Franklin Resources 10-K 2009
Documents found in this filing:
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
For the fiscal year ended September 30, 2009
For the transition period from to
Commission file number 001-09318
FRANKLIN RESOURCES, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Registrants telephone number, including area code: (650) 312-2000
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.
x YES ¨ NO
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.
¨ YES x NO
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.
x YES ¨ NO
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).
x YES ¨ NO
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K (§229.405 of this chapter) is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrants knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K. ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See definition of large accelerated filer, accelerated filer and smaller reporting company in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).
¨ YES x NO
The aggregate market value of the voting common equity (common stock) held by non-affiliates of the registrant, as of March 31, 2009 (the last business day of registrants second quarter of fiscal year 2009), was approximately $8.2 billion based upon the last sale price reported for such date on the New York Stock Exchange. For purposes of this calculation, shares of common stock held or controlled by executive officers and directors of the registrant and by persons who hold more than 5% of the outstanding shares of common stock have been treated as shares held by affiliates. However, such treatment should not be construed as an admission that any such person is an affiliate of the registrant. The registrant has no non-voting common equity.
Number of shares of the registrants common stock outstanding at October 31, 2009: 229,249,998.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE:
Certain portions of the registrants definitive proxy statement for its annual meeting of stockholders, to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission within 120 days after September 30, 2009, are incorporated by reference into Part III of this report.
INDEX TO ANNUAL REPORT ON FORM 10-K
Forward-looking Statements. In addition to historical information, this Annual Report on Form 10-K contains forward-looking statements that involve a number of known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other important factors, including the risks and other factors discussed in Item 1A (Risk Factors), that could cause the actual results and outcomes to differ materially from any future results or outcomes expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements. When used in this report, words or phrases generally written in the future tense and/or preceded by words such as will, may, could, expect, believe, anticipate, intend, or other similar words are forward-looking statements as defined in the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Moreover, statements in Risk Factors, Managements Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (MD&A) and elsewhere in this report that speculate about future events are forward-looking statements. While forward-looking statements are our best prediction at the time that they are made, you should not rely on them. If a circumstance occurs after the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K that causes any of our forward-looking statements to be inaccurate, we do not have an obligation, and we undertake no obligation, to announce publicly the change to our expectations, or to make any revision to our forward-looking statements, unless required by law.
Franklin Resources, Inc. (Franklin) is a holding company that, together with its various subsidiaries (collectively, the Company), is referred to as Franklin Templeton Investments®, a global investment management organization offering investment choices under the Franklin®, Templeton®, Mutual Series®, Bissett®, Fiduciary and Darby® brand names. Franklin is regulated as a bank holding company under the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956, as amended (the BHC Act), and has elected to be a financial holding company under the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act (the GLB Act). The common stock of Franklin is traded on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) under the ticker symbol BEN, and is included in the Standard & Poors 500 Index. In this report, words such as we, us, our and similar terms refer to the Company. When used in this report, unless the context otherwise makes clear, our funds means all of the Franklin, Templeton, Mutual Series and Bissett mutual funds.
In our primary business and operating segment, investment management and related services, we provide services to investment funds and institutional, high net-worth and separately-managed accounts (collectively, our sponsored investment products) in the United States (U.S.) and internationally. As of September 30, 2009, we had $523.4 billion in assets under our management with approximately 21.4 million billable shareholder accounts worldwide. Our investment management and related services include fund administration, shareholder services, transfer agency, underwriting, distribution, custodial, trustee and other fiduciary services. Our sponsored investment products include a broad range of equity, hybrid, fixed-income and cash management funds and accounts. Cash management funds consist of U.S.-registered money market funds and non-U.S.-registered funds with similar investment objectives. We also manage certain sub-advised investment products, some of which may be sold to the public under our brand names.
The investment funds that we manage have various investment objectives designed to meet the needs and goals of different investors. Most of the investment funds we manage are mutual funds, also known as open-end funds that continuously offer their shares to investors. We also offer closed-end funds that issue a set number of shares to investors in a public offering and the shares are then traded on a public stock exchange. The funds themselves do not have direct employees. To support their operations, the funds contract with separate entities to provide investment management, administrative, custody, transfer agency,
operational and other services required by the fund. An investment advisory entity would manage a funds portfolio of securities in accordance with the funds stated objectives. Investors may purchase shares of a closed-end fund on the stock exchange where the fund is traded, while investors may purchase shares of an open-end fund through a broker/dealer, bank or other intermediary which may provide investment advice to the investor. An open-end fund will typically pay fees to distributors that market and distribute the funds shares to broker/dealers who sell the shares directly to investors. Broker/dealers and other intermediaries may earn commissions and receive other compensation with respect to the shares sold to investors.
In our secondary business and operating segment, banking/finance, we provide clients with select retail banking, private banking and consumer lending services through our bank subsidiaries.
When the fiscal year ended September 30, 2009 (fiscal year 2009) began, global markets were experiencing unprecedented volatility, and, although the financial markets began to show stabilization and improvement as the fiscal year came to an end, an uncertain business climate is forecast for the foreseeable future. We continue to focus on the investment performance of our sponsored investment products and to seek to provide high quality customer service to our clients. The success of these and other strategies may be affected by the factors discussed below in Item 1A Risk Factors of this Annual Report, and other factors as discussed herein.
COMPANY HISTORY AND ACQUISITIONS
The Company and its predecessors have been engaged in the investment management and related services business since 1947. Franklin was incorporated in Delaware in November 1969. We originated our mutual fund business with the Franklin family of funds, which is now known as the Franklin Funds. We expanded our business, in part, by acquiring companies engaged in the investment management and/or related services business.
In October 1992, we acquired substantially all of the assets and liabilities of the investment management and related services business of Templeton, Galbraith & Hansberger Ltd. This acquisition added the Templeton family of funds to our organization. The Templeton funds are known for their global investment strategies and value style of investing.
In November 1996, we acquired certain assets and liabilities of Heine Securities Corporation, which provided investment management services to various accounts and investment companies, including Mutual Series Fund Inc., now known as Franklin Mutual Series Fund Inc. (Mutual Series). Mutual Series is known for its value-oriented equity funds.
We expanded our business in Korea in July 2000 when we purchased all of the remaining outstanding shares of a Korean asset management company, Ssangyong Templeton Investment Trust Management Co., Ltd. (currently known as Franklin Templeton Investment Trust Management Co., Ltd.), in which we previously held a partial interest. The acquisition has made us one of the larger independent foreign money managers in that country.
We acquired all of the outstanding shares of Bissett & Associates Investment Management Ltd. (Bissett) in October 2000. Bissett now operates as part of our Canadian subsidiary, Franklin Templeton Investments Corp. With the acquisition of Bissett, we added Bissetts family of mutual funds to our then existing Canadian based funds (some of which we previously acquired as part of the Templeton family of funds) and expanded our investment management services throughout Canada to a broad range of clients, including institutional clients such as pension plans, municipalities, universities, charitable foundations and private clients.
In April 2001, we acquired Fiduciary Trust Company International (Fiduciary Trust), a bank organized under the New York State Banking Law. Following the acquisition, Fiduciary Trust became a wholly-owned subsidiary of Franklin. Fiduciary Trust provides investment management and related services to institutional clients and high net-worth families and individuals. With the acquisition of Fiduciary Trust, we also added Fiduciary Trusts mutual funds to our product line.
In July 2002, our subsidiary, Franklin Templeton Asset Management (India) Private Limited (FTAMIPL), acquired all of the outstanding shares of Pioneer ITI AMC Limited (Pioneer). In April 2007, we completed the purchase of the remaining 25% interest in each of FTAMIPL and Franklin Templeton Trustee Services Private Limited, each located in India. We are currently one of the largest private sector asset managers in India.
In October 2003, we acquired all of the remaining outstanding shares of Darby Overseas Investments, Ltd. and all of the remaining outstanding limited partnership interests of Darby Overseas Partners, L.P. (collectively, Darby). Darby, based in Washington, D.C., sponsors and manages funds for institutional investors and high net-worth individuals that invest primarily in emerging markets, private equity, and mezzanine finance transactions, including regional and specialized sector funds.
In July 2006, we completed the purchase of all of the remaining interests in a Brazilian asset management company, Bradesco Templeton Asset Management Ltda., in which we previously held a partial interest. Upon acquisition, the company was renamed Franklin Templeton Investimentos (Brasil) Ltda.
LINES OF BUSINESS
We derive substantially all of our revenues from providing investment management and related services to our sponsored investment products and the sub-advised accounts that we manage. Our revenues depend to a large extent on the amount of assets under management and the types of investment management services provided. Underwriting and distribution fees, also a large source of our revenues, consist of sales charges and commissions derived from sales of our sponsored investment products and distribution fees.
Our investment management business is primarily conducted through our subsidiaries, including through subsidiaries registered with the United States Securities and Exchange Commission (the SEC) as investment advisers under the Investment Advisers Act of 1940, as amended (the Advisers Act), subsidiaries registered as equivalent investment advisers in jurisdictions including Australia, Brazil, Canada, Hong Kong, India, Japan, Korea, Singapore, The Bahamas and the United Kingdom (U.K.), and certain other subsidiaries.
Fees for providing investment management and related services (investment management fees), substantially all of our revenue, are generally based upon the monetary value of assets in the accounts that we advise, the investment category of the account and the types of services that we provide for an account. As of September 30, 2009, the types of assets under management by investment category for the various services described below and held by investors on a worldwide basis were:
Broadly speaking, the change in the net assets of our sponsored investment products depends primarily upon two factors: (1) the increase or decrease in the market value of the securities held in the portfolio of investments; and (2) the level of sales (inflows) as compared to the level of redemptions (outflows). We are subject to the risk of asset volatility, resulting from changes in the financial and equity markets, including changes due to the recent volatility in global financial markets. In addition, because we generally derive higher revenues and income from our equity assets, a shift in assets from equity to fixed-income or hybrid funds reduces total revenue and, thus, net income. Despite such a risk of volatility, we believe that we are more competitive as a result of the greater diversity of our sponsored investment products available to our customers.
We provide investment management services pursuant to agreements in effect with each of our sponsored investment products, which include U.S.-registered open-end and closed-end funds (U.S. Funds), non-U.S.-registered funds (Non-U.S. Funds), unregistered funds, institutional, high net-worth and separately-managed accounts, and the sub-advised accounts that we manage. Investment management services include services to managed accounts with full investment discretion, and to advisory accounts with no investment discretion. Advisory accounts for which we do not have investment discretion may or may not include the authority to trade for the account. Our investment management services include fundamental investment research and valuation analyses, including original economic, political, industry and company research, and analyses of suppliers, customers and competitors. Our company research includes the utilization of such sources as company public records and activities, management interviews, company prepared information, and other publicly available information, as well as company visits and inspections. In addition, research services provided by brokerage firms are used to support our findings. Our management fee on an account varies, among other things, upon the types of services that we provide for the account.
Our subsidiaries providing discretionary investment management services for our sponsored investment products and sub-advised accounts either perform or obtain investment research and determine which securities the sponsored investment products or sub-advised accounts will purchase, hold or sell under the supervision and oversight of the funds boards of directors or trustees, if applicable. In addition, these subsidiaries take all appropriate steps to implement such decisions, including arranging for the selection of brokers and dealers and the execution and settlement of trades in accordance with detailed criteria set forth in the management agreement for each account, internal policies, and applicable law and practice. Our subsidiaries conducting non-discretionary investment management services perform investment research for our clients and recommend which securities the clients will purchase, hold or sell. In such cases, the subsidiaries may or may not perform trading activities for the products.
The funds themselves do not have direct employees. Through our subsidiaries, we provide and pay the salaries of personnel who serve as officers of our funds, including the administrative personnel necessary to conduct such funds day-to-day business operations. Our subsidiaries either provide or arrange for the provision of: office space, telephone, office equipment and supplies; trading desk facilities (unless these facilities are provided by another subsidiary); authorization of expenditures and approval of bills for payment; preparation of annual and semi-annual reports to fund shareholders, notices of dividends, capital gains distributions and tax credits, and other regulatory reports; the daily pricing of fund investment portfolios, including collecting quotations from pricing services; accounting services, including preparing and supervising publication of daily net asset value quotations, periodic earnings reports and other financial data; services to ensure compliance with securities regulations, including recordkeeping requirements; preparation and filing of tax reports; the maintenance of accounting systems and controls; and other administrative services. In some cases our subsidiaries are compensated, based on a percentage of assets under management, under separate administration agreements with the funds. In other cases, our investment management subsidiary compensates our subsidiaries from fees received from our funds and clients. The funds generally pay their own expenses, such as external legal, custody and independent audit fees, regulatory registration fees, and other related expenses. The funds also share in board and shareholder meeting and reporting costs.
For the most part, the investment management agreements for our U.S. Funds must be renewed each year (after an initial two-year term), and must be specifically approved at least annually by a vote of each funds board of directors or trustees as a whole and separately by the directors/trustees that are not interested persons of such fund under the Investment Company Act of 1940 (the Investment Company Act), or by a vote of the holders of a majority of such funds outstanding voting securities.
Under the majority of investment management agreements, the funds pay us a monthly fee in arrears based upon a funds average daily net assets. Annual fee rates under the various global investment management agreements generally range from 0.15% to a maximum of 2.50% and are often reduced as net assets exceed various threshold levels.
We use a master/feeder fund structure in certain situations. This structure allows an investment adviser to manage a single portfolio of securities at the master fund level and have multiple feeder funds that invest all of their respective assets into the master fund. Individual and institutional shareholders invest in the feeder funds, which can offer a variety of service and distribution options. A management fee typically is charged at the master fund level and administrative and shareholder servicing fees are charged at the feeder fund level, although with certain funds, all fees may be charged at the feeder fund level.
Each U.S. investment management agreement between certain of our subsidiaries and each U.S. Fund automatically terminates in the event of its assignment, as defined in the Investment Company Act. In addition, either party may terminate the agreement without penalty after written notice ranging from 30 to
60 days. If agreements representing a significant portion of our assets under management were terminated, it would have a material adverse impact on us.
Our investment management agreements generally permit us to provide investment management services to more than one fund and to other clients so long as our ability to render services to each of the funds is not impaired, and so long as purchases and sales of portfolio securities for various advised funds are made on an equitable basis.
Our management personnel and the fund directors or trustees regularly review the investment management services fee structures for U.S. Funds in light of fund performance, the level and range of services provided, industry conditions and other relevant factors. Investment management services fees are generally waived or voluntarily reduced when a new fund is established and then increased to contractual levels within an established timeline or as net asset values reach certain levels.
Our non-U.S. Funds, unregistered funds, institutional, high net-worth and separately-managed accounts, and the sub-advised accounts that we manage, have various termination rights and review and renewal provisions.
A significant portion of our revenues under the investment management and related services operating segment are generated from providing underwriting and distribution services. Franklin/Templeton Distributors, Inc. (FTDI), a wholly-owned subsidiary of Franklin, acts as the principal underwriter and distributor of shares of most of our open-end U.S. Funds. Certain of our non-U.S. subsidiaries provide underwriting and distribution services to our Non-U.S. Funds distributed outside the United States. Some of our Non-U.S. Funds, particularly the Luxembourg-domiciled Franklin Templeton Investment Funds Société dInvestissement à Capital Variable (SICAV), are distributed globally on a cross-border basis, while others are distributed exclusively in local markets. We earn underwriting and distribution fees primarily by distributing the funds pursuant to distribution agreements between FTDI or such non-U.S. subsidiaries and the funds. Under each distribution agreement, we offer and sell the funds shares on a continuous basis and pay certain costs associated with underwriting and distributing the funds shares, including the costs of developing and producing sales literature and printing prospectuses, which may be then either partially or fully reimbursed by the funds.
Most of our retail funds are distributed with a multi-class share structure. We adopted this share structure to provide investors with more sales charge alternatives for their investments. Class A shares represent a traditional fee structure whereby, unless the investor qualifies for a sales charge waiver, the investor pays a commission at the time of purchase. Class B shares, which are available in some of our Non-U.S. Funds and in the Section 529 college savings plan that we manage and distribute, have no front-end sales charges, but instead have a declining schedule of sales charges (called contingent deferred sales charges) if the investor redeems within a number of years from the original purchase date. Although our open-end U.S. Funds that had offered Class B shares no longer offer these shares, existing Class B shareholders may continue to exchange shares into Class B shares of different funds and may continue to reinvest dividends on Class B shares in additional Class B shares. Class C shares have no front-end sales charges, but do have a back-end sales charge for redemptions within 12 months from the date of purchase. Class R shares are available for purchase by certain retirement, college savings and health savings plan accounts in the United States only. Outside of the United States, we offer additional share classes in response to local needs.
In the United States, we offer Advisor Class shares in many of our funds, and we offer Class Z shares in the Mutual Series funds, both of which have no sales charges. Franklin Global Trust offers a share class with no sales charge primarily to high net-worth or institutional investors. Advisor and Class Z shares are
offered to certain qualified financial intermediaries, institutions and high net-worth clients (both affiliated and unaffiliated) who have assets held in accounts managed by a subsidiary of Franklin and are also available to our full-time employees, current and former officers, trustees and directors. In the United States, we also offer money market funds to investors without a sales charge. Under the terms and conditions described in the prospectuses or the statements of additional information for some funds, certain investors can purchase shares at net asset value or at reduced sales charges. Outside the United States, we offer share classes similar to the Advisor Class shares to certain types of investors, although depending upon the fund and the country(ies) in which the fund is domiciled, the equivalent share class may be offered on a more restrictive or less restrictive basis than the similar U.S. Advisor Class shares.
