continue for a more than temporary period, we record an "other than temporary" loss in our consolidated statement of operations. We determine the estimated fair value of our available for sale investments by reviewing the current market prices of the securities, the ratings of the securities, the financial condition, our intent and ability to retain the investment for a sufficient period of time to allow for recovery in the market value of the investment and various other factors which we determine may be relevant to each security. In evaluating the factors described above for available for sale investments, we presume a decline in value to be "other than temporary" if the quoted market price of the security is below the investment's cost basis for an extended period. However, the presumption may be overcome if there is persuasive evidence indicating the decline is temporary in nature, such as if the operating performance is strong, dividends are still being paid, or the market price of the security is historically volatile. Additionally, there may be instances in which impairment losses are recognized even if the decline in value does not fall within the criteria described above such if there is a plan to sell the security in the near term and the fair value is below our cost basis.
Beginning in the fourth quarter of 2008, we evaluate our put right enabling us to sell our ARS at par value to UBS between June 2010 and June 2012. If there is an indication that the carrying value of our put right is less than its estimated fair value, we would record a loss in our consolidated statement of operations. We determine the estimated fair value of our put right by reviewing the ratings of UBS financial obligations and various other indications of UBS' credit qualities. The put right is recorded at estimated fair value under the Financial Accounting Standards Board's, or FASB, No. 159, "The Fair Value Option of Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities", or SFAS 159. We calculated this value based on the difference between the fair value for the ARS and the par value of the ARS, which is the amount we expect to receive from UBS beginning June 2010. This value was adjusted for our estimate of a factor representing UBS' counter party risks based on comparable credit default swaps for UBS as of December 31, 2008.
At one of our communities, we offer continuing care contracts under which residents may pay admission fees in exchange for reduced charges during their occupancy. These fees may be refundable or non-refundable, or partially refundable and partially non-refundable. We record these fees as obligations on our balance sheet and amortize the non-refundable amounts into revenue over the actuarially determined remaining lives of the individual residents which are the expected periods of occupancy. Actuarially determined remaining lives are estimates based upon general demographic samplings and averages. Our decision to amortize the non-refundable fees over actuarially determined lives is based upon our estimates that these residents will remain at our facilities for that period. The actual remaining lives and the actual period of occupancy of the individual residents who pay the non-refundable fees may differ materially from these estimates. In the future, if we find that such differences are material, we may change the actuarial tables which we use and we may change our estimates that these residents will remain at our facilities for these periods; these changes could have a material impact upon our financial statements.
Determining reserves for the self insurance portions of our insurance programs involves significant judgments based upon our experience, including projected settlements for pending claims, known incidents which we expect may result in claims, estimates of incurred but not yet reported claims,
claims experience, estimated litigation costs and other factors. We also periodically receive and rely upon recommendations from professional consultants in establishing these reserves; however, these reserves may prove to be materially inaccurate.
Some of our judgments and estimates are based upon published industry statistics and in some cases third party professionals. Any errors in our estimates or judgments could have a material effect on our financial statements.
In the future we may need to revise the judgments, estimates and assessments we use to formulate our critical accounting policies to incorporate information which is not now known. We cannot predict the effect changes to the premises underlying our critical accounting policies may have on our future results of operations, although such changes could be material and adverse.
Recently Announced Accounting Pronouncements
In December 2007, the FASB issued Statement of Financial Accounting Standards No. 141 (revised 2007), "Business Combinations", or SFAS 141(R), a replacement of FASB Statement No. 141," which changes the principles and requirements for how the acquirer of a business recognizes and measures in its financial statements the identifiable assets acquired, the liabilities assumed, and any non-controlling interest in the business being acquired. The statement also provides guidance for recognizing and measuring the goodwill acquired in the business combination and determines what information to disclose to enable users of the financial statements to evaluate the nature and financial effects of the business combination. SFAS No. 141(R) is effective on a prospective basis for all business combinations for which the acquisition date is on or after the beginning of the first annual period subsequent to December 15, 2008, with the exception of the accounting for valuation allowances on deferred taxes and acquired tax contingencies. SFAS No. 141(R) amends SFAS No. 109 such that adjustments made to valuation allowances on deferred taxes and acquired tax contingencies associated with acquisitions that closed prior to the effective date of SFAS No. 141(R) would also follow the provisions of SFAS No. 141(R). Early adoption of the provisions of SFAS No. 141(R) is not permitted. We evaluated the effect of the adoption of SFAS 141(R) and have concluded that the effect on our financial position and results of operations will be, at a minimum, that we are no longer able to capitalize transaction costs for acquisitions.
