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GRUMA SAB DE CV 20-F 2006

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SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549

Form 20-F

o    REGISTRATION STATEMENT PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(b) OR (g) OF
THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
OR
ý    ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF
THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2005
OR
o    TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF
THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
for the transition period from    to  
OR
o    SHELL COMPANY REPORT PURSUANT
TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
Date of event requiring this shell company report...........

For the transition period from              to             
Commission File Number: 1-14852

GRUMA, S.A. de C.V.
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)

N/A
(Translation of Registrant's name into English)
      United Mexican States
(Jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)
    Calzada del Valle, 407 Ote.
Colonia del Valle
San Pedro Garza García, Nuevo León
66220, México
(Address of principal executive offices)
   

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

Title of each class:
  Name of exchange on which registered:
Series B Common Shares, without par value
American Depositary Shares, each
representing four Series B Common
Shares, without par value
  New York Stock Exchange*
New York Stock Exchange

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:

None

Securities for which there is a reporting obligation pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Act:

7.625% Notes due 2007

        Indicate the number of outstanding shares of each of the issuer's classes of capital or common stock as of the close of the period covered by the annual report:

        452,549,952 Series B Common Shares, without par value

        Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.

        Yes    o                Noý

        If this report is an annual or transition report, indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.

        Yes    o                Noý

        Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports) and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.

        Yes    ý                Noo

        Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, or a non-accelerated file.

Large accelerated filer    o                Accelerated filer    ý                Non-accelerated filer    o

        Indicate by check mark which financial statement item the registrant has elected to follow:

        Item 17  o                Item 18  ý

        If this is an annual report, indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).

        Yes  o                No  ý


*
Not for trading but only in connection with the registration of American Depositary Shares, pursuant to the requirements of the Securities and Exchange Commission.





TABLE OF CONTENTS

 
   
  Page
PART I    
 
ITEM 1.

 

IDENTITY OF DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND ADVISORS

 

 
 
ITEM 2.

 

OFFER STATISTICS AND EXPECTED TIMETABLE

 

 
 
ITEM 3.

 

KEY INFORMATION

 

 
 
ITEM 4.

 

INFORMATION ON THE COMPANY

 

 
 
ITEM 4A.

 

UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

 

 
 
ITEM 5.

 

OPERATING AND FINANCIAL REVIEW AND PROSPECTS

 

 
 
ITEM 6.

 

DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND EMPLOYEES

 

 
 
ITEM 7.

 

MAJOR SHAREHOLDERS AND RELATED PARTY TRANSACTIONS

 

 
 
ITEM 8.

 

FINANCIAL INFORMATION

 

 
 
ITEM 9.

 

THE OFFER AND LISTING

 

 
 
ITEM 10.

 

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

 

 
 
ITEM 11.

 

QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK

 

 
 
ITEM 12.

 

DESCRIPTION OF SECURITIES OTHER THAN EQUITY SECURITIES

 

 

PART II

 

 
 
ITEM 13.

 

DEFAULTS, DIVIDEND ARREARAGES AND DELINQUENCIES

 

 
 
ITEM 14.

 

MATERIAL MODIFICATIONS TO THE RIGHTS OF SECURITY HOLDERS AND USE OF PROCEEDS

 

 
 
ITEM 15.

 

CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES

 

 
 
ITEM 16A.

 

FINANCIAL EXPERT

 

 
 
ITEM 16B.

 

CODE OF ETHICS

 

 
 
ITEM 16C.

 

PRINCIPAL ACCOUNTANT FEES AND SERVICES

 

 
 
ITEM 16D.

 

EXEMPTIONS FROM THE LISTING STANDARDS FOR AUDIT COMMITTEES

 

 
 
ITEM 16E.

 

PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES BY THE ISSUER AND AFFILIATED PURCHASERS

 

 

PART III

 

 
 
ITEM 17.

 

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

 

 
 
ITEM 18.

 

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

 

 
 
ITEM 19.

 

EXHIBITS

 

 


PRESENTATION OF FINANCIAL INFORMATION

        Gruma, S.A. de C.V. is a corporation (sociedad anónima de capital variable) organized under the laws of the United Mexican States, or Mexico.

        In this Annual Report on Form 20-F, references to "pesos" or "Ps." are to Mexican pesos, and references to "U.S. dollars," "U.S.$," "dollars" or "$" are to United States dollars. "We," "our," "us," "our company," "GRUMA" and similar expressions refer to Gruma, S.A. de C.V. and its consolidated subsidiaries, except when the reference is specifically to Gruma, S.A. de C.V. (parent company only) or the context otherwise requires.

        This Annual Report contains our audited consolidated financial statements as of December 31, 2004 and 2005 and for the years ended December 31, 2003, 2004 and 2005. The financial statements have been audited by PricewaterhouseCoopers, an independent registered public accounting firm.

        We publish our financial statements in pesos and prepare our consolidated financial statements in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in Mexico, commonly referred to as "Mexican GAAP." Mexican GAAP differs in certain significant respects from accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America, commonly referred to as "U.S. GAAP." See Note 22 to our audited consolidated financial statements for information relating to the nature and effect of such differences and for a quantitative reconciliation of our consolidated net income and stockholders' equity to U.S. GAAP.

        As the Mexican economy has experienced significant levels of inflation in the past, we are required under Mexican GAAP to recognize the effects of inflation in our financial statements. Under Bulletin B-10, issued by the Mexican Institute of Public Accountants, or MIPA, we are required to present our financial information in inflation-adjusted monetary units to allow for more accurate comparisons of financial line items over time and to mitigate the distortive effects of inflation on our financial statements. Unless otherwise indicated, all financial information in this Annual Report has been restated in pesos of constant purchasing power as of December 31, 2005.

        We are required to determine our monetary position gain/loss to reflect the effect of inflation on our monetary assets and liabilities. We determine our net monetary position by subtracting our monetary liabilities from our monetary assets and then the resulting net monetary position is multiplied by the appropriate inflation rate for the period with the resulting monetary gain or loss reflected in earnings. In so doing, we can reflect the effect inflation is having on our monetary items.

        Pursuant to Bulletin B-15 issued by MIPA, we apply the actual inflation rate in the relevant country of each non-Mexican subsidiary and then translate the inflation-adjusted financial statements into pesos. The figures for subsidiaries in Central America, Venezuela and U.S. are restated to period-end constant local currencies following the provisions of Bulletin B-10 and B-15, applying the general consumer price index from the country in which the subsidiary operates. Once figures are restated, they are converted to Mexican Pesos by applying the exchange rate in effect at the end of the period.

        For the purposes of the quantitative reconciliation to U.S. GAAP, we have restated the data as of December 31, 2004 and for years ended December 31, 2003 and 2004 in pesos of constant purchasing power as of December 31, 2005 using the Mexican National Consumer Price Index, or NCPI, rather than the international restatement factor in Bulletin B-15 of MIPA. For a more detailed discussion of Mexican GAAP inflation accounting methodologies, see "Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—Management's Discussion and Analysis of Results of Operations—Overview of Accounting Presentation."



MARKET SHARE AND OTHER INFORMATION

        The information contained in this Annual Report regarding our market positions in Mexico, Venezuela, Central America, the United States, Europe, Asia, and Oceania, is based primarily on our own estimates and internal analysis. Market position information for the United States is also based on



data from the Tortilla Industry Association. While we believe our internal research and estimates are reliable, they have not been verified by any independent source and we cannot assure you as to their accuracy.

        All references to "tons" in this Annual Report refer to metric tons. One metric ton equals 2,204 pounds. Estimates of production capacity contained herein assume operation of the relevant facilities on the basis of 24 hours a day, 360 days a year on three shifts and assume only regular intervals for required maintenance.


FORWARD LOOKING STATEMENTS

        This Annual Report includes "forward-looking statements" within the meaning of Section 27A of the U.S. Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, including the statements about our plans, strategies and prospects under "Item 4. Information on the Company" and "Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects." Some of these statements contain words such as "believe," "expect," "intend," "anticipate," "estimate," "strategy," "plans" and other similar words. Although we believe that our plans, intentions and expectations as reflected in or suggested by these forward-looking statements are reasonable, we cannot assure you that these plans, intentions or expectations will be achieved. Actual results could differ materially from the forward-looking statements as a result of risks, uncertainties and other factors discussed in "Item 3. Key Information—Risk Factors," "Item 4. Information on the Company," "Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects" and "Item 11. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk." These risks, uncertainties and factors include: general economic and business conditions, including changes in exchange rates, and conditions that affect the price and availability of corn, wheat and edible oils; potential changes in demand for our products; price and product competition; and other factors discussed herein.

2



PART I


ITEM 1.    Identity of Directors, Senior Management and Advisors.

        Not applicable.


ITEM 2.    Offer Statistics and Expected Timetable.

        Not applicable.


ITEM 3.    Key Information.


SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA

        The following tables present our selected consolidated financial data as of and for each of the years indicated. The data as of December 31, 2004 and 2005 and for the years ended December 31, 2003, 2004 and 2005 are derived from and should be read together with our financial statements included herein and "Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects."

        Our consolidated financial statements are prepared in accordance with Mexican GAAP, which differs in certain significant respects from U.S. GAAP. Note 22 to our audited consolidated financial statements provides information relating to the nature and effect of such differences, as they relate to us, and provides a reconciliation to U.S. GAAP of majority net income and total stockholders' equity.

        Pursuant to Mexican GAAP, the consolidated financial statements and the selected consolidated financial data set forth below restate the components of stockholders' equity using the NCPI factors and record gains and losses in purchasing power from holding monetary assets or liabilities. Under Mexican GAAP, non-monetary assets, with the exception of inventories and fixed assets of non-Mexican origin, are restated using the NCPI and General Consumer Price Index, or GCPI, factors for foreign subsidiaries. Inventories are restated at current replacement costs while fixed assets of foreign origin are restated by the inflation rate of the country of origin prior to translation to pesos at the period-end exchange rate. Mexican GAAP also requires restatement of all financial statements to pesos of constant purchasing power as of the date of the most recent balance sheet presented, and accordingly all data in the consolidated financial statements and in the selected consolidated financial data set forth below have been restated in pesos of constant purchasing power as of December 31, 2005. The effects of inflation accounting under Mexican GAAP, other than for the use of a specific index for the restatement of fixed assets of foreign origin, have not been reversed in the reconciliation to U.S. GAAP. See Note 22 to our consolidated financial statements.

 
  2001
  2002
  2003
  2004
  2005
 
 
  (thousands of Mexican pesos of constant purchasing power
as of December 31, 2005, except per share amounts)

 
Income Statement Data:                                
Mexican GAAP:                                
Net sales   Ps. 20,404,111   Ps. 20,647,001   Ps. 22,967,791   Ps. 24,577,608   Ps. 26,675,824  
Cost of sales     (12,867,104 )   (12,912,992 )   (14,624,622 )   (15,768,628 )   (17,422,357 )
Gross profit     7,537,007     7,734,009     8,343,169     8,808,980     9,253,467  
Selling, general and administrative expenses     (6,484,474 )   (6,127,120 )   (6,600,436 )   (6,901,259 )   (7,689,918 )
Operating income     1,052,533     1,606,889     1,742,733     1,907,721     1,563,549  
Net comprehensive financing cost:                                
Interest expense     (722,901 )   (610,168 )   (530,158 )   (478,634 )   (571,170 )
Interest income     100,347     62,108     64,472     224,605     53,363  
Monetary position gain, net     193,997     173,297     187,473     238,792     300,987  
Foreign exchange gain (loss), net     107,827     (283,301 )   (181,085 )   (50,493 )   (51,196 )
Total net comprehensive financing cost     (320,730 )   (658,064 )   (459,298 )   (65,730 )   (268,016 )
Other (expenses) income, net     74,865     129,776     (174,456 )   (282,066 )   (140,866 )
                                 

3


Income before income tax and Other items     806,668     1,078,601     1,108,979     1,559,925     1,154,667  
Income tax (current and deferred)     (297,457 )   (604,335 )   (673,810 )   (750,708 )   (369,959 )
Employees' statutory profit sharing (current and deferred)     (14,013 )   (13,932 )   4,682     (9,082 )   (19,805 )
Other items(1)     69,056     174,459     234,396     277,512     568,401  
Minority interest     (206,150 )   (211,406 )   (182,849 )   (169,791 )   (147,327 )
Majority net income     358,104     423,387     491,398     907,856     1,185,977  
Per share data(2):                                
  Income from continuing operations     0.83     0.95     1.10     2.02     2.75  
  Cumulative effect of change in accounting principle                     (0.12 )
  Majority net income per share     0.83     0.95     1.10     2.02     2.63  
U.S. GAAP:                                
Net sales     21,067,506     21,505,434     24,827,156     25,612,370     26,470,367  
Operating income     1,372,760     1,615,606     1,932,640     1,956,258     1,434,312  
Income before income taxes and other items     835,944     1,016,190     1,419,329     1,441,126     1,093,963  
Net income     225,883     350,235     640,255     803,123     1,190,671  
Per share data(2):                                
  Net income per share     0.52     0.78     1.44     1.78     2.64  

Balance Sheet Data (at period end):

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
Mexican GAAP:                                
Property, plant and equipment, net     13,598,238     13,548,489     12,987,931     12,992,314     13,743,315  
Total assets     23,604,479     23,843,890     23,306,860     24,790,364     26,775,088  
Short-term debt(3)     383,629     851,262     497,731     512,730     514,211  
Long-term debt(3)     7,149,421     6,517,800     5,961,132     5,916,013     6,395,650  
Total liabilities     10,486,743     10,886,731     10,423,406     11,257,871     12,677,481  
Capital stock     15,020,943     15,004,853     15,351,182     15,687,686     15,713,532  
Total stockholders' equity(4)     13,002,140     12,957,159     12,883,454     13,532,493     14,097,607  
U.S. GAAP:                                
Total assets     24,177,946     24,393,947     24,858,201     25,174,415     26,280,746  
Long-term debt     7,672,147     7,055,814     6,699,603     6,380,598     6,523,529  
Capital stock     15,038,230     15,019,339     15,351,182     15,594,856     15,620,702  
Total stockholders' equity     10,032,195     9,696,542     10,047,021     10,096,395     10,468,820  

Other Financial Information:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
Mexican GAAP:                                
Capital expenditures     760,573     764,699     644,375     1,258,251     2,053,701  
Depreciation and amortization     893,443     995,445     1,122,251     1,037,916     1,110,523  
Resources provided by (used in):                                
  Operating activities     1,661,586     1,556,515     1,330,033     1,930,417     1,794,436  
  Financing activities     (1,061,580 )   (871,882 )   (1,052,057 )   (390,885 )   211,163  
  Investing activities     (291,661 )   (639,965 )   (395,365 )   (1,426,920 )   (2,158,531 )
U.S. GAAP:                                
Depreciation and amortization     1,290,686     1,100,208     1,104,880     1,082,710     1,087,411  
Net cash provided by (used in):                                
  Operating activities     1,450,789     1,091,688     1,287,826     1,547,712     1,463,177  
  Investing activities     (307,398 )   (612,111 )   (273,687 )   (1,235,438 )   (1,793,046 )
  Financing activities     (808,252 )   (634,258 )   (912,728 )   (154,343 )   201,320  
                                 

4



Operating Data:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
Sales volume (thousands of tons):                                
Gruma Corporation (corn flour, tortillas and other)(5)     856     899     979     1,088     1,275  
GIMSA (corn flour, tortillas, and other)(5)     1,451     1,397     1,406     1,448     1,582  
Gruma Venezuela (corn flour, wheat flour and other)     458     454     518     504     480  
Molinera de México (wheat flour)     489     536     575     460     474  
Gruma Centroamérica (corn flour and other)(5)     140     139     144     154     178  
Production capacity (thousands of tons):                                
Gruma Corporation (corn flour and tortillas)     1,335     1,346     1,394     1,548     1,661  
GIMSA (corn flour, tortillas, and other)(6)     2,345     2,345     2,345     2,408     2,801  
Gruma Venezuela (corn flour, wheat flour, and other)(7)     792     792     792     786     764  
Molinera de México (wheat flour)     717     717     717     717     801  
Gruma Centroamérica (corn flour and other)     181     217     217     220     264  
Number of employees     15,585     14,887     15,104     15,727     16,582  

(1)
Other items include extraordinary items, equity in earnings of associated companies and gain from sale of subsidiaries and associated companies' common stock.

(2)
Based upon weighted average of outstanding shares of our common stock (in thousands), as follows: 433,235 shares for the year ended December 31, 2001; 446,202 for the year ended December 31, 2002; 445,098 shares for the year ended December 31, 2003; 450,306 shares for the year ended December 31, 2004 and 451,446 shares for the year ended December 31, 2005.

(3)
Short-term debt consists of bank loans and the current portion of long-term debt. Long-term debt consists of debentures and bank loans.

(4)
Total stockholders' equity includes minority interests as follows: Ps.2,711 million at December 31, 2001; Ps.2,783 million at December 31, 2002; Ps.2,853 million at December 31, 2003; Ps.2,868 million at December 31, 2004 and Ps.2,862 million at December 31, 2005.

(5)
Net of intercompany transactions.

(6)
Includes 243,000 tons of temporarily idled production capacity at December 31, 2005.

(7)
Includes 95,604 tons of temporarily idled production capacity at December 31, 2005.

Dividends

        Our ability to pay dividends is limited by Mexican law, our bylaws (estatutos sociales) and by financial covenants contained in some of our credit agreements. Because we are a holding company with no significant operations of our own, we have distributable profits to pay dividends to the extent that we receive dividends from our subsidiaries. Accordingly, there can be no assurance that we will pay dividends or of the amount of any such dividends.

        Pursuant to Mexican law and our bylaws, the declaration, amount and payment of dividends are determined by a majority vote of the holders of the outstanding shares represented at a duly convened shareholders' meeting. The amount of any future dividend would depend on, among other things, operating results, financial condition, cash requirements, losses for prior fiscal years, future prospects, the extent to which debt obligations impose restrictions on dividends and other factors deemed relevant by the board of directors and the shareholders.

        In addition, under Mexican law, companies may only pay dividends:

    from earnings included in year-end financial statements that are approved by shareholders at a duly convened meeting;

    after any existing losses applicable to prior years have been made up or absorbed into capital;

5


    after at least 5% of net profits for the relevant fiscal year have been allocated to a legal reserve until the amount of the reserve equals 20% of a company's paid-in capital stock; and

    after shareholders have approved the payment of the relevant dividends at a duly convened ordinary shareholders' meeting.

        Holders of our American Depositary Receipts, or ADRs, on the applicable record date are entitled to receive dividends declared on the shares represented by American Depositary Shares, or ADSs, evidenced by such ADRs. The depositary will fix a record date for the holders of ADRs in respect of each dividend distribution. We pay dividends in pesos and holders of ADSs will receive dividends in U.S. dollars (after conversion by the depositary from pesos, if not then restricted under applicable law) net of the fees, expenses, taxes and governmental charges payable by holders under the laws of Mexico and the terms of the deposit agreement.

        The ability of our subsidiaries to make distributions to us is limited by the laws of each country in which they were incorporated and by their constitutive documents. For example, our ability to repatriate dividends from Gruma Venezuela may be adversely affected by exchange controls and other recent events. See "Item 3. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Venezuela—Venezuela Presents Significant Economic Uncertainty and Political Risk." In the particular case of Gruma Corporation, our principal U.S. subsidiary, its ability to pay dividends is subject to financial covenants contained in some of its debt and lease agreements, including covenants which limit the amount of dividend payments. Upon the occurrence of any default or event of default under these credit and lease agreements, Gruma Corporation generally is prohibited from making any dividend or other payments. See "Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—Liquidity and Capital Resources—Indebtedness."

        We did not pay dividends in 2000, 2001 or 2002. During 2006, 2005, 2004 and 2003, we paid dividends to shareholders, in nominal terms, of Ps.410 million, Ps.359 million, Ps.315 million, and Ps.287 million, respectively. In pesos of constant purchasing power as of December 31, 2005, the dividends paid or payable to shareholders in 2005, 2004 and 2003 amounted to Ps.367 million, Ps.337 million and Ps.319 million.

Exchange Rate Information

        Mexico has had a free market for foreign exchange since 1991. Prior to December 1994, the Mexican central bank (Banco de México) kept the peso-U.S. dollar exchange rate within a range prescribed by the government through intervention in the foreign exchange market. In December 1994, the government suspended intervention by Banco de México and allowed the peso to float freely against the U.S. dollar. The peso declined during the period from 1994 through 1998, at times in response to events outside of Mexico, but was relatively stable in 1999, 2000 and 2001. In late 2001 and early 2002, the Mexican peso appreciated considerably against the U.S. dollar and, more strongly, against other foreign currencies. From the second quarter of 2002 and until the end of 2003, the Mexican peso depreciated in value. From the beginning of 2004 to date in 2006, the Mexican peso has been relatively stable, ranging from 10.41 to 11.63. There can be no assurance that the government will maintain its current policies with regard to the peso or that the peso will not depreciate or appreciate in the future.

6


        The following table sets forth, for the periods indicated, the high, low, average and period-end noon buying rate in New York City for cable transfers in pesos published by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, expressed in pesos per U.S. dollar. The rates have not been restated in constant currency units.

 
  Noon Buying Rate (Ps. Per U.S.$)
Year

  High(1)
  Low(1)
  Average(2)
  Period End
2001   Ps. 9.9720   Ps. 8.9460   Ps. 9.3255   Ps. 9.1560
2002     10.4250     9.0005     9.7458     10.4250
2003     11.4063     10.1130     10.8460     11.2420
2004     11.6350     10.8050     11.2900     11.1540
2005     11.4110     10.4135     10.8940     10.6275
2006 (through June 14)     11.4600     10.4315     10.9382     11.4600
  December 2005     10.7725     10.4135     10.6270     10.6275
  January 2006     10.6430     10.4369     10.5420     10.4400
  February 2006     10.5286     10.4315     10.4840     10.4542
  March 2006     10.9475     10.4620     10.7490     10.8980
  April 2006     11.1600     10.8560     11.0490     11.0890
  May 2006     11.3050     10.8410     11.0910     11.2880
  June 2006(3)     11.4600     11.2820     11.3700     11.4600

(1)
Rates shown are the actual low and high, on a day-by-day basis for each period.

(2)
Average of month-end rates.

(3)
Through June 14, 2006.

        On June 14, 2006, the noon buying rate for pesos was Ps.11.46 to U.S.$1.00.


RISK FACTORS

Risks Relating to Mexico

Our Business Operations Could Be Affected by Economic Conditions in Mexico

        We are a Mexican company with a significant portion of our consolidated assets located in Mexico and 32% of our consolidated net sales derived from our Mexican operations. As a result, Mexican economic conditions could impact our sales and profitability.

        In December 1994, Mexico experienced an economic crisis characterized by exchange rate instability and significant devaluation of the peso, increased inflation, high domestic interest rates, a substantial outflow of capital, negative economic growth, reduced consumer purchasing power and high unemployment. In addition, the financial crises in 1998 and early 1999 in Asia, Russia and Latin America resulted in instability in the foreign exchange markets and international financial markets. These events resulted in limited liquidity for the Mexican government and for local corporations as well as an increase in interest rates in Mexico. Civil and political unrest in Venezuela or elsewhere could produce similar results. See "—Adverse Developments in Other Emerging Market Countries May Affect Mexico or the Price of Our Securities." Although the Mexican economy declined by 0.3% in 2001, the Mexican economy grew by 0.9% in 2002, by 1.3% in 2003, by 4.4% in 2004, by 3.0% in 2005 and by an annualized rate of 5.5% in the first quarter of 2006.

Our Business Operations Could Be Affected by Government Policies in Mexico

        The Mexican government has exercised, and continues to exercise, significant influence over the Mexican economy. Mexican governmental actions concerning the economy could have a significant

7



effect on Mexican private sector entities, as well as on market conditions, prices and returns on securities of Mexican issuers, including our securities.

        Mexican presidential elections and congressional elections are scheduled for July 2, 2006. No political party in Mexico has a majority in the Congress or Senate. The lack of a majority party in the legislature, the lack of alignment between the legislature and the president and any changes that result from the presidential and congressional elections could result in instability or deadlock and prevent the timely implementation of economic reforms, which in turn could have a material adverse effect on Mexican economic policy and on our business.

        In the case of our sales of corn flour, governmental policies have affected us negatively in the past and may continue to do so in the future. The elimination of the tortilla subsidy for consumers, coupled with certain government's decisions reduced sales and hurt profits in 1999. Currently, the Mexican government issues corn import permits to various parties, including corn traders, typically based upon the availability of domestic corn, which contributes to the availability and stability of domestic corn prices. However, in the past, particularly during election years, the Mexican government has increased the number of corn import permits, which had the effect of driving down the price of domestic corn, and consequently, reducing sales of corn flour. So far, despite this being an election year, the Mexican government has not implemented any policy aimed at increasing the number of import permits. We currently depend on corn import permits to ensure an adequate supply of corn in low-corn producing regions of the country. We believe that a shortage of corn imports would currently have a greater adverse impact on our results of operations than a surplus in the number of corn imports. In the past, we have been able to obtain sufficient corn import permits to satisfy our corn requirements. Nevertheless, we cannot assure you that the Mexican government will not take actions that could adversely affect us. See "Item 4. Information on the Company—Regulations."

        The level of environmental regulations and enforcement in Mexico has increased in recent years. In the past, the Comisión Nacional del Agua ("National Water Commission" or "CNA"), has brought enforcement proceedings against us for fees arising from our alleged water discharges from five of our facilities in Mexico. Of such actions, only one is unresolved. The other proceedings have been resolved favorably. We cannot assure you that that further actions of this type will not be brought against us. We expect the trend toward greater environmental regulation and enforcement to continue and to be accelerated by international agreements between Mexico and the United States. The promulgation of new environmental regulations or higher levels of enforcement may adversely affect us. See "Item 8. Financial Information—Legal Proceedings".