Some of our insurance product funds offered for sale in the United States offer a four-class share structure, Class 1, Class 2, Class 3 and Class 4 shares, which are offered at net asset value without a sales charge directly to insurance company separate accounts.
Internationally, we offer types of share classes based on the local needs of the investors in a particular market. In the majority of cases, investors in any class of shares may exchange their shares for a like class of shares in another fund, subject to certain fees that may apply. Our Non-U.S. Funds have sales charges and fee structures that vary by region.
The distribution agreements with our open-end U.S. Funds generally provide for FTDI to pay commission expenses for sales of fund shares to qualifying broker/dealers and other intermediaries. These broker/dealers receive various sales commissions and other fees from FTDI for services in matching investors with funds whose investment objectives match such investors goals and risk profiles. Broker/dealers may also receive fees for their assistance in explaining the operations of the funds, in servicing the investors account, reporting and various other distribution services. Fund shares are sold primarily through a large network of independent intermediaries, including broker/dealers, banks and other similar financial advisers. We are heavily dependent upon these distribution channels and business relationships. FTDI may make payments to certain broker/dealers who provide marketing support services, as described further below. There is increasing competition for access to these channels, which has caused our distribution costs to rise and could cause further increases in the future as competition continues and service expectations increase. As of September 30, 2009, approximately 1,800 local, regional and national securities brokerage firms offered shares of our open-end U.S. Funds for sale to the U.S. investing public, and approximately 3,400 banks, securities firms and financial advisers offered shares of our cross-border Non-U.S. Funds for sale outside of the United States. In the United States, we have approximately 100 general wholesalers who interface with the broker/dealer community.
Most of our open-end U.S. Funds, with the exception of certain of our money market funds as well as certain high net-worth and institutional funds, have adopted distribution plans (the Plans) under Rule 12b-1 promulgated under the Investment Company Act (Rule 12b-1). The Plans are established for an initial term of one year and, thereafter, must be approved annually by each funds board of directors or trustees and by a majority of its directors or trustees who are not interested persons of the fund under the Investment Company Act (the disinterested fund directors/trustees). All of these Plans are subject to termination at any time by a majority vote of the disinterested fund directors/trustees or by the particular fund shareholders. Fees from the Plans that FTDI receives as revenue are paid primarily to third-party broker/dealers who provide services to the shareholder accounts and engage in distribution activities. The Plans permit the funds to bear certain expenses relating to the distribution of their shares, such as expenses for marketing, marketing support, advertising, printing and sales promotion, and may provide for the funds to reimburse such expenses that FTDI incurs in distributing the funds, subject to the Plans limitations on amounts. Each fund has a percentage limit for these types of expenses based on average daily net assets under management.
Similar arrangements exist with the distribution of our Non-U.S. Funds where, generally, our subsidiary that distributes the funds in the local market arranges for and pays commissions and certain other fees to banks and other intermediaries, a portion of which fees is paid from maintenance fees received by the subsidiary and a portion of which may derive from the management fees paid to our various affiliates by the funds.
Class C shares are generally more costly to us in the year of sale, but they allow us to be competitive by increasing our presence in various distribution channels. Historically, Class B (or equivalent) and certain of our Class C deferred commission assets (DCA) arising from our U.S., Canadian and European operations were financed through transfers to or other arrangements with a company in which we held a 49% ownership interest as of September 30, 2009. We are in the process of selling our ownership interests in this company to the holder of the 51% ownership interest and expect to complete this divestiture in the fiscal year ending September 30, 2010 (fiscal year 2010). In September 2009, all DCA held by this company was sold to FTDI or the holder of the 51% ownership interest, and repayments to the company under these financing arrangements have been discontinued.
FTDI and/or its affiliates may make the following additional payments to broker/dealers that sell shares of our funds:
Marketing support payments. FTDI may make payments to certain broker/dealers who are holders or dealers of record for accounts in one or more of our open-end U.S. Funds. Consistent with the provisions and limitations set forth in a funds Rule 12b-1 Plan, the fund may reimburse a broker/dealer for the cost of some or all of the marketing support payments. A broker/dealers marketing support services may include business planning assistance, advertising, educating broker/dealer personnel about the funds and shareholder financial planning needs, placement on the broker/dealers list of offered funds, and access to sales meetings, sales representatives and management representatives of the broker/dealer. FTDI compensates broker/dealers differently depending upon, among other factors, sales and asset levels, redemption rates and the level and/or type of marketing and educational activities provided by the broker/dealer. Such compensation may include financial assistance to broker/dealers that enable FTDI to participate in and/or present at conferences or seminars, sales or training programs for invited registered representatives and other employees, client and investor events and other broker/dealer-sponsored events. These payments may vary depending upon the nature of the event. FTDI periodically reviews its marketing support arrangements to determine whether to continue such payments. In the case of any one broker/dealer, marketing support payments may not exceed the sum of 0.08% of that broker/dealers current years total sales of our U.S. Funds and 0.05% (or 0.03%) of the total assets of equity (or fixed income) of our U.S. Funds attributable to that broker/dealer, on an annual basis. The statement of additional information for each retail U.S. Fund, provided to investors in such funds upon request, provides a list of broker/dealers that receive such marketing support payments. FTDI may also make marketing support payments to financial intermediaries that serve as plan service providers to certain employer sponsored retirement plans. Marketing support or similar payments made to intermediaries located outside the United States, with respect to investments in Non-U.S. Funds, may exceed the above-stated limitations.
Transaction support payments. FTDI may pay ticket charges of up to $20 per purchase or exchange order placed by a broker/dealer or one-time payments for ancillary services, such as setting up funds on a broker/dealers fund trading system.
Other payments. From time to time, FTDI, at its expense, may make additional payments to broker/dealers that sell or arrange for the sale of shares of our U.S. Funds. FTDI routinely sponsors due diligence meetings for registered representatives during which they receive updates on various funds and are afforded the opportunity to speak with portfolio managers. Invitation to these meetings is not conditioned on selling a specific number of shares. Those who have shown an interest in our funds, however, are more likely to be
considered. To the extent permitted by their firms policies and procedures, registered representatives expenses in attending these meetings may be covered by FTDI. Similar payments may be made by our internal Non-U.S. Fund distributors, to third party distributors of our non-U.S. Funds.
Other compensation may be offered to the extent not prohibited by federal or state laws or any self-regulatory agency, such as the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (FINRA). FTDI makes payments for events it deems appropriate, subject to FTDIs guidelines and applicable law.
One of our subsidiaries, Franklin Templeton Investor Services, LLC (FTIS), serves as shareholder servicing and dividend-paying agent for our open-end U.S. Funds. FTIS is registered with the SEC as a transfer agent under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. Generally, FTIS is compensated under an agreement with each fund on the basis of an annual per account fee that varies with the fund and the type of services being provided. FTIS also is reimbursed for out-of-pocket expenses. Other subsidiaries provide similar services to our non-U.S. Funds, and in some cases are compensated based on assets under management.
FTIS may also pay servicing fees to third-party intermediaries primarily to help offset costs associated with client account maintenance support, statement preparation and transaction processing. Such third parties: (i) maintain omnibus accounts with the fund in the institutions name on behalf of numerous beneficial owners of fund shares; or (ii) provide support for fund shareholder accounts by sharing account data with FTIS through the National Securities Clearing Corporation networking system. The funds reimburse FTIS for these third party payments.
Through Fiduciary Trust (including its trust company and investment adviser subsidiaries), we provide investment management services to, among others, high net-worth individuals and families. Similarly, through our Canadian high net-worth business unit, Fiduciary Trust Company of Canada (FTCC), we provide investment management services and offer sponsored investment products to high net-worth individuals and families. Our high net-worth client business seeks to maintain relationships that span generations and help families plan the most appropriate method of intergenerational wealth transfer.
Individual client assets are typically held in accounts separately managed by individual portfolio managers. These portfolio managers determine asset allocation and stock selection for client accounts, taking into consideration each clients specific long-term objectives while utilizing our macroeconomic and individual stock research.
Fiduciary Trust services that focus on managing family wealth from generation to generation include wealth management, estate planning, private banking, tax and custody services. We offer clients personalized attention and estate planning expertise in an integrated package of services known as Family Resource Management® (FRM). Services under FRM provide clients with an integrated strategy to optimize wealth accumulation and maximize after-tax wealth transfer to the next generation. Evaluation of third-party investment management products or services is performed by the Strategic Advisory Group, an investment advisory group within Fiduciary Trust.
We provide a broad array of investment management services to institutional clients, focusing on foundations, endowment funds and government and corporate pension funds. Our subsidiaries offer a wide range of both U.S. and international equity, fixed-income and specialty strategies through a variety of investment vehicles, including separate accounts, open-end and closed-end funds and unregistered funds.
We generally operate our institutional business under the trade name Franklin Templeton Institutional. Through various legal entities, including Franklin Templeton Institutional, LLC and various non-U.S. subsidiaries, we distribute and market globally the different investment management capabilities of our various investment management subsidiaries under the Franklin, Templeton, Mutual Series, Bissett and Darby brand names. We primarily attract new institutional business through our strong relationships with pension and management consultants and through additional mandates from our existing client relationships.
Our U.S. retirement business is conducted through divisions of FTDI that work closely with sponsors, consultants, record keepers and financial advisors of defined contribution plans, including 401(k) plans, variable annuity products and individual retirement accounts (IRAs). We offer our asset management capabilities to the U.S. retirement industry through a number of investment options, including sub-advised portfolios, funds, education savings plans and variable insurance funds.
Through our various subsidiaries, we also market and distribute our sponsored investment products to separately-managed accounts. Our subsidiaries, Franklin Templeton Financial Services Corp. and Templeton/Franklin Investment Services, Inc., also serve as direct marketing broker/dealers for institutional investors for certain of our institutional mutual funds, private investment funds and unregistered funds.
Through various trust company subsidiaries, including Fiduciary Trust, we offer a wide range of investment management and related services, including trust services, custody and administration, estate planning, tax planning, and private banking, to high net-worth individuals, families, foundations and institutional clients. In addition, we also offer our clients a series of other services, including foreign exchange, performance measurement and securities lending. We provide planned giving administration and related custody services for non-profit organizations, including pooled income funds, charitable remainder trusts, charitable lead trusts and gift annuities, for which we may or may not act as trustee.
Our other subsidiaries involved in the trust business, either as trust companies or companies investing in trust companies, include: Fiduciary Investment Corporation, which is incorporated under the New York State Banking Law and serves as an indirect holding company for several of our trust company subsidiaries; FTCC, a trust company incorporated under the Trust and Loan Companies Act in Canada; Fiduciary Trust International of the South, a Florida state-chartered limited purpose trust company; Fiduciary Trust International of California, a California state-chartered limited purpose trust company; Fiduciary Trust International of Delaware, a Delaware state-chartered limited purpose trust company; FTCI (Cayman) Ltd., an offshore trust company holding an unrestricted trust license in the Cayman Islands; and Franklin Templeton Bank & Trust, F.S.B. (FTB&T), a chartered federal savings bank. All of the trust companies referenced above have full trust powers. FTB&T, among other functions, exercises full trust powers and serves primarily as custodian of IRAs and business retirement plans.
Darby is primarily engaged in sponsoring and managing funds that invest in private equity and mezzanine finance transactions in emerging markets in Asia, Latin America and Central/Eastern Europe. Darby offers these investment funds through private placements to institutional and high net-worth individual investors.
In addition, Templeton Asset Management Ltd., an investment adviser, sponsors and manages a limited number of private equity funds, which also invest primarily in emerging markets in Asia, Latin America and Central/Eastern Europe.
Our sponsored investment products are offered globally to retail, institutional, high net-worth and separate account clients, which include individual investors, qualified groups, trustees, tax-deferred (such as IRAs in the United States and retirement saving plans, or RSPs, in Canada) or money purchase plans, employee benefit and profit sharing plans, trust companies, bank trust departments and institutional investors. Our sponsored investment products include portfolios managed for some of the worlds largest corporations, endowments, charitable foundations, pension funds, wealthy individuals and other institutions. We use various investment techniques to focus on specific client objectives for these specialized portfolios.
The sponsored investment products that we offer accommodate a variety of investment goals, spanning the spectrum of our clients risk tolerance from capital appreciation (with our more growth-oriented products) to capital preservation (with our fixed-income offerings). In seeking to achieve such objectives, each portfolio emphasizes different strategies and invests in different types of securities.
Our equity investment products include some that are considered value-oriented, others that are considered growth-oriented, and some that use a combination of growth and value characteristics, generally identified as blend or core products. Value investing focuses on identifying companies that our research analysts and portfolio managers believe are undervalued based on a number of different factors, usually put in the context of historical ratios such as price-to-earnings or price-to-book value; however, we also consider the future earnings potential of each individual company on a multi-year basis. Growth investing focuses on identifying companies that our research analysts and portfolio managers believe have sustainable growth characteristics, meeting our criteria for sustainable growth potential, quality and valuation. In this effort, the key variables we examine include: market opportunity (overall size and growth); competitive positioning of the company; assessment of management (strength, breadth, depth, and integrity) and execution of plans; and the general financial strength and profitability of the enterprise, to determine whether the growth and quality aspects are properly reflected in the current share price. Paramount to all of our different equity products is the incorporation of independent, fundamental research through our own collaborative in-house group of investment professionals. Our approach, across the variety of equity products we manage, emphasizes bottom-up stock selection within a disciplined portfolio construction process, and is complemented by our ongoing assessment of risk at both the security and portfolio levels.
Portfolios seeking income generally focus on one or more of the following securities: taxable and tax-exempt money market instruments; tax-exempt municipal bonds; global fixed-income securities; and fixed-income debt securities of corporations, of the U.S. government and its sponsored agencies and instrumentalities, such as the Government National Mortgage Association, the Federal National Mortgage Association and the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation, or of the various states in the United States. Others focus on investments in particular countries and regions.
As of September 30, 2009 we had $523.4 billion in assets under management. Our open-end U.S. Funds (excluding our insurance products trust) accounted for $273.6 billion of our assets under management. As of September 30, 2009, our five largest open-end U.S. Funds and their net assets under management were Franklin Income Fund ($47.4 billion), Templeton Global Bond Fund ($19.2 billion), Templeton Growth Fund ($18.9 billion), Mutual Global Discovery Fund ($15.1 billion) and Mutual Shares Fund ($15.0 billion). These five funds represented, in the aggregate, approximately 22% of all of our sponsored investment product assets under management.
Franklin Templeton Variable Insurance Products Trust, our insurance products trust, offers 22 funds to U.S. investors, with assets of $27.8 billion as of September 30, 2009. Our insurance products funds are available as investment options through variable insurance contracts and are also sold to certain funds of funds. Most of the insurance products funds have been fashioned after some of our more popular retail U.S. Funds offered to the general public and are managed, in most cases, by the same investment advisors.
We also provide investment management and related services to a number of closed-end investment companies whose shares are traded on various major U.S. stock exchanges. Our closed-end U.S. Funds accounted for $4.2 billion of our assets under management.
In addition, $94.3 billion of our assets under management were held in open-end and closed-end funds that are sold outside of the United States, and whose investment objectives vary, but are largely international and global equity and global fixed-income oriented. We provide investment management, marketing and distribution services to SICAV funds, contract-type funds and umbrella unit trusts organized in Luxembourg and Ireland, respectively, which are distributed in non-U.S. market places, as well as to locally organized funds in various countries outside the United States. In some countries, we offer products for the particular local market. For example, Franklin Templeton Asset Management (India) Private Limited, one of our subsidiaries in India, manages various local open-end and closed-end funds offered to investors in India, with assets under management of $5.9 billion as of September 30, 2009.
Our private investment funds, typically structured as limited partnerships or companies, which include our Darby products, accounted for $2.3 billion of our assets under management.
On a company-wide basis, our institutional, separate, high net-worth and other accounts accounted for $121.2 billion of assets under management.
In an effort to address changing market conditions and evolving investor needs, we periodically introduce new funds, merge existing funds or liquidate existing funds. The following table shows the various types of our open-end U.S. Funds and dedicated insurance product funds as of September 30, 2009 categorized by investment classification:
OPEN-END U.S. FUNDS
The following table sets forth the types of our open-end Non-U.S. Funds as of September 30, 2009 categorized by investment classification and sales region.
OPEN-END NON-U.S. FUNDS1
Our secondary business segment is banking/finance, which offers select retail banking, private banking and consumer lending services.
One of our subsidiaries, Fiduciary Trust, a New York state-chartered bank, with total assets of $788.7 million and total external customer deposits of $493.5 million as of September 30, 2009, is insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC), and provides private banking services primarily to high net-worth clients who maintain trust, custody and/or management accounts. Fiduciary Trusts private banking and credit products include, among others, loans secured by marketable securities, deposit accounts and other banking services. Deposits generally include demand and savings deposits, primarily from our private banking clients. Fiduciary Trust also offers investment management, custody and related services to high net-worth individuals and families and to institutional accounts.