In May 2008, the FASB issued FASB Staff Position APB 14-1, "Accounting for Convertible Debt Instruments That May Be Settled in Cash upon Conversion (Including Partial Cash Settlement)", or FSP 14-1. FSP 14-1 requires an issuer of certain convertible debt instruments that may be settled in cash (or other assets) on conversion to separately account for the liability and equity components of the instrument in a manner that is intended to reflect the issuer's nonconvertible debt borrowing rate. FSP 14-1 is effective for financial statements issued for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2008 and interim periods within those fiscal years and did not permit earlier application. We evaluated the effect of the adoption of FSP 14-1 and have concluded that it has no effect on our financial position or results of operation as our existing convertible instruments do not meet this criteria.
Inflation and Deflation
Inflation in the past several years in the United States has been modest. Future inflation might have either positive or negative impacts on our business. Rising price levels may allow us to increase occupancy charges to residents, but may also cause our operating costs, including our percentage rent, to increase. Also, our ability to affect rate increases paid by the Medicare and Medicaid programs will be limited despite inflation.
Deflation would likely have a negative impact upon us. A large component of our expenses consists of our fixed minimum rental obligations to Senior Housing and HCPI. Accordingly we believe that a general decline in price levels which could cause our charges to residents to decline would likely not be fully offset by a decline in our expenses.
Our senior living business is subject to modest effects of seasonality. During the calendar fourth quarter holiday periods, nursing home and assisted living residents are sometimes discharged to join family celebrations and relocations and admission decisions are often deferred. The first quarter of each calendar year usually coincides with increased illness among nursing home and assisted living residents which can result in increased costs or discharges to hospitals. As a result of these factors, nursing home and assisted living operations sometimes produce greater earnings in the second and third quarters of a calendar year and lesser earnings in the first and fourth quarters. We do not believe that this seasonality will cause fluctuations in our revenues or operating cash flow to such an extent that we will have difficulty paying our expenses, including rent, which do not fluctuate seasonally.
We are exposed to risks associated with market changes in interest rates. We manage our exposure to this market risk by monitoring available financing alternatives. Our strategy to manage exposure to changes in interest rates is unchanged from December 31, 2007. Other than as described below, we do not foresee any significant changes in our exposure to fluctuations in interest rates or in how we manage this exposure in the near future.
Changes in market interest rates also affect the fair value of our fixed rate debt; increases in market interest rates decrease the fair value of our fixed rate debt, while decreases in market interest rates increase the fair value of our fixed rate debt. For example: based upon discounted cash flow analysis, if prevailing interest rates were to increase by 10%, the market value of our $138.9 million fixed rate mortgage debt and Notes outstanding on December 31, 2008 would decline by about $4.9 million; and, similarly, if prevailing interest rates were to decline by 10% and other credit market considerations remained unchanged, the market value of our $138.9 million fixed rate mortgage debt and Notes outstanding on December 31, 2008, would increase by about $5.3 million
Our revolving line of credit bears interest at floating rates and matures in May 2010. As of December 31, 2008 and February 27, 2009, no amounts were outstanding under this credit facility. We borrow in U.S. dollars and borrowings under our revolving credit facility require annual interest at LIBOR plus a spread. Accordingly, we are vulnerable to changes in U.S. dollar based short term, interest rates, specifically LIBOR. A change in interest rates would not affect the value of any outstanding floating rate debt but would affect our operating results. For example, if the maximum amount of $40.0 million were drawn under our credit facility and interest rates increased or decreased by 1% per annum, our interest expense would increase or decrease by $400,000 per year, or $0.01 per share, based on currently outstanding common shares. If interest rates were to change gradually over time, the impact would occur over time.