Devaluations of the Mexican Peso Affect our Financial Performance

        As of December 31, 2005, 94% of our debt obligations were denominated in U.S. dollars. We generate 50% of our revenues in U.S. dollars, which in 2005 represented 191% of our then outstanding debt obligations. While the dollar revenues we earn may act as a natural hedge for part of our dollar-denominated debt obligations, we have not entered into derivative contracts to hedge our foreign currency risk with respect to the outstanding principal amounts of our debt. As of June 15, 2006 we had exchange rate forward contracts for only part of the interest payments due in 2006 and 2007 on our US$300 million 7.75% perpetual bond, for an aggregate notional amount of U.S.$15.3 million at an average exchange rate of Ps.11.8205 per U.S. dollar. Therefore, we remain exposed to foreign exchange risks that could affect our ability to meet our obligations and result in foreign exchange losses on our dollar-denominated obligations.

        We posted net foreign exchange losses of Ps.181 million in 2003, Ps.50 million in 2004 and Ps.51 million in 2005. Any significant decrease in the value of the peso relative to the U.S. dollar in the near term may have an adverse effect on our liquidity and on our ability to meet our dollar-denominated debt obligations.

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High Levels of Inflation and High Interest Rates in Mexico Could Adversely Affect the Business Climate in Mexico and our Financial Condition and Results of Operations

        Mexico has experienced high levels of inflation in the past. The annual rate of inflation, as measured by changes in the National Consumer Price Index, was 3.98% for 2003, 5.19% for 2004 and 3.3% for 2005. From January through May 2006, the inflation rate was 0.56%. On June 14, 2006, the 28-day CETES rate was 7.02%. While the substantial part of our debt is dollar-denominated at this time, high interest rates in Mexico may adversely affect the business climate in Mexico generally and our financing costs in the future and thus our financial condition and results of operations.

Developments in Other Countries Could Adversely Affect the Mexican Economy, the Market Value of Our Securities and Our Results of Operations

        The Mexican economy may be, to varying degrees, affected by economic and market conditions in other countries. Although economic conditions in other countries may differ significantly from economic conditions in Mexico, investors' reactions to adverse developments in other countries may have an adverse effect on the market value of securities of Mexican issuers. In recent years, economic conditions in Mexico have become increasingly correlated to economic conditions in the United States. Therefore, adverse economic conditions in the United States could have a significant adverse effect on the Mexican economy. In addition, in the past, economic crises in Asia, Russia, Brazil, Argentina and other emerging market countries adversely affected the Mexican economy.

        We cannot assure you that the events in other emerging market countries, in the United States or elsewhere will not adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

You May Be Unable to Enforce Judgments Against Us in Mexican Courts

        We are a Mexican corporation (sociedad anónima de capital variable). Most of our directors and executive officers are residents of Mexico, and a significant portion of the assets of our directors and executive officers, and a significant portion of our assets, are located in Mexico. You may experience difficulty in effecting service of process upon our company or our directors and executive officers in the United States, or, more generally, outside of Mexico and in enforcing civil judgments of non-Mexican courts in Mexico, including judgments predicated on civil liability under U.S. federal securities laws, against us, or our directors and executive officers. We have been advised by our General Counsel, that there is doubt as to the enforceability in original actions in Mexican courts of liabilities predicated solely on the U.S. federal securities laws.

Differences Between Mexican GAAP and U.S. GAAP May Have an Impact on the Presentation of Our Financial Information

        Our annual audited consolidated financial statements are prepared in accordance with Mexican GAAP, which differ in some significant respects from U.S. GAAP. Financial results reported using Mexican GAAP may differ substantially from those results that would have been obtained using U.S. GAAP. We are required, however, to file an annual report on Form 20-F containing financial statements reconciled to U.S. GAAP, although this filing only contains year-end financial statements reconciled to U.S. GAAP for our three most recent fiscal years. See Note 22 to our audited consolidated financial statements.

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Risks Relating to Our Company

Fluctuations in the Cost and Availability of Corn and, to a Lesser Extent, Wheat May Affect Our Financial Performance

        Our financial performance may be affected by the price and availability of corn and, to a lesser extent, wheat and wheat flour as each raw material represented 27%, 12% and 7% of our cost of sales in 2005, respectively. Mexican and world markets have experienced periods of either over-supply or shortage of corn and wheat, some of which have caused adverse effects on our results of operations. Because of this volatility and price variations, we may not always be able to pass along our increased costs to our customers in the form of price increases. We cannot always predict whether or when shortages or over-supply of corn and wheat will occur. In addition, as described above, future Mexican or other countries' governmental actions could affect the price and availability of corn and wheat. Any adverse developments in domestic and international corn and wheat markets could have a material adverse effect upon our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

The Presence of Genetically Modified Corn and Wheat in Our Products May Have a Negative Impact on Our Sales, Profits or Stock Price

        As we do not grow our own corn or wheat, we are required to buy these items from various producers in the United States, Mexico and elsewhere. Although we only buy corn and wheat from farmers and grain elevators who agree to supply us with approved varieties of grain and we have developed a protocol to test and monitor our grain for certain strains of bacteria and chemicals that have not been approved for human consumption, we may unwittingly buy genetically modified corn and wheat that is not approved for human consumption. This may result in costly recalls and subject us to lawsuits which may have a negative impact on our sales, profits or stock price.

        In recent years, various claims have been alleged, mostly in the United States and the European Union, that genetically modified foods are unsafe for human consumption, pose risks of damage to the environment and create legal, social and ethical dilemmas. Some countries, particularly in the European Union, have instituted a partial limitation on the import of grain produced from genetically modified seeds. Some countries have imposed labeling requirements and traceability obligations on genetically modified agricultural and food products, which may affect the acceptance of these products. To the extent that we may be perceived to be a seller of genetically modified foods, this may have a significant negative impact on our sales, profits or stock price or may force us to pay a premium for non-genetically modified foods.

Downgrades of Our Debt May Increase Our Financing Costs or Otherwise Adversely Effect Us or Our Stock Price

        We are currently rated BBB- by Standard & Poor's and by Fitch and Ba1 by Moody's. Any downgrade or changes in outlook could cause our costs with respect to new debt to increase which could ultimately affect our stock price.

Regulatory Developments May Adversely Affect Our Business

        We are subject to regulation in each of the territories in which we operate. The principal areas in which we are subject to regulation are health, environmental, labor, taxation and antitrust. The adoption of new laws or regulations in the countries in which we operate may increase our operating costs or impose restrictions on our operations which, in turn, may adversely affect our financial condition, business and results of operations. Further changes in current regulations may result in an increase in compliance costs, which may have an adverse effect on our future results of operations or financial condition.

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Risks Relating to Venezuela

Venezuela Presents Significant Economic Uncertainty and Political Risk, Which May in the Future Have an Adverse Impact on Our Operations and Financial Performance

        Our operations in Venezuela accounted for approximately 10% of our net sales in 2005. The current president, Hugo Chávez, was elected in December 1998. The new constitution, brought into force in December 1999, required new elections, which were held on July 20, 2000. Chávez was re-elected for a six-year term. His election, as a candidate of the Movimiento Quinta República, or MVR, represents a radical disenfranchisement of the Venezuelan population from traditional political parties. Subsequent congressional elections failed to result in the MVR gaining decisive control of the legislative body. Therefore, it is difficult to determine the nature of new policies this administration will continue to adopt. Venezuela's next presidential election is scheduled for December, 2006. Our financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected by such policies.

        In recent years, political instability and civil unrest have plagued Venezuela. The severe civil and political unrest in Venezuela presents a risk to our business that we cannot control and that cannot be accurately measured or estimated. As a result of the nation-wide general strike that took place from early December 2002 to February 2003, Gruma Venezuela temporarily suspended operations for a total of approximately 14 days during such period. In response to such strike and in an effort to shore up the economy and control inflation, Venezuelan authorities imposed foreign exchange and price controls in early 2003. Foreign exchange controls could limit our ability to convert bolívares (the Venezuelan currency) into other currencies and transfer funds out of Venezuela. On February 5, 2003, the Venezuelan government set a single fixed exchange rate for the bolívar against the U.S. dollar of 1,600.00 bolívares to U.S.$1.00. Thereafter, on February 6, 2004, the Venezuelan government set a new single fixed exchange rate for the bolívar against the U.S. dollar of 1,920.00 bolívares to U.S.$1.00. In March 2, 2005, the Venezuelan government set a new single fixed exchange rate for the bolívar against the U.S. dollar of 2,150.00 bolívares to U.S.$1.00. On February 11, 2003, the Venezuelan government established price controls on products such as corn flour and wheat flour, which could limit our ability to raise prices to offset higher raw material costs. Our financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected due to the fact that (i) portion of our sales are denominated in bolívares, (ii) Gruma Venezuela produces products that are subject to price controls, (iii) part of our sales depend on centralized government procurement policies for its social welfare programs, and (iv) we may have difficulties repatriating dividends from Gruma Venezuela and importing some of our raw material requirements because of the foreign exchange controls. In the case of some of our raw materials, we may also face increasing costs due to the implementation of import tariffs.

Risks Relating to the United States

We May Be Unable to Maintain Our U.S. Profit Margin in the Face of a Consolidated Retail Environment

        Net sales in the U.S. constituted 50% of our total sales in 2005. As the retail grocery trade continues to consolidate and our retail customers grow larger and become more sophisticated, our retail customers could demand lower pricing and increased promotional programs. There is a risk that we will not be able to maintain our U.S. profit margin in this environment.

Risks Related to Our Controlling Shareholders and Capital Structure

Holders of ADSs May Not Be Able to Vote at our Shareholders' Meetings

        Our shares are traded on the New York Stock Exchange in the form of ADSs. There can be no assurance that holders of our shares through ADSs will receive notices of shareholder meetings from our ADS depositary with sufficient time to enable such holders to return voting instructions to our

11



ADS depositary in a timely manner. Under certain circumstances, a person designated by us may receive a proxy to vote the shares underlying the ADSs at our discretion at a shareholder meeting.

Holders of ADSs Are Not Entitled to Attend Shareholder Meetings, and They May Only Vote Through the Depositary

        Under Mexican law, a shareholder is required to deposit its shares with a Mexican custodian in order to attend a shareholders' meeting. A holder of ADSs will not be able to meet this requirement, and accordingly is not entitled to attend shareholders' meetings. A holder of ADSs is entitled to instruct the depositary as to how to vote the shares represented by ADSs, in accordance with procedures provided for in the deposit agreement, but a holder of ADSs will not be able to vote its shares directly at a shareholders' meeting or to appoint a proxy to do so. In addition, such voting instructions may be limited to matters enumerated in the agenda contained in the notice to shareholders and with respect to which information is available prior to the shareholders' meeting.

Holders of ADSs May Not Be Able to Participate in Any Future Preemptive Rights Offering and as a Result May Be Subject to a Dilution of Equity Interest

        Under Mexican law, if we issue new shares for cash as a part of a capital increase, we must generally grant our shareholders the right to purchase a sufficient number of shares to maintain their existing ownership percentage. Rights to purchase shares in these circumstances are known as preemptive rights. We may not legally be permitted to allow holders of our shares through ADSs in the United States to exercise any preemptive rights in any future capital increases unless (i) we file a registration statement with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, with respect to that future issuance of shares or (ii) the offering qualifies for an exemption from the registration requirements of the Securities Act. At the time of any future capital increase, we will evaluate the costs and potential liabilities associated with filing a registration statement with the SEC, as well as the benefits of preemptive rights to holders of our shares through ADSs in the United States and any other factors that we consider important in determining whether to file a registration statement.

        We are under no obligation to, and there can be no assurance that we will, file a registration statement with the SEC to allow holders of our shares through ADSs in the United States to participate in a preemptive rights offering. In addition, under current Mexican law, sales by the ADS depositary of preemptive rights and distribution of the proceeds from such sales to the holders of our shares through ADSs is not possible. As a result, the equity interest of holders of our shares through ADSs would be diluted proportionately and such holders may not receive any economic compensation. See "Item 10. Additional Information—Bylaws—Preemptive Rights."

The Protections Afforded to Minority Shareholders in Mexico Are Different From Those in the United States

        Under Mexican law, the protections afforded to minority shareholders are different from those in the United States. In particular, the law concerning fiduciary duties of directors and controlling shareholders is not well developed and there are different procedural requirements for bringing shareholder lawsuits. As a result, in practice it may be more difficult for our minority shareholders to enforce their rights against us or our directors or controlling shareholders than it would be for shareholders of a U.S. company.

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We Have Significant Transactions With Affiliates That Could Create Potential Conflicts of Interest

        We hold approximately 10.9% of the capital stock of Grupo Financiero Banorte, S.A. de C.V. or GFNorte, a Mexican financial institution. In the normal course of business, we may obtain financing from GFNorte's subsidiaries at market rates and terms. For the past four and a half years, the highest outstanding loan amount was Ps.162 million (in nominal terms) with an interest rate of 8.9%.

        We purchase some of our inventory ingredients from our shareholder and associate Archer-Daniels-Midland Company, or Archer-Daniels-Midland. During 2003, 2004 and 2005, we purchased U.S. $111 million, U.S.$103 million and US$105 million of inventory ingredients, respectively, from Archer-Daniels-Midland. Transactions with affiliates may create the potential for conflicts of interest. See "Item 7. Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions—Related Party Transactions."

Exchange Rate Fluctuations May Affect the Value of Our Shares

        Fluctuations in the exchange rate between the Peso and the U.S. Dollar will affect the U.S. Dollar value of an investment in our shares and of dividend and other distribution payments on those shares. See "Item 3. Key Information—Exchange Rate Information."

Our Bylaws Restrict the Ability of Non-Mexican Shareholders to Invoke the Protection of Their Governments With Respect to Their Rights as Shareholders

        As required by Mexican law, our bylaws provide that non-Mexican shareholders shall be considered as Mexican in respect of their ownership interests in Gruma, S.A. de C.V. and shall be deemed to have agreed not to invoke the protection of their governments in certain circumstances. Under this provision, a non-Mexican shareholder is deemed to have agreed not to invoke the protection of its own government by asking such government to interpose a diplomatic claim against the Mexican government with respect to the shareholder's rights as a shareholder, but is not deemed to have waived any other rights it may have, including any rights under the U.S. securities laws, with respect to its investment in Gruma, S.A. de C.V. If you invoke such governmental protection in violation of this agreement, your shares could be forfeited to the Mexican government.

Our Controlling Shareholder Exerts Substantial Control Over Our Company

        As of April 27, 2006, Roberto González Barrera and his family controlled directly or indirectly approximately 52.1% of our outstanding shares. Consequently, Mr. González Barrera and his family have the power to elect the majority of our directors and to determine the outcome of most actions requiring approval of our stockholders, including the declaration of dividends. The interests of Mr. González Barrera and his family may differ from those of our other shareholders. Mr. González Barrera and his family's holdings are described under "Item 7. Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions—Major Shareholders."

        Mr. González Barrera has pledged part of his shares in our company to secure some of his borrowings. If there is a default and the lenders enforce their rights against any or all of these shares, Mr. González Barrera and his family could lose control over us and a change of control could result. In addition, this could trigger a default in one of our credit agreements and have a material adverse effect upon our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. For more information about this pledge, see "Item 7. Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions."

Archer-Daniels-Midland, Our Strategic Partner, Has Influence Over Some Corporate Decisions; Our Relationship With Archer-Daniels-Midland Could Become Adverse and Hurt Our Performance

        Archer-Daniels-Midland owns, directly or indirectly, approximately 27.13% of our outstanding shares. However, a portion of such interest is held through a Mexican corporation jointly owned with

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Mr. González Barrera, who has the sole authority to determine how those shares are voted. Thus, Archer-Daniels-Midland only has the right to vote 22% of our outstanding shares. In addition, Archer-Daniels-Midland has the right to nominate two of the 15 members of our board of directors and their corresponding alternates. Subject to certain requirements under Mexican law, Archer-Daniels-Midland may also: initiate civil lawsuits against members of the board of directors, members of the audit committee, and statutory auditors for breach of duty; appoint a statutory auditor; judicially oppose resolutions adopted at shareholder meetings; request the deferral of any vote regarding an issue about which it does not believe it has been sufficiently informed. As a result, Archer-Daniels-Midland may influence the outcome of actions requiring the approval of our shareholders or our board of directors. Mr. González Barrera and Archer-Daniels-Midland have also granted each other rights of first refusal in respect of their shares in our company, subject to specified conditions.

        Archer-Daniels-Midland owns, directly or indirectly, a 40% interest in Molinera de México, S.A. de C.V., or Molinera de México, and 20% in Azteca Milling, L.P., or Azteca Milling. Upon completion of a series transactions which commenced in April 2006 and are expected to be completed by October 2007, ADM will own a 3% interest in Molinos Nacionales, C.A. (MONACA), or MONACA and 3% interest in Derivados de Maíz Seleccionado, DEMASECA,C.A. or DEMASECA. For more information regarding these transactions, please see "Item 4. Information on the Company—Business Overview—Gruma Venezuela". These subsidiaries account for 30% of our revenue. Although we own a majority ownership interest in these subsidiaries, in each of Azteca Milling and Molinera de México we are required to obtain the consent and cooperation of Archer-Daniels-Midland with respect to certain matters in order to increase our capital expenditures and to implement and expand upon our business strategies.

        We cannot assure you that our relationships with Archer-Daniels-Midland will be harmonious and successful. Disagreements with Archer-Daniels-Midland could affect the execution of our strategy and, as a result, we may be placed at a competitive disadvantage.

Our Antitakeover Protections May Deter Potential Acquirors

        Certain provisions of our bylaws could make it substantially more difficult for a third party to acquire control of us. These provisions in our bylaws may discourage certain types of transactions involving the acquisition of our securities. These provisions could discourage transactions in which our shareholders might otherwise receive a premium for their shares over the then current market price. Holders of our securities who acquire shares in violation of these provisions will not be able to vote, or receive dividends, distributions or other rights in respect of, these securities and would be obligated to pay us a penalty. For a description of these provisions, see "Additional Information—Bylaws—Antitakeover Protections."

We Are a Holding Company and Depend Upon Dividends and Other Funds From Subsidiaries to Service Our Debt

        We are a holding company with no significant assets other than the shares of our subsidiaries. As a result, our ability to meet our debt service obligations depends primarily upon our receiving sufficient funds from our subsidiaries. Under Mexican law, companies may only pay dividends:

    from earnings included in year-end financial statements that are approved by shareholders at a duly convened meeting;

    after any existing losses applicable to prior years have been made up or absorbed into capital;

    after at least 5% of net profits for the relevant fiscal year have been allocated to a legal reserve until the amount of the reserve equals 20% of a company's paid-in capital stock; and

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    after shareholders have approved the payment of the relevant dividends at a duly convened meeting.

        In addition, Gruma Corporation is subject to covenants in some of its debt and lease agreements which partially restrict the amount of dividends that can be paid, limit advances or loans to us, and require the maintenance of specified financial ratios and balances. For additional information concerning these restrictions on inter-company transfers, see "Item 3. Key Information—Dividends" and "Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—Liquidity and Capital Resources."

        We own approximately 83.2% of the outstanding shares of Grupo Industrial Maseca, S.A. de C.V., or GIMSA, 91.95% of MONACA, 50% of DEMASECA DEMASECA, 80% of Azteca Milling, L.P. (through Gruma Corporation), 60% of Molinera de México, S.A. de C.V. and 10.9% of Grupo Financiero Banorte, or GF Norte. Upon completion of a series transactions which commenced in April 2006 and are expected to be completed by October 2007, we will own a 57% interest in both MONACA and DEMASECA. For more information regarding these transactions, please see "Item 4. Information on the Company—Business Overview—Gruma Venezuela". Accordingly, we are entitled to receive only our pro rata share of any of these subsidiaries' dividends.

        Our ability to repatriate dividends from Gruma Venezuela may be adversely affected by exchange controls and other recent events. See "Item 3. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Venezuela—Venezuela Presents Significant Economic Uncertainty and Political Risk."


ITEM 4.    Information on the Company.


HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT

        Gruma, S.A. de C.V. is a corporation (sociedad anónima de capital variable) registered in Monterrey, Mexico under the Ley General de Sociedades Mercantiles, or the Mexican Companies Law on December 24, 1971 with a corporate life of 99 years. Our full legal name is Gruma, S.A. de C.V., but we are also known by our commercial names: Gruma and Maseca. The address of our principal executive office is Calzada del Valle. 407 Ote, Colonia del Valle, San Pedro Garza García, Nuevo León, 66220 México and our telephone number is (52 81) 8399-3300. Our legal domicile is Monterrey, Nuevo León, México.

        We were founded in 1949, when Roberto González Barrera, the Chairman of our board of directors started producing and selling corn flour in Northeastern Mexico as an alternative ingredient in producing tortillas. Prior to our founding, all corn tortillas were made using a rudimentary process. We believe that the preparation of tortillas using the corn flour method presents major advantages, including greater efficiency and higher quality, which make tortillas consistent and readily available. The corn flour process has been a significant impetus for growth, resulting in expanding corn flour and tortilla production and sales throughout Mexico, the United States, Central America, Venezuela, Europe, Asia and Oceania. In addition, we have diversified our product mix to include wheat flour in Mexico and Venezuela.

        One of our most important competitive advantages is our proprietary state-of-the art technology for the manufacturing of corn flour and tortillas and some other related products. We have developed our own technology since the founding of our company. Throughout the years we have been able to achieve vertical integration which is an important part of our competitive advantage.

        The following are some significant historical highlights:

    In 1949, we founded GIMSA, which is engaged principally in the production, distribution and sale of corn flour in Mexico.

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    In 1972, we entered the Central American market with our first operation in Costa Rica. Today, we have operations in Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua and Ecuador.

    In 1977, we entered the U.S. market. Our operations have grown to include products such as tortillas, corn flour and other tortilla related products.

    From 1989 to 1995, we significantly increased our installed manufacturing capacity in the United States and in Mexico.

    In 1993, we entered the Venezuelan corn flour market through an investment in DEMASECA, a Venezuelan corporation producing corn flour.

    In 1994, we began our packaged tortilla operations in Mexico as part of our strategy to broaden our product lines in Mexico, achieve vertical integration of our corn flour operations and capitalize upon our experience in producing and distributing packaged tortillas in the United States. We are currently only focused in northern part of Mexico.

    In 1996, we strengthened our position in the U.S. corn flour market through an association with Archer-Daniels-Midland, which currently owns approximately 27.13% of our shares. Through this association we combined our existing U.S. corn flour operations and strengthened our position in the U.S. corn flour market. This association also allowed us to enter the Mexican wheat flour market by acquiring a 60% ownership interest in Archer-Daniels-Midland's Mexican wheat flour operations.

    From 1997 through 2000, we initiated a significant plant expansion program. During this period, we acquired or built wheat flour plants, corn flour plants, bread plants and/or tortilla plants in the United States, Mexico, Central America, Venezuela (acquisition of MONACA) and Europe.

    From 2001 to 2003, as a result of our comprehensive review of our business portfolio and our focus on our core businesses, we sold our bread business.

    In 2004, we acquired Ovis Boske, a tortilla company based in Holland, Nuova De Franceschi & Figli, a corn flour company based in Italy and a small tortilla plant in Las Vegas, Nevada. We continued to expand capacity and upgrade several of our U.S. operations, the most relevant of which was the expansion of a corn mill in Indiana. This expansion was completed during the second half of 2005.

    In 2005, we began the construction of a tortilla plant in Pennsylvania, which has been operational since July 2005. We continued to expand capacity at existing plants. In addition, Gruma Corporation acquired part of the manufacturing assets of the Mexican food division of Cenex Harvest States or, CHS, which consisted of three tortilla plants located in New Brighton, Minnesota; Forth Worth, Texas; and Phoenix, Arizona. Gruma Corporation also acquired a small tortilla plant near San Francisco, California. In August, GIMSA acquired 100% of the capital stock of Agroindustrias Integradas del Norte and Agroinsa de México (together, and with their subsidiaries, Agroinsa), a group of companies based in Monterrey, Mexico engaged primarily in the production of corn flour and, to a lesser extent, wheat flour and other products.

    In 2006, during the first quarter, we concluded the acquisitions of two small tortilla plants in Australia (Rositas Investments and Oz-Mex Foods), which will strengthen our presence in the Asia and Oceania markets. In April, we entered into a contract to sell a 40% stake in MONACA to our partners in DEMASECA. In conjunction with this transaction, we also agreed to purchase an additional 10% ownership interest in DEMASECA from our partners.

        We are continuously considering potential acquisitions which could improve our market share, profitability and fit into our overall strategy.

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ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE

        We are a holding company and conduct our operations through subsidiaries. The table below sets forth our principal subsidiaries.

Name of Company

  Principal
Markets

  Jurisdiction of
Incorporation

  Percentage Owned(1)
  Products/
Services

Mexican Operations                
Grupo Industrial Maseca, S.A. de C.V. ("GIMSA")   Mexico   Mexico   83%   Corn flour,
Tortillas, Other
Molinera de México, S.A. de C.V.
("Molinera de México")
  Mexico   Mexico   60%   Wheat flour,
Other
U.S., Europe, Asia and Oceania Operations                
Gruma Corporation   United States
Europe
Asia
Oceania
  Nevada   100%   Packaged
tortillas, Other
tortilla related
products, Other
Azteca Milling(2)   United States   Texas   80%   Corn flour
Central American Operation                
Gruma Centroamérica, LLC.   Costa Rica, Honduras,
Guatemala, El
Salvador,
Nicaragua,
Ecuador
  Nevada   100%   Corn flour,
Packaged
tortillas, Snacks,
Hearts of palm,
Rice
Venezuelan Operations(3)                
Molinos Nacionales, C.A. (MONACA) ("MONACA")(4)   Venezuela   Venezuela   91.95%   Corn flour,
Wheat flour,
Other products
Derivados de Maíz Seleccionado, DEMASECA, C.A. ("DEMASECA")(4)   Venezuela   Venezuela   50%   Corn flour
Other Subsidiaries                
Productos y Distribuidora Azteca, S.A. de C.V. ("PRODISA")   Mexico   Mexico   100%   Packaged
tortillas, Other
related products
Investigación de Tecnología Avanzada, S.A. de C.V. ("INTASA")   Mexico   Mexico   100%   Construction,
Technology and
Equipment
operations

(1)
Percentage of equity capital owned by us directly or indirectly through subsidiaries.