Another of our subsidiaries, Franklin Capital Corporation (FCC), engages primarily in the purchase, securitization and servicing of retail installment sales contracts (automobile contracts) originated by independent automobile dealerships. FCC is incorporated and headquartered in Utah and conducts its business primarily in the Western region of the United States. As of September 30, 2009, FCCs total assets included $31.5 million of outstanding automobile loan principal, $110.6 million of trading securities, representing retained interests in FCC securitizations, and $1.0 million in other fixed term assets. During fiscal year 2009, FCC had no automobile loan securitization transactions. As of September 30, 2009, FCC was servicing $551.4 million of receivables that had been securitized to date. See Note 9 Securitization of Loans Held for Sale in the notes to the consolidated financial statements in Item 8 of Part II of this Form 10-K.
Our securitized automobile contracts business is subject to marketplace fluctuation and competes with businesses with significantly larger portfolios. Automobile loan portfolio losses can be influenced significantly by trends in the economy and credit markets, which reduce borrowers ability to repay loans. A more detailed analysis of loan losses and delinquency rates in our consumer lending and dealer automobile loan business is contained in Note 9 Securitization of Loans Held for Sale in the notes to the consolidated financial statements in Item 8 of Part II of this Form 10-K. See also Risk Factors in Item 1A of Part I of this Form 10-K.
Our subsidiary FTB&T, a chartered federal savings bank, with total assets of $327.2 million and total external customer deposits of $171.1 million as of September 30, 2009, is insured by the FDIC. FTB&T provides general consumer loan products, such as credit card loans, unsecured loans, loans secured by marketable securities, mortgage loans, debit card products and automobile loans, and a limited number of commercial real estate loans. FTB&Ts deposit products generally include demand, savings and time deposits from the general public and brokered time deposits. FTB&T also provides Advisor Director Trust®, a directed trust service.
FINANCIAL INFORMATION ABOUT SEGMENTS AND GEOGRAPHIC AREAS
Certain financial information by business segment and geographic area is contained in Note 18 Segment Information in the notes to consolidated financial statements in Item 8 of Part II of this Form 10-K, which is incorporated herein by reference.
Virtually all aspects of our business are subject to various federal, state, and international regulation and supervision. In the U.S., we are subject to regulation and supervision by, among others, the SEC, FINRA, the Federal Reserve Board (the FRB), the FDIC, the Office of Thrift Supervision (OTS) and the New York State Banking Department (NYSBD). To the extent our operations or trading in our securities take place outside the U.S., we are subject to regulation by non-U.S. regulations and regulators, and U.S. regulations and regulators such as the Department of Justice and the SEC with respect to the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977. Globally, we are subject to regulation and supervision by, among others, the Australian Securities and Investment Commission; the Securities Commission of The Bahamas; the Comissão de Valores Mobiliários in Brazil; the Office of the Superintendent of Financial Institutions Canada as well as provincial and territorial regulators of financial services and securities in Canada and the Mutual Fund Dealers Association of Canada; the Cayman Islands Regulatory Authority; the China Securities Regulatory Commission; the Autorité des Marchés Financiers in France; the Federal Financial Supervisory Authority in Germany; the Securities and Futures Commission of Hong Kong; the Securities and Exchange Board of India; the Irish Financial Services Regulatory Authority; the Commissione Nazionale per le Società e la Borsa in Italy; the Financial Services Agency in Japan; the Korean Ministry of Finance and Economy, the Financial Supervisory Commission and the Financial Supervisory Services in
Korea; the Commission de Surveillance du Secteur Financier in Luxembourg; the Malaysian Securities Commission; the Comision Nacional Bancaria y de Valores in Mexico; the Autoriteit Financiële Markten in The Netherlands; the Polish Securities and Exchange Commission; the Monetary Authority of Singapore; the Comisión Nacional del Mercado de Valores in Spain; the Finansinspektionen in Sweden; the Swiss Federal Banking Commission; the Taiwan Securities and Futures Bureau, the Ministry of Finance and the Commerce Department, Ministry of Economic Affairs in Taiwan; the Dubai Financial Services Authority in the United Arab Emirates; the Financial Services Authority in the United Kingdom; and the State Securities Commission of Vietnam.
The Advisers Act imposes numerous obligations on certain of our subsidiaries registered with the SEC as investment advisers, including record keeping, operating and marketing requirements, disclosure obligations and prohibitions on fraudulent activities. The Investment Company Act imposes similar obligations on the investment companies that are advised by our subsidiaries. The SEC is authorized to institute proceedings and impose sanctions for violations of the Advisers Act and the Investment Company Act, ranging from fines and censure to termination of an investment advisers registration.
The Company and many of the investment companies advised by our various subsidiaries are subject to federal securities laws and state securities and corporate laws, including those affecting corporate governance, such as the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and rules adopted by the SEC. As a NYSE-listed company, we are also subject to the rules of the NYSE, including its corporate governance standards. The federal securities laws have also been augmented by other measures, including the USA Patriot Act of 2001.
FINRA Conduct Rules limit the amount of aggregate sales charges that may be paid in connection with the purchase and holding of investment company shares sold through broker/dealers. The effect of the rule is to limit the amount of fees that could be paid pursuant to a funds Rule 12b-1 Plan to FTDI, our principal underwriting and distribution subsidiary in the United States, which earns underwriting commissions on the distribution of fund shares in the United States.
Following the acquisition of Fiduciary Trust in April 2001, Franklin registered as a bank holding company under the BHC Act and became subject to supervision, regulation and examination by the FRB. Franklin also elected to become a financial holding company in 2001. Under FRB policy, a bank holding company, including a financial holding company, is expected to act as a source of financial strength to each of its banking subsidiaries. In addition, bank holding companies should pay cash dividends on common stock only out of income available from the previous fiscal year and only if prospective earnings retention is consistent with anticipated future needs and financial condition.
The FRB also has adopted a system of risk-based capital guidelines to evaluate the capital adequacy of most bank holding companies, including Franklin. Under these guidelines, Franklin and our banking subsidiaries must meet specific capital adequacy requirements that involve quantitative measures of our assets, liabilities and certain off-balance sheet items as calculated under regulatory accounting practices. To be considered well capitalized under the FRB capital guidelines, a bank holding company or bank must maintain a minimum Tier 1 leverage ratio of five percent, a minimum Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio of six percent and a minimum total risk-based capital ratio of ten percent. As of September 30, 2009, our Tier 1 leverage, Tier 1 risk-based capital and total risk-based capital ratios were 75%, 97% and 97%. In addition, both Fiduciary Trust and FTB&T were well capitalized as of September 30, 2009. A depository institution generally is prohibited from making capital distributions, including paying dividends, or paying management fees to a holding company if the institution would thereafter be undercapitalized. Moreover, undercapitalized institutions may not accept, renew or roll over brokered deposits. Bank regulators are required to take prompt corrective action to resolve any problems associated with insured depository institutions, such as Fiduciary Trust and FTB&T, if they become undercapitalized. The GLB Act, however, generally prohibits the FRB from imposing similar capital requirements on regulated non-bank subsidiaries of a financial holding company.
Pursuant to the GLB Act, a bank holding company may elect to become a financial holding company to engage in a broader range of activities that are financial in nature, including securities underwriting, dealing and market making, securitizing assets, sponsoring mutual funds and investment companies, engaging in insurance underwriting and brokerage activities and investing (without providing routine management) in companies engaged in non-financial activities. To qualify as a financial holding company, each of a bank holding companys U.S. subsidiary banks and other depository institution subsidiaries, which are not subject to an exemption, must be and remain at all times well capitalized and well managed. In addition, each such subsidiary must have achieved at least a satisfactory rating under the Community Reinvestment Act (CRA) in the evaluation preceding the financial holding company election. While FTB&T is subject to CRA requirements, Fiduciary Trust remains exempt from such requirements because it qualifies as a special purpose bank. If, however, we do not continue to meet all of the requirements for status as a financial holding company, we would, depending on which requirement is not met, be required to (i) cause Fiduciary Trust or FTB&T to meet such requirement and, in the meantime, seek prior FRB approval to undertake certain new activities or certain banking and non-banking acquisitions, or (ii) either discontinue our banking (but not our thrift) business, or discontinue those activities not generally permissible for bank holding companies.
The BHC Act generally requires that a bank holding company obtain prior approval of the FRB before acquiring control of any bank. In addition, the FRB may impose limitations, restrictions, or prohibitions on the activities or acquisitions of a financial holding company if the FRB believes that the financial holding company does not have appropriate financial and managerial resources. The GLB Act establishes the FRB as the umbrella supervisor for financial holding companies and adopts an administrative approach to regulation that generally requires the FRB to defer to the actions and requirements of the U.S. functional regulators of subsidiary broker/dealers, investment advisers, investment companies, insurance companies, and other regulated non-depository institutions. The FRB, however, retains broad authority to prohibit activities of bank holding companies and their non-banking subsidiaries that represent unsafe and unsound banking practices or that constitute violations of law or regulation. Civil money penalties may be imposed for certain activities conducted on a knowing or reckless basis if those activities cause a substantial loss to the bank holding company.
Each of our banking subsidiaries is subject to restrictions under federal law that limit transactions with Franklin and its non-bank subsidiaries, including loans and other extensions of credit, investments, or asset purchases. These and various other transactions, including any payment of money to Franklin and its non-bank subsidiaries, must be on terms and conditions that are, or in good faith would be, offered to companies that are not affiliated with these entities. In addition, these laws and related regulations may limit the Companys ability to obtain funds from subsidiary banks or affiliates.
The operations and activities of Fiduciary Trust are subject to extensive regulation, supervision and examination by the FDIC and NYSBD while the operations and activities of our other subsidiaries, including FTB&T, are subject to oversight by the OTS and various state regulators. The laws and regulations of these regulators generally impose restrictions and requirements, with which we must comply, on capital adequacy, anti-money laundering, management practices, liquidity, branching, earnings, loans, dividends, investments, reserves against deposits and the provision of services.
The federal banking agencies and the NYSBD have broad enforcement powers, including the power to terminate deposit insurance, impose substantial fines and other civil and criminal penalties and appoint a conservator or receiver. Failure to comply with applicable laws, regulations and supervisory agreements could subject Franklin, our thrift and banking subsidiaries, as well as officers, directors and other so-called institution-affiliated parties of these organizations to administrative sanctions and potentially substantial civil money penalties. In addition, the appropriate federal banking agency may appoint the FDIC as conservator or receiver for a banking institution, or the FDIC may appoint itself if certain circumstances exist.
The financial services industry is highly competitive and has increasingly become a global industry. There are approximately 9,700 open-end investment funds of varying sizes, and with varying investment policies and objectives, whose shares are offered to the public in the United States, and there are approximately 54,000 open-end investment funds whose shares are offered to the public outside the United States. Due to our international presence and varied product mix, it is difficult to assess our market position relative to other asset managers on a worldwide basis, but we believe that we are one of the more widely diversified asset managers based in the United States. We believe that our equity and fixed-income asset mix coupled with our global presence will serve our competitive needs well over the long term. We continue to focus on the performance of our investment products, service to customers and extensive marketing activities through our strong broker/dealer and other financial institution distribution network as well as with high net-worth and institutional customers. We believe that performance, diversity of products and customer service, along with fees and costs, are the primary drivers of competition in the asset management industry.
We face strong competition from numerous asset management companies, mutual fund, stock brokerage and investment banking firms, insurance companies, banks, savings and loan associations and other financial institutions, which offer a wide range of financial and investment management services to the same institutional accounts, separate accounts, retail investors and high net-worth customers that we are seeking to attract. Over the past decade, a significant number of new asset management firms and investment products have been established, increasing competition. Many of our competitors have long-standing and established relationships with broker/dealers and investment adviser customers. Others have focused on, offer and market specific product lines, which are able to provide strong competition to certain of our asset classes, since we have a broad range of products. Recently, there also has been a trend of consolidation in the financial services industry, resulting in stronger competitors, some with greater financial resources and broader distribution channels than our own.
We rely largely on intermediaries to distribute and sell our fund shares. We have and continue to pursue sales relationships with all types of intermediaries to broaden our distribution network. We have experienced increased costs related to maintaining our distribution channels and we anticipate that this trend will continue. A failure to maintain strong business relationships with the major intermediaries who currently distribute our products may also impair our distribution and sales operations. Any inability to access and successfully sell our products to clients through third-party distribution channels could have a negative effect on our level of assets under management, related revenues and overall business and financial condition.
We maintain an Internet platform to compete with rapidly developing and evolving technology capabilities. However, technology is subject to rapid change and we cannot guarantee that our competitors may not implement more advanced Internet platforms for their products, which could affect our business.
We believe that we are well positioned to deal with changes in marketing trends as a result of our already extensive advertising activities and broad based marketplace recognition. We conduct advertising and promotional campaigns through various media sources to promote brand recognition. We advertise in major financial publications, as well as on radio, television and the Internet to promote brand name recognition and to assist our distribution network. Such activities include purchasing network and cable programming, sponsorship of sporting events, and extensive newspaper and magazine advertising.
Diverse and strong competition affects the banking/finance segment of our business as well, and limits the fees that can be charged for our services. For example, in our banking/finance segment we compete with many types of institutions for consumer loans, including the finance subsidiaries of large automobile manufacturers, which offer special incentives, including no-interest loans, from time to time to stimulate automobile sales. These product offerings by our competitors limit the interest rates that we can charge on consumer loans.
We have used, registered, and/or applied to register certain trademarks, service marks and trade names to distinguish our sponsored investment products and services from those of our competitors in the United States and in other countries and jurisdictions, including, but not limited to, Franklin®, Templeton®, Mutual Series®, Bissett®, Fiduciary and Darby®. Our trademarks, service marks and trade names are important to us and, accordingly, we enforce our trademark, service mark and trade name rights. The Franklin Templeton Investments® brand has been, and continues to be, extremely well received both in our industry and with our clients, reflecting the fact that our brand, like our business, is based in part on trust and confidence. If our brand is harmed, our future business prospects may be adversely affected.
As of September 30, 2009, we employed approximately 7,700 employees and operated offices in 31 countries. We consider our relations with our employees to be satisfactory.
Franklin files reports with the SEC, including current and periodic reports, proxy statements and other information filed with or furnished to the SEC from time to time. The public may read and copy any of these filings at the SECs Public Reference Room at 100 F Street, N.E., Washington, D.C. 20549. Information on the operation of the Public Reference Room can be obtained by calling the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330.
The SEC also maintains an Internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers, including Franklin, who file electronically with the SEC, at http://www.sec.gov. Additional information about the Company can also be obtained at our website at www.franklinresources.com under Investor Relations on the Our Company page. We make available free of charge on our website our Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish it to, the SEC.
Corporate Governance Guidelines. The Company has adopted Corporate Governance Guidelines. The Corporate Governance Guidelines are posted on the Companys website under Corporate Governance on the Our Company page and are available in print to any stockholder who requests a copy.
Committee Charters. The Companys Board of Directors has an Audit Committee, Compensation Committee and Corporate Governance Committee. The Board of Directors has adopted written charters for each such committee, which are posted on the Companys website under Corporate Governance on the Our Company page and are available in print to any stockholder who requests a copy.
Volatility and disruption of the capital and credit markets, and adverse changes in the global economy, may significantly affect our results of operations and may put pressure on our financial results. The capital and credit markets have experienced substantial volatility and disruption during the past fiscal year. Although global market conditions have shown some stabilization and improvement, the decline in global market conditions has in the past resulted in significant decreases in our assets under management, revenues and income, and future declines may negatively impact our performance. Such declines have had and may in the future have an adverse impact on our results of operations. Even if legislative or regulatory initiatives
or other efforts successfully stabilize and add liquidity to the financial markets, we may need to modify our business, strategies or operations, and we may be subject to additional constraints or costs in order to satisfy new regulatory requirements or to compete in a changed business environment.