In November 2008, we entered into a non-recourse credit facility with UBS secured by our investments in ARS. As of December 31, 2008 and February 27, 2009, $21.9 million and $37.7 million were outstanding under this credit facility. We borrow in U.S. dollars and interest payments under our non-recourse credit facility will vary depending on the interest payable on the ARS, but will not exceed LIBOR plus 50 basis points. A change in interest rates would not affect the value of any outstanding floating rate debt but would affect our operating results. If interest rates were to increase or decrease by 1% and the amount outstanding under this credit facility remained unchanged from the amount outstanding on December 31, 2008 our interest expense would increase or decrease by $219,000 or about $0.01 per share based upon our number of shares outstanding on December 31, 2008. The amount of money we may borrow under this UBS credit facility depends upon the market value of our ARS. Because our ARS are income securities, it is likely that the market value of our ARS will be affected by changes in interest rates; as interest rates increase the market value of our ARS might decline, and as interest rate decrease the market value on our ARS should increase. However, there are other factors which might impact the market value of our ARS, such as supply and demand and
liquidity, such that we do not believe the impact of interest rate changes upon the value of our ARS and our borrowing capacity under the UBS credit facility can be precisely determined.
Our exposure to fluctuations in interest rates may increase in the future if we incur additional debt to fund acquisitions or otherwise.
The information required by this Item is included in Item 15 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
As of the end of the period covered by this report, our management carried out an evaluation, under the supervision and with the participation of our President and Chief Executive Officer and our Treasurer and Chief Financial Officer of the effectiveness of our disclosure controls and procedures pursuant to Exchange Act Rules 13a-15 and 15d-15. Based upon that evaluation, our President and Chief Executive Officer and our Treasurer and Chief Financial Officer concluded that our disclosure controls and procedures are effective.
There have been no changes in our internal control over financial reporting during the quarter ended December 31, 2008 that have materially affected, or are reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting.
Management Report on Assessment of Internal Control Over Financial Reporting
We are responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting. Our internal control system is designed to provide reasonable assurance to our management and board of directors regarding the preparation and fair presentation of published financial statements. All internal control systems, no matter how well designed, have inherent limitations. Therefore, even those systems determined to be effective can provide only reasonable assurance with respect to financial statement preparation and presentation.
Our management assessed the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2008. In making this assessment, it used the criteria set forth by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission in Internal Control Integrated Framework. Based on our assessment, we believe that, as of December 31, 2008, our internal control over financial reporting is effective.
Ernst & Young LLP, the independent registered public accounting firm that audited our 2008 consolidated financial statements included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, has issued an attestation report on our internal control over financial reporting. The report appears elsewhere herein.
Affiliates Insurance Company
On February 27, 2009, we entered into a shareholders agreement, or the Shareholders Agreement, with Affiliates Insurance Company, a company being formed and licensed as an insurance company in the State of Indiana, or AIC, Senior Housing, TravelCenters of America, or TA, HRPT Properties Trust, or HRPT, Hospitality Properties Trust, or HPT, and RMR. With respect to AIC, we refer to ourselves, RMR, Senior Housing, TA, HRPT and HPT, collectively, as the Shareholders.
Pursuant to the Shareholders Agreement, each of the Shareholders has purchased from AIC 100 shares of common stock, par value of $10.00 per share, of AIC, or the Shares, at a purchase price of $250.00 per Share and has committed to purchase from AIC an additional 19,900 Shares (such additional share purchase, we refer to as the "Second Subscription") within five business days of a
request from AIC at the same purchase price per Share. The Shareholders comprise all the shareholders of AIC and each Shareholder currently owns approximately 16.67% of the outstanding Shares.
AIC has been formed to provide insurance and risk management services to the Shareholders and their subsidiaries.
The Shareholders Agreement provides that for so long as a Shareholder (other than RMR) owns not less than 10% of the issued and outstanding Shares, such Shareholder has the right to designate two directors for election to the board of directors of AIC and that so long as RMR owns not less than 10% of the issued and outstanding Shares, RMR has the right to designate three directors for election to the board of directors of AIC, including one director who is a resident of Indiana. The board of directors of AIC is currently composed of 13 directors.
Transfer Restrictions, Preemptive Rights and Call Options
Subject to certain exceptions, the Shareholders Agreement prohibits the Shareholders from transferring Shares. Under the Shareholders Agreement, the Shareholders have rights to participate in future securities offerings by AIC in proportion to their Share ownership.
In addition, under the Shareholders Agreement, if a Shareholder undergoes a change of control (as defined in the Shareholders Agreement), AIC will have, for a specified period of time, a right to repurchase the securities of AIC owned by that Shareholder. Any AIC securities not acquired by AIC may, for a specified period of time, be purchased by the Shareholders which did not undergo a change of control in proportion to their Share ownership.