(2)
A limited partnership between Gruma Corporation (80%) and Archer-Daniels-Midland (20%).

(3)
Together these subsidiaries are referred to as "Gruma Venezuela."

(4)
Upon completion of a series of transactions with our Venezuelan partners in DEMASECA, GRUMA will hold a 57% interest, ADM will hold a 3% interest and our partners will hold a 40% interest in both MONACA and DEMASECA. Such transactions are expected to be completed by October 2007. For more information regarding these transactions, please see "—Business Overview—Gruma Venezuela".

17


        Our subsidiaries accounted for the following percentages and amount of our net sales in millions of pesos of constant purchasing power as of December 31, 2005 for the years ended December 31, 2003, 2004 and 2005.

 
  Year ended December 31,
 
 
  2003
  2004
  2005
 
 
  In Millions
of Pesos

  Percentage
of Net Sales

  In Millions
of Pesos

  Percentage
of Net Sales

  In Millions
of Pesos

  Percentage
of Net Sales

 

Gruma Corporation

 

Ps.10,608

 

46

%

Ps.12,092

 

49

%

Ps.14,089

 

53

%

GIMSA

 

5,653

 

25

 

5,980

 

24

 

6,526

 

24

 

Gruma Venezuela

 

3,221

 

14

 

3,213

 

13

 

2,708

 

10

 

Molinera de México

 

2,165

 

9

 

1,948

 

8

 

1,880

 

7

 

Gruma Centroamérica

 

1,142

 

5

 

1,231

 

5

 

1,334

 

5

 

Others (and eliminations)

 

179

 

1

 

114

 

1

 

139

 

1

 

Association with Archer-Daniels-Midland

        We entered into an association with Archer-Daniels-Midland in September 1996. Archer-Daniels-Midland is one of the world's largest corn refiners, oil seed processors and flour millers and produces, processes, transports and exports agricultural products worldwide. Through our partnership we have improved our position in the U.S. corn flour market and gained an immediate presence in the Mexican wheat flour market.

        As a result of this association, we and Archer-Daniels-Midland combined our U.S. corn flour operations to form Azteca Milling, L.P., a limited partnership in which we hold indirectly, 80% and Archer-Daniels-Midland holds indirectly, 20%. We and Archer-Daniels-Midland agreed to produce and distribute corn flour in the United States exclusively through Azteca Milling. In addition, we acquired 60% of the capital stock of Archer-Daniels-Midland's wholly-owned Mexican wheat milling operations, Molinera de México, S.A. de C.V. Archer-Daniels-Midland retained the remaining 40%. We and Archer-Daniels-Midland agreed to produce and distribute wheat flour in Mexico exclusively through Molinera de México. As part of this agreement, we also received U.S.$258.0 million in cash and gained exclusivity rights from Archer-Daniels-Midland in specified corn flour and wheat flour markets. In return, Archer-Daniels-Midland received 74,696,314 of our newly issued shares, which represented at that time approximately 22% of our total outstanding shares and the right to designate two of the 15 members of our board of directors and their corresponding alternates. Currently, Archer-Daniels-Midland owns, directly and indirectly, approximately 27.13% of our outstanding shares. See "Item 3. Key Information—Risk Factors—Risks Relating to Our Controlling Shareholders and Capital Structure—Archer- Daniels-Midland, Our Strategic Partner, Has Influence Over Some Corporate Decisions." and "Item 10. Additional Information—Material Contracts—Archer-Daniels-Midland."

Capital Expenditures

        Our capital expenditures for 2003, 2004 and 2005 were U.S.$58 million, U.S.$115 million and U.S.$193 million, respectively. Our capital expenditures include investments in property, plant and equipment, acquisitions of new plants and brands and investments in common stock. In 2003, we spent U.S.$58 million on capital expenditures, primarily on capacity expansion and technology upgrades. Investments in 2004 were mainly applied to Gruma Corporation for the expansion of corn flour and tortilla capacity, including two small European acquisitions, the acquisition of a small tortilla plant in Las Vegas, Nevada and general facilities upgrades at our U.S. plants. Investments in 2005 were mainly applied to the construction of a new plant, expansions and upgrades of existing plants and several

18



acquisitions, including the CHS (tortilla assets) and Agroinsa acquisitions. These investments were made to accommodate the continuous growth in our business. We have budgeted approximately U.S.$260 million for capital expenditures in 2006. A significant portion of such budget is intended to be used for additional capacity in Gruma Corporation. We anticipate financing these expenditures through our own cash flows and with the proceeds from our January 2006 equity offering. This capital expenditures budget does not include any potential acquisitions.

        During the first quarter of 2006, we spent approximately U.S.$42 million on capital expenditures. Most of these investments were applied to the continued capacity expansion at Gruma Corporation and to a lesser extent, capacity expansions in GIMSA and the acquisition of two tortilla companies in Australia. For more information on capital expenditures please refer to the discussion of the specific subsidiary.

        We continue to analyze the Asia and Oceania markets, where we believe there is growth potential. Our investment in our first plant in China is expected to be approximately U.S.$20 million. We expect this plant to be operational by the end of 2006. This plant, together with the two tortilla plants in Australia, will enable the company to better serve the Asia and Oceania markets.

        The following table sets forth the aggregate amount of our capital expenditures during the periods indicated.

 
  Year ended December 31,
 
  2003
  2004
  2005
 
  (in millions of U.S. dollars(1))

Gruma Corporation   $ 38.2   $ 93.2   $ 88.0
GIMSA     7.2     5.4     69.6
Gruma Venezuela     3.5     7.9     17.2
Molinera de México     3.6     5.4     1.8
Gruma Centroamérica     0.0     0.0     3.9
Others and eliminations     5.0     2.9     12.7
   
 
 
Total consolidated   $ 57.5   $ 114.8   $ 193.2
   
 
 

    (1)
    Amounts in respect of some of the capital expenditures were paid for in currencies other than the U.S. dollar. These amounts were translated into U.S. dollars at the exchange rate in effect at the end of each year on which a given capital expenditure was made. As a result, U.S. dollar amounts presented in the table above may not be comparable to data contained elsewhere in this Annual Report.

        For more information on capital expenditures for each subsidiary, please see the sections entitled "Operation and Capital Expenditures" under the relevant sections below.


BUSINESS OVERVIEW

        We believe we are one of the largest corn flour and tortilla producers and distributors in the world based upon revenue and sales volume. We also believe we are one of the leading producers and distributors of corn flour and tortillas in the United States, one of the leading producers of corn flour and wheat flour in Mexico and one of the leading producers of corn flour and wheat flour in Venezuela, based upon revenue and sales volumes. We believe that we are also one of the largest producers of corn flour and tortillas in Central America, and one of the largest tortilla producers in Europe and Australia based upon revenue and sales volume.

        Our focus has been and continues to be the efficient and profitable expansion of our core business—corn flour, tortilla, and wheat flour production. We pioneered the dry corn flour method of tortilla production, which offers several advantages over the centuries-old traditional wet corn dough

19



method. These advantages include higher production yields, reduced production costs, more uniform quality and longer shelf life. The corn flour method of production offers significant opportunities for growth. Using our technology and know-how, we expect to encourage tortilla and tortilla chip producers in the United States, Mexico, Central America,, and elsewhere to convert to the corn flour method of tortilla and tortilla chip production. Additionally, we expect to increase the presence of our other core businesses, including packaged tortillas in the United States, Mexico, Central America, Europe, Asia and Oceania, and wheat flour in Mexico and Venezuela.

        The following table sets forth our revenues by geographic market for years ended December 31, 2003, 2004 and 2005.

 
  Year ended December 31,
 
  2003
  2004
  2005
 
  (in millions of Pesos of constant purchasing power as of December 31, 2005)

United States and Europe   Ps. 10,608   Ps. 12,092   Ps. 14,089
Mexico     7,997     8,042     8,545
Venezuela     3,221     3,213     2,708
Central America     1,142     1,231     1,334
   
 
 
Total   Ps. 22,968   Ps. 24,578   Ps. 26,676
   
 
 

Strategy

        Our strategy for growth is to focus on our core business—the manufacturing of tortillas, corn flour and wheat flour—and to capitalize upon our leading positions in the corn flour and tortilla industries. We have taken advantage of the increasing popularity of Mexican food and, more importantly, tortillas in the U.S., Europe, Asia and Oceania. We have also taken advantage from the adoption of tortillas by the U.S. general market and by Europeans for the preparation of different recipes other than Mexican food, and from the flexibility of our wraps and new product concepts we have launched such as low-fat, carb-balance and multigrain. We are continuously considering potential acquisitions which could improve our market share, profitability and fit into our overall strategy. Our strategy includes the following key elements:

        Expand in the Growing Retail and Food Service Tortilla Markets in New Regions in the United States: We believe that the size and growth of the U.S. retail and food service tortilla markets offer significant opportunities for expansion.

        Expand in the Growing Tortilla Markets in Europe, Asia and Oceania:    We believe that new markets in other continents such as Europe, Asia and Oceania offer us significant opportunities. We believe our acquisitions in Europe will enable us to better serve markets in Europe and in the Middle East through stronger vertical integration, improvements in logistical efficiencies, and enhanced knowledge of our local markets. In Asia, we have established a presence by exporting our products to major customers in the region and are investing in our first plant in China, which is expected to be operational during the fourth quarter of 2006. Our presence in China will enable us to offer our customers fresh products and respond more quickly to their needs. We have also strengthened our presence in Oceania with the recent acquisition of two tortilla plants in Australia. We will continue to evaluate ways to profitably expand into these rapidly growing markets.

        Continue the Process of Establishing Gruma Corporation's MISSION® and Guerrero Tortilla Brands as the First and Second National Brands in the United States: We intend to achieve this by increasing our efforts at building brand name recognition and by further expanding and utilizing Gruma Corporation's distribution network, first in Gruma Corporation's existing markets, where we believe there is potential

20



for further growth, and second, in regions where Gruma Corporation currently does not have a significant presence but where we believe strong demand for tortillas already exists.

        Encourage Transition from Traditional Cooked-Corn Method to Corn Flour Method:    We pioneered the dry corn flour method of tortilla production, which offers several advantages over the centuries-old traditional wet corn dough method. We continue to view the transition from the traditional method to the corn flour method of making tortillas and tortilla chips as the primary opportunity for increased corn flour sales. We will continue to encourage this transition through improving customer service, advertising and promoting principally our MASECA® brand corn flour, as well as leveraging off of our manufacturing capacity and distribution networks in Mexico, the United States, Central America, Venezuela and Europe. In addition, we see as an opportunity the fact that corn flour is more environmentally friendly than the traditional method.

        Continually Improve Service and Quality of Our Products to Customers and Consumers: We continue to develop customer relationships by ensuring that our customer-service and sales representatives develop an intimate knowledge of their clients' businesses and by working with clients to help them improve their products, services, and sales to their consumers. We continuously work to improve service and the quality of our products to consumers, raise consumer awareness of our products, and stay informed of our consumers' preferences.

U.S., Europe, Asia and Oceania Operations

Overview

        We conduct our United States, Europe, Asia and Oceania operations principally through our subsidiary Gruma Corporation, which manufactures and distributes corn flour, packaged tortillas, corn chips and related products. Gruma Corporation commenced operations in the United States in 1977, initially developing a presence in certain major tortilla consumption markets by acquiring small tortilla manufacturers and converting their production processes from the traditional "wet corn dough" method to our dry corn flour method. Eventually, we began to build our own state-of-the-art tortilla plants in certain major tortilla consumption markets. We have vertically integrated our operations by (1) building corn flour and tortilla manufacturing facilities, (2) establishing corn purchasing operations, (3) launching marketing and advertising campaigns to develop brand name recognition, (4) expanding distribution networks for corn flour and tortilla products, and (5) using our technology to design and build proprietary corn flour, tortilla and tortilla chip manufacturing machinery.

        In September 1996, we combined our U.S. corn flour milling operations with Archer-Daniels-Midland's corn flour milling operations into a newly formed limited partnership, known as Azteca Milling, L.P., in which Gruma Corporation holds an 80% interest.

        During 2000, Gruma Corporation opened its first European tortilla plant in Coventry, England, initiating our entry into the European market. During 2004 Gruma Corporation concluded two small acquisitions in Europe, a tortilla plant in Holland and a 51% ownership of a corn flour plant in Italy in an effort to strengthen our presence in that region. During 2006, Gruma Corporation acquired two small tortilla plants in Australia and will open a tortilla plant in China.

21


Gruma Corporation

        Gruma Corporation operates primarily through its Mission Foods division, which produces tortillas and related products, and Azteca Milling, L.P., a limited partnership between Gruma Corporation (80%) and Archer-Daniels-Midland (20%) which produces corn flour. We believe Gruma Corporation is one of the leading manufacturers and distributors of packaged tortillas and related products throughout the United States, Europe, Asia and Oceania through its Mission Foods division. We believe Gruma Corporation is also one of the leading producers of corn flour in the United States through its Azteca Milling division.

        Principal Products.    Mission Foods manufactures and distributes packaged corn and wheat tortillas and related products (which include tortilla chips) under the MISSION® and GUERRERO® brand names in the United States, as well as other minor regional brands. By continuing to build MISSION® into a strong national brand and GUERRERO® into a strong Hispanic focused brand, Mission Foods expects to increase market penetration, brand awareness and profitability. Azteca Milling manufactures and distributes corn flour in the United States under the MASECA® brand.

        Sales and Marketing.    Mission Foods serves both retail and food service customers. Retail customers, which represent most of our business, include supermarkets, mass merchandisers and smaller independent stores. Our food service customers include major chain restaurants, food service distributors, schools, hospitals and the military.

        In the tortilla market, Mission Foods' current marketing strategy is to increase market penetration by increasing consumer awareness of tortilla products in general, to expand into new regions and to focus on product innovation and consumer and customer needs. Mission Foods promotes its products primarily through cooperative advertising programs with supermarkets as well as radio and television advertising, targeting both Hispanic and non-Hispanic populations, although advertising on non-Hispanic television is more limited. We believe these efforts have contributed to greater consumer awareness. Mission Foods also targets food service companies and works with restaurants, institutions and distributors to address their individual needs and provide them with a full line of products. Mission Foods continuously attempts to identify new customers and markets for its tortillas and related products in the United States, and more recently Europe, Asia and Oceania.

        Azteca Milling distributes approximately 39% of the corn flour it produces to Mission Foods' plants throughout the United States and Europe. Azteca Milling's third-party customers consist largely of other tortilla manufacturers, corn chip producers, and retail customers. Azteca Milling sells corn flour in various quantities, ranging from four-pound retail packages to bulk railcar loads.

        We anticipate continued growth in the U.S. market for corn flour, tortillas, and related products. In dollar terms, Gruma Corporation's net sales have increased at a compounded annual rate of 12.1% between 2001 and 2005. We believe that the growing consumption of Mexican-style foods by non-Hispanics will continue to increase demand for tortillas and tortilla related products. Also influential is the fact that tortillas are no longer solely used as Mexican food, for example, the use of tortillas for wraps, which will continue to increase demand for tortillas. Growth in recent years in the corn flour market is attributable to this increase of corn tortilla and tortilla chip consumption in the U.S. market as well as the conversion of tortilla and tortilla chip producers from the wet corn dough process to our dry corn flour method, the increase of Hispanic population, higher retail sales, the adoption of tortillas and tortilla chips by the general market, and stronger and increased distribution.

        Competition and Market Position.    We believe the tortilla market is highly fragmented, regional in nature and extremely competitive. Mission Foods' main competitors are hundreds of tortilla producers, who manufacture locally or regionally and tend to be sole proprietorships. In addition, a few large companies have tortilla manufacturing divisions that compete with Mission Foods, for example, Tyson,

22



Bimbo, and General Mills. We believe Mission Foods is one of the leading manufacturers and distributors of packaged tortillas and related products throughout the United States and Europe.

        Competitors within the corn flour milling industry include corn flour milling divisions of large companies, such as Cargill and Minsa. Azteca Milling competes with these corn flour manufacturers in the United States primarily on the basis of superior quality, technical support, customer service and brand recognition. However, we believe there is great potential for growth by converting tortilla and tortilla chip manufacturers that still use the traditional method to our corn flour method. We believe Azteca Milling is one of the leading producers of corn flour in the United States.

        We believe there is a significant growth potential for tortillas in Europe. Approximately two-thirds of our production is allocated to co-packing and private label, while the remaining one-third is for foodservice. We believe we are one of the largest tortilla producers in Europe, and our main competitor in Europe is General Mills.

        Operation and Capital Expenditures.    Annual total production capacity for Gruma Corporation is estimated at 1.67 million metric tons as of December 31, 2005, with an average utilization of 90% in 2005. The average size of our plants measured in square meters is approximately 9,100 (about 98,000 square feet) as of December 31, 2005. Capital expenditures for the past three years were U.S.$219.4 million, mostly for expansion and upgrades of existing facilities, the construction of a new tortilla plant in Pennsylvania, as well as several acquisitions: two in Europe, one in Las Vegas, Nevada, one in San Francisco, California and the tortilla assets of CHS which consisted of three plants (Forth Worth, Texas, Phoenix, Arizona and New Brighton, Minnesota). Gruma Corporation's capital expenditures projected for 2006 will be U.S$195 million and include capacity expansions at existing facilities, manufacturing and technology upgrades, the acquisition of two small tortilla plants in Australia (already completed), and the construction of a tortilla plant in China. These budgeted capital expenditures do not include any potential acquisition.

        During the first quarter of 2006, we concluded the acquisitions of two small tortilla plants in Australia (Rositas Investments and Oz-Mex Foods), which will strengthen our presence in the Asia and Oceania markets.

        Mission Foods produces its packaged tortillas and other related products at 23 manufacturing facilities. 19 of these facilities are located primarily in large population centers in the western and southwestern United States, one plant in Coventry, England, one plant in Roermond, Holland, and two plants in Australia. Food safety for all of Mission Foods' plants in the United States are graded by the American Institute of Baking or, AIB. Mission's U.S. plants have earned the AIB's highest award, the combined AIB-HAACP certification, with the exception of the newly acquired plants in Nevada, Texas, Arizona, Minnesota, and California, as well as the recently constructed plant in Pennsylvania. These new plants achieved AIB certification during 2005, and have started the process to obtain their HAACP certification as well. We anticipate these plants will complete their HAACP certification during the next two years. Food safety for both tortilla plants in England and Holland is graded by several different certifications, such as the International Food Standards (IFS), as required by different European countries, and the British Retail Consortium. During 2005, these plants achieved AIB certification as well.

        Azteca Milling produces corn flour at six plants located in Amarillo, Edinburg and Plainview, Texas; Evansville, Indiana; Henderson, Kentucky; and Madera, California. Gruma Corporation also has a 51% ownership of a corn flour plant in Ceggia, Italy. The majority of our plants are located within important corn growing areas. Due to Azteca Milling's manufacturing practices and processes, we are the only corn milling company to achieve ISO 9002 certification as well as certification by the American Institute of Baking. All six facilities located in the U.S. have achieved ISO 9002 certification.

23



        Seasonality.    We believe there is no significant seasonality in our products, however part of our products tend to experience a slight volume increase during the summer months. Tortillas and tortilla chips sell year round, with special peaks during the summer, when we increase our promotion and advertising taking advantage of several holidays and major sporting events. Tortilla and tortilla chip sales decrease slightly towards the end of the year when many Mexicans go back to Mexico for the holidays. Sales of corn flour fluctuate seasonally as demand is higher in the fourth quarter during the holidays.

        Raw Materials.    Corn is the principal raw material used in the production of corn flour, which is purchased from local producers. Azteca Milling buys corn only from farmers and grain elevators that agree to supply varieties of corn approved for human consumption. Azteca Milling tests and monitors the raw materials for certain strains of bacteria and chemicals not approved for human consumption. In addition, Azteca Milling applies certain testing protocols to incoming raw materials to identify genetically modified products.

        Because corn prices tend to be somewhat volatile, Azteca Milling engages in a variety of non-speculative hedging activities in connection with the purchase of its corn supplies, including the purchase of corn futures contracts. In so doing, Azteca Milling attempts to assure corn availability approximately 12 months in advance of harvest time and guard against price volatility approximately 6 months in advance. The Texas Panhandle currently is the single largest source of food-grade corn. Azteca Milling is also involved in short-term contracts for corn procurement with many corn suppliers. Where suppliers fail to deliver, Azteca Milling can easily access the spot markets. Azteca Milling does not anticipate any difficulties in securing adequate corn supplies in the future.

        Corn flour for Mission Foods' products is supplied by Azteca Milling and, to a much lesser extent, by GIMSA. Wheat flour for the production of wheat tortillas is purchased from third party producers at prices prevailing in the commodities markets. Mission Foods believes the market for wheat flour in the United States is sufficiently large and competitive to ensure that wheat flour will be available at competitive prices to supply Mission Foods' needs.

        Wheat flour for the production of wheat tortillas in Europe is purchased from third party producers at prices prevailing in the commodities markets. In order to reduce supply and price fluctuations, contracts are placed for periods of twelve months or longer. Mission Foods believes the market for wheat flour in Europe is sufficiently large and competitive to ensure that wheat flour will be available at competitive prices to supply Mission Foods' needs.

        Most of the corn for the corn flour operations in Italy is purchased domestically, at prices prevailing in the commodities markets.

        Distribution.    An important element of Mission Foods' sales growth has been the expansion and improvement of its tortilla distribution network, including a direct-store-delivery system to distribute most of its products. Tortillas and other freshly made products are generally delivered daily to customers, especially in retail sales and in regions where we have plants. In regions where we do not have plants, there is no daily distribution and tortillas are sometimes sold refrigerated. In keeping with industry practice, Mission Foods generally does not have written sales agreements with its customers. Nevertheless, from time to time, Mission Foods enters into consumer marketing agreements with retailers, in which certain terms on how to market our products are agreed. Mission Foods has also developed a food service distribution network on the west and east coasts of the United States, and in certain areas of the midwest.

        The vast majority of corn flour produced by Azteca Milling is sold to tortilla and tortilla chip manufacturers and is delivered directly from the plants to the customer. Azteca Milling's retail customers are primarily serviced by a network of distributors, although a few large retail customers have their corn flour delivered directly to them from the plants.

24



Mexican Operations

Overview

        Our largest business in Mexico is the manufacture and sale of corn flour, which we conduct through our subsidiary GIMSA. Through our association with Archer-Daniels-Midland, we have also entered the wheat milling business in Mexico through Molinera de México. Our other subsidiaries engage in the manufacturing and distribution of packaged tortillas and other related products in northern Mexico, conduct research and development regarding corn flour and tortilla manufacturing equipment, produce machinery for corn flour and tortilla production and construct our corn flour manufacturing facilities.

GIMSA—Corn Flour Operation

        Principal Products.    GIMSA produces, distributes and sells corn flour in Mexico, which is then used in the preparation of tortillas and other related products. In 2005, GIMSA had net sales of Ps.6,526 million. We believe GIMSA is one of the largest corn flour producers in Mexico. GIMSA estimates that its corn flour is used in one third of the corn tortillas consumed in Mexico. It sells corn flour in Mexico mainly under the brand name MASECA®. MASECA® flour is a ready-mixed corn flour that becomes a dough when water is added. This corn dough can then be pressed to an appropriate thickness, cut to shape and cooked to produce tortillas and similar food products.

        GIMSA produces over 40 varieties of corn flour for the manufacture of different food products which are developed to meet the requirements of our different types of customers according to the kind of tortillas they produce and markets they serve. It sells corn flour to tortilla and tortilla chip manufacturers as well as in the retail market. GIMSA's principal corn flour product is a standard fine-textured, white corn flour used to manufacture tortillas. GIMSA also produces and sells tortillas through several small tortilla shops mainly located in central Mexico. GIMSA's tortilla sales represent approximately 1% of its total sales volume and approximately 2% of its net sales. As a result of the aforementioned acquisition of Agroinsa, GIMSA also sells wheat flour and other products.

        Sales and Marketing.    GIMSA sells packaged corn flour in bulk principally to thousands of tortilla and tortilla chip manufacturers who purchase in 20-kilogram sacks and in the retail market which purchases in one-kilogram packages. To a lesser extent, GIMSA also produces and sells tortillas to the end consumer.

        The following table sets forth GIMSA's bulk and retail sales volumes of corn flour, tortilla sales volume and other products for the periods indicated.

 
  Year Ended December 31,
 
  2003
  2004
  2005
 
  Tons
  %
  Tons
  %
  Tons
  %
Corn Flour                        
  Bulk   1,182,875   84   1,223,585   85   1,252,794   79
  Retail   204,730   15   207,858   14   225,485   14
Tortillas   18,460   1   16,400   1   14,852   1
Other                   88,614   6
   
 
 
 
 
 
Total   1,406,065   100   1,447,843   100   1,581,745   100
   
 
 
 
 
 

        GIMSA's corn flour customer base is comprised primarily of bulk sales to small tortilla producers, or tortillerías, which purchase corn flour in 20-kilogram sacks and produce tortillas on their premises, which are then sold locally. Retail sales of corn flour are channeled to two distinct markets: urban centers and rural areas. Sales to urban consumers are made mostly through supermarket chains that

25



use their own distribution networks to distribute MASECA® flour or through wholesalers who sell the product to smaller grocery stores throughout Mexico. Sales to rural consumers are made principally through the Mexican government's social and distribution program Distribuidora Conasupo, S.A., or DICONSA, which consists of a network of small government-owned stores and which supplies rural areas with basic food products.