The amount and mix of our assets under management are subject to significant fluctuations. Fluctuations in the amount and mix of our assets under management may be attributable in part to market conditions outside of our control that have had, and could continue to have, a negative impact on our revenues and income. We derive the majority of our operating revenues and net income from providing investment management and related services. The level of our revenues depends largely on the level and mix of assets under management. Any decrease in the value or amount of our assets under management because of market volatility or other factors negatively impacts our revenues and income. We are subject to an increased risk of asset volatility from changes in the global financial and equity markets. Individual financial and equity markets may be adversely affected by economic, political, financial, or other instabilities that are particular to the country or regions in which a market is located, including without limitation local acts of terrorism, economic crises or other business, social or political crises. Declines in these markets have caused in the past, and would cause in the future, a decline in our revenues and income. Global economic conditions, exacerbated by war or terrorism or financial crises, changes in the equity market place, currency exchange rates, interest rates, inflation rates, the yield curve, defaults by derivative counterparties and other factors that are difficult to predict affect the mix, market values and levels of our assets under management. The funds we manage may be subject to an unanticipated large number of redemptions as a result of such events, causing the funds to sell securities they hold, possibly at a loss, or draw on any available lines of credit to obtain cash to settle these redemptions, or settle in-kind with securities held in the applicable fund. The Company, in its discretion, may also provide financial support to a fund to enable it to maintain sufficient liquidity in such event. Our investment management services revenues are derived primarily from fees based on a percentage of the value of assets under management and vary with the nature of the account or product managed. A decline in the price of stocks or bonds, or in particular market segments, or in the securities market generally, could cause the value and returns on our assets under management to decline, resulting in a decline in our revenues and income. Moreover, changing market conditions may cause a shift in our asset mix between international and U.S. assets, potentially resulting in a decline in our revenue and income depending upon the nature of our assets under management and the level of management fees we earn based on them. Additionally, changing market conditions may cause a shift in our asset mix towards fixed-income products and a related decline in our revenue and income, as we generally derive higher fee revenues and income from equity assets than from fixed-income products we manage. On the other hand, increases in interest rates, in particular if rapid, or high interest rates, as well as any uncertainty in the future direction of interest rates, may have a negative impact on our fixed-income products as rising interest rates or interest rate uncertainty typically decrease the total return on many bond investments due to lower market valuations of existing bonds. Any decrease in the level of our assets under management resulting from price declines, interest rate volatility or uncertainty, increased redemptions or other factors could negatively impact our revenues and income.
We are subject to extensive and complex, overlapping and frequently changing rules, regulations and legal interpretations. Our investment management and related services business and our banking/finance business are subject to extensive and complex, overlapping and frequently changing rules, regulations and legal interpretations in the countries in which we operate, including, among others, securities, banking, accounting and tax laws and regulations. Moreover, financial reporting requirements, and the processes, controls and procedures that have been put in place to address them, are often comprehensive and complex. While management has focused attention and resources on our compliance policies, procedures and practices, non-compliance with applicable laws or rules or regulations, conflicts of interest requirements or fiduciary principles, or our inability to keep up with, or adapt to, an ever changing, complex regulatory environment could result in sanctions against us, including fines and censures, injunctive relief, suspension
or expulsion from a particular jurisdiction or market or the revocation of licenses, any of which could also adversely affect our reputation, prospects, revenues, and earnings.
We are subject to U.S. federal securities laws, state laws regarding securities fraud, other federal and state laws and rules and regulations of certain regulatory and self-regulatory organizations, including those rules and regulations promulgated by, among others, the SEC, the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority and the New York Stock Exchange. To the extent operations or trading in our securities take place outside the United States, we are subject to regulation by non-U.S. regulations and regulators, such as the U.K. Financial Services Authority, and U.S. regulations and regulators such as the Department of Justice and the SEC with respect to the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977. Certain of our subsidiaries are registered with the SEC under the Investment Advisers Act of 1940 and many of our funds are registered with the SEC under the Investment Company Act of 1940, both of which impose numerous obligations, as well as detailed operational requirements, on our subsidiaries which are investment advisers to registered investment companies. Our subsidiaries must comply with a myriad of complex and changing U.S. and/or non-U.S. rules and regulations, some of which may conflict, as well as complex tax regimes. Additionally, as we expand our operations, sometimes rapidly, into non-U.S. jurisdictions, the rules and regulations of these non-U.S. jurisdictions become applicable, sometimes with short compliance deadlines, and add further regulatory complexity to our ongoing compliance operations.
In addition, we are a bank holding company and a financial holding company subject to the supervision and regulation of the Federal Reserve Board (the FRB) and are subject to the restrictions, limitations, or prohibitions of the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956, as amended, and the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act. The FRB may impose additional limitations or restrictions on our activities, including if the FRB believes that we do not have the appropriate financial and managerial resources to commence or conduct an activity or make an acquisition. Further, our subsidiary, Fiduciary Trust, is subject to extensive regulation, supervision and examination by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation and New York State Banking Department, while other subsidiaries are subject to oversight by the Office of Thrift Supervision and various state regulators. The laws and regulations imposed by these regulators generally involve restrictions and requirements in connection with a variety of technical, specialized, and expanding matters and concerns. For example, compliance with anti-money laundering and Know-Your-Customer requirements, both domestically and internationally, and the Bank Secrecy Act has taken on heightened importance with regulators as a result of efforts to, among other things, limit terrorism. At the same time, there has been increased regulation with respect to the protection of customer privacy and the need to secure sensitive customer information. As we continue to address these requirements or focus on meeting new or expanded ones, we may expend a substantial amount of time and resources, even though our banking/finance business does not constitute our dominant business sector. Any inability to meet these requirements, within the timeframes set by regulators, may subject us to sanctions or other restrictions by the regulators that could impact our broader business. Moreover, being subject to banking regulation may put us at a disadvantage compared to our competitors which are not subject to such requirements.
Regulatory and legislative actions and reforms have made the regulatory environment in which we operate more costly and future actions and reforms could adversely impact our assets under management, increase costs and negatively impact our profitability and future financial results. Since 2001, the federal securities laws have been augmented substantially and made significantly more complex by, among other measures, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and the USA Patriot Act of 2001. Moreover, changes in the interpretation or enforcement of existing laws or regulations have directly affected our business. With new laws and changes in interpretation and enforcement of existing requirements, the associated time we must dedicate to, and related costs we must incur in, meeting the regulatory complexities of our business have increased. These outlays have also increased as we expand our business into new jurisdictions. Compliance activities to meet these new legal requirements have required us to expend additional time and resources,
and, consequently, we are incurring increased costs of doing business, which potentially negatively impacts our profitability and future financial results. Moreover, any potential accounting or reporting error, whether financial or otherwise, if material, could damage our reputation, adversely affect our ability to conduct business, and decrease revenue and net income. Finally, any regulatory and legislative actions and reforms affecting the mutual fund industry, including compliance initiatives, may negatively impact revenues by increasing our costs of accessing or dealing in the financial markets or by making certain investment offerings less favorable to our customers.
Changes in tax laws or exposure to additional income tax liabilities could have a material impact on our financial condition, results of operations and liquidity. We are subject to income taxes as well as non-income based taxes, in both the United States and various foreign jurisdictions and are subject to ongoing tax audits in various jurisdictions. Tax authorities may disagree with certain positions we have taken and assess additional taxes. We regularly assess the likely outcomes of these audits in order to determine the appropriateness of our tax provision. However, there can be no assurance that we will accurately predict the outcomes of these audits, and the actual outcomes of these audits could have a material impact on our net income or financial condition. Changes in tax laws or tax rulings could materially impact our effective tax rate. For example, proposals for fundamental U.S. international tax reform, such as the recent proposal by the Obama administration, if enacted, could have a significant adverse impact on our future results of operations.
Our ability to maintain the beneficial tax treatment we anticipate with respect to non-U.S. earnings we have repatriated is based on current interpretations of the American Jobs Creation Act of 2004 (the Jobs Act) and permitted use of such amounts in accordance with our domestic reinvestment plan and the Jobs Act. In September 2006, we completed our planned repatriation into the United States of undistributed earnings of our non-U.S. subsidiaries in accordance with our domestic reinvestment plan and the Jobs Act. However, our ability to maintain the anticipated beneficial tax treatment with respect to these non-U.S. earnings is subject to current interpretations and compliance with the Jobs Act (including Internal Revenue Code Section 965), as well as the rules and regulations promulgated by, among others, the Internal Revenue Service and the United States Treasury Department. Moreover, changes in the interpretation of these rules and regulations may have an effect on our ability to maintain the beneficial tax treatment with respect to our repatriated non-U.S. earnings. Our inability to appropriately use repatriated amounts for permitted purposes or to otherwise satisfy the requirements of our planned repatriation could also have a negative impact on the scope and breadth of our anticipated tax treatment with respect to such amounts.
Any significant limitation or failure of our software applications, technology or other systems that are critical to our operations could constrain our operations. We are highly dependent upon the use of various proprietary and third-party software applications and other technology systems to operate our business. We use our technology to, among other things, obtain securities pricing information, process client transactions, and provide reports and other customer services to the clients of the funds we manage. Any inaccuracies, delays, or systems failures in these and other processes could subject us to client dissatisfaction and losses. Although we take protective measures, including measures to effectively secure information through system security technology, our technology systems may still be vulnerable to unauthorized access, computer viruses or other events that have a security impact, such as an authorized employee or vendor inadvertently causing us to release confidential information, which could materially damage our operations or cause the disclosure or modification of sensitive or confidential information. Moreover, loss of confidential customer identification information could harm our reputation and subject us to liability under laws that protect confidential personal data, resulting in increased costs or loss of revenue.
Further, although we take precautions to password protect our laptops and other mobile electronic hardware, if such hardware is stolen, misplaced or left unattended, it may become vulnerable to hacking or
other unauthorized use, creating a possible security risk and resulting in potentially costly actions by us. Most of the software applications that we use in our business are licensed from, and supported, upgraded and maintained by, third-party vendors. A suspension or termination of certain of these licenses or the related support, upgrades and maintenance could cause temporary system delays or interruption. In addition, although we currently outsource to a single third-party vendor the operation of our U.S. data centers, we are revising our operations such that the majority of the services currently performed by the vendor will be performed by us and by a separate third-party vendor in the future. The failure by the current vendor to provide adequate transition support services in connection with the termination and transition of their services, or the failure by us or the new third-party vendor to adequately perform the services performed by the current vendor, could have an adverse impact on our business. Although we have in place certain disaster recovery plans, we may experience system delays and interruptions as a result of natural disasters, power failures, acts of war, and third-party failures. Technology is subject to rapid change and we cannot guarantee that our competitors may not implement more advanced Internet platforms for their products, which could affect our business. Potential system failures or breaches, or advancements in technology, and the cost necessary to address them, could result in material financial loss or costs, regulatory actions, breach of client contracts, reputational harm or legal claims and liability, which in turn could negatively impact our revenues and income.
Our investment management business operations are complex and a failure to properly perform operational tasks or the misrepresentation of our products and services could have an adverse effect on our revenues and income. Through our subsidiaries, we provide investment management and related services to funds and institutional, high net-worth and separately-managed accounts (collectively, our sponsored investment products). Our investment management and related services include fund administration, shareholder services, transfer agency, underwriting, distribution, custodial, trustee and other fiduciary services. In order to be competitive, we must properly perform our fund and portfolio administration and related responsibilities, including portfolio recordkeeping and accounting, security pricing, corporate actions, investment restrictions compliance, daily net asset value computations, account reconciliations, and required distributions to fund shareholders. In addition, the intentional or unintentional misrepresentation of our products and services in advertising materials, public relations information or other external communications could adversely affect our reputation and business prospects. Further, certain of our subsidiaries may act as general partner for various investment partnerships, which may subject them to liability for the partnerships liabilities. If we fail to properly perform and monitor our investment management operations, our business could suffer and our revenues and income could be adversely affected.
We face risks, and corresponding potential costs and expenses, associated with conducting operations and growing our business in numerous countries. We sell mutual funds and offer investment management and related services in many different regulatory jurisdictions around the world, and intend to continue to expand our operations internationally. As we do so, we will continue to face challenges to the adequacy of our resources, procedures and controls to consistently and effectively operate our business. In order to remain competitive, we must be proactive and prepared to implement necessary resources when growth opportunities present themselves, whether as a result of a business acquisition or rapidly increasing business activities in particular markets or regions. As we grow, we face a heightened risk that the necessary resources and/or personnel will be unavailable to take full advantage of strategic opportunities when they appear or that strategic decisions can be efficiently implemented. Local regulatory environments may vary widely, as may the adequacy and sophistication of each. Similarly, local distributors, and their policies and practices as well as financial viability, may be inconsistent or less developed or mature. Notwithstanding potential long-term cost savings by increasing certain operations, such as transfer agent and other back-office operations, in countries or regions of the world with lower operating costs, growth of our international operations may involve near-term increases in expenses as well as additional capital costs,
such as information, systems and technology costs and costs related to compliance with particular regulatory or other local requirements or needs. Local requirements or needs may also place additional demands on sales and compliance personnel and resources, such as meeting local language requirements, while also integrating personnel into an organization with a single operating language. Finding and hiring additional, well-qualified personnel and crafting and adopting policies, procedures and controls to address local or regional requirements remain a challenge as we expand our operations internationally. Moreover, regulators in non-U.S. jurisdictions could also change their policies or laws in a manner that might restrict or otherwise impede our ability to distribute or register investment products in their respective markets. Any of these local requirements, activities, or needs could increase the costs and expenses we incur in a specific jurisdiction without any corresponding increase in revenues and income from operating in the jurisdiction. In addition, from time to time we enter into international joint ventures in which we may not have control. These investments in joint ventures may involve risks, including the risk that the controlling joint venture partner may have business interests, strategies or goals that are inconsistent with ours, and the risk that business decisions or other actions or omissions of the controlling joint venture partner or the joint venture company may result in harm to our reputation or adversely affect the value of our investment in the joint venture.
We depend on key personnel and our financial performance could be negatively affected by the loss of their services. The success of our business will continue to depend upon our key personnel, including our portfolio and fund managers, investment analysts, investment advisers, sales and management personnel and other professionals as well as our executive officers and business unit heads. Competition for qualified, motivated, and highly skilled executives, professionals and other key personnel in the asset management and banking/finance industries remains significant. Our success depends to a substantial degree upon our ability to attract, retain, and motivate qualified individuals, including through competitive compensation packages, and upon the continued contributions of these people. As our business grows, we are likely to need to increase correspondingly the overall number of individuals that we employ. Moreover, in order to retain certain key personnel, we may be required to increase compensation to such individuals, resulting in additional expense without a corresponding increase in potential revenue. We cannot assure you that we will be successful in attracting and retaining qualified individuals, and the departure of key investment personnel, in particular, if not replaced, could cause us to lose clients, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and business prospects.
Strong competition from numerous and sometimes larger companies with competing offerings and products could limit or reduce sales of our products, potentially resulting in a decline in our market share, revenues and net income. We compete with numerous asset management companies, mutual fund, stock brokerage, and investment banking firms, insurance companies, banks, savings and loan associations and other financial institutions. Our investment products also compete with products offered by these competitors as well as real estate investment trusts, hedge funds and others. The periodic establishment of new asset management companies and other competitors increases the competition that we face in our business. At the same time, consolidation in the financial services industry has created stronger competitors with greater financial resources and broader distribution channels than our own. Competition is based on various factors, including, among others, business reputation, investment performance, product mix and offerings, service quality and innovation, distribution relationships, and fees charged. Additionally, competing securities broker/dealers whom we rely upon to distribute and sell our mutual funds may also sell their own proprietary funds and investment products, which could limit the distribution of our investment products. To the extent that existing or potential customers, including securities broker/dealers, decide to invest in or distribute the products of our competitors, the sales of our products as well as our market share, revenues and net income could decline. Our ability to attract and retain assets under our management is also dependent on the relative investment performance of our funds and other managed investment portfolios, offering a mix of sponsored investment products that meets investor demand and our ability to maintain our investment management services fees at competitive levels.
Changes in the third-party distribution and sales channels on which we depend could reduce our revenues and hinder our growth. We derive nearly all of our fund sales through third-party broker/dealers and other similar investment advisers. Increasing competition for these distribution channels and recent regulatory initiatives have caused our distribution costs to rise and could cause further increases in the future or could otherwise negatively impact the distribution of our products. Higher distribution costs lower our net revenues and earnings. Additionally, recent consolidations in the broker/dealer industry could adversely impact our revenues and earnings. Moreover, if several of the major financial advisers who distribute our products were to cease operations or limit or otherwise end the distribution of our products, it could have a significant adverse impact on our revenues and earnings. There is no assurance we will continue to have access to the third-party broker/dealers and similar investment advisers that currently distribute our products, or continue to have the opportunity to offer all or some of our existing products through them. A failure to maintain strong business relationships with the major investment advisers who currently distribute our products may also impair our distribution and sales operations. Because we use broker/dealers and other similar investment advisers to sell our products, we do not control the ultimate investment recommendations given to clients. Any inability to access and successfully sell our products to clients through third-party distribution channels could have a negative effect on our level of assets under management, related revenues and overall business and financial condition.
Our increasing focus on international markets as a source of investments and sales of investment products subjects us to increased exchange rate and other risks in connection with earnings and income generated overseas. While we operate primarily in the United States, we also provide services and earn revenues in The Bahamas, Asia, Canada, Europe, Latin America, Africa, and Australia. As a result, we are subject to foreign exchange risk through our non-U.S. operations. Fluctuations in the exchange rates to the U.S. dollar may affect our financial results from one period to the next. While we have taken steps to reduce our exposure to foreign exchange risk, for example, by denominating a significant amount of our transactions in U.S. dollars, the situation may change in the future as our business continues to grow outside the United States. Appreciation of the U.S. dollar could moderate revenues from managing investment products internationally or could affect relative investment performance of certain funds invested in non-U.S. securities. However, depreciation of the U.S. dollar could positively affect our revenues from managing investment products internationally. Consequently, a downturn in international markets could have a significant effect on our revenues and income. Moreover, as our business grows in non-U.S. markets, any business, economic, social or political unrest affecting these markets, in addition to any direct consequences such unrest may have on our personnel and facilities located in the affected area, may also have a more lasting impact on the long-term investment climate in these and other areas and, as a result, our assets under management and the corresponding revenues and income that we generate from them may be negatively affected.