Special Shareholder Approval Requirements
The Shareholders Agreement prohibits AIC from taking certain actions unless Shareholders owning 75% of the Shares owned by all Shareholders approve of such action in advance. Those actions include:
(a) any amendment to the articles of incorporation or bylaws of AIC;
(b) any merger of AIC;
(c) the sale of all or substantially all of AIC's assets;
(d) any reorganization or recapitalization of AIC; or
(e) any liquidation or dissolution of AIC.
The Shareholders Agreement requires AIC to comply in all material respects with applicable laws governing its business and operations. In addition, if by virtue of a Shareholder's ownership interest in AIC or actions taken by a Shareholder affecting AIC, the Shareholder triggers the application of any requirement or regulation on AIC or any subsidiary of AIC or any of their respective businesses, assets or operations, then the Shareholders Agreement generally requires that Shareholder to promptly take all actions necessary and fully cooperate with AIC to ensure that such requirements and regulations are satisfied without restricting, imposing additional obligations on or in any way limiting the business, assets, operations or prospects of AIC or any subsidiary of AIC. Also, the Shareholders Agreement requires each Shareholder to use best efforts to cause its shareholders, directors (or analogous position), nominees for director (or analogous position), officers, employees and agents to comply with any applicable laws impacting AIC or any of its subsidiaries or their respective businesses, assets or operations.
The Shareholders Agreement may be terminated at any time by Shareholders owning at least 75% of the issued and outstanding Shares owned by all Shareholders or upon the dissolution of AIC.
The foregoing description of the Shareholders Agreement is not complete and is qualified in its entirety by reference to the full text of the Shareholders Agreement, a copy of which is attached as Exhibit 10.33 to this Annual Report on Form 10-K. The Shareholders Agreement is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.
In furtherance of AIC's business and operations, AIC also intends to enter a management and administrative services agreement with RMR pursuant to which RMR will provide AIC certain management and administrative services and, as soon as practicable following the receipt by AIC of the amounts for the Second Subscription from the Shareholders, an investment advisory agreement with RMR Advisors, Inc., or Advisors, who is affiliated with RMR, pursuant to which Advisors will act as AIC's investment adviser.
We became a publicly owned company as a result of a spin off from Senior Housing on December 31, 2001, and we continue to have relationships with Senior Housing, including the lease arrangements with Senior Housing discussed elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Senior Housing is our largest landlord. RMR provides management services to us. Please see elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for a further description of our relationships with Senior Housing and RMR and our definitive proxy statement for the 2008 annual meeting of shareholders, which will be filed with the SEC not later than 120 days after the end of our fiscal year. In addition, RMR also provides management services to Senior Housing, HPT, HRPT and TA and we understand that those entities also have certain relationships with each other, such as lease arrangements for properties. We understand that further information regarding those relationships is provided in the applicable Shareholders' periodic reports filed with the SEC.
Amendment to our Bylaws
On February 27, 2009, our board of directors adopted an amendment to our bylaws, effective that same day. The amendment revised the advance notice procedures under our bylaws to require that a shareholder seeking to nominate any person for election as director or propose other business for consideration at an applicable meeting of our shareholders must have continuously held at least $2,000 in market value, or 1%, of our shares entitled to vote at the meeting on the election or the proposal of other business, as the case may be, for at least one year from the date the shareholder gives its advance notice and continuously hold those shares through and including the time of the meeting. The amendment provides that this requirement will not apply until April 1, 2010 with respect to a shareholder who continuously holds from and after April 1, 2009 shares entitled to vote at the meeting on such election or proposal of other business, as the case may be. For purposes of determining compliance with the $2,000 market value requirement, the amendment provides that the market value of our shares held by the applicable shareholder shall be determined by multiplying the number of shares such shareholder held continuously for that one year period by the highest selling price of our shares as reported on the principal national securities exchange on which our shares are listed for trading during the 60 calendar days before the date the shareholder's notice was submitted. The amendment also revised the advance notice procedures under our bylaws to require a shareholder seeking to nominate any person for election as director or propose other business for consideration at an applicable meeting of our shareholders to hold a certificate for all our shares owned by such shareholder during all times described with regard to a shareholder's qualifications for validly submitting a notice to nominate any person for election as director or propose other business for consideration at an applicable meeting of our shareholders, including the time periods referred to above. The amendment also applied the foregoing requirements to the process for shareholders seeking to have a special meeting of our shareholders called. The amendment also included certain other conforming changes.