        Mexico's tortilla industry is highly fragmented, consisting mostly of tortillerías, many of which continue to utilize, what is in our opinion, the relatively inefficient wet corn dough method of tortilla production. We estimate that the traditional wet corn dough method accounts for approximately half of all tortillas produced in Mexico. Tortilla producers that do not utilize corn flour buy the wet dough from dough producers or buy and mill their own corn and produce tortillas themselves.

        This traditional method is a rudimentary practice requiring more energy, time and labor because it involves cooking the corn in water and with lime, milling the cooked corn, creating and shaping the dough, and then making tortillas from that dough. We pioneered the dry corn flour method in which we mill the raw corn in our facilities into corn flour. Tortilla producers and consumers, once they acquire the corn flour, may then simply add water to transform the flour into wet dough to produce tortillas. We believe the preparation of tortillas using the dry corn flour method possesses several advantages over the traditional method. Our internal studies show that the dry corn flour method consumes less water, electricity, fuel and labor. We estimate that one kilogram of corn processed through the corn flour method yields more tortillas on average than a similar amount of corn processed using the traditional method. Corn flour is also transported more easily and under sanitary conditions than wet corn dough and has a shelf life of approximately three months, compared with one or two days for wet corn dough. The market for wet corn dough is limited due to the perishable nature of the product, restricting sales of most wet corn dough producers to their immediate geographic areas. Additionally, the corn flour's longer shelf life makes it easier for consumers in rural areas, where tortillerías are relatively scarce, to produce their own tortillas.

        We believe in the benefits of our dry corn flour method and, thus also, believe that we have substantial opportunities for growth by encouraging a transition to our method. Corn flour is primarily used to produce corn tortillas, a principal staple of the Mexican diet. The tortilla industry is one of the largest industries in Mexico as tortillas constitute the single largest component of Mexico's food industry. However, there is still reluctance to abandon traditional practice, particularly in central and southern Mexico, because corn dough producers and/or tortilla producers using the traditional method incur lower expenses by working in an underground economy. Additionally, generally such producers are not required to comply with environmental regulations, which also represent savings for them. To the extent regulations in Mexico are enforced and we and our competitors are on the same footing, we expect to benefit from these developments.

        GIMSA has embarked on several programs to promote corn flour sales to tortilla producers and consumers. GIMSA offers incentives to potential customers, such as small independent tortillerías, to convert to the corn flour method from the traditional wet corn dough method. The incentives GIMSA offers include new, easy to use equipment designed specifically for small-volume users, financing, and individualized training. For example, in order to assist traditional tortilla producers in making the transition to corn flour, GIMSA also sells specially designed mixers made by Tecnomaíz, S.A. de C.V., or Tecnomaíz, one of our research and development subsidiaries. For more information about our research and development department, see "—Miscellaneous—INTASA—Technology and Equipment Operations." GIMSA also helps its tortillería customers to improve sales by directing consumer promotions to heighten the desirability of their products and increase consumption, which, in turn, should increase corn flour sales. These efforts to improve sales include prime time advertising on television as well as radio, magazine and billboard advertising. In 2005, GIMSA's specialized sales teams continued their efforts to provide better and more individualized service to different types of customers. During 2006, we will continue with the operation of this specialized sales teams.

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        During 2004, GIMSA implemented initiatives focused on developing a successful business model for its customers to increase the consumption of corn-flour based products generally and its products specifically. GIMSA's strategy was based on a comprehensive business proposal that included the following product, service and marketing objectives:

    development of new types of corn flour for its customers;

    design of individualized support regarding the type of machinery required for their business, financial advisory and training;

    assistance to customers in the development of new profitable distribution methods to increase their market penetration and sales;

    development of tailored marketing promotions to increase consumption in certain customer segments; and

    assistance to customers in the development of new higher margin products such as tortilla chips, taco shells and enchilada tortillas, reflecting current consumption trends.

        In 2005, GIMSA continued working with its customers to reinforce these initiatives. In 2006, GIMSA intends to continue focusing on supplying the corn flour required by our customers according to their needs and assist them with the training and technical support that will help them create a more profitable operation.

        During 2004, GIMSA implemented a national marketing campaign in Mexico to emphasize the benefits and nutritional value of tortillas made with 100% MASECA® corn flour. This campaign targeted both consumption of tortillas made by GIMSA's customers and consumption of its retail corn flour packages sold directly to consumers by repositioning the use of corn flour not only for making tortillas but for a wide variety of foods which are part of the Mexican diet. We believe this campaign has helped to increase the recognition of the MASECA® brand, created a greater awareness about tortillas made with 100% MASECA® corn flour and created a greater awareness of the nutritional value of tortillas made of natural ingredients. We believe this campaign has also helped us to position MASECA® corn flour as a nutritional product which can be used in the production of tortillas and other foods. In addition, we believe that this campaign has also helped contribute to the perception that tortillas are a healthy alternative to other food products. During 2005, GIMSA's national marketing campaign reinforced the previous message with respect to the nutritional value of the tortilla, targeted Mexico's young population and emphasized where tortillas made from Maseca® corn flour could be purchased.

        Competition and Market Share.    GIMSA faces competition on three levels—from other corn flour producers, from sellers of wet corn dough and from the many tortillerías that produce their own wet corn dough on their premises. Our estimates indicate that about half of tortilla producers continue to use the traditional wet corn dough method.

        GIMSA's biggest challenge in increasing market share is the prevalence of the traditional method. In the corn flour industry, GIMSA's principal competitors are Grupo Minsa, S.A. de C.V. and a few regional corn flour producers. OPTIMASA, a subsidiary of Cargill de México, built a corn flour plant and began to offer corn flour in the central region of Mexico, therefore becoming a new competitor for GIMSA during 2005. We compete against other corn flour manufacturers on the basis of quality, brand recognition, technology, customer service and nationwide coverage. We believe that GIMSA has certain competitive advantages resulting from its proprietary technology, greater economies of scale and broad geographic coverage, which may afford it opportunities to more effectively source raw materials and reduce transportation costs.

        Operations and Capital Expenditures.    GIMSA currently owns 19 corn flour mills, all of which are located throughout Mexico, typically within corn growing regions and those of large tortilla

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consumption. GIMSA also owns one plant related to other products such as wheat flour. This plant resulted from GIMSA's acquisition of 100% of the capital stock of Agroinsa, a company based in Monterrey, Mexico in August 2005. Regulatory approval for this acquisition is subject to litigation. See, "Item 8, Financial Information—Legal Proceedings". Agroinsa had two corn flour mills, Celaya and Monterrey, even though the two plants operated during 2005 GIMSA decided to relocate their production due to efficiency reasons to other GIMSA plants. The Celaya plant permanently ceased operations on December 1, 2005 and the Monterrey plant permanently ceased operations on April 1, 2006. In addition, GIMSA owns 159 small tortilla shops throughout México.

        One of GIMSA's plants (Chalco) is temporarily closed. The Chalco plant has been inactive since October 1999. GIMSA has temporarily shifted production to other plants to achieve savings in overhead costs. These idled assets are not being depreciated since the carrying value is expected to be recovered and the remaining useful life is maintained. GIMSA will consider reopening this plant should market demands require additional capacity.

        In recent years, GIMSA's capital expenditures were primarily used to update technology and corn flour production process. In 2005, GIMSA completed the acquisition of Agroinsa. GIMSA spent U.S.$82.2 million, for these purposes from 2003 to 2005. Although no assurances can be given as to future levels of capital expenditures, during the first quarter of 2006 GIMSA spent U.S.$8 million on investments in its fixed assets and currently projects total investments in fixed assets during 2006 of approximately U.S.$26 million, which will be used primarily for capacity expansion in the Mexicali and Merida plants and for upgrading production equipment, acquisition of transportation equipment and information technology upgrades. As of December 31, 2005, on average, the size of our plants measured in square meters was approximately 20,315 (approximately 218,700 square feet).

        To enhance our presence in particular geographic areas, we have transferred a minority interest in certain GIMSA subsidiaries to local investors, unions and development agencies. Pursuant to an agreement between GIMSA and Investigación de Tecnología Avanzada, or INTASA, our wholly-owned subsidiary, INTASA provides technical assistance to each of GIMSA's operating subsidiaries for which each pays to INTASA a fee equal to 0.5% of its consolidated net sales. Each of GIMSA's corn flour facilities uses proprietary technology developed by our technology and equipment operations. For more information about our in-house technology and design initiatives, see "—Miscellaneous—INTASA—Technology and Equipment Operations."

        Seasonality.    The demand for corn flour varies slightly with the seasons. After the May/June and December harvests, when corn is more abundant and thus less expensive, tortilla producers are more inclined to purchase corn and use the traditional method. In the months immediately preceding such harvests, corn is more costly and in shorter supply and more tortilla producers then employ the corn flour method of production.

        Raw Materials.    Corn is the principal raw material required for the production of corn flour, and constituted approximately 63% of GIMSA's cost of sales for 2005. We believe GIMSA has the most extensive nationwide corn purchasing capabilities of any corn flour producer in Mexico, providing us with a competitive advantage. We purchase corn primarily from Mexican growers and grain elevators, and from world markets at international prices under import permits granted by the Mexican government. All of our domestic corn purchases are made on a spot basis pursuant to short-term contractual arrangements, some of which are in the form of oral agreements entered into at the beginning of the harvest. Compañía Nacional Almacenadora, S.A. de C.V., a subsidiary of GIMSA, contracts for and purchases the corn, and also monitors, selects, handles and ships the corn.

        We believe that the diverse geographic locations of GIMSA's production facilities in Mexico enables GIMSA to achieve savings in raw material transportation and handling. In addition, by sourcing corn locally for its plants, GIMSA is better able to communicate with local growers concerning the size and quality of the corn crop and is better able to maintain quality control. In Mexico, GIMSA

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purchases corn on delivery in order to strengthen its ability to obtain the highest quality corn on the best terms.

        Traditionally, domestic corn prices in Mexico tend to be higher than those abroad, and typically follow trends in the international market only when corn prices are increasing. During most periods, the price at which GIMSA purchases corn depends on the international corn market. As a result, corn prices are sometimes unstable and volatile. For more information regarding the government's effect on corn prices, see "Item 4. Information on the Company—Regulations."

        In addition to corn, the other principal materials and resources used in the production of corn flour are packaging materials, water, lime, additives and energy. GIMSA believes that its sources of supply for these materials and resources are adequate, although energy, additives and packaging costs tend to be volatile.

        Distribution.    GIMSA's products are distributed through independent transport firms contracted by GIMSA. Most of GIMSA's sales are made free-on-board at GIMSA's plants, in particular those to tortilla manufacturers. With respect to other sales, in particular retail sales (one-kilogram packages) to the Mexican government and sales to large supermarket chains, GIMSA pays the freight cost.

Molinera de México—Wheat Flour Operation

        Principal Products.    In 1996, in connection with our association with Archer-Daniels-Midland, we entered the wheat milling market in Mexico by acquiring a 60% ownership interest in Archer-Daniels-Midland's wheat flour operation, Molinera de México. Molinera's main product is wheat flour, although it also sells wheat bran and other byproducts. Our wheat flour brands are REPOSADA®, PODEROSA® and SELECTA®, among others.

        Sales and Marketing.    In 2005, approximately 90% of Molinera's wheat flour production was sold in bulk and 10% was sold for the retail segment. Most of the bulk sales are made to thousands of bakeries and, to a lesser extent, to cookie and pasta manufacturers. Most of the retail sales are made to large supermarkets and wholesalers throughout Mexico. Through wholesalers, our products are distributed to small grocery stores.

        Our marketing strategy depends on the type of customer and region. Overall, our aim is to offer products according to customers' specifications as well as technical support. We are trying to increase our market share in bakeries by offering products with consistent quality. In the retail segment we target small grocery stores through wholesalers, and supermarkets through centralized and national level negotiations. We are focusing on improving customer service, continuing to increase our distribution of products to supermarkets' in-store bakeries, and developing new types of pre-mixed flours for the supermarket in-store bakery segment. We provide direct delivery to supermarkets, supermarkets' in-store bakeries, wholesalers, industrial customers and some large bakeries. Most small bakeries and small grocery stores are served by wholesalers.

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        Competition and Market Share.    We believe that we are one of Mexico's largest wheat flour producers based on revenues and sales volume. Molinera de México competes with many small wheat flour producers. We believe the wheat flour industry is highly fragmented and estimate that there are about 90 participants. Our main competitors are Munsa, Trimex, Tablex, La Espiga and Elizondo.

        Operations and Capital Expenditures.    We own and operate nine wheat flour plants, in one of which we hold only a 40% ownership interest. The facilities' average extent of utilization is estimated at 78% for 2005. On average, the size of our plants measured in square meters is approximately 11,300 (approximately 121,200 square feet) as of December 31, 2005.

        Capital expenditures from 2003 through 2005 amounted to U.S.$10.8 million. Molinera de México's capital expenditures in 2006 will be U.S.$10 million used for capacity expansions at the Obregon and Celaya plants, transportation equipment, and additional upgrades.

        Seasonality.    Molinera's sales are seasonal in that higher sales volumes are achieved in the fourth and first quarters during the winter, when we believe per capita consumption of wheat-based products, especially bread and cookies, increases due in part to the celebration of holidays occurring during these quarters.

        Raw Materials.    Wheat is the principal raw material required for the production of wheat flour. Molinera de México purchases approximately 15% of its wheat from Mexican growers, and 85% from world markets. Molinera de México purchases from local farmers, farmers associations and trading companies. In the case of domestic wheat, purchases are made pursuant to short-term oral arrangements, the terms of which are negotiated at the time of execution. These arrangements are usually made approximately two months in advance of the beginning of the harvest. In the case of imported wheat, which we import from the United States and Canada through several trading companies, purchases are made based on short-term requirements, with the aim of maintaining low levels of inventories.

        In recent years the price of wheat domestically and abroad has been volatile. Volatility is due to the availability of wheat, which depends on various factors including the size of the harvest (which depends in large part on the weather).

Central American Operations

Overview

        In 1972, we entered the Costa Rican market. Our operations since then have expanded into Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, and Ecuador.

Gruma Centroamérica

        Principal Products.    Gruma Centroamérica produces corn flour, and to a lesser extent tortillas and snacks. We also cultivate and sell hearts of palm and process and sell rice. We believe we are one of the largest corn flour producers in the region. We sell corn flour under the MASECA®, TORTIMASA®, MASARICA® and MINSA® brands. In Costa Rica, we sell packaged tortillas under the TORTI RICA® and MISIÓN® brands. We operate a Costa Rican snack operation which manufactures tortilla chips, potato chips and similar products under the TOSTY® brand. Hearts of palm are exported to numerous European countries as well as the United States, Canada, and México.

        Sales and Marketing.    The largest portion, 141,000 tons or 79%, of Gruma Centroamérica's sales volume in 2005 derived from the sale of corn flour.

        Gruma Centroamérica corn flour bulk sales are oriented predominantly to small tortilla manufacturers through direct delivery and wholesalers. Supermarkets make up the customer base for

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retail corn flour. Bulk sales volume represented 74% and retail sales represented 26% of Gruma Centroamérica's corn flour sales volume during 2005.

        Competition and Market Share.    We believe that we are one the largest corn flour producers in Central America based on revenues and sales volume. We believe that there is significant potential for growth in Central America as corn flour is used in only approximately 14% of all tortilla production; the majority of tortilla manufacturers use the wet corn dough method. Additionally, we believe we are one of the largest producers of tortillas, and snacks, and one of the largest processors of rice.

        Within the corn flour industry, our main competitors are Del Comal and Instamasa. However, one of our main growth potentials is to convert tortilla manufacturers that still use the traditional method to our corn flour method.

        Operations and Capital Expenditures.    We have an annual installed production capacity of 264,000 tons for corn flour and other products as of December 31, 2005, with an average utilization of 79% during 2005. We operate one corn flour plant in Costa Rica, Honduras, El Salvador, and two plants in Guatemala for a total of five plants throughout the region. In Costa Rica, we also have one plant producing tortillas, one plant producing snacks, one plant processing hearts of palm and one plant processing rice. In Nicaragua we have one small tortilla plant and in Ecuador we lease a facility which processes hearts of palm. On average, the size of our plants measured in square meters is approximately 4,400 (approximately 47,400 square feet) as of December 31, 2005.

        During 2003, 2004 and 2005 most of our capital expenditures were oriented to technology upgrades, the construction of a tortilla plant, a distribution center and administrative offices in Costa Rica. Total capital expenditures for the past three years was approximately U.S.$3.9 million. Capital expenditures for 2006 will be U.S.$ 19 million mostly oriented to the expansion of the corn flour plant in Honduras and manufacturing upgrades.

        Seasonality.    Typically, corn flour sales volume is lower during the second quarter of the year due to higher availability and lower prices of corn.

        Raw Materials.    Corn is the most important raw material needed in our operations and is obtained primarily from local growers. However, when domestic supply is insufficient or expensive, we turn to the international markets through import permits granted by the governments of countries in which we have corn flour plants. Price fluctuation and volatility are subject to domestic conditions, such as annual crop results, and to a lesser extent, international conditions.

Gruma Venezuela

Overview

        In 1993, we entered the Venezuelan corn flour industry through a participation in DEMASECA, a corn flour company in Venezuela. In August 1999, we acquired 95% of DAMCA International Corporation, a Delaware corporation which owned 100% of MONACA, Venezuela's second largest corn and wheat flour producer at that time, for approximately U.S.$94 million. Additionally, Archer-Daniels-Midland acquired a 5% interest in MONACA. In April 2006, we entered into a contract to sell a 40% stake in MONACA to our current partner in DEMASECA at a price of U.S.$65.6 million. The payment of the sale price and the respective delivery of our interests in MONACA will be completed in a series of installments that will end in October 2007. Not withstanding the foregoing, the purchaser will not have voting or other corporate rights with respect to such interests until the full purchase price is paid. In conjunction with this transaction, we agreed to (i) purchase an additional 10% ownership interest in DEMASECA at a price of U.S.$2.6 million, (ii) purchase from ADM a 2% stake in MONACA at a price of U.S.$3.28 million and (iii) sell to ADM a 3% interest in DEMASECA at a price of U.S.$0.78 million. Upon completion of these transactions, we will own a 57% interest, our

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partner will own a 40% interest and ADM will own a 3% interest in each of DEMASECA and MONACA. DEMASECA and MONACA are collectively referred to as "Gruma Venezuela."

        In recent years, Venezuela has experienced considerable volatility and depreciation of its currency, high interest rates, political instability and declining asset values. In 2003, in response to the general strike and in an effort to shore up the economy and control inflation, the Venezuelan authorities imposed foreign exchange and price controls. Further economic stagnation is expected to result as a consequence of these market distortions. These developments have had and may continue to have an adverse effect on us.

DEMASECA and MONACA

        Principal Products.    Gruma Venezuela produces and distributes corn flour as well as wheat flour, rice, oats and other products. We sell corn flour under the brand names JUANA®, TIA BERTA®, DECASA®, and DEMASA®. We sell wheat flour under the ROBIN HOOD® and POLAR® brand, rice under the MONICA® brand and oats under the LASSIE® brand.

        Sales and Marketing.    Venezuelans use corn flour to produce and consume arepas, which are made at home or in restaurants for household consumption rather than manufactured by specialty shops or other large manufacturers. In 2005, we sold corn flour only in the retail market in one kilogram bags to independent distributors, supermarkets, wholesalers, and governmental social welfare and distribution programs. We sell wheat flour both in bulk and retailer, distributing in 45 kilogram bags and in one kilogram bags, respectively. Bulk sales to customers such as bakeries made up 77% of our total wheat flour sales volume in 2005. The remaining 23% of sales in 2005 were in the retail market, which includes independent distributors, supermarkets and wholesalers.

        Competition and Market Share.    With the MONACA acquisition in 1999, we significantly increased our share of the corn flour market and entered the wheat flour market. We believe we are one of the largest corn flour and wheat flour producers in Venezuela.

        In corn flour, our main competitor is Alimentos Polar, and, to a lesser extent, Industria Venezolana Maizera PROAREPA, Asoportuguesa and Alimentos Caysa. In wheat flour, our principal competitor is Cargill.

        Operation and Capital Expenditures.    We operate five corn flour plants, four wheat flour plants, two rice plants, and two plants that produce oats and spices in Venezuela with a total annual production capacity of 764,087 tons as of December 31, 2005 and an average utilization of approximately 61% during 2005. However, one corn flour plant, representing 47,143 tons, and one rice plant, representing 48,462 tons, are temporarily idle. On average, the size of our plants measured in square meters is approximately 9,200 (approximately 99,000 square feet) as of December 31, 2005.

        Capital expenditures for the past three years were U.S.$28.6 million. Capital expenditures for 2006 are expected to be U.S.$2 million and are expected to be focused on acquisition of distribution equipment and upgrades for manufacturing and information technologies which are expected to be financed with internal cash generation.

        Seasonality.    Sales fluctuate seasonally as demand for flour-based products is lower during those months when most schools are closed for vacation. In addition, sales are higher in November as customers build inventory to satisfy increased demand during the holiday season in December.

        Raw Materials.    Corn and wheat are our most important raw materials. Corn is purchased in Venezuela and is subject to the corn market's volatility and governmental regulations related to prices, quantities and storage facilities. Corn prices are fixed by a government agency. Approximately 98% of our wheat is purchased from the U.S. and Canada, and more recently, the remaining 2%, also from Argentina, with its availability and price volatility dependent upon those markets. We do not engage in

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any type of hedging activity for our supplies since exchange rate policies and country risk for Venezuela constraints our capacity to transfer funds abroad in order to fund any hedging strategy.

Miscellaneous—INTASA—Technology and Equipment Operations

        We have had our own technology operations since the founding of the company. Since 1976 our technology and equipment operations have been conducted principally through INTASA, which has two subsidiaries: Tecnomaíz, S.A. de C.V., or Tecnomaíz, and Constructora Industrial Agropecuaria, S.A. de C.V., or CIASA. The principal activity of these subsidiaries is to provide research and development, equipment, and construction services to us and small equipment to third parties. Through Tecnomaíz, we also engage in the design, manufacture and sale of machines for the production of tortillas and tortilla chips. The machinery for the tortilla industry includes a range of capacities, from machines that make 50 to 300 corn tortillas per minute to dough mixers. The equipment is sold under the TORTEC® and BATITEC® trademarks in Mexico. Tecnomaíz also manufactures high volume energy efficient corn and wheat tortilla systems that can produce up to 1,200 corn tortillas and 600 wheat tortillas per minute.

        We carry out proprietary technological research and development for corn milling and tortilla production as well as all engineering, plant design and construction through INTASA and CIASA. These companies administer and supervise the design and construction of our new plants and also provide advisory services and training to employees of our corn flour and tortilla manufacturing facilities. We manufacture corn tortilla-making machines for sale to tortilla manufacturers and for use in "in-store tortillerías," as well as high-capacity corn and flour tortilla-makers that are supplied only to us.

Banorte Investment

        As of December 31, 2005, we hold approximately 10.9% of the outstanding shares of GFNorte, a Mexican finance services holding company and parent of Banco Mercantil del Norte, S.A., or Banorte, a Mexican bank. As of the same date, our investment in GFNorte represented approximately 8% or Ps.2,225 million of our total assets. In accordance with Mexican GAAP, GFNorte's results of operations are accounted for in our consolidated results of operations using the equity method of accounting.


REGULATION

Mexican Regulation

Corn Commercialization Program

        Since December 1996, ASERCA, a Mexican government agency, has administered a program designed to promote the purchase of corn in certain regions of Mexico. This program supports Mexican corn growers exclusively. The ASERCA program has the following general guidelines:

    Support corn growers by setting a target price and paying the difference versus market price.

    Support corn growers by providing economic support to reduce the cost of raw materials required for its corn crops.

    Support a portion of the freight expenses related to the distribution of corn surpluses to regions away from the corn growing area in seasons when there is a surplus. This support for freight expenses applies to any corn buyer that can prove that the purchased corn will be consumed in regions where there is no corn available and that are distant to the regions where corn is grown. In the case of the corn flour industry, the distance must be at least 740 km outside the corn growing area, excluding the central zone of Mexico.

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Environmental Regulations

        Our Mexican operations are subject to Mexican federal, state and municipal laws and regulations relating to the protection of the environment. The principal federal environmental laws are the Ley General de Equilibrio Ecológico y Protección al Ambiente (the General Law of Ecological Equilibrium and Protection of the Environment, or the Mexican Environmental Law), which is enforced by the Secretaría de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales (the Ministry of the Environment and Natural Resources, or SEMARNAT) and the Ley Federal de Derechos (the Mexican Federal Law of Governmental Fees). Under the Mexican Environmental Law, each of our facilities engaged in the production of corn flour, wheat flour, and packaged tortillas is required to obtain an operating license from SEMARNAT upon initiating operations, and then annually submit a certificate of operation to maintain the operating license. Furthermore, the Mexican Federal Law of Governmental Fees requires that Mexican manufacturing plants pay a fee for the discharge of residual waste water to drainage. Rules have been promulgated concerning hazardous substances and water, air and noise pollution. In particular, Mexican environmental laws and regulations require that Mexican companies file periodic reports with respect to air and water emissions and hazardous wastes. They establish standards for waste water discharge. We must also comply with zoning regulations as well and rules regarding health, working conditions and commercial matters. SEMARNAT and the Federal Bureau of Environmental Protection can bring administrative and criminal proceedings against companies that violate environmental laws, as well as close non-complying facilities.