Poor investment performance of our products could affect our sales or reduce the level of assets under management, potentially negatively impacting our revenues and income. Our investment performance, along with achieving and maintaining superior distribution and client services, is critical to the success of our investment management and related services business. Strong investment performance often stimulates sales of our investment products. Poor investment performance as compared to third-party benchmarks or competitive products could lead to a decrease in sales of investment products we manage and stimulate redemptions from existing products, generally lowering the overall level of assets under management and reducing the management fees we earn. We cannot assure you that past or present investment performance in the investment products we manage will be indicative of future performance. Any poor investment performance may negatively impact our revenues and income.
We could suffer losses in earnings or revenue if our reputation is harmed. Our reputation is important to the success of our business. We believe that our Franklin Templeton Investments brand has been, and continues to be, well received both in our industry and with our clients, reflecting the fact that our brand,
like our business, is based in part on trust and confidence. If our reputation is harmed, existing clients may reduce amounts held in, or withdraw entirely from, funds that we advise or funds may terminate their management agreements with us, which could reduce the amount of assets under management and cause us to suffer a corresponding loss in earnings or revenue. Moreover, reputational harm may cause us to lose current employees and we may be unable to continue to attract new ones with similar qualifications, motivations, or skills. If we fail to address, or appear to fail to address, successfully and promptly the underlying causes of any reputational harm, we may be unsuccessful in repairing any existing harm to our reputation and our future business prospects would likely be affected.
Our future results are dependent upon maintaining an appropriate level of expenses, which is subject to fluctuation. The level of our expenses is subject to fluctuation and may increase for the following or other reasons: changes in the level and scope of our advertising expenses in response to market conditions; variations in the level of total compensation expense due to, among other things, bonuses, changes in our employee count and mix, and competitive factors; changes in expenses and capital costs, including costs incurred to maintain and enhance our administrative and operating services infrastructure or to cover uninsured losses and an increase in insurance expenses including through the assumption of higher deductibles and/or co-insurance liability.
Our ability to successfully integrate widely varied business lines can be impeded by systems and other technological limitations. Our continued success in effectively managing and growing our business depends on our ability to integrate the varied accounting, financial, information, and operational systems of our various businesses on a global basis. Moreover, adapting or developing our existing technology systems to meet our internal needs, as well as client needs, industry demands and new regulatory requirements, is also critical for our business. The constant introduction of new technologies presents new challenges to us. We have an ongoing need to continually upgrade and improve our various technology systems, including our data processing, financial, accounting, and trading systems. Further, we also must be proactive and prepared to implement technology systems when growth opportunities present themselves, whether as a result of a business acquisition or rapidly increasing business activities in particular markets or regions. These needs could present operational issues or require, from time to time, significant capital spending. It also may require us to reevaluate the current value and/or expected useful lives of our technology systems, which could negatively impact our results of operations.
Our inability to successfully recover should we experience a disaster or other business continuity problem could cause material financial loss, loss of human capital, regulatory actions, reputational harm, or legal liability. Should we experience a local or regional disaster or other business continuity problem, such as an earthquake, terrorist attack, pandemic or other natural or man-made disaster, our continued success will depend, in part, on the availability of our personnel, our office facilities, and the proper functioning of our computer, telecommunication and other related systems and operations. While our operational size, the diversity of locations from which we operate, and our redundant back-up systems provide us with a strong advantage should we experience a local or regional disaster or other business continuity event, we could still experience near-term operational challenges, in particular depending upon how a local or regional event may affect our human capital across our operations or with regard to particular segments of our operations, such as key executive officers or personnel in our technology group. Moreover, as we grow our operations in new geographic regions, the potential for particular types of natural or man-made disasters, political, economic or infrastructure instabilities, or other country- or region-specific business continuity risks increases. Past disaster recovery efforts have demonstrated that even seemingly localized events may require broader disaster recovery efforts throughout our operations and, consequently, we regularly assess and take steps to improve upon our existing business continuity plans and key management succession. However, a disaster on a significant scale or affecting certain of our key operating areas within or across regions, or our inability to successfully recover should we experience a disaster or
other business continuity problem, could materially interrupt our business operations and cause material financial loss, loss of human capital, regulatory actions, reputational harm, or legal liability.
Certain of the portfolios we manage, including our emerging market portfolios, are vulnerable to significant market-specific political, economic, or other risks, any of which may negatively impact our revenues and income. Our emerging market portfolios and revenues derived from managing these portfolios are subject to significant risks of loss from political, economic, and diplomatic developments, currency fluctuations, social instability, changes in governmental policies, expropriation, nationalization, asset confiscation and changes in legislation related to foreign ownership. International trading markets, particularly in some emerging market countries, are often smaller, less liquid, less regulated and significantly more volatile than those in the U.S.
Our revenues, earnings, and income could be adversely affected if the terms of our management agreements are significantly altered or these agreements are terminated by the funds and other sponsored investment products we advise. Our revenues are dependent on fees earned under investment management and related services agreements that we have with the funds and other sponsored investment products we advise. These revenues could be adversely affected if these agreements are altered significantly or terminated. The decline in revenue that might result from alteration or termination of our investment management services agreements could have a material adverse impact on our earnings or income.
Regulatory and governmental examinations and/or investigations, civil litigation relating to previously-settled regulatory and governmental investigations, and the legal risks associated with our business, could adversely impact our assets under management, increase costs and negatively impact our profitability and/or our future financial results. From time to time we may receive requests for documents or other information from governmental authorities or regulatory bodies or we also may become the subject of governmental or regulatory investigations and/or examinations. Moreover, governmental or regulatory investigations or examinations that have been inactive could become active. We may be obligated, and under our standard form of indemnification agreement with certain officers and directors in some instances, we are obligated, or we may choose, to indemnify directors, officers, or employees against liabilities and expenses they may incur in connection with such matters to the extent permitted under applicable law. In addition, we have been named as a defendant in mutual fund shareholder class action and fund derivative lawsuits, as well as in a corporate derivative lawsuit, that relate to previously settled regulatory and governmental investigations. While management believes that the claims made in these lawsuits are without merit, and intends to defend against them vigorously, litigation typically is an expensive process. Risks associated with legal liability often are difficult to assess or quantify and their existence and magnitude can remain unknown for significant periods of time. Moreover, settlements or judgments against us have the potential of being substantial if we are unsuccessful in settling or otherwise resolving matters early in the process and/or on favorable terms. Eventual exposures from and expenses incurred relating to current and future litigation, investigations, examinations and settlements could adversely impact our assets under management, increase costs and negatively impact our profitability and/or our future financial results. Judgments or findings of wrongdoing by regulatory or governmental authorities or in civil litigation against us could affect our reputation, increase our costs of doing business and/or negatively impact our revenues, any of which could have a material negative impact on our financial results.
Our ability to meet cash needs depends upon certain factors, including the market value of our assets, operating cash flows and our perceived credit worthiness. Our ability to meet anticipated cash needs depends upon factors such as the market value of our assets, our operating cash flows and our creditworthiness as perceived by lenders. If we are unable to obtain funds and financing, we may be forced to incur unanticipated costs or revise our business plans. Further, our access to the capital markets depends significantly on our credit ratings. A reduction in our long- or short-term credit ratings could increase our
borrowing costs and limit our access to the capital markets. Volatility in the global financing markets may also impact our ability to access the capital markets should we seek to do so, and have an adverse affect on investors willingness to purchase our securities, interest rates, credit spreads and the valuation levels of equity markets. If we are unable to obtain funds and financing, or access the capital markets in a timely manner, we may be forced to incur unanticipated costs or revise our business plans, and our business could be adversely impacted.
Diverse and strong competition limits the interest rates that we can charge on consumer loans. We compete with many types of institutions for consumer loans, certain of which can provide loans at significantly below-market interest rates or, in some cases, zero interest rates in connection with automobile sales. Our inability to compete effectively against these companies or to maintain our relationships with the various automobile dealers through whom we offer consumer loans could limit the growth of our consumer loan business. Economic and credit market downturns could reduce the ability of our customers to repay loans, which could cause losses to our consumer loan portfolio.
Our business could be negatively affected if we or our banking subsidiaries fail to remain well capitalized, and liquidity needs could affect our banking business. Our bank and thrift subsidiaries are subject to significant regulation and supervision, which includes minimum regulatory capital standards. Franklin is also subject to minimum regulatory capital standards because it is a bank holding company and financial holding company registered with the FRB under the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956. Franklin and its bank and thrift subsidiaries are currently well capitalized under applicable guidelines. However, our business could be negatively affected if Franklin or its bank or thrift subsidiaries failed to remain well capitalized. For example, because our bank and thrift subsidiaries are well capitalized and we otherwise qualify as a financial holding company, we are permitted to engage in a broader range of activities than are permitted to a bank holding company. Loss of financial holding company status would require that we either cease these broader activities or divest our bank subsidiaries if we desire to continue such activities. The banking regulators are authorized (and sometimes required) to impose a wide range of requirements, conditions, and restrictions on banks, thrifts, and bank holding companies that fail to maintain adequate capital levels. In addition, liquidity needs could affect our banking business, which may be subject to an unanticipated large number of withdrawals as a result of a number of factors, such as changed or unstable economic conditions, adverse trends or events, business closings and lay-offs, rates paid by competitors, general interest rate levels, and returns available to clients on alternative investments. Our banking subsidiaries may be required from time to time to rely on secondary sources of liquidity, such as the sale of investment securities, Federal Home Loan Bank (FHLB) advances and federal funds lines to enable them to meet such withdrawal demands. These secondary sources may not be sufficient to meet liquidity needs.
We are dependent on the earnings of our subsidiaries. Substantially all of our operations are conducted through our subsidiaries, as a result, our cash flow and our ability to fund operations are dependent upon the earnings of our subsidiaries and the distribution of earnings, loans or other payments by our subsidiaries. Our subsidiaries are separate and distinct legal entities and have no obligation to provide us with funds for our payment obligations, whether by dividends, distributions, loans or other payments. Any payments to us by our subsidiaries could be subject to statutory or contractual restrictions and are contingent upon our subsidiaries earnings and business considerations.
We conduct our worldwide operations using a combination of leased and owned facilities. While we believe we have sufficient facilities to conduct our business at present, we will continue to lease, acquire and dispose of facilities throughout the world as necessary.
We lease space in various states in the United States, including California, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, New Jersey, New York, Utah and the District of Columbia, and in various non-U.S. locations, including Australia, Austria, Brazil, Canada, China (including Hong Kong), France, Germany, India, Italy, Japan, Korea, Luxembourg, Malaysia, Mexico, The Netherlands, Poland, Russia, Singapore, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, the United Kingdom (including England and Scotland), and Vietnam. As of September 30, 2009, we leased and occupied approximately 1,219,000 square feet of space. We have also leased and subsequently subleased to third parties a total of 117,000 square feet of excess leased space.
In addition, we own four buildings in San Mateo, California, five buildings near Sacramento, California, two buildings in Stockton, California, five buildings in St. Petersburg, Florida, three buildings in Hyderabad, India and two buildings in Nassau, The Bahamas, as well as space in office buildings in Argentina, India and Singapore. The buildings we own consist of approximately 1,982,000 square feet of space. We have leased to third parties approximately 280,000 square feet of excess owned space.
We perform operations related to our investment management and related services in almost all locations. We perform operations related to our banking and finance business segment principally in New York, New York; Salt Lake City, Utah; and San Mateo, California.
The information set forth in response to this Item 3 of Regulation S-K under Legal Proceedings is incorporated by reference from the Legal Proceedings section in Note 15 Commitments and Contingencies in the notes to the consolidated financial statements in Item 8 of Part II of this Form 10-K, which is incorporated herein by reference.
During the fourth quarter of the fiscal year covered by this report, no matter was submitted to a vote of the security holders of Franklin.
EXECUTIVE OFFICERS OF THE REGISTRANT
Pursuant to General Instruction G(3) to Form 10-K, the following description of our executive officers is included as an unnumbered item in Part I of this report in lieu of being included in our definitive proxy statement for our annual meeting of stockholders. Set forth below are the name, age, present title, and certain other information for each of our executive officers as of November 15, 2009. Each executive officer is appointed by Franklins Board of Directors and holds his/her office until the earlier of his/her death, resignation, retirement, disqualification or removal.
VIJAY C. ADVANI
Executive Vice PresidentGlobal Distribution of Franklin since June 2008, and formerly Executive Vice PresidentGlobal Advisor Services of Franklin from December 2005 to June 2008; officer and/or
director of various subsidiaries of Franklin; employed by Franklin or its subsidiaries in various other capacities for more than the past five years.
PENELOPE S. ALEXANDER
Vice President, Human ResourcesU.S. of Franklin since May 2003; Senior Vice President, Human ResourcesU.S. of Franklin Templeton Companies, LLC, a subsidiary of Franklin; employed by Franklin or its subsidiaries in various other capacities for more than the past five years.
JENNIFER J. BOLT
Executive Vice PresidentOperations and Technology of Franklin since December 2005; formerly, Senior Vice President and Chief Information Officer of Franklin from May 2003 to December 2005; officer of Franklin for more than the past five years; officer or director of various subsidiaries of Franklin. Director, Keynote Systems, Inc. since April 2004.
NORMAN R. FRISBIE, JR.
Senior Vice President and Chief Administrative Officer of Franklin since December 2005; Senior Vice President of FTDI, a subsidiary of Franklin, since June 2003; employed by Franklin or its subsidiaries in various other capacities for more than the past five years.
HOLLY E. GIBSON
Vice President, Corporate Communications of Franklin since May 2003, and Director of Corporate Communications for more than the past five years.
DONNA S. IKEDA
Vice President, Human ResourcesInternational of Franklin since May 2003; formerly, Vice PresidentHuman Resources of Franklin; officer of Franklin for more than the past five years; Senior Vice President, Human ResourcesInternational of Franklin Templeton Companies, LLC, a subsidiary of Franklin.
CHARLES B. JOHNSON
Chairman of the Board since December 1999 and director of Franklin since 1969; formerly, Chief Executive Officer of Franklin; officer and/or director of various subsidiaries of Franklin; officer and/or director or trustee of various investment companies managed or advised by subsidiaries of Franklin.
GREGORY E. JOHNSON
President of Franklin since December 1999 and Chief Executive Officer of Franklin since January 2004; officer and/or director of various subsidiaries of Franklin.
RUPERT H. JOHNSON, JR.
Vice Chairman since December 1999 and director of Franklin since 1969; officer and/or director of various subsidiaries of Franklin; officer and/or director or trustee of various investment companies managed or advised by subsidiaries of Franklin.
LESLIE M. KRATTER
Senior Vice President of Franklin since January 2000 and Assistant Secretary of Franklin since October 2003; formerly, Secretary of Franklin from March 1998 to October 2003 and Vice President of Franklin from March 1993 to January 2000; officer and/or director of various subsidiaries of Franklin.
KENNETH A. LEWIS
Executive Vice President of Franklin since October 2007 and Chief Financial Officer of Franklin since October 2006; formerly Senior VicePresident and Treasurer of Franklin from October 2006 to October 2007, Vice PresidentEnterprise Risk Management of Franklin from April 2006 to October 2006 and Vice President and Treasurer of Franklin from June 2002 to April 2006; officer and/or director of various subsidiaries of Franklin for more than the past five years.
JOHN M. LUSK
Executive Vice PresidentPortfolio Operations of Franklin since December 2005; formerly, Vice President of Franklin from January 2004 to December 2005; officer and/or director of various subsidiaries of Franklin; employed by Franklin or its subsidiaries in various other capacities for more than the past five years.
CRAIG S. TYLE
Executive Vice President and General Counsel of Franklin since August 2005; formerly, a partner at Shearman & Sterling LLP (a law firm) from March 2004 to July 2005 and General Counsel for the Investment Company Institute (a trade group for the U.S. fund industry) from September 1997 through March 2004; officer of various investment companies of the Company.
WILLIAM Y. YUN
Executive Vice PresidentAlternative Strategies of Franklin since June 2008, and formerly Executive Vice PresidentInstitutional of Franklin from December 2005 to June 2008; President of Fiduciary Trust, a subsidiary of Franklin, from 2000 to December 2005; officer and/or director of other subsidiaries of Franklin; employed by Franklin or its subsidiaries in various other capacities since the acquisition of Fiduciary Trust in April 2001.
Family Relations. Charles B. Johnson and Rupert H. Johnson, Jr. are brothers. Peter M. Sacerdote, a director of Franklin, is a brother-in-law of Charles B. Johnson and Rupert H. Johnson, Jr. Gregory E. Johnson is the son of Charles B. Johnson, the nephew of Rupert H. Johnson, Jr. and Peter M. Sacerdote and the brother of Jennifer J. Bolt. Jennifer J. Bolt is the daughter of Charles B. Johnson, the niece of Rupert H. Johnson, Jr. and Peter M. Sacerdote and the sister of Gregory E. Johnson.
Our common stock is traded on the NYSE under the ticker symbol BEN. On September 30, 2009, the closing price of our common stock on the NYSE was $100.60 per share. At October 31, 2009, there were approximately 5,065 stockholders of record of our common stock.