We have a code of business conduct and ethics that applies to all our representatives, including our officers and directors. Our code of business conduct and ethics is posted on our website, www.fivestarqualitycare.com. A printed copy of our code of business conduct and ethics is also available free of charge to any person who requests a copy by writing to our Secretary, Five Star Quality Care, Inc., 400 Centre Street, Newton, MA 02458. We intend to disclose any amendments to our code of business conduct and ethics or waivers applicable to our principal executive officer, principal financial officer, principal accounting officer or controller (or any person performing similar functions) on our website.
The remainder of the information required by Item 10 is incorporated by reference to our definitive Proxy Statement, which will be filed not later than 120 days after the end of our fiscal year.
The information required by Item 11 is incorporated by reference to our definitive Proxy Statement, which will be filed not later than 120 days after the end of our fiscal year.
Equity Compensation Plan Information
We may grant options and common shares to our officers, directors, employees and other individuals who render services to us, subject to vesting requirements under our 2001 Stock Option and Stock Incentive Plan, as amended, or the Plan. In addition, each of our directors receives 5,250 shares per year as part of his or her annual compensation for serving as a director and such shares may be awarded under the Plan. The terms of grants made under the Plan are determined by our board of directors or a committee thereof at the time of the grant. The following table is as of December 31, 2008.
The remainder of the information required by Item 12 is incorporated by reference to our definitive Proxy Statement, which will be filed not later than 120 days after the end of our fiscal year.
The information required by Item 13 is incorporated by reference to our definitive Proxy Statement, which will be filed not later than 120 days after the end of our fiscal year.
The information required by Item 14 is incorporated by reference to our definitive Proxy Statement, which will be filed not later than 120 days after the end of our fiscal year.
Item 15. Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules
to Financial Statements
All other schedules for which provision is made in the applicable accounting regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission are not required under the related instructions, or are inapplicable, and therefore have been omitted.
To the Board of Directors and Shareholders of Five Star Quality Care, Inc.
We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheet of Five Star Quality Care, Inc., as of December 31, 2008 and 2007, and the related consolidated statements of operations, shareholders' equity and cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2008. These financial statements are the responsibility of the Company's management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on these financial statements based on our audits.
We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States). Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement. An audit includes examining, on a test basis, evidence supporting the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. An audit also includes assessing the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall financial statement presentation. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.
In our opinion, the financial statements referred to above present fairly, in all material respects, the consolidated financial position of Five Star Quality Care, Inc. at December 31, 2008 and 2007, and the consolidated results of their operations and their cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2008, in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles.
We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States), the effectiveness of Five Star Quality Care, Inc.'s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2008, based on criteria established in Internal ControlIntegrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission and our report dated February 24, 2009 expressed an unqualified opinion thereon.
To the Board of Directors and Shareholders of Five Star Quality Care, Inc.
We have audited Five Star Quality Care, Inc.'s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2008, based on criteria established in Internal ControlIntegrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (the COSO criteria). Five Star Quality Care, Inc.'s management is responsible for maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting, and for its assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting included in Item 9A of Five Star Quality Care Inc.'s Annual Report on Form 10-K. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the company's internal control over financial reporting based on our audit.
We conducted our audit in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States). Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether effective internal control over financial reporting was maintained in all material respects. Our audit included obtaining an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, assessing the risk that a material weakness exists, testing and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of internal control based on the assessed risk, and performing such other procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. We believe that our audit provides a reasonable basis for our opinion.
A company's internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. A company's internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (1) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the company; (2) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the company; and (3) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the company's assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.
Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.
In our opinion, Five Star Quality Care, Inc. maintained, in all material respects, effective internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2008, based on the COSO criteria.
We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States), the consolidated balance sheets of Five Star Quality Care, Inc. as of December 31, 2008 and 2007, and the related consolidated statements of operations, shareholders' equity, and cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2008 of Five Star Quality Care, Inc. and our report dated February 24, 2009 expressed an unqualified opinion thereon.
See accompanying notes.
See accompanying notes.
See accompanying notes.