        We believe we are currently in compliance in all material respects with all applicable Mexican environmental regulations. The level of environmental regulation and enforcement in Mexico has increased in recent years. We expect this trend to continue and to be accelerated by international agreements between Mexico and the United States. To the extent that new environmental regulations are promulgated in Mexico, we may be required to incur additional remedial capital expenditures to comply. Management is not aware of any pending regulatory changes that would require additional remedial capital expenditures in a significant amount.

Competition Regulations

        The Ley Federal de Competencia Económica (the Federal Economic Competition Law or the Mexican Competition Law), was approved by the Mexican Congress and published in the Diario Oficial de la Federación on December 24, 1992 and became effective on June 22, 1993. The Mexican Competition Law and the Reglamento de la Ley Federal de Competencia Económica (the Regulations of the Mexican Competition Law), effective as of March 5, 1998, regulate monopolies and monopolistic practices and require Mexican government approval of certain mergers and acquisitions. The Mexican Competition Law grants government the authority to establish price controls for products and services of national interest qualified as such by Presidential decree, and established the Comisión Federal de Competencia, or Federal Competition Commission, to enforce the law. Mergers and acquisitions and other transactions that may restrain trade or that may result in monopolistic or anti-competitive practices or combinations must be approved by the Federal Competition Commission. The Mexican Competition Law may potentially limit our business combinations, mergers and acquisitions and may subject us to greater scrutiny in the future in light of our market presence, although it has had little effect on our operations, and we do not believe that this legislation will have a material adverse effect on our existing or developing business operations.

U.S. Federal and State Regulations

        Gruma Corporation is subject to regulation by various federal and state agencies, including the Food and Drug Administration, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, the Federal Trade Commission, the Environmental Protection Agency and the Texas Department of Agriculture. We believe that we are in compliance in all material respects with all environmental and other legal requirements. Our food manufacturing and distribution facilities are subject to periodic inspection by various public health agencies, and the equipment utilized in these facilities must generally be governmentally approved prior to operation.

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European Regulation

        We are subject to regulation in each country in which we operate in Europe. We believe that we are currently in compliance with all applicable legal requirements in all material respects.

Central America and Venezuela's Regulation

        Gruma Centroamérica and Gruma Venezuela are subject to regulation in each country in which they operate. We believe that Gruma Centroamérica and Gruma Venezuela are currently in compliance with all applicable legal requirements in all material respects.

Asia and Oceania's Regulation

        We are subject to regulation in each country in which we operate in Asia and Oceania. We believe that we are currently in compliance with all applicable legal requirements in all material respects.


ITEM 4A.    Unresolved Staff Comments.    Not applicable.

ITEM 5.    Operating and Financial Review and Prospects.


MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL
CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS.

        You should read the following discussion in conjunction with our financial statements and the notes thereto contained elsewhere herein. Our financial statements have been prepared in accordance with Mexican GAAP, which differ in some significant respects from U.S. GAAP. See Note 22 to our financial statements for information related to the nature and effect of such differences and a quantitative reconciliation to U.S. GAAP of our majority net income and stockholders' equity. For more information about our financial statements in general, see "Presentation of Financial Information."

Overview of Accounting Presentation

Effects of Inflation

        Mexican GAAP requires that financial statements recognize the effects of inflation in accordance with Bulletins B-10 and B-15 issued by MIPA. The purpose of this methodology is to present all information in comparable monetary units and thereby mitigate the distortive effect of inflation in the financial statements. Unless otherwise stated herein, the financial statements and other financial data in this Annual Report have been restated in pesos of constant purchasing power as of December 31, 2005.

        We restate all non-monetary assets using the Mexican National Consumer Price Index, except inventories, which are restated using actual replacement costs, and fixed assets of non-Mexican origin, which may be restated using a specified index which considers the consumer price index of the relevant foreign country and the fluctuations of the exchange rate between the Mexican peso and the currency of such foreign country.

        Bulletin B-15 prescribes the methodology for restating and translating the financial statements of a Mexican company's non-Mexican subsidiaries into Mexican GAAP for purposes of recognizing the effects of inflation in such financial statements. Bulletin B-15 requires, among other things, that local currency-based financial statements of a non-Mexican subsidiary of a Mexican company for a particular period be (1) restated by using the relevant inflation rate in the relevant foreign country and (2) then translated into pesos.

        Bulletin B-15 also requires that inflation rates in foreign countries be used in calculating monetary position gains or losses on a consolidated basis. In addition, Bulletin B-15 provides that the consolidated financial statements of a Mexican company for all periods prior to the most recent period

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are to be restated in pesos of constant purchasing power. This restatement may be accomplished by using an "international restatement factor," which takes into account the inflation rates, exchange rate movements and relative net sales in Mexico and the other countries in which the company and its subsidiaries operate, rather than using the inflation rate in Mexico.

        For comparison purposes, the following table sets forth, for each of the three years ended December 31, 2003, 2004 and 2005:

    the international restatement factor used to restate the financial statements data for each of these periods to pesos of constant purchasing power as of December 31, 2005;

    the cumulative Mexican National Consumer Price Index for each period which, in the absence of Bulletin B-15, would have been used to restate the financial statements to pesos of constant purchasing power as of December 31, 2005; and

    the comparison factor for each period which represents the index that must be applied to the financial statements for each period (which have been restated using the international restatement factor) in order to restate the financial statements and financial data in December 31, 2005 pesos of constant purchasing power using the cumulative Mexican National Consumer Price Index.

Financial data in
Mexican pesos as of
December 31,

  Cumulative
International
Restatement Factor

  Cumulative
Mexican National
Consumer Price Index

  Comparison
Factor

2003   (0.32 ) 8.70   1.0905
2004   (1.66 ) 3.33   1.0508
2005       1.0000

        In future periods, the application of U.S. inflation rates could have a substantial effect on our reported results of operations and financial condition if such rates are lower than inflation rates in Mexico, assuming that we maintain significant U.S. dollar-denominated debt and other liabilities and assuming that all other relevant variables, such as foreign exchange rates, remain constant. In addition, because Gruma Corporation, our principal U.S. subsidiary, generates a significant portion of our consolidated net sales in U.S. dollars, Bulletin B-15 could result in decreased net sales in peso terms, again relative to prior periods. By contrast, if U.S. and other non-Mexican inflation rates exceed inflation rates in Mexico in future periods, then our monetary position gain and net sales as they relate to foreign subsidiaries would tend to increase in comparison to prior periods.

Effects of Devaluation

        Because a significant portion of our net sales are generated in U.S. dollars, changes in the peso/dollar exchange rate can have a significant effect upon our results of operations as reported in pesos. When the peso depreciates against the U.S. dollar, Gruma Corporation's net sales in U.S. dollars represent a larger portion of our net sales in peso terms than when the peso appreciates against the U.S. dollar. And when the peso appreciates against the dollar, Gruma Corporation's net sales in U.S. dollars represent a smaller portion of our net sales in peso terms than when the peso depreciates against the dollar. For a description of the peso/U.S. dollar exchange rate see "Item 3. Key Information—Exchange Rate Information."

        In addition to the above, our net income may be affected by changes in our foreign exchange gain or loss, which may be impacted by significant variations in the peso/dollar exchange rate. In 2003, we recorded a net foreign exchange loss of Ps.181 million. During 2004, we recorded a net foreign exchange loss of Ps.50 million. During 2005, we recorded a net foreign exchange loss of Ps.51 million

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Critical Accounting Policies

        Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations discusses our consolidated financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with Mexican GAAP as promulgated by the Mexican Institute of Public Accountants. A reconciliation from Mexican GAAP to U.S. GAAP of majority net income and total stockholders' equity is included in Note 22 to our consolidated financial statements. The preparation of these financial statements requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements, as well as the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period.

        We have identified below the most critical accounting principles that involve a higher degree of judgment and complexity and that management believes are important to a more complete understanding of our financial position and results of operations. These policies are outlined below.

        Additional accounting policies that are also used in the preparation of our financial statements are outlined in the notes to our consolidated financial statements included in this Annual Report.

Property, Plant and Equipment

        We depreciate our property, plant and equipment over their respective estimated useful lives. Useful lives are based on management's estimates of the period that the assets will remain in service and generate revenues. Estimates are based on independent appraisals and the experience of our technical personnel. To the extent that our estimates are incorrect, our periodic depreciation expense or carrying value of our assets may be impacted.

        We evaluate any event or change in circumstances that indicate that the book value of our property, plant and equipment will not be recovered. When applicable, we perform impairment tests as follows:

        Fair value of assets held for use is determined using the higher between the discounted net cash flows expected from the assets and the market price; an impairment loss is recorded to the extent that the net book value exceeds the fair value of the assets. Market price is determined using market values for transactions with similar assets less costs to sell.

        Fair value of assets to be disposed of is determined using the lower between book value and market price; an impairment loss is recognized for the excess of book value over market price. These assets are subsequently restated using NCPI factors and are no longer depreciated or amortized.

        The estimates of undiscounted cash flows take into consideration expectations of future macroeconomic conditions as well as our internal strategic plans. Therefore, inherent to the estimated future cash flows is a certain level of uncertainty which we have considered in our valuation; nevertheless, actual future results may differ.

        Primarily as a result of plant rationalization, certain facilities and equipment are not currently in use in operations. We have recorded impairment losses related to certain of those assets and additional losses may potentially occur in the future if our estimates are not accurate and/or future macroeconomic conditions differ significantly from those considered in our analysis.

Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets

        Until December 31, 2003, goodwill was amortized on a straight-line basis over estimated useful lives. Starting January 1, 2004 we adopted the provisions of Bulletin B-7 "Business Acquisitions" and consequently, ceased the amortization of goodwill and started to perform annual impairment tests.

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        Intangible assets with definite lives are amortized on a straight-line basis over estimated useful lives. Indefinite-lived intangible assets are no longer amortized, as of January 1, 2003, upon the application of Bulletin C-8, "Intangible Assets", but are subject to annual impairment tests.

        The identification and measure of goodwill and unamortized intangible assets impairment involves the estimation of fair value of the reporting units. A reporting unit is constituted by a group of one or more cash generating units. Estimates of fair value are primarily determined using discounted cash flows. Cash flows are discounted at present value and an impairment loss is recognized if such discounted cash flows are lower than the net book value of the reporting unit.

        These estimates and assumptions could have a significant impact on whether or not an impairment charge is recognized and also the magnitude of any such charge. We perform internal valuation analyses and consider relevant internal data as well as other market information that is publicly available.

        This approach uses significant estimates and assumptions including projected future cash flows (including timing), a discount rate reflecting the risk inherent in future cash flows and a perpetual growth rate. Inherent in these estimates and assumptions is a certain level of risk which we believe we have considered in our valuation. Nevertheless, if future actual results differ from estimates, a possible impairment charge may be recognized in future periods related to the write-down of the carrying value of goodwill and other intangible assets.

Deferred Income Taxes

        Under both Mexican and U.S. GAAP, we record deferred income tax assets and liabilities using enacted tax rates for the effect of temporary differences between the book and tax basis of assets and liabilities. If enacted tax rates change, we adjust the deferred tax assets and liabilities through the provision for income taxes in the period of change, to reflect the enacted tax rate expected to be in effect when the deferred tax items reverse. We also record a valuation allowance to reduce our deferred tax assets to the amount that is more likely than not to be realized. While we have considered future taxable income and ongoing prudent and feasible tax planning strategies in assessing the need for the valuation allowance, in the event we were to determine that we would be able to realize our deferred tax assets in the future in excess of the net recorded amount, an adjustment to the deferred tax asset would increase income in the period such determination was made. Should we determine that we would not be able to realize all or part of our net deferred tax asset in the future, an adjustment to the deferred tax asset would be charged to income in the period such determination was made.

Derivative Financial Instruments

        We use derivative financial instruments in the normal course of business, primarily to hedge certain operational and financial risks to which we are exposed, such as: (a) future contracts for certain key production requirements like gas and some raw materials, in order to hedge the cash flow variability due to price fluctuations; (b) interest rate swaps, with the purpose of managing the interest rate risk related to our long-term debt; and (c) forward contracts and exchange rate option contracts (Mexican peso—U.S. dollar), in order to hedge the financial risks due to exchange rate fluctuations over part of the quarterly interest payments related to our perpetual notes.

        We account for derivative financial instruments used for hedging purposes either as cash-flow hedges or fair value hedges with changes in fair value reported in other comprehensive income and earnings, respectively. Derivative financial instruments not used for hedging purposes are recognized at fair value, with changes in fair value recognized currently in income.

        The determination of the fair values of derivative financial instruments requires considerable judgment in interpreting and developing estimates. We base our estimates on available market information and valuation methodologies that we consider appropriate. The use of different market

38



assumptions and/or estimation methodologies could have a material adverse impact on the estimated fair value amounts.

Factors Affecting Financial Condition and Results of Operations

        In recent years, our financial condition and results of operations have been significantly influenced by some or all of the following factors:

    the level of demand for tortillas, corn flour and wheat flour;

    the effects of government polices on imported and domestic corn prices in Mexico;

    the cost and availability of corn and wheat;

    the cost of energy and other related products;

    our acquisitions, plant expansions and divestitures;

    the effect of government initiatives and policies, in particular on price controls and cost of grains in Venezuela; and

    the effect from variations on interest rates and exchange rates.


RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

        The following table sets forth our consolidated income statement data on a Mexican GAAP basis for the years ended December 31, 2003, 2004 and 2005, expressed as a percentage of net sales. All financial information has been prepared under the Bulletin B-15 methodology. For a description of the method, see "Presentation of Financial Information" and "—Overview of Accounting Presentation."

 
  Year Ended December 31,
 
 
  2003
  2004
  2005
 
Income Statement Data              
Net sales   100.0 % 100 % 100 %
Cost of sales   63.7   64.2   65.3  
Gross profit   36.3   35.8   34.7  
Selling, general and administrative expenses   28.7   28.1   28.8  
Operating income   7.6   7.8   5.9  
Net comprehensive financing cost   (2.0 ) (0.3 ) (1.0 )
Other income (expenses), net   (0.8 ) (1.1 ) (0.5 )
Income taxes (current and deferred)   2.9   3.1   1.4  
Employee's statutory profit sharing (current and deferred)   0.0   0.0   0.1  
Other items   1.0   1.1   2.1  
Minority interest   0.8   0.7   0.6  
Majority net (loss) income   2.1   3.7   4.4  

        The following table sets forth our net sales and operating income as represented by our principal subsidiaries for 2003, 2004 and 2005. Net sales and operating income of our subsidiary PRODISA are part of "others and eliminations". Financial information with respect to GIMSA includes sales of Ps.42 million, Ps.187 million and Ps.212 million in 2003, 2004 and 2005, respectively, in corn flour to Gruma Corporation and PRODISA; financial information with respect to Molinera de México includes sales of Ps.15 million, Ps.21 million and Ps.29 million in 2003, 2004 and 2005, respectively, to PRODISA; financial information with respect to PRODISA includes sales of Ps.47 million, Ps.48 million and Ps.55 million in 2003, 2004 and 2005, respectively, in tortilla related products to Gruma Corporation; and financial information with respect to INTASA includes sales of Ps.407 million, Ps.376 million and Ps.419 million in 2003, 2004 and 2005, respectively, in technological support to

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certain subsidiaries of Gruma, S.A. de C.V. In the process of consolidation, all the aforementioned intercompany transactions are eliminated from the financial statements.

 
  Year Ended December 31,
 
 
  2003
  2004
  2005
 
 
  Net
Sales

  Operating
Income

  Net
Sales

  Operating
Income

  Net
Sales

  Operating
Income

 
 
  (in millions of pesos of constant purchasing power as of December 31, 2005)

 
Gruma Corporation   Ps. 10,608   Ps. 12,092   Ps. 981   Ps. 1,199   Ps. 14,089   Ps. 1,164  
GIMSA     5,653     428     5,980     466     6,526     694  
Gruma Venezuela     3,221     418     3,213     179     2,708     (76 )
Molinera de México     2,165     (25 )   1,948     (20 )   1,880     (126 )
Gruma Centroamérica     1,142     (4 )   1,231     19     1,334     (2 )
Others and eliminations     179     (55 )   114     65     139     (90 )
   
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total   Ps. 22,968   Ps. 1,743   Ps. 24,578   Ps. 1,908   Ps. 26,676   Ps. 1,564  
   
 
 
 
 
 
 

Year Ended December 31, 2005 Compared with Year Ended December 31, 2004

Consolidated Results

        GRUMA's net sales increased by 9% to Ps.26,676 million in 2005 compared with Ps.24,578 million in 2004. The increase in net sales was due primarily to higher net sales in Gruma Corporation by 17% and, to a lesser extent, in GIMSA. This increase was partially offset by lower net sales in Gruma Venezuela and Molinera de México. Sales from non-Mexican operations constituted 68% of consolidated net sales in 2005.

        Net Sales by Subsidiary:    By major subsidiary, the percentages of consolidated net sales in 2005 and 2004 were as follows:

 
  Percentage of Consolidated Net Sales
 
Subsidiary

 
  2005
  2004
 
Gruma Corporation   52.8 % 49.2 %
GIMSA   24.5   24.3  
Gruma Venezuela   10.2   13.1  
Molinera de México   7.0   7.9  
Gruma Centroamérica   5.0   5.0  
Others and eliminations   0.5   0.5  

        Cost of sales increased by 10% to Ps.17,422 million in 2005 compared with Ps.15,769 million in 2004. This increase was due primarily to higher sales volume in Gruma Corporation. Cost of sales as a percentage of net sales increased to 65.3% in 2005 from 64.2% in 2004. The increase was driven mainly by Gruma Corporation and, to a lesser extent, Gruma Venezuela and Molinera de México.

        Selling, general, and administrative expenses (SG&A) increased by 11% to Ps.7,690 million in 2005 compared with Ps.6,901 million in 2004, resulting primarily from sales volume growth in Gruma Corporation. SG&A as a percentage of net sales increased to 28.8% in 2005 from 28.1% in 2004, driven mainly by small increases in various subsidiaries.

        GRUMA's operating income decreased 18% to Ps.1,564 million in 2005 compared with Ps.1,908 million in 2004. This decrease was due primarily to lower operating income in Gruma Venezuela and, to a lesser extent, Molinera de México. As a percentage of net sales, operating income decreased to 5.9% in 2005 from 7.8% in 2004, due primarily to decreased operating margins in Gruma Corporation, Gruma Venezuela, and Molinera de México.

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        Net comprehensive financing cost increased 308% to Ps.268 million in 2005 compared with Ps.66 million in 2004. This increase was due to lower interest income and, to a lesser extent, higher interest expense. Lower interest income resulted from nonrecurring gains in connection with equity swaps of GRUMA shares during 2004. Higher interest expense was due to increased debt and higher average interest rates.

        Other expenses, net, decreased 50% to Ps.141 million in 2005 compared with Ps.282 million in 2004. The reduction is due primarily to write-downs in 2004 of certain fixed assets at GIMSA and PRODISA.

        Provisions for income taxes and employees' profit sharing decreased 49% to Ps.390 million in 2005 compared with Ps.760 million in 2004. This decrease was due to (1) a reduction in the pretax income and (2) the consolidation of 100% of the ownership interest of controlled Mexican subsidiaries, whereas until December 31, 2004, tax regulations limited this consolidation to 60% of the ownership interest.

        GRUMA's equity in earnings of associated companies, net increased 124% to Ps.623 million in 2005 compared with Ps.278 million in 2004. This increase was due to higher net income from Grupo Financiero Banorte.

        GRUMA's net income increased 24% to Ps.1,333 million in 2005 compared with Ps.1,078 million in 2004. Our majority net income increased 31% to Ps.1,186 million compared with Ps.908 million in 2004. These increases were due mainly to higher income from Grupo Financiero Banorte and lower provisions for income tax and employees' profit sharing.

Subsidiary Results

Gruma Corporation

        Net sales increased 17% to Ps.14,089 million during 2005 compared with Ps.12,092 million in 2004, due primarily to an increase in sales volume by 17% to 1,275 thousand tons in 2005 compared with 1,088 thousand tons in 2004.

        The increase in sales volume was driven largely by (1) continued strong demand in the tortilla and corn flour businesses, (2) increased marketing of tortilla-related products by certain fast-food restaurant chains, (3) introduction of the Guerrero brand across additional markets in the United States, and (4) the effect of recent acquisitions, including the purchase of the following:

    (a)
    Ovis Boske, a wheat flour tortilla company based in Holland, in July 2004;

    (b)
    a 51% interest in Nuova De Franceschi & Figli, a corn flour company based in Italy, in July 2004;

    (c)
    the tortilla assets in the United States acquired from Cenex Harvest States in May 2005; and

    (d)
    a small tortilla company near San Francisco, California, in September 2005.

        Acquisitions contributed approximately 37% of Gruma Corporation's volume growth in 2005.

        Cost of sales increased 21% to Ps.8,108 million in 2005 compared with Ps.6,693 million in 2004, due primarily to higher sales volume. As a percentage of net sales, cost of sales increased to 57.5% from 55.4% due mainly to (1) higher fixed costs due to capacity expansions and acquisitions; (2) increased cost for utilities, raw materials, and packaging; and (3) a change in the sales mix.

        SG&A increased 15% to Ps.4,817 million in 2005 compared with Ps.4,200 million in 2004, due primarily to sales volume growth, higher fuel prices, and an increase in the number of intercompany shipments. SG&A as a percentage of net sales improved to 34.2% in 2005 from 34.7% in 2004, due primarily to better expense absorption in connection with sales volume growth and a change in the mix towards foodservice sales, which require lower selling expenses than retail sales.

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        Operating income as a percentage of net sales declined to 8.3% in 2005 from 9.9% in 2004. In absolute terms, operating income decreased 3% to Ps.1,164 million.

GIMSA

        Net sales increased by 9% to Ps.6,526 million in 2005 compared with Ps.5,980 million in 2004, reflecting higher sales volume. Sales volume increased 9% to 1,582 thousand tons in 2005 compared with 1,448 thousand tons in 2004. Sales volume increased mainly as a result of (1) the acquisition of Agroinsa; (2) increased sales to corporate customers in connection with new product development; (3) increased sales to wholesalers; and (4) exports to Gruma Corporation. Approximately 72% of GIMSA's sales volume growth derived from the acquisition of Agroinsa, whose operations are reflected in GIMSA beginning August 2005.

        Cost of sales increased 5% to Ps.4,614 million in 2005 from Ps.4,406 million in 2004 due to higher sales volume. The percentage of increase in cost of sales was lower than in sales volume due mostly to lower corn costs. Cost of sales as a percentage of net sales improved to 70.7% from 73.7%, due primarily to lower corn costs.

        SG&A rose 10% to Ps.1,218 million in 2005 compared with Ps.1,108 million in 2004 and, as a percentage of net sales, increased slightly to 18.7% in 2005 compared with 18.5% in 2004. This increase was due primarily to higher freight and advertising expenses and the acquisition of Agroinsa. Freight expenses increased in connection with (1) growth in sales to corporate customers for whom we usually pay freight expenses, and (2) an increase in the number of intercompany shipments due to higher exports and to higher corn flour demand in the southeast region of Mexico.

        Operating income as a percentage of net sales increased to 10.6% in 2005 from 7.8% in 2004 and, in absolute terms, increased 49% to Ps.694 million.

Gruma Venezuela

        Net sales decreased 16% to Ps.2,708 million in 2005 compared with Ps.3,213 million in 2004, resulting from lower sales volume and lower prices. Lower prices resulted from the intense competition in the industry and from price controls, which have limited our ability to raise prices, particularly in the wheat flour and corn flour businesses. Sales volume decreased 5% to 480 thousand tons in 2005 compared with 504 thousand tons in 2004. The decrease was the result of (1) intense competition from the leading corn flour producer, (2) entry into the market in 2004 of a new corn flour competitor oriented to government supply, and (3) government procurement's policies for its social welfare programs which have increased their share of corn flour sales to consumers.

        Cost of sales decreased 7% to Ps.2,330 million in 2005 from Ps.2,510 million in 2004, primarily due to lower sales volume. Cost of sales as a percentage of net sales increased to 86.0% from 78.1% due mainly to higher raw-material costs, lower prices, and lower absorption of fixed costs.

        SG&A decreased 13% to Ps.454 million in 2005 compared with Ps.524 million in 2004 due to the cancellation of approximately Ps.33 million in provisions for administrative expenses, as well as to lower expenses in connection with lower sales volume. SG&A as a percentage of net sales increased to 16.8% in 2005 from 16.3% in 2004, due primarily to lower absorption of fixed expenses in connection with lower net sales.

        Operating loss was Ps.76 million in 2005 compared with an operating income of Ps.179 million in 2004. Operating margin decreased to negative 2.8% in 2005 from positive 5.6% in 2004.

Molinera deMéxico

        Net sales decreased 3% to Ps.1,880 million in 2005 from Ps.1,948 million in 2004 due to lower prices resulting from increased competitive pressure in the industry which was partially offset by an

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increase in sales volume. Sales volume increased 3% to 474 thousand tons in 2005 from 460 thousand tons in 2004 due to increased sales to corporate customers.

        Cost of sales increased 3% to Ps.1,623 million in 2005 compared with Ps.1,577 million in 2004, primarily in connection with sales volume growth. Cost of sales as a percentage of net sales increased to 86.3% from 81.0% due to lower prices and higher packaging and additive costs.

        SG&A decreased 2% to Ps.383 million in 2005 compared with Ps.391 million in 2004, due to the reclassification of some operating expenses as cost of sales. SG&A as a percentage of net sales increased to 20.4% in 2005 from 20.1% in 2004, due primarily to reduced expense absorption.

        Operating loss was Ps.126 million in 2005 compared with an operating loss of Ps.20 million in 2004.