The following table sets forth the high and low sales prices for our common stock on the NYSE for each full quarterly period of the two most recently completed fiscal years of Franklin.
We declared regular cash dividends of $0.84 per share (or $0.21 per share per quarter) in fiscal year 2009 and $0.80 per share (or $0.20 per share per quarter) in the fiscal year ended September 30, 2008. We currently expect to continue paying comparable cash dividends on a quarterly basis to holders of our common stock depending upon earnings and other relevant factors.
The equity compensation plan information called for by Item 201(d) of Regulation S-K is set forth in Item 12 of Part III of this Form 10-K under the heading Equity Compensation Plan Information.
The following table provides information with respect to the shares of common stock we purchased during the three months ended September 30, 2009.
Under our stock repurchase program, we can repurchase shares of Franklins common stock from time to time in the open market and in private transactions in accordance with applicable laws and regulations, including without limitation applicable federal securities laws. From time to time we have announced the existence of the Companys continuing policy of repurchasing shares of its common stock, including recent announcements made in June 2007, January 2008 and March 2009. From fiscal year 2002 through 2009, our Board of Directors had authorized and approved the repurchase of up to 70.0 million shares of our common stock under our stock repurchase program of which approximately 9.6 million shares of our common stock remained available for repurchase at September 30, 2009. Our stock repurchase program is not subject to an expiration date. There were no unregistered sales of equity securities during the period covered by this report.
In this section, we discuss and analyze the results of operations and financial condition of Franklin Resources, Inc. (Franklin) and its subsidiaries (collectively, the Company). In addition to historical information, we also make statements relating to the future, called forward-looking statements, which are provided under the safe harbor protection of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Forward-looking statements are generally written in the future tense and/or are preceded by words such as will, may, could, expect, believe, anticipate, intend, or other similar words. Moreover, statements that speculate about future events are forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements involve a number of known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other important factors that could cause the actual results and outcomes to differ materially from any future results or outcomes expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements. You should carefully review the Risk Factors section set forth in Item 1A of this Annual Report on Form 10-K and in any more recent filings with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (the SEC), each of which describe these risks, uncertainties and other important factors in more detail. While forward-looking statements are our best prediction at the time that they are made, you should not rely on them. If a circumstance occurs after the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K that causes any of our forward-looking statements to be inaccurate, we do not have an obligation, and we undertake no obligation, to announce publicly the change to our expectations, or to make any revisions to our forward-looking statements, unless required by law.
We are a global investment management company and derive substantially all of our operating revenues and net income from providing investment management and related services to our retail and institutional mutual funds, unregistered funds, and to institutional, high net-worth and separately-managed accounts and other investment products. Our services include fund administration, shareholder services, transfer agency, underwriting, distribution, custodial, trustee and other fiduciary services. Our sponsored investment products and investment management and related services are distributed or marketed to the public globally under six distinct brand names: Franklin, Templeton, Mutual Series, Bissett, Fiduciary Trust and Darby.
We offer a broad range of sponsored investment products under equity, hybrid, fixed-income and cash management categories that meet a wide variety of specific investment needs of individual and institutional investors. Cash management consists of U.S.-registered money market funds and non-U.S.-registered funds (Non-U.S. Funds) with similar investment objectives.
The level of our revenues depends largely on the level and relative mix of assets under management. As noted in the Risk Factors section set forth above in Item 1A of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, the amount and mix of our assets under management are subject to significant fluctuations and can negatively impact our revenues and income. To a lesser degree, the level of our revenues also depends on the level of mutual fund sales and the number of mutual fund shareholder accounts. The fees charged for our services are based on contracts with our sponsored investment products or our clients. These arrangements could change in the future.
Our secondary business is banking/finance. Our banking/finance group offers retail banking and consumer lending services and private banking services to high net-worth clients. Our consumer lending and retail banking activities include consumer credit and debit cards, real estate equity lines, home equity/mortgage lending, and automobile lending related to the purchase, securitization, and servicing of retail installment sales contracts originated by independent automobile dealerships.
During the fiscal year ended September 30, 2009 (fiscal year 2009), the global financial crisis that began in 2008 continued and the economy remained in a recession. The turmoil in the global financial markets during the first half of the fiscal year, evidenced by 31% decreases in both the MSCI World and S&P 500 indexes, negatively impacted the entire asset management industry. The unprecedented downturn in the markets significantly affected our assets under management, fee revenues and non-operating income, all of which decreased sharply during the fiscal year.
Governments and central banks around the world focused on increasing liquidity in the capital markets and easing the financial crisis. Credit conditions began to improve during the second half of the fiscal year, as credit availability increased and credit spreads tightened. Improvement in market conditions was also indicated by increases of 42% and 34% in the MSCI World and S&P 500 indexes during the second half. Our results of operations improved during our third and fourth fiscal quarters consistent with the positive market performance.
Our total assets under management at September 30, 2009 were $523.4 billion, 3% higher than they were at September 30, 2008. However, simple monthly average assets under management for the twelve months ended September 30, 2009 decreased 27% from the prior fiscal year due to significantly lower levels of assets under management during the first half of the fiscal year. Total assets under management were negatively impacted by market depreciation of $90.0 billion during the first half of the fiscal year and then benefited from market appreciation of $115.4 billion during the second half. Net new flows were a negative $23.7 billion during the first half of the fiscal year as investor demand shifted to lower risk
investments, and swung to a positive $18.2 billion in the second half as long-term sales increased, most notably in our fixed-income funds. Overall, we had negative net new flows of $5.5 billion for the fiscal year.
During fiscal year 2009, we took steps to manage our business and our cost structure to respond to the market conditions and resulting decrease in revenue, including reducing expenditures in areas such as travel and entertainment, advertising, and contractor and professional fees, and deferring non-business critical initiatives and hiring. We also announced reductions to our global workforce of approximately 10%. The severance costs related to these workforce reductions amounted to $38.4 million for the fiscal year. We continue to assess cost reduction measures as we adapt to the unprecedented changes affecting our industry.
Despite the ongoing financial crisis, the relative performance of our sponsored investment products remained strong, with 85% to 90% of our U.S.-registered long-term mutual funds in the top half of the Lipper performance rankings as both equity and fixed-income funds showed significant improvement in fiscal year 2009.
Challenging and volatile market conditions might continue to be present in the foreseeable future. As we confront the challenges of this economic environment, we expect to continue to focus on the investment performance of our sponsored investment products and on providing high quality customer service to our clients. While we are focused on reducing costs, we will also seek to attract, retain and develop employees and invest strategically in systems and technology that will provide secure, stable environments and economies of scale. We will also seek to continue to protect and further our brand recognition while developing and maintaining broker/dealer and client relationships. The success of these and other strategies may be influenced by the factors discussed in Item 1A Risk Factors of this Annual Report, and other factors as discussed herein.
Results of Operations
(dollar amounts in millions, except per share data)
Net income decreased in fiscal year 2009 primarily due to an $896.4 million decline in operating income. Adverse market conditions led to a 27% decrease in our simple monthly average assets under management, which resulted in a 30% decrease in our operating revenues. As described above, we have taken actions to reduce our operating expenses in response to the market conditions and resulting revenue decreases, which contributed to a 24% decrease in operating expenses for the fiscal year.
Operating income increased in the fiscal year ended September 30, 2008 (fiscal year 2008), consistent with a 3% decrease in operating revenues and a 5% decrease in operating expenses. Operating revenues remained stable despite the sustained volatility experienced in the financial markets as we began the year with a high level of assets under management. We also benefited from the diversification of our products and customer base and successful marketing campaigns. During fiscal year 2008 we initiated steps to manage our business and our cost structure in response to the deteriorating market conditions.
Net income decreased in fiscal year 2008 primarily due to a 65% decline in other income, net. The decrease in other income, net reflects a 38% decrease in investment and other income, net primarily due to lower realized gains on sale of investment securities, a decline in income from our investments in equity method investees, and lower interest and dividend income. Also contributing to the decrease in other income, net were net losses recognized by our consolidated sponsored investment products in fiscal year 2008, as compared to net gains in the prior fiscal year. The decrease in other income, net was partially offset by a 3% increase in investment management fees.
Diluted earnings per share decreased in fiscal years 2009 and 2008, consistent with the decreases in net income, partially offset by 3% and 5% decreases in diluted average common shares outstanding primarily resulting from the repurchase of shares of our common stock.
Assets Under Management
Assets under management by investment objective were as follows:
(dollar amounts in billions)
Our assets under management at September 30, 2009 were 3% higher than they were at September 30, 2008 primarily due to market appreciation of $25.4 billion during fiscal year 2009, as compared to market depreciation of $123.4 billion during fiscal year 2008. The appreciation during fiscal year 2009 related primarily to fixed-income products, while the depreciation in fiscal year 2008 occurred predominantly in equity products as market volatility led to significant valuation decreases and a shift in investor demand to lower risk investments. The depreciation and net outflows persisted throughout the first half of fiscal year 2009 before the market recovery began in the second half, resulting in a 27% decrease in simple monthly average assets under management during the year. The simple monthly average is generally more indicative of trends in revenue for providing investment management and fund administration services than the year over year change in ending assets under management.
The simple monthly average mix of assets under management is shown below. The change in mix during fiscal year 2009 is reflective of investor shifts to lower risk investments during the prior twelve months.
Assets under management by sales region were as follows:
(dollar amounts in billions)
Due to the global nature of our business operations, investment management and related services may be performed in locations unrelated to the sales region.
Components of the change in our assets under management were as follows:
(dollar amounts in billions)
Investment Management Fee Rate
The following table presents industry asset-weighted average management fee rates1. Our actual effective investment management fee rates may vary from these rates.
Our effective investment management fee rate (investment management fees divided by simple monthly average assets under management) was 0.566% for fiscal year 2009, compared to 0.609% for fiscal year 2008 and 0.614% for fiscal year 2007. The decreases in each of the past two years were primarily due to shifts in the mix of assets under management from equity products towards fixed-income products during both years. The shifts mainly resulted from depreciation and net new outflows of equity products, partially offset by net new inflows of fixed-income products.
The table below presents the percentage change in each revenue category and the percentage of total operating revenues represented by each category.
Investment Management Fees
Investment management fees are generally calculated under contractual arrangements with our sponsored investment products and sub-advised accounts as a percentage of the market value of assets under management. Annual rates vary by investment objective and type of services provided.
Investment management fees decreased in fiscal year 2009 resulting from a 27% decrease in simple monthly average assets under management and a lower effective investment management fee rate resulting from a higher mix of fixed-income assets, which generally carry lower investment management fees.
Investment management fees increased in fiscal year 2008 resulting from a 4% increase in simple monthly average assets under management, partially offset by a lower effective investment management fee rate resulting from a higher mix of fixed-income assets.
Underwriting and Distribution Fees
We earn underwriting fees from the sale of certain classes of sponsored investment products on which investors pay a sales commission at the time of purchase. Sales commissions are reduced or eliminated on some share classes and for some sale transactions depending upon the amount invested and the type of investor. Therefore, underwriting fees will change with the overall level of gross sales, the size of individual transactions, and the relative mix of sales between different share classes and types of investors.
Globally, our mutual funds and certain other products generally pay us distribution fees in return for sales, marketing and distribution efforts on their behalf. Specifically, the majority of U.S.-registered mutual funds, with the exception of certain of our money market mutual funds, have adopted distribution plans (the Plans) under Rule 12b-1 promulgated under the Investment Company Act. The Plans permit the mutual funds to bear certain expenses relating to the distribution of their shares, such as expenses for marketing, advertising, printing and sales promotion, subject to the Plans limitations on amounts. The individual Plans set a percentage limit for Rule 12b-1 expenses based on average daily net assets under management of the mutual fund. Similar arrangements exist for the distribution of our non-U.S. funds and where, generally, the distributor of the funds in the local market arranges for and pays commissions.
We pay a significant portion of underwriting and distribution fees to the financial advisers and other intermediaries who sell our sponsored investment products to the public on our behalf. See the description of underwriting and distribution expenses below.
Overall, underwriting and distribution fees decreased in fiscal year 2009. Underwriting fees decreased 25% primarily due to a shift in sales from equity products to fixed-income products, which typically generate lower underwriting fees, combined with a 24% decrease in gross commissionable sales. Distribution fees decreased 32% primarily due to a 27% decrease in simple monthly average assets under management and a higher mix of fixed-income assets. Distribution fees are generally higher for equity products, as compared to fixed-income products.
Total underwriting and distribution fees decreased in fiscal year 2008. Underwriting fees decreased 32% primarily due to a 19% decrease in gross sales of Class A shares, mainly in the United States, and a shift in sales of equity products to fixed-income products. Distribution fees increased 1% primarily due to a 4% increase in simple monthly average assets under management, partially offset by a higher mix of assets fixed-income assets.
Shareholder Servicing Fees
We receive shareholder servicing fees as compensation for providing transfer agency services, which include providing customer statements, transaction processing, customer service, and tax reporting. These fees are generally fixed charges per shareholder account that vary with the particular type of fund and the service being rendered. In some instances, we charge sponsored investment products these fees based on the level of assets under management. In the United States, transfer agency service agreements provide that
accounts closed in a calendar year generally remain billable at a reduced rate through the second quarter of the following calendar year. In Canada, such agreements provide that accounts closed in the calendar year remain billable for four months after the end of the calendar year. Accordingly, the level of fees will vary with the change in open accounts and the level of closed accounts that remain billable. Approximately 2.1 million accounts closed in the U.S. during calendar year 2008 were no longer billable effective July 1, 2009, as compared to approximately 1.7 million accounts closed during calendar year 2007 that were no longer billable effective July 1, 2008. Approximately 0.3 million accounts closed in Canada during calendar year 2008 were no longer billable effective May 1, 2009, as compared to approximately 0.2 million accounts closed during calendar year 2007 that were no longer billable effective May 1, 2008.
Shareholder servicing fees decreased in fiscal year 2009 primarily due to an unfavorable currency impact and a 1% decrease in simple monthly average billable shareholder accounts during the year. The unfavorable currency impact mainly resulted from a 14% decrease in value of the Canadian dollar against the U.S. dollar. The account decrease was predominantly related to shareholder accounts originated in Canada and the United States.
Shareholder servicing fees increased in fiscal year 2008 primarily due to a 7% increase in simple monthly average billable shareholder accounts, partially offset by an increase in shareholder accounts originated in Asia.
Consolidated Sponsored Investment Products Income, Net
Consolidated sponsored investment products income, net reflects the net investment income, including dividend and interest income, of sponsored investment products that we consolidate in our financial statements.
Consolidated sponsored investment products income, net decreased in fiscal year 2009 and increased in fiscal year 2008, reflecting the investment performance and the net asset balances of the specific sponsored investment products that we consolidated during each period.
Other, net revenue primarily consists of revenues from the banking/finance segment as well as income from custody services. Banking/finance revenues include interest income on loans, servicing income, and realized and unrealized gains (losses) on residual interests from securitization transactions, and are reduced by interest expense and the provision for loan losses.
Other, net revenue decreased in fiscal year 2009 primarily due to a $41.1 million higher loss from declines in the fair value of residual interests from securitization transactions and a $21.8 million decrease in interest income from automobile loans, partially offset by a $12.4 million decrease in interest expense on swap contracts and a $7.6 million decrease in provision for loan losses. We have consistently followed our methodology in determining our allowance for loan losses, which incorporates current economic factors.
Other, net revenue decreased in fiscal year 2008 primarily due to a $26.3 million increase in net realized and unrealized losses on investments and a $10.5 million increase in provision for loan losses, partially offset by a $10.4 million increase in interest income from automobile loans.
The table below presents the percentage change in each expense category and the percentage of total operating expenses represented by each category.
Underwriting and Distribution
Underwriting and distribution expenses include payments to financial advisers and other third parties for providing sales, marketing and distribution services to investors in our sponsored investment products. The decreases in underwriting and distribution expenses in fiscal years 2009 and 2008 were consistent with the 30% and 12% decreases in underwriting and distribution revenues during both periods.
Compensation and Benefits
Compensation and benefit expenses decreased in fiscal year 2009 primarily due to declines in salaries, wages and benefits and variable compensation. Salaries, wages and benefits decreased $123.4 million, mainly resulting from lower staffing levels and a favorable currency impact. The decrease was partially offset by severance costs of $38.4 million related to reductions to our global workforce of approximately 10% announced during the first half of fiscal year 2009. Variable compensation decreased $77.1 million.
The decreased expenses during fiscal year 2009 reflect in part some of the actions we have taken to contain costs, including reducing variable compensation and not providing annual merit salary increases. As of September 30, 2009, we had approximately 7,700 employees, a decrease from approximately 8,800 at September 30, 2008.
Compensation and benefit expenses increased in fiscal year 2008 primarily due to annual merit salary adjustments that were effective December 1, 2007 and higher staffing levels. Another contributing factor was an increase in variable compensation, primarily resulting from the impact of adopting a new accounting pronouncement in October 2006 requiring us to recognize an additional compensation expense. These increases were partially offset by a one-time pre-tax charge of $16.4 million recorded in fiscal year 2007 and a decrease in costs related to matching contributions under our amended and restated 1998 Employee Stock Investment Plan.