Gruma Centroamérica

        Net sales increased 8% to Ps.1,334 million from Ps.1,231 million in 2004 due to the increased sales volume in the corn flour segment. Sales volume increased 15% to 178 thousand tons in 2005 compared with 154 thousand tons in 2004, due to higher corn flour sales volume driven by low local corn supplies and increased advertising. The rate of growth in net sales lagged sales volume growth due primarily to a change in the sales mix toward bulk sales of corn flour.

        Cost of sales increased 7% to Ps.917 million in 2005 compared with Ps.855 million in 2004, due primarily to higher corn flour sales volume. The percentage increase in cost of sales was lower than in sales volume due to lower corn costs. Cost of sales as a percentage of net sales improved to 68.8% in 2005 from 69.5% in 2004 due to lower corn costs and better fixed-cost absorption.

        SG&A increased 17% to Ps.419 million in 2005 compared with Ps.357 million in 2004 and, as a percentage of net sales, increased to 31.4% from 29.0% in 2004. These increases were due primarily to (1) extraordinary expense of Ps.44 million in fourth quarter 2005 related to technical services provided by GRUMA's technology division; (2) higher distribution expenses in connection with corn flour sales volume growth and higher fuel prices; and (3) increased promotion and advertising in connection with the launching of new products and increased advertising in the tortilla business.

        Operating loss was Ps.2 million in 2005 compared with an operating income of Ps.19 million in 2004. Operating margin decreased to negative 0.1% in 2005 from positive 1.5% in 2004.

Year Ended December 31, 2004 Compared with Year Ended December 31, 2003

Consolidated Results

        GRUMA's net sales increased by 7% to Ps.24,578 million in 2004 compared to Ps.22,968 million in 2003. Total net sales increased due to higher average prices resulting from a change in the mix toward higher-priced products and price increases on some products implemented to offset cost increases. Most of the increase in total net sales came from Gruma Corporation and, to a lesser extent, GIMSA and Gruma Centroamérica.

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        Net Sales by Subsidiary:    By major subsidiary, the percentages of consolidated net sales in 2004 and 2003 were as follows:

 
  Percentage of
Consolidated Net Sales

 
Subsidiary

 
  2004
  2003
 
Gruma Corporation   49.2 % 46.2 %
GIMSA   24.3   24.6  
Gruma Venezuela   13.1   14.0  
Molinera de México   7.9   9.4  
Gruma Centroamérica   5.0   5.0  
Others and eliminations   0.5   0.8  

        Our cost of sales increased 8%, to Ps.15,769 million in 2004 from Ps.14,625 million in 2003, due primarily to higher raw-material costs and, to a lesser extent, higher energy, packaging, and other costs. This increase was driven mainly by Gruma Corporation and, to a lesser extent, GIMSA and Gruma Venezuela. As a percentage of net sales, our total cost of sales increased to 64.2% in 2004 from 63.7% in 2003. Gruma Corporation and Gruma Venezuela were the primary drivers of this increase, which was due to the fact that prices were insufficient to completely offset cost increases, especially for raw materials, and a change in the mix toward lower-margin products.

        Our SG&A expenses increased 5% to Ps.6,901 million in 2004 from Ps.6,600 million in 2003, mostly as a result of higher sales volume in Gruma Corporation. Total SG&A expenses as a percentage of net total sales improved to 28.1% in 2004 from 28.7% in 2003 due primarily to better expense absorption in Gruma Corporation.

        Operating income increased 9% to Ps.1,908 million in 2004 compared to Ps.1,743 million in 2003. Our consolidated operating margin improved to 7.8% in 2004 from 7.6% in 2003. Both were driven mainly by higher sales volume in Gruma Corporation and increased business in INTASA (our technology and equipment operations), mostly in connection with capacity expansions in Gruma Corporation. The technology division is reported under the "other" segment in Note 17 to our financial statements.

        Total net comprehensive financing cost decreased 86% to Ps.66 million in 2004 compared to Ps.459 million in 2003, due to (1) gains in connection with equity swaps of GRUMA shares, (2) lower foreign-exchange losses due to lower average peso depreciation, (3) lower interest expense due to lower average debt level, and (4) higher monetary gains due to higher net monetary liability position in Venezuela and higher U.S. inflation, which is applied to our dollar denominated debt.

        Other expenses, net increased to Ps.282 million in 2004 from Ps.174 million in 2003. This is primarily due to write-downs of some fixed assets at GIMSA's Chalco plant and at PRODISA and, to a lesser extent, write-offs of goodwill and preoperating expenses and brands. These impairment adjustments resulted from the application of Bulletin C-15, "Impairment in the Value of Long-Lived Assets and their Disposal."

        Provisions for income taxes and employee profit sharing increased to Ps.760 million in 2004 from Ps.669 million in 2003 in connection with higher pretax income. Our effective tax rate (income tax and employees profit sharing) for 2004 was 49% as compared to 60% in 2003. For additional information, please refer to the reconciliation of effective tax rates in Note 15 of our financial statements.

        Our share of net income from unconsolidated associated companies increased to Ps.278 million in 2004 from Ps.234 million in 2003 reflecting primarily higher income from our ownership interest in GFBanorte.

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        As a result of the above factors, our income before minority interest was Ps.1,078 million in 2004 compared to Ps.674 million in 2003 and our majority net income was Ps.908 million in 2004 compared to Ps.491 million in 2003.

Subsidiary Results

Gruma Corporation

        Gruma Corporation's net sales increased 14% to Ps.12,092 million in 2004 compared to Ps.10,608 million in 2003. The increase was due to an 11% rise in sales volume coupled with (1) a change in the product mix toward the tortilla business, characterized by higher-priced products than corn flour products; (2) a change in the mix within the tortilla business toward value-added products (e.g., low-carb wheat flour tortillas), which are higher priced than regular wheat flour tortillas; and (3) a continued increase in retail corn flour sales. In the United States, sales volume increased due to continuing strong demand and increased geographic coverage in the tortilla business and, to a lesser extent, in the corn flour operation. The two European acquisitions concluded during July 2004 also contributed to the rise in Gruma Corporation's overall sales volume.

        Gruma Corporation's combined corn flour and tortilla sales volume increased by 11% to 1,088,000 tons in 2004 from 979,000 tons in 2003. Corn flour sales volume increased 5% while tortilla sales volume increased 15%.

        Three primary factors which drove volume growth in the US tortilla business are:

    the successful expansion of our Guerrero® brand, which enjoys widespread appeal among Hispanic consumers, across additional markets, especially in the north central and southeast areas of the United States;

    the launch of low-carb wheat flour tortillas and continued growth in the regular flour tortilla line; and

    the fact that key fast-food restaurant chains have increased their marketing of tortilla-related products.

        Cost of sales of Gruma Corporation as a percentage of net sales increased to 55.4% in 2004 from 53.5% in 2003 due to a combination of factors, including (1) higher raw-material and packaging costs, (2) the consolidation of the European acquisitions; (3) a change in the sales mix toward lower-margin products, such as our low-carb and Guerrero brand tortillas; and (4) stronger distribution of lower-margin products not manufactured by Gruma Corporation, such as sauces and dips. Gruma Corporation's cost of sales increased 18% to Ps.6,693 million in 2004 compared to 5,672 million in 2003, due to the cost increases mentioned above, as well as volume growth and the use of more expensive raw materials in new value-added products.

        SG&A expenses of Gruma Corporation increased 6% to Ps.4,200 million in 2004 from Ps.3,955 million in 2003 due to increases in distribution and transportation expenses. These increases came from (1) sales volume growth, (2) higher tariffs due to increased energy costs, (3) sales in new regions, and (4) the need to move products among tortilla plants due to capacity constraints at certain plants. SG&A as a percentage of net sales decreased to 34.7% in 2004 from 37.3% in 2003 due to better absorption of expenses.

GIMSA

        GIMSA's net sales increased by 6% to Ps.5,980 million in 2004 compared with Ps.5,653 million in 2003. The increase in net sales resulted from higher sales volume and higher corn flour prices. GIMSA selectively and gradually implemented price increases throughout 2004, especially during the fourth quarter, to offset higher energy and corn costs. In constant peso terms, the average price of corn flour

45



increased 3% in 2004 compared to 2003. GIMSA's sales volume increased 3% in 2004 to 1,447,843 tons from 1,406,065 tons in 2003 due to (1) the development of new types of corn flour, which prompted some corporate customers to use GIMSA as their preferred supplier, (2) sales volume growth to supermarket clients, and (3) export sales to Gruma Corporation.

        GIMSA's cost of sales as a percentage of net sales decreased slightly to 73.7% in 2004 from 73.8% in 2003 as a result of the above-mentioned price increases which more than offset cost increases. In constant peso terms, GIMSA's cost of sales increased 6% to Ps.4,406 million in 2004 from Ps.4,173 million in 2003 in connection with sales volume growth and cost increases, especially with regard to energy and corn.

        GIMSA's SG&A expenses as a percentage of net sales decreased slightly to 18.5% in 2004 from 18.6% in 2003 due to better expense absorption reflecting higher net sales. In constant peso terms, SG&A expenses increased 5% to Ps.1,108 million in 2004 from Ps.1,052 million in 2003 as a result of higher selling expenses stemming from the nationwide marketing campaign launched at the end of 2003.

Gruma Venezuela

        Net sales from Gruma Venezuela were flat at Ps.3,213 million in 2004 million due to higher prices in connection with higher raw-material costs. The difficult competitive environment, together with price controls, limited the company's ability to raise prices sufficiently to offset higher raw-material costs (specifically those of corn, wheat, rice, oat, and oil). In addition, the 3% decline in sales volume negatively affected fixed-cost absorption.

        Sales volume from Gruma Venezuela decreased by 3% in 2004 to 504,000 tons from 518,000 tons in 2003. Two primary factors contributed to the 3% decrease in sales volume in 2004. The first was the entry into the market of a new competitor focused on supplying the governmental social welfare and distribution programs. The second was that our main competitor within the corn flour business increased operations to a normal level in 2004, having regained part of the business it lost in 2003.

        Cost of sales of Gruma Venezuela increased 8% to Ps.2,510 million in 2004 from Ps.2,320 million in 2003, due to higher raw-material costs. Cost of sales as a percentage of net sales increased to 78.1% in 2004 from 72.0% in 2003, because the difficult competitive environment, together with price controls, limited Gruma Venezuela's ability to raise prices sufficiently to offset higher raw-material costs (specifically those of corn, wheat, rice, oat, and oil). In addition, the 3% decline in sales volume negatively affected fixed-cost absorption.

        SG&A expenses of Gruma Venezuela increased 8% to Ps.524 million in 2004 compared to Ps.483 million in 2003. SG&A expenses as a percentage of net sales increased to 16.3% in 2004 from 15.0% in 2003. The increase comes mainly from the transportation industry's implementation of higher freight tariffs because of higher maintenance costs and increased demand for transportation services from industries such as construction and the government's social welfare and distribution programs.

Molinera de México

        Molinera de México's net sales decreased 10% to Ps.1,948 million in 2004 from Ps.2,165 million in 2003, while sales volume decreased 20% to 460,000 in 2004 from 575,000 in 2003. This was due primarily to a change in its service contract with its largest customer, pursuant to which Molinera de México stopped selling wheat flour to this customer and instead processed wheat flour for this customer using wheat provided by the customer. In return Molinera de México retains the by-product of this process, mill-feds, as its only payment for this processing service. As a result of this change, Molinera de México records profits realized under the contract as a deduction from overall cost of sales and not as a component of both net sales and cost of sales, as had been the case in 2003. The rate of decrease in net sales was lower than that of sales volume due primarily to higher wheat flour

46



prices charged by Molinera de México and to a lesser extent is a result of the change in the new service contract which removed the sales and sales volume figures associated with Molinera de México's largest customer as discussed above, which resulted in a greater difference between the net sales and the related sales volume figures which are associated with its remaining customers.

        Cost of sales of Molinera de México decreased 13% to Ps.1,577 million in 2004 compared to Ps.1,807 million in 2003 primarily due to the new service contract mentioned above. Cost of sales as a percentage of net sales decreased to 81.0% from 83.5% reflecting a change in connection with the new service contract.

        SG&A expenses of Molinera de México increased 2% to Ps.391 million in 2004 from Ps.383 million in 2003 due to the strengthening of the sales force and higher promotion and advertising expenses related to the launch of premixed flour products for retail sale, as well as other initiatives. SG&A expenses as a percentage of net sales increased to 20.1% in 2004 from 17.7% in 2003 due mainly to the new service contract mentioned above and, to a lesser extent, the above-mentioned increase in SG&A expenses.

Gruma Centroamérica

        Gruma Centroamérica's net sales increased 8% to Ps.1,231 million in 2004 from Ps.1,142 million in 2003 reflecting the increase in sales volume and, to a lesser extent, higher prices, especially in the corn flour segment. Gruma Centroamérica's sales volume increased 7% in 2004 to 154,000 tons from 144,000 tons in 2003 as a result of the increased distribution to customers that had been underserved by wholesalers, especially in rural areas, and by the low corn supplies which favored corn flour consumption.

        Gruma Centroamérica's cost of sales increased 8% to Ps.855 million in 2004 compared to Ps.789 million in 2003 primarily as a result of the 8% growth in corn flour sales volume. Cost of sales as a percentage of net sales increased to 69.5% in 2004 from 69.1% in 2003 as prices did not fully reflect the higher cost of raw materials.

        SG&A expenses of Gruma Centroamérica remained flat at Ps.357 million. SG&A as a percentage of net sales decreased to 29.0% in 2004 from 31.2% in 2003 due to better expense absorption.


LIQUIDITY AND CAPITAL RESOURCES

        Our liquidity and capital resource requirements from 1999 to 2001 reflected a high level of capital expenditures in connection with the construction and acquisition of additional facilities in Mexico, the United States, Central America and Venezuela, as well as significant working capital requirements. During 2003 we decreased capital expenditures compared to prior years and focused on improving operating efficiencies. During 2004, most of our capital expenditures were oriented to Gruma Corporation for the expansion of capacity at existing plants, general facilities upgrades, and the acquisition of one corn flour company in Italy, one tortilla plant in the Netherlands, and one tortilla plant in Las Vegas. In 2005, most of our capital expenditures were mainly applied to Gruma Corporation and GIMSA for the construction of a new tortilla plant, expansion of corn flour and tortilla capacity at existing plants, several acquisitions including the CHS (tortilla assets), the tortilla company near San Francisco, and the Agroinsa acquisition, and general facilities upgrades. These investments were made to accommodate the continuous growth of our business.

        We fund our liquidity and capital resource requirements through a variety of sources, including:

    cash generated from operations;

    uncommitted short-term and long-term lines of credit;

    committed medium-term facilities;

47


    offerings of medium- and long-term debt; and

    sales of our equity securities and those of our subsidiaries from time to time.

        We believe that our overall sources of liquidity will continue to be sufficient during the next 12 months to satisfy our foreseeable financial obligations and operational requirements. The principal factors that could decrease our sources of liquidity are a significant decrease in the demand for, or price of, our products, each of which could limit the amount of cash generated from operations, and a lowering of our corporate credit rating or any other downgrade, which could increase our costs with respect to new debt and cause our stock price to suffer. Our liquidity is also affected by factors such as the depreciation or appreciation of the peso and changes in interest rates. As discussed below, Gruma, S.A. de C.V. is subject to financial covenants contained in some of its debt agreements which require it to maintain certain financial ratios and balances on a consolidated basis and Gruma Corporation is subject to financial covenants contained in some of its debt and lease agreements which require it to maintain certain financial ratios and balances on a consolidated basis. The interest that Gruma, S.A. de C.V. and Gruma Corporation pay on a portion of its debt may increase if overall leverage increases above specific levels, or if it fails to comply with certain financial covenants. An increase in the interest that Gruma, S.A. de C.V. and Gruma Corporation pay on its debt could limit these companies' ability to help support our liquidity and capital resource requirements.

        Mr. González Barrera has pledged part of his shares in our company to secure some of his borrowings. If there is a default and the lenders enforce their rights against any or all of these shares, Mr. González Barrera and his family could lose control over us and a change of control could result. This could trigger a default in one of our credit agreements and have a material adverse effect upon our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. For more information about this pledge, see "Item 7. Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions."

        We intend to mitigate liquidity risks by increasing revenues through capitalizing on our existing infrastructure and production capacity and pursuing moderate growth, but we cannot assure you that we will succeed in this regard.

Working Capital

        We define working capital as current assets, excluding restricted cash, minus current liabilities, excluding short-term bank loans and current portion of long-term debt. Our working capital as of the dates indicated was as follows:

December 31, 2004   Ps.4,875 million
December 31, 2005   Ps.4,622 million

Indebtedness

        Our indebtedness bears interest at fixed and floating rates. As of June 12, 2006, approximately 58% of our outstanding indebtedness bore interest at fixed rates and approximately 42% bore interest at floating rates, with almost all floating-rate indebtedness bearing interest based on LIBOR. We partially hedge both our interest rate exposure and our foreign exchange rate exposure as discussed below. For more information about our interest rate and foreign exchange rate exposures, see "Item 11. Quantative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk."

        Standard & Poor's upgraded Gruma, S.A. de C.V. to BBB- from BB+ with a stable outlook in June 2004. In September 2004, Fitch Ratings assigned Gruma, S.A. de C.V. a new senior unsecured foreign currency and local currency rating of "BBB-" with an outlook of "Stable." The foreign currency debt rating is also applicable to Gruma, S.A. de C.V.'s 7.625% Notes Due 2007. On November 21, 2004, Fitch Ratings assigned its "BBB-' rating to Gruma S.A. de C.V.'s U.S.$300 million perpetual bond. Also, on November 24, 2004, Standard & Poor's Ratings Services assigned its "BBB-' rating to

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Gruma S.A. de C.V.'s U.S.$300 million perpetual bond. In addition, in November 2004, Moody's Investors Service upgraded Gruma, S.A. de C.V.'s senior unsecured notes to Ba1 from Ba2 and its senior implied rating to Ba1 from Ba2, with an outlook of "Positive." Any downgrades or changes in outlook with negative implications could cause our debt costs to fluctuate which could ultimately affect our stock price.

        On November 16, 2004, Gruma S.A. de C.V. commenced a tender offer to purchase its outstanding U.S.$250,000,000 aggregate principal amount of 7.625% Notes Due 2007. Upon completion of the tender offer approximately U.S.$200,000,000 aggregate principal amount of the 7.625% Notes Due 2007 had been tendered and approximately U.S.$50,000,000 in aggregate principal amount of the 7.625% Notes Due 2007 remain outstanding. In April 2001, we entered into an interest rate swap converting the interest payments on the U.S.$250,000,000 debt from a fixed rate (7.625%) to a variable rate (LIBOR plus 2.035%). We immediately entered into a further swap agreement with respect to the interest payments on the same U.S.$250,000,000 debt whereby we receive a fixed interest rate of 5.485% and will pay a LIBOR rate. These swaps agreements remain in place with respect to interest payments on the U.S.$250,000,000 principal amount. These swap agreements offset each other effectively leaving us with the original fixed interest rate payment of 7.625% on the approximately U.S.$50,000,000 in aggregate principal amount which remains outstanding after the tender offer.

        On October 4, 2004, we obtained a US$250 million, five year syndicated senior credit facility, which we refer to as the 2004 Facility, from a syndicate of banks, which consists of a US$150 million senior term loan facility and a US$100 million senior revolving credit facility, both with a five-year tenor. However, on July 28, 2005, we refinanced this 2004 Facility through a syndicate of five banks which we refer to as the 2005 Facility achieving a reduction in the interest rate and eliminating the partial principal amortizations in years 2008 and 2009 and leaving a bullet payment at maturity in July 2010, among other minor benefits. As of June 15, 2006, there was US$150 million outstanding under the 2005 Facility with US$100 million of revolving credit available.

        The interest rate for the 2005 Facility is LIBOR plus 40 basis points during the first year. Thereafter the spread could fluctuate in relation to our leverage and could fluctuate between 37.5 and 45 basis points. However, on November 2, 2004, we entered into an interest rate swap transaction with five banks with an aggregate notional amount of US$150 million maturing on April 5, 2008, whereby we fixed the 6-month LIBOR rate associated with the term portion of the 2004 Facility at an average rate of 3.2725%. This interest rate swap was modified with respect to its calculation dates to match the 2005 Facility resulting in an average fixed rate of 3.2775% and a maturity on March 30, 2008. The swap transaction provides that the counterparty pay us unless 6-month LIBOR reaches 6%, in which case the parties have no obligation to pay any amount for the applicable period.

        However, in March 8, 2006, we increased this 6% level up to 6.5% and 6.75% for the interest payment dates due in 2007 obtaining a fixed average rate of 3.6175% for 2007. In addition, on December 12, 2005, we entered into a new interest rate swap for the 2005 Facility with a single bank, starting on March 30, 2008 and maturing on March 30, 2009, whereby we fixed the 6-month LIBOR rate associated with the term portion at an average rate of 4.505%. The swap transaction provides that the counterparty pay us unless 6-month LIBOR reaches 7%, in which case the parties have no obligation to pay any amount for the applicable period.

        On December 3, 2004, Gruma S.A. de C.V. issued U.S.$300 million 7.75% senior, unsecured perpetual bonds which were graded BBB- by Standard & Poor's Ratings and by Fitch Ratings. The bonds which have no fixed final maturity date, have a call option exercisable by GRUMA at any time beginning five years after the issue date. As of June 15, 2006 we had exchange rate forward contracts for part of the interest payments due in 2006 and 2007 on our US$300 million 7.75% perpetual bond, for an aggregate notional amount of U.S.$15.3 million at an average exchange rate of Ps.11.8205 per U.S. dollar.

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        As of December 31, 2005, we had committed U.S. dollar-denominated long-term lines of credit totaling Ps.1,807 million (approximately U.S.$170 million) available from banks in México and the United States of which we have drawn Ps.675 million (approximately U.S.$63.5 million). As of the same date, we also had uncommitted short-term lines of credit totaling Ps.4,280.7 million (approximately U.S.$403 million) available from Mexican and international banks, of which we had drawn Ps.199.1 million (approximately U.S.$18.7 million). Should we elect to utilize the uncommitted lines of credit, we would have to negotiate the terms and conditions at the time of use.

        At December 31, 2005, we had total outstanding long-term debt aggregating approximately Ps.6,395.7 million (approximately U.S.$601.7 million). All of our long-term debt at such date was dollar-denominated. Our long-term debt includes U.S.$50.5 million, or Ps.537.3 million, of principal amount of the 7.625% Notes due 2007, which we issued in October 1997, U.S.$178 million or Ps.1,892.1 million of principal amount of the 2005 Facility which we issued in July 2005, and U.S.$300 million, or Ps.3,189 million, of principal amount of the 7.75% Perpetual Bonds, which we issued in December 2004.

        Some of our credit agreements contain covenants that require us to maintain:

    a ratio of consolidated total funded debt to EBITDA of not more than 3.5:1; and

    a ratio of consolidated EBITDA to consolidated interest charges of not less than 2.50:1.

        In addition, we may not incur additional indebtedness and may not pay dividends if doing so would violate the terms of these covenants.

        Gruma Corporation is also subject to covenants which limit the amount of dividends that can be paid under certain circumstances. Both Gruma, S.A. de C.V. and Gruma Corporation are also subject to covenants which limit the amounts that may be advanced to, loaned to, or invested in, us under certain circumstances. In addition, both Gruma, S.A. de C.V. and Gruma Corporation are required to maintain certain financial ratios and balances. Upon the occurrence of any default or event of default under its credit and lease agreements, Gruma Corporation generally is prohibited from making any payments to us or our other subsidiaries or affiliates. The covenants described above and other covenants could limit our and Gruma Corporation's ability to help support our liquidity and capital resource requirements. Gruma, S.A. de C.V. and Gruma Corporation are currently in compliance with all of the covenants contained in the debt and lease agreements.

        As of December 31, 2005, Gruma Corporation had three sale-leaseback agreements, entered in 1996, of a tortilla production facility and various production equipment located at one of the company's tortilla plants and at one of its corn flour facilities, both in the U.S. The agreement related to the tortilla production facility is, under Mexican GAAP, accounted for as an operating lease. Under U.S. GAAP, this arrangement would have been accounted for as a capital lease because a continuing involvement from the seller-lessee is present, and consequently, the risk and benefits of the property are not transferred to the buyer-lessor. Average annual rental payments under this lease, expiring in 2011, will be approximately U.S.$3.5 million, based upon the financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2005. The agreement provides Gruma Corporation with a purchase option to acquire the facility at fair market value at the expiration of the lease, and also an early purchase option, which permits Gruma Corporation to acquire the facility at fair market value approximately three-quarters of the lease term.

        As of December 31, 2005, we had total cash and cash equivalents of Ps.327 million. Restricted cash is comprised primarily of undistributed proceeds from tax-exempt industrial development bonds issued by Gruma Corporation held by a trustee available for future purchases of certain plants and equipment.

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        The following table presents our amortization requirements with respect to our total indebtedness as of March 31, 2006.

Year

  In Millions of U.S. Dollars
2006     39.3
2007     108.6
2008     4.8
2009     22.2
2010 and thereafter     453.5
   
Total   U.S.$ 628.4

        The following table sets forth our ratios of consolidated debt to total capitalization (i.e., consolidated debt plus total stockholders' equity) and consolidated liabilities to total stockholders' equity as of the dates indicated. For purposes of these ratios, consolidated debt includes short-term debt.