We continue to place a high emphasis on our pay for performance philosophy. As such, any changes in the underlying performance of our sponsored investment products or changes in the composition of our incentive compensation offerings could have an impact on compensation and benefits going forward. However, in order to attract and retain talented individuals, our level of compensation and benefits may increase more quickly or decrease more slowly than our revenue.
Information Systems, Technology and Occupancy
Information systems, technology and occupancy costs decreased in fiscal year 2009 primarily due to lower costs incurred for external data services, technology consulting, technology supplies, and occupancy. The lower costs resulted in part from our cost reduction efforts to defer non-business critical initiatives and to reduce expenditures for contractors and professional fees.
Information systems, technology and occupancy costs increased slightly in fiscal year 2008 primarily due to higher occupancy costs related to our existing offices as well as global expansion. This increase was partially offset by a decrease in external data services costs and technology consulting costs.
Details of capitalized information systems and technology costs, which exclude occupancy costs, are shown below.
Advertising and Promotion
Advertising and promotion expenses decreased in fiscal year 2009 primarily due to a $29.5 million decrease in marketing support payments to intermediaries resulting from lower product sales and assets under management. Also contributing to the decrease were lower advertising, sales promotions and travel expenses primarily as a result of our global cost reduction initiatives.
Advertising and promotion expenses decreased in fiscal year 2008 primarily due to a $2.5 million decrease in printing costs. Also contributing to the decrease were lower global media advertising and promotion expenses.
We are committed to investing in advertising and promotion in response to changing business conditions, and to advance our products where we see continued or potential new growth opportunities. As a result of potential changes in our strategic marketing campaigns, the level of advertising and promotion expenditures may increase more rapidly, or decrease more slowly, than our revenues.
Amortization of Deferred Sales Commissions
Certain fund share classes sold globally, including Class C and Class R shares marketed in the United States, are sold without a front-end sales charge to shareholders, although our distribution subsidiaries pay an up-front commission to financial intermediaries on these sales. In addition, certain share classes, such as Class A shares sold in the United States, are sold without a front-end sales charge to shareholders when minimum investment criteria are met, although our distribution subsidiaries pay an up-front commission to financial intermediaries on these sales. We defer all up-front commissions paid by our distribution subsidiaries and amortize them over the periods in which commissions are generally recovered from distribution and service fee revenues and contingent sales charges received from shareholders of the funds upon redemption of their shares. We evaluate deferred commission assets (DCA) for recoverability on a periodic basis using undiscounted expected cash flows from the shares of mutual funds sold without a front-end sales charge.
Amortization of deferred sales commissions decreased in fiscal year 2009 mainly due to lower product sales with up-front commissions, primarily related to U.S. funds. Amortization of deferred sales commissions increased in fiscal year 2008 mainly due to higher product sales with up-front commissions, primarily related to U.S. and Canadian funds.
Other Operating Expenses
Other operating expenses primarily consist of professional fees, fund administration services and shareholder servicing fees payable to external parties, corporate travel and entertainment, and other miscellaneous expenses.
Other operating expenses decreased in fiscal year 2009 primarily due to a $17.4 million decline in fund administration services and shareholder servicing fees payable to external parties, which resulted from lower average assets under management, and a $16.4 million decrease in corporate travel and entertainment expenses resulting from our cost reduction initiatives.
Other operating expenses decreased in fiscal year 2008 primarily due to a $19.6 million decrease in litigation costs and an $11.8 million decline in consulting and professional fees.
Other Income (Expenses)
Other income (expenses) consisted of the following:
Other income (expenses) includes net realized and unrealized investment gains (losses) on consolidated sponsored investment products, investment and other income, net and interest expense from our investment management and related services business. Investment and other income, net is comprised primarily of income related to our investments, including interest and dividend income, realized gains and losses on sale of and other-than-temporary impairments of available-for-sale investment securities, income from equity method investees, and foreign currency exchange gains and losses.
Other income (expenses) decreased 43% in fiscal year 2009 primarily due to lower investment valuations during the first half of the year. The significant decline in interest rates and the global market downturn resulted in a $68.5 million decrease in interest income, a $49.2 million increase in other-than-temporary impairments on available-for-sale investment securities, a $26.7 million decline in net realized gains on sale of available-for-sale investment securities, and a $10.6 million decline in income from equity method investees. These decreases were partially offset by a $93.3 million increase in net gains from securities held by our consolidated sponsored investment products, resulting from improved market conditions during the second half of the fiscal year.
Other income (expenses) decreased 65% in fiscal year 2008 primarily due to $129.2 million in net losses recognized by our consolidated sponsored investment products, driven mainly by market value declines in equity products, as compared to net gains in the prior fiscal year. Net realized gains on sale of investment securities, available-for-sale declined $58.3 million, income from equity method investees declined $35.2 million, interest income declined $33.0 million and dividend income declined $29.1 million primarily due to unfavorable market conditions.
Our investments in sponsored investment products primarily consist of the initial cash investments made in the course of launching mutual fund and other investment product offerings; however we may also invest in our products for other business reasons. The market conditions that impact our assets under management similarly affect the investment income earned or losses incurred on our sponsored investment product investments.
Taxes on Income
As a multi-national corporation, we provide investment management and related services to a wide range of international sponsored investment products, often managed from locations outside the United States. Some of these jurisdictions have lower tax rates than the United States. The mix of pre-tax income (primarily from our investment management and related services business) subject to these lower rates, when aggregated with income originating in the United States, produces a lower overall effective income tax rate than existing U.S. federal and state income tax rates.
Our effective income tax rate for fiscal year 2009 was 30.00%, as compared to 28.99% in fiscal year 2008 and 28.08% in fiscal year 2007. The increase in fiscal year 2009 was primarily due to a shift in the mix of pre-tax income from lower tax jurisdictions to higher tax jurisdictions. The increase in fiscal year 2008 was primarily due to an income tax charge related to repatriated earnings of our non-U.S. subsidiaries and our mix of foreign earnings. The effective income tax rate for future reporting periods will continue to reflect the relative contributions of non-U.S. earnings that are subject to reduced tax rates and that are not currently included in U.S. taxable income.
During September 2008, we amended our repatriation plan for undistributed foreign earnings to include repatriation to the U.S. of the excess net earnings after debt service payments and regulatory capital requirements of our U.K. consolidated subsidiaries. As a result of the amendment, we recognized a provision for U.S. income taxes of $19.7 million and a net deferred income tax liability of $3.4 million in relation to $294.8 million of accumulated and current earnings from the United Kingdom, of which $210.9 million was repatriated as of September 30, 2008.
Liquidity and Capital Resources
The following table summarizes certain key financial data relating to our liquidity, capital resources and uses of capital:
Liquid assets consist of cash and cash equivalents, current receivables, and current and certain other investments (trading, available-for-sale and other). Cash and cash equivalents include cash on hand, non-interest-bearing and interest-bearing deposits with financial institutions, federal funds sold, time deposits, securities of the U.S. Treasury and federal agencies, debt instruments with original maturities of three months or less at the purchase date, and other highly liquid investments, including money market funds, which are readily convertible into cash. Cash and cash equivalents at September 30, 2009 increased primarily due to net cash provided by operating activities. At September 30, 2009, the percentage of cash and cash equivalents held by our U.S. and non-U.S. operations were approximately 49% and 51%, as compared to approximately 51% and 49% at September 30, 2008. The percentage of cash and cash equivalents held by our non-U.S. operations increased primarily due to liquidation of investments, mainly time deposits with original maturities greater than three months but not exceeding one year from the date of purchase, partially offset by dividends paid to our U.S. operations.
The decrease in total debt outstanding during fiscal year 2009 primarily relates to amortization and reduction of long-term debt, a reduction in Federal Home Loan Bank (FHLB) advances, and repayment of variable funding notes, partially offset by an increase in commercial paper outstanding.
We experienced a decrease in net cash provided by operating activities in fiscal year 2009, primarily due to decreases in net income and proceeds from the securitization of loans held for sale, partially offset by a lower increase in trading securities. Net cash provided by investing activities increased mainly due to an increase in liquidation of investments and a decrease in loans receivable. Net cash used in financing activities decreased primarily due to a decrease in common stock repurchases and a decrease in payments on debt, partially offset by a decrease in proceeds from issuance of debt and a decrease in minority interest cash receipts in our consolidated sponsored investment products.
During fiscal year 2009, we experienced a significant reduction in operating revenues primarily resulting from lower assets under management due to decreased market valuations and customer redemptions. Despite this reduction and decrease in liquidity and credit availability in the market, we believe that we can meet our present and reasonably foreseeable operating cash needs and future commitments through existing liquid assets, continuing cash flows from operations, borrowing capacity under current credit facilities and the ability to issue debt or equity securities.
At September 30, 2009, our current debt consisted of commercial paper with a total face value of $64.2 million that was issued at a weighted-average annualized interest rate of 0.27% and matures during the quarter ending December 31, 2009.
The banking/finance segment has financed its automobile lending business primarily through FHLB advances, securitizations and the issuance of variable funding notes under one-year revolving variable funding note warehouse credit facilities. We terminated the warehouse credit facilities in November 2008 and did not replace them. The variable funding notes issued under these facilities were secured by cash and a pool of automobile loans that were expected to meet certain eligibility requirements.
At September 30, 2009, our banking/finance operating segment had $57.0 million of total outstanding FHLB advances. Approximately $15.0 million of these advances mature in the fiscal year ending September 30, 2010 (fiscal year 2010), while the remaining $42.0 million mature from October 2010 to January 2039. These advances had a weighted-average interest rate of 2.94% at September 30, 2009 and are subject to collateralization requirements.
At September 30, 2009, we had $355.8 million in short-term revolving credit available under a $420.0 million five-year credit agreement with certain banks and financial institutions expiring on June 9, 2010. This credit facility supports an uncommitted $500.0 million commercial paper program under which $435.8 million remained available for issuance via private placement at September 30, 2009. We also had $14.0 million available in uncommitted short-term bank lines of credit. The revolving credit facility is subject to various financial covenants, including, but not limited to, minimum requirements related to our interest coverage ratio and maintenance of working capital as well as limitations on our capitalization ratio, indebtedness, investments and liens. Interest rates on loans under the revolving credit facility are determined at the time of issuance and depend on the type of loan issued. As of September 30, 2009, there were no amounts outstanding under the revolving credit facility and we were in compliance with the financial covenants related to this facility. In addition, at September 30, 2009, the banking/finance segment had $295.0 million available in uncommitted short-term bank lines of credit under the Federal Reserve system, $235.1 million available in secured Federal Reserve Bank short-term discount window and $63.8 million available in secured FHLB short-term borrowing capacity.
In March 2008, we filed an automatic shelf registration statement with the SEC as a well-known seasoned issuer. Using the shelf registration statement, we may sell, at any time and from time to time, in one or more offerings, our shares of common stock, shares of preferred stock, debt securities, convertible securities, warrants or units.
Our ability to access the capital markets in a timely manner depends on a number of factors, including our credit rating, the condition of the global economy, investors willingness to purchase our securities, interest rates, credit spreads and the valuation levels of equity markets. If we are unable to access capital markets in a timely manner, our business could be adversely impacted.
Uses of Capital
We expect that our main uses of cash will be to expand our core business, make strategic acquisitions, acquire shares of our common stock, fund property and equipment purchases, pay operating expenses of the business, enhance technology infrastructure and business processes, pay stockholder dividends and repay and service debt.
On September 17, 2009, our Board of Directors declared a regular quarterly cash dividend of $0.21 per share payable on October 15, 2009 to stockholders of record on October 5, 2009.
We maintain a stock repurchase program to manage our equity capital with the objective of maximizing shareholder value. Our stock repurchase program is affected through regular open-market purchases and private transactions in accordance with applicable laws and regulations. During fiscal year 2009, we repurchased 5.5 million shares of our common stock at a cost of $376.9 million. The common stock repurchases made as of September 30, 2009 reduced our capital in excess of par value to nil and the excess amount was recognized as a reduction to retained earnings. At September 30, 2009, approximately 9.6 million shares of our common stock remained available for repurchase under our stock repurchase program. Our stock repurchase program is not subject to an expiration date.
The funds that we manage have their own resources available for purposes of providing liquidity to meet shareholder redemptions, including securities that can be sold or provided to investors as in-kind redemptions, and lines of credit. While we have no contractual obligation to do so, we may voluntarily elect to provide the funds with direct or indirect financial support based on our business objectives.
Contractual Obligations and Commercial Commitments
Contractual Obligations and Commitments
The following table summarizes contractual cash obligations and commitments. We believe that we can meet these obligations and commitments through existing liquid assets, continuing cash flows from operations and borrowing capacity under current credit facilities.
We are obligated to cover shortfalls for automobile loan securitization trusts that are structured as qualified special entities in amounts due to holders of asset-backed securities up to certain levels. At September 30, 2009, the maximum potential amount of future payments related to these guarantees was $7.4 million and the fair value of the guarantees recognized as banking/finance liabilities in our consolidated balance sheet was not significant. During fiscal year 2009, we increased the amount of cash on deposit by $37.6 million to replace the letters of credit for the securitization trusts. As a result, the maximum potential amounts of future payments related to the guarantees were reduced by the same amount.
At September 30, 2009, the banking/finance segment had issued financial standby letters of credit totaling $6.3 million on which beneficiaries would be able to draw upon in the event of non-performance by our customers, primarily in relation to lease and lien obligations of these banking customers. These standby letters of credit were secured by marketable securities with a fair value of $8.3 million at September 30, 2009.
Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements
As of September 30, 2009, we held a 49% ownership interest in Lightning Finance Company Limited (LFL) and Lightning Asset Finance Limited (LAFL) and accounted for the ownership interest in these companies using the equity method of accounting. We recorded these investments at their carrying values as investments in equity method investees. As of September 30, 2009, LFL had approximately $3.5 million in total assets and our exposure to loss related to LFL was limited to the carrying value of our investment totaling approximately $1.7 million. As of September 30, 2009, LAFL had approximately $20.6 million in total assets and our maximum exposure to loss related to LAFL totaled approximately $10.1 million. The maximum exposure to loss related to LAFL is limited to the carrying value of our investment and 49% of the liabilities of LAFL. We recognized pre-tax income of approximately $3.1 million and pre-tax losses of $8.5 million for our share of LFLs and LAFLs net income and losses in fiscal years 2009 and 2008. Due to our significant interest in LAFL, we carried on our consolidated balance sheet the DCA generated in the United States and the financing liability for the related future revenue we previously sold to LFL which was subsequently transferred to LAFL. We repurchased the remaining DCA from LAFL in September 2009 and have reflected this transaction as a repayment of the remaining financing obligation. We are in the process of selling our ownership interests in LFL and LAFL to the holder of the 51% ownership interest and expect to complete this divestiture in fiscal year 2010.
Our banking/finance segment periodically enters into automobile loan securitization transactions with qualified special purpose entities, which then issue asset-backed securities to private investors (see Note 9 Securitization of Loans Held for Sale in the notes to consolidated financial statements in Item 8 of Part II of this Form 10-K). Our main objective in entering into these securitization transactions is to obtain financing for automobile loan activities. Securitized loans held by the securitization trusts totaled $551.4 million and $851.8 million at September 30, 2009 and 2008.
In our role as agent or trustee, we facilitate the settlement of investor share purchase, redemption, and other transactions with affiliated mutual funds. We are appointed by the affiliated mutual funds as agent or trustee to manage, on behalf of the affiliated mutual funds, bank deposit accounts that contain only (i) cash remitted by investors to the affiliated mutual funds for the direct purchase of fund shares, or (ii) cash remitted by the affiliated mutual funds for direct delivery to the investors for either the proceeds of fund shares liquidated at the investors direction, or dividends and capital gains earned on fund shares. As of September 30, 2009 and 2008, we held cash of approximately $214.5 million and $185.7 million off-balance sheet in agency or trust for investors and the affiliated mutual funds.
Critical Accounting Policies
Our consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes are prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America, which require the use of estimates, judgments, and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the periods presented. These estimates, judgments, and assumptions are affected by our application of accounting policies. Below we describe certain critical accounting policies that we believe are important to understanding our results of operations and financial position. For additional information about our accounting policies, please refer to Note 1 Significant Accounting Policies in the notes to consolidated financial statements in Item 8 of Part II of this Form 10-K.
Fair Value Measurements
We record substantially all of our investments in the financial statements at fair value or amounts that approximate fair value. Fair value is defined as the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date (the exit
price). We use a three-level fair value hierarchy that prioritizes the inputs to valuation techniques used to measure fair value based on whether the inputs to those valuation techniques are observable or unobservable.
The three levels of fair value hierarchy are set forth below. Our assessment of the hierarchy level of the assets or liabilities measured at fair value is determined based on the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement in its entirety.
Trading securities, securities available-for-sale, and derivatives are financial instruments recorded at fair value on a recurring basis. We may also measure certain assets or liabilities at fair value on a nonrecurring basis. These fair value measurements generally result from the application of lower of cost or fair value accounting for loans held for sale or write-downs of individual assets.
At September 30, 2009, Level 3 assets represented approximately 2.1% of total assets measured at fair value, and Level 3 liabilities measured at fair value were insignificant. There were immaterial transfers into and out of Level 3 during fiscal year 2009.