Date

  Ratio of Consolidated Debt
to Total Capitalization

  Ratio of Consolidated
Liabilities to Total
Stockholders' Equity

December 31, 2004   0.32   0.83
December 31, 2005   0.33   0.90

Capital Expenditures

        In 2003, we spent U.S.$58 million on capital expenditures, primarily on capacity expansion and technology upgrades. Beginning in 2004, we increased our capital expenditures. In 2004, we spent U.S.$115 million on capital expenditures, mainly applied to Gruma Corporation for the expansion of corn flour and tortilla capacity, including the two European acquisitions, the acquisition of a tortilla plant in Las Vegas and general facilities upgrades in our U.S. plants. The investments were made to accommodate the continuous growth in our business. In 2005, we invested approximately U.S.$193 million, which were mainly applied to Gruma Corporation and GIMSA. In Gruma Corporation capital expenditures were applied mostly for expansion and upgrades of existing facilities, the construction of a new tortilla plant in Pennsylvania, the acquisition of one small tortilla plant in San Francisco, California and the tortilla assets of CHS which consisted of three plants (Forth Worth, Texas, Phoenix, Arizona and New Brighton, Minnesota). In GIMSA, most of the capital expenditures were applied for the acquisition of Agroinsa. We have budgeted approximately U.S.$260 million for capital expenditures in 2006. This includes approximately U.S.$42 million spent during the first quarter of 2006, most of which was applied to Gruma Corporation for the expansion of tortilla capacity and, to a lesser extent, for the expansion of corn flour capacity in GIMSA. The investments were made to accommodate the continuing growth of business. This capital expenditures budget does not include any potential acquisitions.

        We expect to be able to fund our capital expenditures primarily from funds from operations and from the proceeds of our equity offering completed in January 2006. We believe that funds from operations and from the equity offering will be sufficient to meet our anticipated capital expenditures through the end of this year.

Concentration of Credit Risk

        The financial instruments to which we are potentially subject to a concentration of risk are principally cash, temporary investments and trade accounts receivable. We deposit cash and temporary investments in recognized financial institutions. The concentration of the credit risk with respect to trade receivables is limited since we sells products to a large number of customers located in different

51



parts of Mexico, United States, Central America, Venezuela and Europe. We maintain reserves for potential credit losses.

        Our operations in Venezuela represented approximately 10% of our sales in 2005. The severe political and economic situation in Venezuela presents a risk to our business that we cannot control and that cannot be accurately measured or estimated. Our financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected due to the fact that (i) a portion of our sales are denominated in bolivars, (ii) Gruma Venezuela produces products that are subject to price controls and (iii) we may have difficulties repatriating dividends from Gruma Venezuela and importing some of our raw material requirements because of the foreign exchange controls. In the case of some of our raw materials, we may also face increasing costs due to the implementation of import tariffs. See "Item 3. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Venezuela—Venezuela Presents Significant Economic Uncertainty and Political Risk, Which May in the Future Have an Adverse Impact on Our Operations and Financial Performance."


RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

        We continuously engage in research and development activities that focus on, among other things: increasing the efficiency of our proprietary corn flour and corn/wheat tortilla production technology; maintaining high product quality; developing new and improved products and manufacturing equipment; improving the shelf life of certain corn and wheat products; improving and expanding our information technology system; engineering, plant design and construction; and compliance with environmental regulations. We have obtained 54 patents in the United States since 1968, four of which were obtained during the last three years. Nineteen of these patents are in force and effect as of the date hereof and the rest have expired. We currently have a total of five patents in-process. Additionally, nine of our patents are currently in the process of being published in other countries.

        Our research and development is conducted through our subsidiaries INTASA, Tecnomaíz and CIASA. Through Tecnomaíz, we engage in the design, manufacture and sale of machines for the production of corn/wheat tortillas and tortilla chips. We carry out proprietary technological research and development for corn milling and tortilla production as well as all engineering, plant design and construction through INTASA and CIASA. These companies administer and supervise the design and construction of our new plants and also provide advisory services and training to employees of our corn flour and tortilla manufacturing facilities. We have spent Ps.34 million, Ps.38 million and Ps.40 million on research and development in 2003, 2004 and 2005 respectively.


TREND INFORMATION

        Our financial results will likely continue to be influenced by factors such as changes in the level of consumer demand for tortillas and corn flour, government policies regarding the Mexican tortilla and corn flour industry, and the cost of corn, wheat and wheat flour. In addition, we expect our financial results in 2006 to be influenced by:

    increased competition from tortilla manufacturers;

    increases in the Hispanic population in the United States,

    increases in Mexican food consumption by the non-Hispanic population in the United States; as well as projected increases in Mexican food consumption and use of tortillas in non-Mexican cuisine as tortillas continue to be assimilated into mainstream cuisine in Europe and Asia, each of which could increase sales;

    higher energy costs;

    increased competition in the corn flour business in Venezuela;

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    exchange rate fluctuations, particularly increases and decreases in the value of the Mexican peso relative to the Venezuelan bolívar and U.S. dollar; and

    civil and political unrest in Venezuela which may negatively affect the profitability of Gruma Venezuela.


OFF-BALANCE SHEET ARRANGEMENTS

        As of December 31, 2005 we do not have any outstanding off-balance sheet arrangements.


CONTRACTUAL OBLIGATIONS AND COMMERCIAL COMMITMENTS

        On November 2, 2004, we entered into an interest rate swap transaction with five banks with an aggregate notional amount of U.S.$150 million which became effective on April 5, 2005 and matures on April 5, 2008, whereby we fixed the 6-month LIBOR rate associated with the term portion of the 2004 facility at an average rate of 3.2725%. The swap transaction provides that the counterparty pay us unless 6-month LIBOR reaches 6%, in which case the parties have no obligation to pay any amount for the applicable period. On September 30, 2005, this interest rate swap was modified resulting in an average fixed rate of 3.2775% and matures on March 30, 2008. The swap transaction provides that the counterparty pay us unless 6-month LIBOR reaches 6%, in which case the parties have no obligation to pay any amount for the applicable period. However, on March 8, 2006 we modified this 6% level up to 6.5% and 6.75% for the interest payment dates due in 2007 obtaining a fixed average rate of 3.6175% for this year. In addition, on December 12, 2005 we entered into a new interest rate swap for the 2005 Facility with a single bank, starting on March 30, 2008 and maturing on March 30, 2009, whereby we fixed the 6-month LIBOR rate associated with the term portion at an average rate of 4.505%. The swap transaction provides that the counterparty pay us unless 6-month LIBOR reaches 7%, in which case the parties have no obligation to pay any amount for the applicable period. For a description of our debt, see Note 10 to our financial statements.

        Additionally, during 2005, we entered into exchange rate forward and option contracts for part of the interest payments due in 2006 and 2007 (corresponding to our US$300 million 7.75% perpetual bond), for an aggregate notional amount of U.S.$15.3 million outstanding as of June 15, 2006 at an average exchange rate of Ps.11.8205 per U.S. dollar. In April 2001, we entered into an interest rate swap converting the interest payments on our U.S.$250,000,000 7.625% Notes Due 2007 from a fixed rate (7.625%) to a variable rate (LIBOR plus 2.035%). We immediately entered into a further swap agreement with respect to the interest payments on the same U.S.$250,000,000 debt whereby we receive a fixed interest rate of 5.485% and will pay a LIBOR rate. These swaps agreements remain in place with respect to interest payments on the U.S.$250,000,000 principal amount. These swap agreements offset each other effectively leaving us with the original fixed interest rate payment of 7.625% on the approximately U.S.$50,000,000 in aggregate principal amount which remains outstanding after the tender offer.

        In addition to the above arrangements, we have commitments under certain firm contractual arrangements to make future payments for goods and services. These firm commitments secure the future rights to various assets to be used in the normal course of operations. For example, we are contractually committed to make certain minimum lease payments for the use of property under operating lease agreements. In accordance with Mexican GAAP, the future rights and obligations pertaining to such firm commitments are not reflected as assets and liabilities on the accompanying consolidated balance sheets. As of December 31, 2005, Gruma Corporation had three sale-leaseback agreements, entered in 1996, of a tortilla production facility and various production equipment located at one of the company's tortilla plants and at one of its corn flour facilities, both in the U.S. The agreement related to the tortilla production facility is, under Mexican GAAP, accounted for as an operating lease. Under U.S. GAAP, this arrangement would have been accounted as a capital lease

53



because a continuing involvement from the seller-lessee is present, and consequently, the risk and benefits of the property are not transferred to the buyer-lessor. Average annual rental payments under this lease, expiring in 2011, will be approximately U.S.$3.5 million, based upon the financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2005. The agreement provides Gruma Corporation with a purchase option to acquire the facility at fair market value at the expiration of the lease, and also an early purchase option, which permits Gruma Corporation to acquire the facility at fair market value after approximately three-quarters of the lease term. The U.S. GAAP balance sheet as of December 31, 2004 and 2005 would reflect an increase in the fixed assets, net, balance of Ps.106.3 million and Ps.73.0 million (net of accumulated depreciation of Ps.72.5 million and Ps.78.5 million respectively), respectively, and an increase in the long-term debt balance of Ps.178.8 million and Ps.151.5 million, respectively.

        The following table summarizes separately our material firm commitments at December 31, 2005 and the timing and effect that such obligations are expected to have on our liquidity and cash flow in the future periods. In addition, the table reflects the timing of principal and interest payments on outstanding debt, which is discussed in "Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—Liquidity and Capital Resources—Indebtedness." We expect to fund the firm commitments with operating cash flow generated in the normal course of business.

Contractual Obligations and
Commercial Commitments

  Total
  Less than
1 Year

  From 1 to 3
Years

  From 3 to 5
Years

  Over
5 Years

 
  (in millions of U.S. dollars)

Long-term debt obligations   601.6     97.8   203.8   300.0
Operating lease obligations(1)   165.7   38.1   64.7   36.3   26.6
Purchase obligations(2)   141.0   141.0      
Other liabilities(3)   48.4   48.4      
   
 
 
 
 
Total   956.7   227.5   162.5   240.1   326.6
   
 
 
 
 

(1)
Operating lease obligations primarily relate to minimum lease rental obligations for our real estate and operating equipment in various locations.

(2)
Purchase obligations relate to our minimum commitments to purchase commodities, raw materials, machinery and equipment.

(3)
Other relate to short-term bank loans and the current portion of long-term debt.


U.S. GAAP RECONCILIATION

        Our consolidated financial statements are prepared in accordance with Mexican GAAP, which differ in certain significant respects from U.S. GAAP. See Note 22 to our audited consolidated financial statements for information relating to the nature and effect of such differences. Mexican GAAP financial statements recognize the effects of inflation, whereas financial statements prepared under U.S. GAAP are presented on a historical cost basis. We are not required to reverse many of the Mexican inflation accounting adjustments when reconciling Mexican GAAP to U.S. GAAP, as these adjustments provide a means of measuring the effects of price-level changes in the inflationary Mexican economy. Accordingly, these inflation-adjusted figures are considered a more meaningful presentation than historical cost-based financial reporting for both Mexican and U.S. accounting purposes.

        Net income under U.S. GAAP amounted to Ps.640.3 million in 2003, Ps.803.1 million in 2004 and Ps.1,190.7 million in 2005, compared with majority net income under Mexican GAAP of Ps.491.4 million in 2003, Ps.907.9 million in 2004 and Ps.1,186.0 million in 2005.

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        Stockholders' equity under U.S. GAAP amounted to Ps.10,096.4 million in 2004 and Ps.10,468.8 million in 2005, compared with stockholders' equity under Mexican GAAP of Ps.13,532.5 million in 2004 and Ps.14,097.6 million in 2005. See Note 22 to our audited consolidated financial statements for a further discussion of the adjustments under U.S. GAAP.

New Accounting Standards

New Accounting Pronouncements under Mexican GAAP

        Starting June 1, 2004 the Mexican Financial Reporting Standards Board ("CINIF") took the responsibility for the development of the accounting and reporting standards in Mexico. As part of this responsibility and after a detailed examination process that took place during 2004 and 2005, the CINIF issued several Financial Reporting Standards ("FRS") which became effective starting January 1, 2006.

        The objective of the FRS is to harmonize local standards adopted by different domestic business sectors and to converge as far as possible with the International Financial Reporting Standards ("IFRS").

        The hierarchy of the FRS, which is effective starting January 1, 2006, is as follows:

    The FRS and the related interpretation issued by the CINIF.

    The statements issued by the Accounting Principles Board ("APB") of the Mexican Institute of Public Accountants, which have not been modified, substituted or otherwise supersede by the new FRS.

    The IFRS applicable on a supplementary basis.

        The circulars issued by the APB will remain as recommendations and will be part of the FRS until they are no longer applicable, since they have been superseded or have been included in a new FRS.

        The FRS whose adoption will not have a material affect in the financial information are as follows:

    FRS A-1: Structure of the Financial Accounting Standards

    FRS A-2: Basic principles

    FRS A-3: User needs and financial statement objectives

    FRS A-4: Qualitative characteristics of the financial statements

    FRS A-5: Basic elements of the financial statements

    FRS A-6: Recognition and valuation

    FRS A-7: Presentation and disclosure

    FRS A-8: Supplement

    FRS B-1: Accounting changes and correction of errors

55


Recently Issued U.S. Accounting Standards

        In April 2005, the Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") issued Statement of Financial Accounting Standard No. 154, "Accounting Changes and Error Corrections" ("SFAS No. 154"), requiring retrospective application as the method for reporting a change in accounting principle, unless impracticable or precluded by other authoritative pronouncements. SFAS No. 154 also requires that a change in depreciation, amortization, or depletion method for long-lived, non-financial assets be accounted for as a change in accounting estimate effected by a change in accounting principle. SFAS No. 154 carries forward the guidance in APB Opinion No. 20, Accounting Changes, for the reporting of the correction of an error. SFAS No. 154 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2005 and is not expected to have a material effect on the Company's financial position or results of operations.

        In February 2006, the FASB issued SFAS No. 155, "Accounting for Certain Hybrid Instruments" ("SFAS No. 155"). This standard amends the guidance in SFAS No. 133, "Accounting for Derivative Instruments and Hedging Activities", and No. 140, "Accounting for Transfers and Servicing of Financial Assets and Extinguishments of Liabilities". SFAS No. 155 allows financial instruments that have embedded derivatives to be accounted for as a whole (eliminating the need to bifurcate the derivative from its host) if the holder elects to account for the whole instrument on a fair value basis. The provisions of SFAS No. 155 nullify or amend certain Derivatives Implementation Group (DIG) Issues. SFAS No. 155 is effective for all financial instruments acquired or issued after the beginning of an entity's first fiscal year that begins after September 15, 2006. The Company does not expect the adoption of this Statement to have any material effect on its financial position or results of operations.

        In March 2006, the FASB issued SFAS No. 156, "Accounting for Servicing of Financial Assets—An Amendment of FASB Statement No. 140". This standard amends the guidance in SFAS No. 140, "Accounting for Transfers and Servicing of Financial Assets and Extinguishments of Liabilities". Among other requirements, SFAS No. 156 requires an entity to recognize a servicing asset or servicing liability each time it undertakes an obligation to service a financial asset by entering into a servicing contract in any of the following situations:

    A transfer of the servicer's financial assets that meets the requirements for sale accounting;

    A transfer of the servicer's financial assets to a qualifying special-purpose entity in a guaranteed mortgage securitization in which the transferor retains all of the resulting securities and classifies them as either available-for-sale securities or trading securities in accordance with SFAS No. 115, "Accounting for Certain Investments in Debt and Equity Securities"; or

    An acquisition or assumption of an obligation to service a financial asset that does not relate to financial assets of the servicer or its consolidated affiliates.

        SFAS No. 156 is effective as of the beginning of an entity's first fiscal year that begins after September 15, 2006, with earlier adoption permitted. The Company does not expect the adoption of this Statement to have any material effect on its financial position or results of operations.


ITEM 6. Directors, Senior Management and Employees.


MANAGEMENT STRUCTURE

        Our management is vested in our board of directors. Our day to day operations are handled by our executive officers.

56



Directors

        Our bylaws require that our board of directors be composed of a minimum of five and a maximum of twenty directors, as decided at our Ordinary General Shareholders' Meeting. Pursuant to Mexican law, at least 25% of the members of the board of directors must be independent. Under our bylaws and the Archer-Daniels-Midland association, as long as Archer-Daniels-Midland owns at least 20% of our capital stock, it will have the right to designate two of our directors and their corresponding alternates. Archer-Daniels-Midland has designated Allen Andreas, its Chairman, and Douglas J. Schmalz, its Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer, as members of our board of directors. Archer-Daniels-Midland has elected David J. Smith, its Senior Vice President, Secretary and General Counsel, and Steve Mills its Group Vice President and Controller, to serve as alternates for Mr. Andreas and Mr. Schmalz, respectively. In addition, under Mexican law, any holder or group of holders representing 10% or more of our capital stock may elect one director and its corresponding alternate.

        The board of directors, which was elected at the Ordinary General Shareholders' Meeting held on April 27, 2006, currently consists of 15 directors, with each director having a corresponding alternate director. The following table sets forth the current members of our board of directors, their ages, years of service, principal occupations, outside directorships, other business activities and experience, their directorship classifications as defined in the Code of Best Corporate Practices promulgated by a committee formed by the Mexican Entrepreneur Coordinating Board (Consejo Coordinador Empresarial), and their alternates. The terms of their directorships are for one year or until their appointed successors take office.

Roberto González Barrera   Age:   75
    Years as Director:   24
    Principal Occupation:   Chairman of the board of directors of GRUMA and GIMSA
    Outside Directorships:   Chairman of the board of directors of Grupo Financiero Banorte, Banco Mercantil del Norte, and Banco del Centro.
    Directorship Type:   Shareholder, related
    Alternate:   Jairo Senise

Allen Andreas

 

Age:

 

63
    Years as Director:   9
    Principal Occupation:   Chairman of the Board of Archer-Daniels-Midland Company
    Outside Directorships:   Member of the Supervisory Board of the A.C. Toepfer International Group, Agricore United, trustee, Economic Club of New York, the Trilateral Commission, The Bretton Woods Committee, the International Council on Agriculture, Food and Trade, member, The Emergency Committee for American Trade, World Economic Forum, G100, European Advisory Board of the Carlyle Group and various other business operations in Latin America, Europe and the Asia-Pacific region.
    Business Experience:   CFO of European operations and VP and counsel to the Executive Committee of Archer-Daniels-Midland Company, President and CEO of ADM, Attorney for the United States Treasury Department.
    Directorship Type:   Shareholder, independent
    Alternate:   David J. Smith
         

57



Juan Diez-Canedo Ruiz

 

Age:

 

55
    Years as Director:   1
    Principal Occupation:   President of Fomento y Desarrollo Comercial
    Outside Directorships:   Financial expert of the audit committees of GRUMA and GIMSA. Alternate member of the Board of Grupo Financiero Banorte, Banco Mercantil del Norte, and Banco del Centro; member of the Board of Deportes Martí.
    Business Experience:   CEO of Cintra, Executive Vice President of Grupo Financiero Banorte, Banking Director of Grupo Financiero Probursa. Alternate Chief Executive Officer of Banco Internacional.
    Directorship Type:   Independent,
    Alternate:   Felipe Diez-Canedo Ruiz

Juan Antonio González Moreno

 

Age:

 

48
    Years as Director:   2
    Principal Occupation:   President of GRUMA Asia and Oceania
    Outside Directorships:   Alternate member of the board of Grupo Financiero Banorte, Banco Mercantil del Norte, and Banco del Centro.
    Business Experience:   Several management positions within GRUMA, including Senior Vice President of special projects at the tortilla business of Gruma Corporation, President of the corn flour operations of Gruma Corporation and COO of GIMSA.
    Directorship Type:   Related
    Alternate:   Roberto González Valdés

Roberto González Moreno

 

Age:

 

54
    Years as Director:   19
    Principal Occupation:   Chairman and President of Corporación Noble.
    Other Directorships:   Member of the Board of GIMSA and alternate member of Grupo Financiero Banorte, Banco Mercantil del Norte, and Banco del Centro
    Business Experience:   Several management positions within GRUMA, including COO of GIMSA and Director of GRUMA's former Fast Food Division, President of RGM Inc., Exportaciones El Parián.
    Directorship Type:   Related
    Alternate:   José de la Peña y Angelini

Carlos Hank Rhon

 

Age:

 

58
    Years as Director:   12
    Principal Occupation:   Chairman and principal shareholder of Grupo Financiero Interacciones
    Outside Directorships:   Chairman of Grupo Hermes, and Grupo Coin/La Nacional
    Business Experience:   Grupo Financiero Interacciones, Grupo Hermes, The Laredo National Bank, South Texas National Bank
    Directorship Type:   Related
    Alternate:   Carlos Hank González
         

58



Roberto Hernández Ramírez

 

Age:

 

64
    Years as Director:   11
    Principal Occupation:   Chairman of the board of directors of Banco Nacional de México, and Director of Grupo Financiero Banamex.
    Outside Directorships:   Member of the board of directors of Grupo Televisa and Citigroup
    Business Experience:   CEO of Banco Nacional de México, Chairman and Director of the Mexican Stock Exchange, Chairman of the Mexican Banking Association, Chairman of Acciones y Valores Banamex.
    Directorship Type:   Independent
    Alternate:   Esteban Malpica Fomperosa

Juan Manuel Ley López

 

Age:

 

73
    Years as Director:   12
    Principal Occupation:   Chairman and CEO of Grupo Ley
    Outside Directorships:   Chairman of the Sinaloa-Baja California Consultant Council of Grupo Financiero Banamex-Accival and the National Association of Supermarket and Retail Stores (ANTAD), Chairman of Latin American Association of Supermarkets and member of the board of directors of Grupo Financiero Banamex Accival. and Teléfonos de Mexico.
    Business Experience:   Chief Executive Officer of Casa Ley, consultant and instructor for junior business management at "Junior Business Management Institute" (ICAMI-SINALOA)
    Directorship Type:   Related
    Alternate:   Francisco Villarreal Vizcaíno

Bernardo Quintana Isaac

 

Age:

 

64
    Years as Director:   11
    Principal Occupation:   Chairman of the board of directors of Empresas ICA
    Outside Directorships:   Member of the board of directors of Teléfonos de México, Cementos Mexicanos, and Grupo Carso.
    Business Experience:   Executive Vice President and Vice President of the Tourist and Urban Development Division for Grupo ICA
    Directorship Type:   Independent
    Alternate:   Diego Quintana Kawage

Juan A. Quiroga García

 

Age:

 

56
    Years as Director:   Since April 2006
    Principal Occupation:   Chief Corporate Officer of GRUMA
    Outside Directorships:   None
    Business Experience:   Vice President of Administration of Gruma Corporation, Chief Administrative and Internal Auditing Officer of GRUMA.
    Directorship Type:   Related
    Alternate:   Raúl A. Peláez Cano
         

59



Héctor Rangel Domene

 

Age:

 

58
    Years as Director:   Since April 2006
    Principal Occupation:   Chairman of the board of directors of Grupo Financiero BBVA-Bancomer.
    Outside Directorships:   Member of the audit committees of GRUMA and GIMSA. Member of the board of directors of Bancomer, Seguros Bancomer, Afore Bancomer, Casa de Bolsa Bancomer, Cintra, Alestra and Universidad Iberoamericana.
    Business Experience:   President of the Business Coordinating Council and President of The Mexican Bankers Association. Several management positions within Grupo Financiero Bancomer, PEMEX, Banco Mexicano and Citibank.
    Directorship Type:   Independent
    Alternate:   Jaime Alatorre Córdoba

Alfonso Romo Garza

 

Age:

 

55
    Years as Director:   12
    Principal Occupation:   Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of Savia
    Outside Directorships:   Member of board of Cementos Mexicanos, Nacional de Drogas, Grupo Comercial Chedraui, member of World Bank's External Advisory Board for Latin America and the Caribbean, member of the board of directors of Donald Danforth Plant Science Center.
    Business Experience:   Director of Strategic Planning and Corporate Development of Visa-Femsa. Founder of Pulsar International.
    Directorship Type:   Independent
    Alternate:   Adrián Rodríguez Macedo

Adrián Sada González

 

Age:

 

61
    Years as Director:   12
    Principal Occupation:   Chairman of the board of directors of Vitro
    Outside Directorships:   Member of the board of directors of ALFA, Cydsa, and Regio Empresas, Consejo Mexicano de Hombres de Negocios, Grupo de Industriales de Nuevo León.
    Business Experience:   Chairman of the board of Grupo Financiero Serfin,, CEO of Banpais
    Directorship Type:   Independent
    Alternate:   Manuel Güemes de la Vega

Douglas J. Schmalz

 

Age:

 

60
    Years as Director:   Since April 2006
    Principal Occupation:   Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer of Archer-Daniels-Midland Company
    Outside Directorships:   Hickory Point Bank and Trust, ADM Investor Services, Decatur Memorial Hospital, The Community Foundation of Decatur / Macon country.
    Business Experience:   Several positions held since 1985 at the Finance Department of the Archer-Daniels-Midland Company.
    Directorship Type:   Shareholder, independent
    Alternate:   Steve Mills
         

60



Javier Vélez Bautista

 

Age:

 

49
    Years as Director:   4
    Principal Occupation:   Business consultant on strategic and financial issues
    Outside Directorships:   Member of the board of directors of GIMSA, Grupo Financiero Banorte, and Casa de Bolsa Banorte. Chairman of the audit committees of GRUMA and GIMSA. Member of the board committees of Grupo Financiero Banorte, Casa de Bolsa Banorte and British American Tobacco-Mexican Operations.
    Business Experience:   Chief Executive Officer of Nacional Monte de Piedad, founder of Valuelink (a management and financial consulting firm), Executive VP and CFO of GRUMA, former Chief Financial Officer of Gruma Corporation, project director Booz Allen & Hamilton.
    Directorship Type:   Independent
    Alternate:   Jorge Vélez Bautista

        Mr. Roberto González Moreno and Mr. Juan Antonio González Moreno, members of our board of directors are the sons of Mr. Roberto González Barrera, the Chairman of our board of directors. In addition, Mr. Carlos Hank Rhon, a member of our board of directors, is the son-in-law of Mr. Roberto González Barrera. Furthermore, Mr. Carlos Hank González, an alternate member of our board of directors, is the son of Carlos Hank Rhon and the grandson of Mr. Roberto González Barrera.