The following is a description of the significant assets measured at fair value, the fair value methodologies used, and the fair value hierarchy level.
Investment Securities, Trading consist primarily of securities held by consolidated sponsored investment products, non-consolidated sponsored investment products held for trading purposes, and retained subordinated securities and residual interests from securitization transactions. Changes in the fair value of these securities are recognized as gains and losses in earnings. The fair value of securities held by consolidated sponsored investment products is primarily determined using quoted market prices, or independent third-party broker or dealer price quotes. These securities are primarily classified as Level 1 or Level 2. Consolidated sponsored investment products may also hold securities that are classified as Level 3 because their fair value is determined using unobservable inputs. The fair value of these securities is determined using valuation methods as appropriate for each security type such as model-based valuations or prices of similar securities adjusted for illiquidity and credit risk factors.
The fair value of non-consolidated sponsored investment products held for trading purposes is determined based on the published net asset values of the sponsored investment products, and they are classified as Level 1.
The fair value of retained subordinated securities from securitization transactions is determined using independent third-party broker or dealer price quotes, and these securities are classified as Level 2. The broker or dealer price quotes are evaluated for reasonableness based upon the performance of the underlying loans and comparable transaction pricing in the securitization market. The fair value of residual interests currently is determined using unobservable inputs and classified as Level 3. The residual interests consist of interest-only strips receivable and cash on deposit, and are backed by prime, non-prime and sub-prime automobile loans issued from March 1999 to April 2008. The fair value is estimated using discounted cash flow analyses. Key inputs to the analysis include the excess cash flow discount rate, the cumulative life loss rate, expected weighted-average life and prepayment speed assumption. We develop our key inputs using our actual portfolio experience and recent market activity for similar transactions. At least one of the significant inputs used in the fair valuation is not observable because recent economic events have significantly reduced the number of comparable securitization transactions. During fiscal year 2009, we recognized $46.0 million of write-downs to the residual interests primarily due to an increase in the cumulative life loss rate, partially offset by a decrease in the excess cash flow discount rate. We increased the cumulative life loss rate assumption from a range of 2.1% to 5.7% at September 30, 2008 to a range of 2.4% to 11.4% at September 30, 2009 to reflect increases in experienced and expected losses. This resulted in an increase in the weighted-average assumption for the cumulative life loss rate from 4.2% at September 30, 2008 to 7.4% at September 30, 2009. The excess cash flow discount rate decreased from 19.8% at September 30, 2008 to 14.4% at September 30, 2009 as a result of the changing liquidity premium in the securitization market. The key assumptions and the sensitivity of the fair value of the residual interests to an immediate adverse change in those assumptions are shown in Note 9 Securitization of Loans Held for Sale in the notes to consolidated financial statements in Item 8 of Part II of this Form 10-K.
Investment Securities, Available-for-Sale consist primarily of non-consolidated sponsored investment products and debt securities including U.S. government-sponsored enterprise obligations, securities of U.S. states and political subdivisions, securities of the U.S. Treasury and federal agencies, and corporate debt securities. Realized gains and losses are included in investment income using either the average cost method or specific identification method. Unrealized gains and losses are recorded net of tax as part of accumulated other comprehensive income until realized. The fair value of non-consolidated sponsored investment products is determined based on the published net asset values of the sponsored investment products, and they are classified as Level 1. The fair value of the debt securities is determined using quoted market prices or independent third-party broker or dealer price quotes, which are evaluated for reasonableness, and they are generally classified as Level 2, except for certain U.S. Treasury securities which are classified as Level 1.
Loans Held for Sale consist of retail installment loan sale contracts held for sale in securitization transactions. The contracts are secured by new and used automobiles purchased from motor vehicle dealers. The fair value of loans held for sale generally is estimated based on the whole loan market price that would be received if the loans were sold in their current condition, which may include adjustments based on the composition of the loan portfolio and liquidity factors. As a result of recent economic conditions, observable whole loan prices for comparable portfolios of automobile loans sold have not been readily available. Therefore, the fair value currently is determined by using discounted cash flow analyses with estimated discount rates for loans with similar terms and collateral. Accordingly, loans held for sale currently are classified as Level 3.
While we believe the valuation methodologies described above are appropriate, the use of different methodologies or assumptions to determine the fair value could result in a different estimate of fair value at the reporting date.
Investments are evaluated for other-than-temporary impairment on a quarterly basis when the cost of an investment exceeds its fair value. For available-for-sale equity securities, we consider many factors, including the severity and duration of the decline in the fair value below cost, our intent and ability to hold
the security for a period of time sufficient for an anticipated recovery in fair value, and the financial condition and specific events related to the issuer. When an impairment of an available-for-sale equity security is determined to be other-than-temporary, we recognize the impairment in earnings. For available-for-sale debt securities, if we intend to sell or it is more likely than not that we will be required to sell a security before recovery of its amortized cost, we record the entire impairment in earnings. If we do not intend to sell or it is not more likely than not that we will be required to sell the security before anticipated recovery of its amortized cost, we separate the impairment into the amount of the total impairment related to the credit loss and the amount of the total impairment related to all other factors. The credit loss component is the difference between the securitys amortized cost and the present value of the expected cash flows. The credit loss component is recognized in earnings and the losses related to all other factors are recognized in accumulated other comprehensive income. While we believe that we have accurately estimated the amount of other-than-temporary impairment in our portfolio, different assumptions could result in changes to the recorded amounts in our consolidated financial statements.
Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets
Goodwill represents the excess cost of a business acquisition over the fair value of the net assets acquired. Intangible assets consist primarily of mutual fund management contracts and customer base assets resulting from business acquisitions. We amortize intangible assets over their estimated useful lives, which range from seven to 15 years, using the straight-line method, unless the asset is determined to have an indefinite useful life. Indefinite-lived intangible assets primarily represent contracts to manage mutual fund assets for which there is no foreseeable limit on the contract period.
We make significant estimates and assumptions when valuing goodwill and other intangible assets in connection with the initial purchase price allocation of an acquired entity, as well as when evaluating impairment of goodwill and other intangible assets on an ongoing basis.
Goodwill is tested for impairment annually and when an event occurs or circumstances change that more likely than not reduce the fair value of a reporting unit below its carrying value. Historically, we completed our annual goodwill impairment test as of October 1 of each fiscal year. During fiscal year 2009, we changed our annual impairment test date from October 1 to August 1 of each year. We believe the August 1 date better aligns our annual goodwill impairment test with the budget data developed in connection with the budgeting process that takes place in July and August. In addition, the annual impairment test will be completed during our fourth fiscal quarter using the most recent financial information such that the results will better reflect the fiscal year being reported. This change to the date of our annual goodwill impairment test constitutes a change in the method of applying an accounting principle. We believe that this change in accounting principle is preferable and we filed a letter of preferability from our independent registered public accounting firm regarding this change in accounting principle as an exhibit to our Form 10-Q for the quarter ended March 31, 2009.
Our goodwill impairment test involves a two-step process. The first step requires the identification of the reporting units, and comparison of the fair value of each of these reporting units to the respective carrying value. If the carrying value is less than the fair value, no impairment exists and the second step is not performed. If the carrying value is higher than the fair value, there is an indication that impairment may exist and the second step is performed to compute the amount of the impairment. In the second step, the impairment is computed by comparing the implied fair value of reporting unit goodwill with the carrying value of that goodwill. We have two reporting units, investment management and related services and banking/finance, which are the same as our operating segments. All goodwill has been assigned to the investment management and related services reporting unit.
Indefinite-lived intangible assets are tested for impairment annually and when events or changes in circumstances indicate the assets might be impaired. Impairment is indicated when the carrying value of the intangible asset exceeds its fair value.
In estimating the fair value of the reporting unit and indefinite-lived intangible assets, we use valuation techniques based on an income approach where future cash flows are discounted. Our future cash flow estimates include assumptions about revenue and assets under management growth rates, pre-tax profit margin, the average effective fee rate, the effective tax rate, and the discount rate, which is based on our weighted average cost of capital. The most relevant of these assumptions to the determination of estimated fair value are the assets under management growth rate and the discount rate.
We performed our annual impairment tests for goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets as of August 1, 2009. We estimated the discounted future cash flows using a 6.0% compounded annual growth rate of assets under management and a discount rate of 13.4%. The fair value of the investment management and related services reporting unit exceeded its carrying value by more than 100%. The fair values of our indefinite-lived intangible assets exceeded their respective carrying values by more than 100%.
The assumptions used in our annual impairment tests for goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets were developed taking into account the ongoing market conditions with an expectation that the recovery in the level of assets under management may take longer than has been historically experienced in years following a severe market downturn. Therefore, the growth rate assumption used as of August 1, 2009 was lower than the historical compounded growth rates. We did not recognize any impairment because our estimates of the fair values of our reporting unit and our indefinite-lived assets exceeded their respective carrying values. A hypothetical 500 basis point decline in the assets under management growth rate or a 500 basis point increase in the discount rate would not cause either the investment management and related services reporting unit or the management contracts to fail step one of the impairment tests for goodwill or indefinite-lived intangible assets.
We subsequently monitor the market conditions and their potential impact on the assumptions used in the annual calculations of fair value to determine whether circumstances have changed that would more likely than not reduce the fair value of our reporting unit below its carrying value, or indicate that our indefinite-lived intangible assets might be impaired. We consider, among other things, changes in our assets under management and pre-tax profit margin amounts, which affect our revenue growth rate assumptions, by assessing whether these changes would impact the reasonableness of the assumptions used in our impairment test as of August 1, 2009. We also monitor fluctuations of our common stock per share price to evaluate our market capitalization relative to the reporting unit as a whole. Subsequent to August 1, 2009, there were no impairments to goodwill or indefinite-lived intangible assets as we determined no events occurred or circumstances changed that would more likely than not reduce the fair value of the reporting unit below its carrying value, or indicate that our indefinite-lived intangible assets might be impaired.
We test definite-lived intangible assets for impairment quarterly. Impairment is indicated when the carrying value of the asset is not recoverable and exceeds its fair value. In evaluating the recoverability of definite-lived intangible assets, we estimate the undiscounted future cash flows to be derived from these assets. Our future undiscounted cash flow projections include assumptions about revenue and assets under management growth rates, effective fee rates, investor redemptions, pre-tax profit margin, and expected useful lives. The most relevant of these assumptions to determine future cash flows is the change in the amount of assets under management. The assumptions used in our impairment tests are developed taking into consideration the ongoing market conditions. If the carrying value of the asset is not recoverable through the related undiscounted cash flows, we measure the impairment loss based on the amount by which the carrying value of the asset exceeds its fair value. Fair value of the asset is determined by discounted cash flows or other methods as appropriate for the asset type.
As of September 30, 2009, approximately 58% of our definite-lived intangible assets related to investment management contracts of Fiduciary Trust Company International (FTCI) high net-worth accounts. We estimated the future undiscounted cash flows for the contracts using assets under management growth rates ranging from 0.3% to 0.5% and the future discounted cash flows using a discount rate of 13.9%. We did not recognize an impairment loss because the fair value of the contracts exceeded their carrying value. As of September 30, 2009, a decline in our assets under management of approximately 40% could cause our FTCI high net-worth management contracts to be impaired.
The undiscounted future cash flow projections for the remaining 42% of our definite-lived intangible assets exceeded their respective carrying values by more than 30%. We estimated the undiscounted future cash flows using assets under management growth rates ranging from (6.2)% to 6.0%, depending on the type of management contracts. As of September 30, 2009, a decline in our assets under management of approximately 40% could cause us to evaluate whether the fair value of our other definite-lived intangible assets is below the asset carrying value.
While we believe that our impairment tests and the assumptions used to estimate fair value are reasonable and appropriate, if the assumptions used in our estimates of fair value change in the future, we may be required to record impairment charges or otherwise accelerate amortization expense.
We recognize investment management fees, shareholder servicing fees and distribution fees as earned over the period in which services are rendered, except for performance-based investment management fees, which are recognized when earned. We recognize underwriting commissions related to the sale of shares of our sponsored investment products on the trade date. Investment management fees are generally determined based on a percentage of assets under management, except for performance-based investment management fees, which are based on performance targets established in the related investment management contracts. Generally, shareholder servicing fees are calculated based on the number and type of accounts serviced, while distribution fees are generally based on a percentage of assets under management.
Assets under management is calculated for our sponsored investment products using fair value methods derived primarily from unadjusted quoted market prices, unadjusted independent third-party broker or dealer price quotes in active markets, or adjusted market prices or price quotes. The fair values of securities for which market prices are not readily available are internally valued using various methodologies as appropriate for each security type. Securities for which market prices are not readily available generally represent a de minimus amount of our total assets under management. The pricing of the securities held by our sponsored investment products is governed by a global valuation and pricing policy, which defines valuation and pricing conventions for each security type, including practices for responding to unexpected or unusual market events. While recent economic conditions and financial market declines have increased market price volatility, the fair value of the majority of the securities held by the sponsored investment products continues to be derived from readily available market price quotations.
We record deferred tax assets and liabilities for temporary differences between the tax basis of assets and liabilities, and the reported amounts in the consolidated financial statements using the statutory tax rates in effect for the year when the reported amount of the asset or liability is recovered or settled, respectively. The effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax rates is recognized in the results of operations in the period that includes the enactment date. A valuation allowance is recorded to reduce the carrying values of deferred tax assets to the amount that is more likely than not to be realized. For each tax position taken or expected to be taken in a tax return, we determine whether it is more likely than not that
the position will be sustained upon examination based on the technical merits of the position, including resolution of any related appeals or litigation. A tax position that meets the more likely than not recognition threshold is measured to determine the amount of benefit to recognize. The tax position is measured at the largest amount of benefit that is greater than 50% likely of being realized upon settlement. We recognize the accrual of interest on uncertain tax positions in interest expense and penalties in other operating expenses.
As a multinational corporation, we operate in various locations outside the United States and generate earnings from our non-U.S. subsidiaries. We indefinitely reinvest the undistributed earnings of our non-U.S. subsidiaries, except for Subpart F income taxed in the U.S., subject to regulatory or contractual repatriation restrictions or contractual repatriation requirements, and the excess net earnings after debt service payments and regulatory capital requirements of our Canadian and U.K. consolidated subsidiaries. As a result, we have not recognized a provision for U.S. income taxes and a deferred income tax liability on $3.4 billion of cumulative undistributed foreign earnings that are indefinitely reinvested at September 30, 2009. Changes to our policy of reinvestment or repatriation of non-U.S. earnings may have a significant effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
We are involved in various lawsuits and claims encountered in the normal course of business. When such a matter arises and periodically thereafter, we consult with our legal counsel and evaluate the merits of the claims based on the facts available at that time. In managements opinion, an adequate accrual has been made as of September 30, 2009 to provide for probable losses that may arise from these matters for which we could reasonably estimate an amount. See also Note 15 Commitments and Contingencies in the notes to consolidated financial statements in Item 8 of Part II of this Form 10-K.
Consolidation of Variable Interest Entities
We consolidate any variable interest entity (VIE) for which we are considered the primary beneficiary. A VIE is an entity in which the equity investment holders have not contributed sufficient capital to finance its activities or the equity investment holders do not have defined rights and obligations normally associated with an equity investment. The entity that has the majority of the risks and rewards of ownership, referred to as the primary beneficiary, is required to consolidate the VIE.
We invest in various entities in the normal course of business and evaluate whether each entity is a VIE. For the entities determined to be VIEs, we assess whether we qualify as the primary beneficiary of the VIEs. Our VIEs primarily include certain sponsored investment products and certain other investment products in which we hold an equity ownership interest. Other VIEs include limited liability partnerships, limited liability companies, and joint ventures. The form of variable interests that we have in VIEs generally includes our equity ownership interest and investment management and related service fees earned from sponsored investment products. Our evaluation of whether we qualify as the primary beneficiary of VIEs is highly complex and involves significant judgments, estimates and assumptions. We generally utilize expected cash flow scenarios to determine our interest in the expected losses or residual returns of VIEs from our investment management and related service fees or equity ownership interests held.
The key estimates and assumptions used in our analyses include the amount of assets under management, investment management and related service fee rates, the life of the investment product, and the discount rate. These estimates and assumptions are subject to variability. For example, assets under management are impacted by market volatility and the level of sales, redemptions, contributions, withdrawals and dividend reinvestments of mutual fund shares that occur daily. Also, investment management fees may be fixed or tiered based on the amount of assets under management, the life of a
sponsored investment product may be finite or indefinite, and the discount rate could be affected by credit, liquidity or other risks factors. In addition, third-party purchases and redemptions, which are outside of our control, need to be evaluated to determine whether they cause a reconsideration event.
Based on our evaluation, we believe we were not the primary beneficiary of VIEs and, as a result, did not consolidate these entities as of and for fiscal year 2009. While we believe that our evaluation was appropriate, future changes in estimates, judgments, and assumptions may affect whether certain related entities require consolidation in our financial statements.
Banking/Finance Segment Interest Income and Margin Analysis
The following table presents the banking/finance operating segments net interest income and margin:
Selected Quarterly Financial Data (Unaudited)
(in thousands except per share data)