Secretary

        The secretary of the board of directors is Mr. Salvador Vargas Guajardo, and his alternate is Mr. Guillermo Elizondo Ríos. Mr. Vargas Guajardo is not a member of the board of directors.

Senior Management

        The following table sets forth our executive officers, their ages, years of service, current positions, and prior business experience:

Jairo Senise   Age:   50
    Years as Executive Officer:   3
    Years at GRUMA:   3
    Current Position:   Chief Executive Officer of GRUMA
    Other Positions:   President and Chief Executive Officer of Gruma Corporation
    Business Experience:   Regional Vice President and Managing Director of Europe and Eurasia and Regional Vice President of Latin America/South Africa for the Pillsbury Company/General Mills; positions at CPC International/Best Foods, Johnson and Colgate-Palmolive.

Rafael Abreu

 

Age:

 

37
    Years as Executive Officer:   2
    Years at GRUMA:   10
    Current Position:   President, Gruma Centroamérica
    Business Experience:   Several positions within Gruma Centroamérica, including Vice President of the corn flour and tortilla operations
         

61



Nicolás Constantino

 

Age:

 

58
    Years as Executive Officer:   Since January 2006
    Years at GRUMA:   6
    Current Position:   Chief Operating Officer of MONACA
    Business Experience:   Vice President Sales and Exports of the beverage division of the Polar's Group, Director of Sales for the Reynolds Company, National Manager of Sales for the Aliven Company.

José de la Peña y Angelini

 

Age:

 

57
    Years as Executive Officer:   3
    Years at GRUMA:   3
    Current Position:   President of GRUMA's Latin American Operations
    Business Experience:   Executive Vice President Sales and Marketing of GRUMA, top management positions at Colgate-Palmolive, senior positions at Chrysler de México, President of the Mexico office of FCB Worldwide.

Leonel Garza Ramírez

 

Age:

 

56
    Years as Executive Officer:   7
    Years at GRUMA:   20
    Current Position:   Chief Procurement Officer
    Business Experience:   Manager of Quality and Corn Procurement and Vice President of Corn Procurement at GRUMA.

Roberto González Alcalá

 

Age:

 

42
    Years as Executive Officer:   4
    Years at GRUMA:   11
    Current Position:   Chief Operating Officer of GRUMA's Mexican Operations (GIMSA, Molinera de México and PRODISA)
    Business Experience:   Several positions within GRUMA's Central American operations, including Chief Operating Officer, President of the Tortilla Division in Costa Rica. President of the Corn Flour Division in Central America; experience in marketing sales and manufacturing areas.

Juan Antonio González Moreno

 

Age:

 

48
    Years as Executive Officer:   2
    Years at GRUMA:   26
    Current Position:   President of GRUMA's Asian-Oceania operations
    Business Experience:   Several management positions within GRUMA, including Senior Vice President of special projects at the tortilla business of Gruma Corporation, President of the corn flour operations of Gruma Corporation and COO of GIMSA.

Homero Huerta Moreno

 

Age:

 

43
    Years as Executive Officer:   4
    Years at GRUMA:   21
    Current Position:   Chief Administrative Officer.
    Business Experience:   Various positions within GRUMA including finance and administrative Vice President of Gruma Venezuela.
         

62



Heinz Kollmann

 

Age:

 

36
    Years as Executive Officer:   Since January 2006
    Years at GRUMA:   Since January 2006
    Current Position:   Chief Technology Officer, Wheat Flour Production
    Business Experience:   Technical director of MAISCAM in Camerun, Head miller for BUHLER in Uzwil, Switzerland; Responsible technician for Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay, Peru and Bolivia for BUHLER in its Buenos Aires branch office; Production Manager and Special Project Manager for GRAMOVEN / CARGILL in Venezuela; Production Manager and Special Project Manager for Harinera La Espiga in Mexico.

Raúl Alonso Peláez Cano

 

Age:

 

45
    Years as Executive Officer:   1
    Years at GRUMA:   1
    Current Position:   Chief Financial Officer
    Business Experience:   Several executive positions with companies including Industrias Resistol, General Electric de México, and Banco Nacional de México.

Juan Antonio Quiroga García

 

Age:

 

56
    Years as Executive Officer:   8
    Years at GRUMA:   33
    Current Position:   Chief Corporate Officer
    Other Positions:   Senior Corporate Controller of GIMSA
    Business Experience:   Vice President of Administration of Gruma Corporation, Chief Administrative and Internal Auditing Officer of GRUMA.

Juan Fernando Roche

 

Age:

 

51
    Years as Executive Officer:   Since January 2006
    Years at GRUMA:   Since January 2006
    Current Position:   President, Mission Foods
    Business Experience:   Managing Partner, Surest LL. Consulting; Founding Partner, CEOBOARD LLP, Florida; President Northern Latin America, Nabisco; President Europe, Middle East & Africa, Nabisco International; CEO of MAVESA in Venezuela. Other positions in MAVESA: CFO, Supply Chain Management, Group Product Manager.

Felipe Rubio Lamas

 

Age:

 

48
    Years as Executive Officer:   2
    Years at GRUMA:   23
    Current Position:   Chief Technology Officer, Corn Flour and Tortilla Production
    Business Experience:   Several managerial and Vice President positions within GRUMA Corporation related to manufacturing processes and design and construction of production facilities.
         

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Salvador Vargas Guajardo

 

Age:

 

53
    Years as Executive Officer:   10
    Years at GRUMA:   10
    Current Position:   General Counsel
    Other Positions:   General Counsel of GIMSA
    Business Experience:   Positions at Grupo Alfa, Protexa and Proeza, senior partner of two law firms, including Rojas-González-Vargas-De la Garza y Asociados.

        Mr. Oscar Enrique Urdaneta Finol is the Chief Operating Officer of DEMASECA.

        Mr. Roberto González Alcalá, Chief Operating Officer of GRUMA's Mexican Operations, and Mr. Juan Antonio González Moreno, President of GRUMA's Asia and Oceania operations, are sons of Mr. Roberto González Barrera.

Statutory Auditor

        Under Mexican law, a statutory auditor must be elected by our shareholders at the annual ordinary general shareholders meeting for a term of one year. At the subsequent annual ordinary general shareholders meeting, the statutory auditor is required to review our affairs and report as to the accuracy of the financial information as presented to shareholders by the board of directors. The statutory auditor is also authorized (i) to call ordinary general shareholders meetings, extraordinary general shareholders meetings and board of directors meetings; (ii) to place items on the agenda for general shareholders meetings and meetings of the board of directors; and (iii) to attend general shareholders meetings, meetings of the board of directors, meetings of the audit committee, and any other meetings of intermediate committees to which the board of directors delegates any activities (without the right to vote). At the General Ordinary Shareholders' Meeting held on April 27, 2006, Mr. Hugo Lara Silva was reelected to serve as our Statutory Auditor for one year. His alternate is Mr. Carlos Arreola Enríquez.

        Mr. Hugo Lara Silva is 66 years old. He is a retired co-director of and partner in PricewaterhouseCoopers and was a member of the board of directors, the international executive audit committee and the general partner counsel of that firm. Mr. Hugo Lara Silva has experience with a wide variety of businesses in the public and private sectors and has been the statutory auditor for companies such as Grupo Modelo, S.A. de C.V., Ciba-Geigy Mexicana, S.A. de C.V., El Puerto de Liverpool, S.A. de C.V., Grupo Financiero Bancomer, S.A. de C.V., Grupo Mexicano Somex, S.N.C. and Aseguradora Cuauhtémoc, S.A., among others.

Audit Committee

        As required by our bylaws, an audit committee was appointed at the General Ordinary Shareholders' Meeting held on April 27, 2006. Members of the audit committee were selected from members of the board of directors. The current audit committee is comprised of three members, all of whom are independent directors. Set forth below are the names of our audit committee members, their positions within the committee, and their directorship type:

Javier Vélez Bautista   Position:
Directorship Type:
  Chairman of the Audit Committee
Independent
Juan Diez-Canedo Ruiz   Position:
Directorship Type:
  Financial Expert of the Audit Committee
Independent
Héctor Rangel Domene   Position:
Directorship Type:
  Member of the Audit Committee
Independent

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COMPENSATION OF DIRECTORS AND SENIOR MANAGEMENT

        Members of the board of directors are paid a fee of Ps.16,500 for each board meeting they attend.

        For 2005, the aggregate amount of compensation paid to all directors, alternate directors, the statutory auditor, executive officers and audit committee members was approximately Ps.159.8 million (in nominal terms). The contingent or deferred compensation reserved as of December 31, 2005 was Ps.38.7 million (in nominal terms).

        We offer an Executive Bonus Plan that applies to managers, vice presidents, and executive officers. The variable compensation under this plan can range from 15% to 50% of annual base compensation, depending upon the employee's level, his individual performance and the results of our operations.


EMPLOYEES

        As of December 31, 2005, we had a total of approximately 16,582 employees, including unionized 4,790 and non-unionized 11,792, full- and part-time employees. Of this total, we employed approximately 7,245 persons in Mexico, 5,979 in the United States, 1,589 in Central America, 1,435 in Venezuela, 207 in England, 27 in Italy, and 100 in the Netherlands. Total employees for 2004 and 2003 were 15,727 and 15,104, respectively. Of our total employees as of December 31, 2005, approximately 37% were white-collar and 63% were blue-collar.

        In Mexico, workers at each of our plants are covered by a separate contract, under which salary revisions take place once each year, usually in January or February. Non-salary provisions of these contracts are revised bi-annually. We renewed agreements with the three unions that represent our workers in 2005.

        In the United States, Gruma Corporation has four collective bargaining agreements that represent a total of 468 workers at four separate facilities. We renewed and ratified one collective bargaining agreement in 2005. A proposed fifth agreement never materialized due to decertification, however the results of a challenged election from 2001 were certified by the NLRB at a fifth facility which has a potential for an additional 159 workers. Wages are reviewed during negotiations and increases processed per the terms of the particular contract as well as non-monetary provision of the contracts. Salary reviews for non-union employees are done once each year, usually in March for Mission Foods and in May for Azteca Milling, L.P. We believe our current labor relations are satisfactory.


SHARE OWNERSHIP

        The following Directors and Senior Managers have GRUMA shares which in each case represent less than 1% of our capital stock: Mr. José de la Peña y Angelini, Mr. Leonel Garza Ramírez, Mr. Juan Antonio Quiroga García, Mr. Adrián Sada González, Mr. Jairo Senise and Javier Vélez Bautista. In addition, Mr. Roberto González Barrera owns directly and indirectly 211,517,757 shares representing approximately 43.8% of our capital stock and Mr. Juan Antonio González Moreno owns 5,758,556 shares representing approximately 1.2% of our capital stock.


CORPORATE GOVERNANCE PRACTICES

        The significant differences between our corporate governance practices and the New York Stock Exchange standards can be found on our website, www.gruma.com. The information found at this website is not incorporated by reference into this document.

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ITEM 7. Major Shareholders And Related Party Transactions.


MAJOR SHAREHOLDERS

        The following table sets forth certain information regarding the beneficial ownership of our capital stock as of April 27, 2006 (which consists entirely of Series B Shares) with respect to Mr. González Barrera and Archer-Daniels-Midland and its affiliates, the only shareholders we know to own beneficially more than 5% of our capital stock, as well as our directors and executive officers as a group and other shareholders. See "Item 9. The Offer and Listing" for a further discussion of our capital stock. With the exception of Archer-Daniels-Midland's right to appoint two members of our board of directors, and their corresponding alternates, the major shareholders do not have different or preferential voting rights with respect to those shares they own. As of April 27, 2006 our Series B shares were held by 1,088 record holders in Mexico.

Name

  Number of
Series B Shares

  Percentage of
Outstanding Shares

 
Roberto González Barrera and family(1)   226,737,790   46.98 %
Archer-Daniels-Midland(2)   130,901,630   27.13 %
Directors and Officers as a Group(3)   191,811   0.04 %
Other shareholders   124,718,721   25.85 %
   
 
 
Total   482,549,952   100.00 %

(1)
The shares beneficially owned by Mr. González Barrera and his family include: 181,491,961 shares held directly by Mr. González Barrera; 30,025,796 shares held by him through a Mexican corporation jointly owned with Archer-Daniels-Midland and controlled by him; 5,915,329 shares held by Ms. Bertha González Moreno; 3,542,948 shares held by Ms. Graciela S. González Moreno; 5,758,556 shares held by Mr. Juan Antonio González Moreno; and 3,200 shares held by Ms. Mayra A. González Moreno.

(2)
Of the shares beneficially owned by Archer-Daniels-Midland, a portion are held through its Mexican subsidiary, and 24,566,561 shares are held through a Mexican corporation jointly owned with Mr. González Barrera and controlled by Mr. González Barrera. Mr. González Barrera has sole authority to determine how these shares are voted, and the shares cannot be transferred without the consent of both Archer-Daniels-Midland and Mr. González Barrera.

(3)
This group does not include the shares beneficially owned by Mr. Roberto González Barrera and Mr. Juan Antonio González Moreno, members of our board of directors.

        Mr. González Barrera and his family control approximately 52.1% of our capital stock and therefore have the power to elect a majority of our 15 directors. In addition, under Mexican law, any holder or group of holders representing 10% or more of our capital stock may elect one Director. Under our bylaws and the Archer-Daniels-Midland association, as long as Archer-Daniels-Midland owns at least 20% of our capital stock, it will have the right to designate two members of our board of directors and their corresponding alternates.

        Under the terms of our agreement, Archer-Daniels-Midland may not, without the consent of Mr. Roberto González Barrera, the Chairman of our board of directors, acquire additional shares of us. On September 30, 1999, we completed a rights offering to shareholders in Mexico and ADS holders in the United States. With the authorization of Mr. González Barrera, Archer-Daniels-Midland directly and indirectly purchased a total of 51,408,337 new shares, increasing its direct and indirect ownership of our outstanding shares from approximately 22% to approximately 29% immediately after that purchase.

        We have been informed that Mr. González Barrera has pledged or has been required to pledge part of his shares in our Company as collateral for loans made to him. In the event of a default, should

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the lenders enforce their rights with respect to these shares, Mr. González Barrera and his family could lose their controlling interest in us. In addition, Mr. González Barrera must give Archer-Daniels-Midland a right of first refusal on any sale of his GRUMA shares if at the time of the sale, he owns, or as a result of the sale will own, less than 30% of our outstanding shares. Should Archer-Daniels-Midland exercise its right, then it could control us. Archer-Daniels-Midland must also give Mr. González Barrera a right of first refusal on any sale of our shares.

        We are not aware of any significant changes in the percentage ownership of any shareholders which held 5% or more of our outstanding shares during the past three years.


RELATED PARTY TRANSACTIONS

Transactions with Subsidiaries

        The transactions set forth below were made in the ordinary course of business since we operate as a central treasurer for our subsidiaries. We periodically enter into short-term credit arrangements with our subsidiaries, where we provide them with funds for working capital at market interest rates.

        At their peak on May 17, 2005, the outstanding balance of loans from GIMSA to GRUMA were Ps.1,531 million in nominal terms. As of June 15, 2006, we owed GIMSA Ps.263.8 million and U.S$39.1 million. The average interest rate for this year up to June 15 has been 8.72% for loan in pesos and 5.04% for the loan in dollars.

        In September 2001, Gruma Corporation started to make loans to us which, at their peak on June 24, 2004, reached the amount of U.S.$64.0 million. However, since 2004, we have lent money to Gruma Corporation and Gruma Centroamérica at an average rate of 6.7%, having an outstanding amount of U.S.$0 million as of June 15, 2006.

Transactions with Archer-Daniels-Midland

        We entered into an association with Archer-Daniels-Midland in September 1996. As a result of this association, we received U.S.$258.0 million in cash, 80% partnership interest in Azteca Milling, our combined U.S. corn flour operations and 60% of the capital stock of Molinera de México, Archer-Daniels-Midland's wholly-owned Mexican wheat milling operations. We also gained exclusivity rights from Archer-Daniels-Midland in specified corn flour and wheat flour markets. In return, Archer-Daniels-Midland received 74,696,314 of our newly issued shares, which represented approximately 22% of our total outstanding shares, and 20% partnership interest in Azteca Milling, and retained 40% of the capital stock of Molinera de México. Archer-Daniels-Midland also obtained the right to designate two of our 15 directors and their corresponding alternates. In addition, Archer-Daniels-Midland acquired 5% of MONACA. Archer-Daniels-Midland has designated Allen Andreas, its Chairman, and Douglas J. Schmalz, its Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer, as members of our board of directors. Archer-Daniels-Midland has elected David J. Smith, its Senior Vice President, Secretary and General Counsel, and Steve Mills its Group Vice President and Controller, to serve as alternates for Mr. Andreas and Mr. Schmalz, respectively.

        During 2003, 2004 and 2005 we purchased U.S.$111 million, U.S.$103 million and U.S.$105 million respectively, of inventory from Archer-Daniels-Midland Corporation, a shareholder, at market rates and terms. Additionally, in 2006, we commenced a series of transactions in which we agreed to purchase a 2% stake in MONACA and sell a 3% stake in DEMASECA to ADM. For more information regarding these transactions, please see "Item 4. Information on the Company—Business Overview—Gruma Venezuela".

Other Transactions

        We had loans outstanding to the controlling shareholder and related parties which, at their peak on December 31, 2002, aggregated Ps.176.8 million. These loans were made for personal purposes. All of these loans bore interest at market rates. These loans have been repaid in full.

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        We hold approximately 10.9% of the capital stock of GFNorte, a Mexican financial institution. In the normal course of business, we may obtain financing from GFNorte's subsidiaries at market rates and terms. For the past four and a half years, the highest outstanding loan amount has been Ps.162 million (in nominal terms) with an average interest rate of 8.9%.


ITEM 8.    Financial Information.

        See "Item 18. Financial Statements." For information on our dividend policy, see "Item 3. Key Information—Dividends." For information on legal proceedings related to us, see "—Legal Proceedings."


LEGAL PROCEEDINGS

        In the ordinary course of business, we are party to various legal proceedings, none of which has had or we reasonably expect will have a material adverse effect on us.

Antitrust Lawsuits

        Eighteen manufacturers of tortillas and other processed food products brought three related antitrust lawsuits against Gruma Corporation and Azteca Milling in the United States District Court for the Southern District of Texas, Galveston Division. The three suits were: (1) El Aguila Food Products, Inc., et al. v. Gruma Corporation, et al.; No. G-01-434, in the United States District Court for the Southern District of Texas, Galveston Division; (2) Gilbert Moreno Enterprises, Inc., et al. v. Gruma Corporation, et al.; C.A. No. G-01-546, in the United States District Court for the Southern District of Texas, Galveston Division; and (3) Capistran, Inc., et al. v. Gruma Corporation, et al.; No. G-02-100, in the United States District Court for the Southern District of Texas, Galveston Division. These three lawsuits were consolidated into El Aguila Food Products, Inc., et al. v. Gruma Corporation, et al. which, on January 10, 2003, was transferred to the United States District Court for the Southern District of Texas, Houston Division. The plaintiffs alleged that the defendants conspired with retailers to restrain trade in the retail sale of tortillas in Texas, California, Arizona and Michigan, used market power to exclude plaintiffs from the retail tortilla market, and otherwise competed unfairly. The plaintiffs sought damages, including treble damages, "greatly in excess of U.S.$1 million per Plaintiff," as well as injunctive relief. In December 2003, the trial court, after four weeks of trial, dismissed the suit as being without merit. Plaintiffs filed an appeal. On May 17, 2005, the United States Court of Appeals handed down a decision affirming the trial court's dismissal. The petition for rehearing was denied on Junes 23, 2005.

        Additionally, in May 2004 a new lawsuit was presented against these subsidiaries, related to monopolistic matters. The plaintiff alleged these subsidiaries had broken the anti-trust practices in the state of California, by making agreements with grocery stores, which restricts the competitiveness in the retail sale of tortilla. The plaintiff sought equitable relief and an unspecified amount of total damages. The trial court dismissed this suit on April 1, 2005 at the request of the plaintiff, who received no settlement moneys or other consideration from Gruma and the other defendants.

Mexican Antitrust Litigation

        On August 24, 2005, GIMSA acquired a 100% interest in Agroinsa, a group of companies based in Monterrey, Mexico, engaged primarily in the production of corn flour, produced in one mill located in Celaya, Guanajuato and another in Monterrey, Nuevo León, and in the production of wheat flour and other products, produced in one mill located in Monterrey, Nuevo León. In accordance with the Ley Federal de Competencia Económica (the "Mexican Competition Law" or "LFCE"), GRUMA, GIMSA's holding company, notified the Comisión Federal de Competencia ("Federal Competition Commission" or "CFC") of the acquisition of Agroinsa through a "notice of concentration". Even though we believe we did not violate the LFCE because we believe the acquisition of Agroinsa is not an anticompetitive

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action due to GRUMA's and GIMSA's lack of substantial power over the relevant market, on November 21, 2005, the CFC notified us of its resolution not to approve such acquisition.

        In its resolution, the CFC held, among others, that: (i) regarding the concentration in the corn flour market, the traditional cooked-corn method is not a substitute of the corn flour method for the production of tortilla and other corn chip products made with either corn flour or cooked-corn; and (ii) regarding the concentration in the wheat flour market, GRUMA already controls two wheat flour mills in the influence market area (Monterrey and Durango). We believe the CFC's resolution is without economic or legal merit, because with respect to (i) above, we have sufficient legal and economic grounds to assume that the corn flour method and the cooked-corn method are substitutes of each other and, therefore, either of them can be alternatively used for the production of tortilla and other corn chip products;, and with respect to (ii) above, the Monterrey mill is not controlled by us, since it is a joint venture in which our partner, Gamesa, holds 60% of the capital stock, and 60% of the production is used by Gamesa for their own internal consumption needs.

        Additionally we believe that an "implicit approval" (afirmativa ficta) should apply in this case, based upon several decisions of the Mexican Supreme Court of Justice which we believe should be applicable to this case by analogy. The LFCE provides that if the CFC does not issue its resolutions within the time provided therein, the acquisitions will be deemed approved without objection. Even though, the resolution of the CFC was issued within the applicable time period, these decisions by the Mexican Supreme Court of Justice have held that, not only must an administrative authority issue its resolution within the applicable time period, but it must also notify the petitioner of its resolution within such term. In our case, the CFC notified us of its resolution with respect to the acquisition only after the expiration of the legal term. Although these Mexican Supreme Court of Justice decisions were not directly related to the LFCE and the CFC, we believe that they should be applied to this case.

        On January 16, 2006, GRUMA filed an administrative appeal of such resolution with the CFC based on the above arguments. On April 6, 2006, the CFC issued its final resolution not approving the acquisition. On May 17, 2006 we filed an injuction ("juicio de amparo") before the Thirteenth Federal Court for Administrative Matters of Mexico City against such resolution, arguing that an "implicit approval" should have applied based upon the aforementioned Mexican Supreme Court of Justice's resolutions. We also made several other arguments based on legal and constitutional defects in the CFC's resolution. If the Thirteenth Federal Court for Administrative Matters of Mexico City rules against us, we may appeal such decision before the Tribunal Colegiado de Circuito en Materia Administrativa ("Federal Court of Appeals for Administrative Matters").

        We are confident that the courts will rule in our favor for the reasons stated above, however, we cannot assure you that we will prevail in this matter after all procedurals remedies are exhausted. In addition, we cannot assure you that the CFC will approve any other proposed acquisitions or joint ventures in the future. We intend to defend ourselves in accordance with applicable law against this resolution and any future resolutions by the CFC.

Distributor Arbitration

        On or about November 29, 2001, one of Gruma Corporation's distributors filed a putative class action lawsuit against Gruma Corporation. The case was removed from California state court to federal court. Prior to April 2005, we did not consider this claim to be material because we were successful on two court rulings, had held that the claim must be arbitrated and that the arbitration would be for the individual plaintiff's claims only and because the total exposure on the individual claim was for a small amount. On or about April 25, 2005, the United States District Court, based upon a recent U.S. Supreme Court decision, ordered that the original claims should be referred to arbitration and that the arbitrator could decide whether the matter should proceed as a class action. No decision has yet been made as to whether the claims should proceed as a class action. The claims, as recently amended, allege that Gruma Corporation's distributors are actually employees, that Gruma Corporation has failed

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to make wage and other payments required for employees, that Gruma Corporation has violated the California antitrust laws and unfair competition statutes, that Gruma Corporation has otherwise committed fraud and negligent misrepresentations. The arbitrator subsequently dismissed the antitrust claims. The other claims continue to be asserted by the two named plaintiffs. The plaintiffs seek damages and equitable relief but have not yet specified the total amount of damages sought. We intend to vigorously defend against this action.

Drivers' Class Action

        In October 2005, Gruma was named in a class action suit, Ramon Moreno et al. v. Guerrero Mexico Food Products, Inc. and Gruma Corporation, filed in the United States District Court for the Central District of California, Los Angeles County. This is a putative wage and hour class action alleging a misclassification of the Teamster-represented drivers as exempt when they should be treated as non-exempt and paid overtime for all hours worked in excess of eight in a day and forty in a week. Plaintiffs also contend that the putative class members have been denied state-mandated meal periods and are due penalties under California Labor Code Section 226.7. Plaintiffs subsequently amended the complaint to add a second plaintiff who is a current employee. We filed an answer asserting 33 affirmative defenses. We then filed a third-party complaint against Teamsters Local 63 asserting a breach of contract and seeking declaratory relief. Teamsters Local 63 filed a motion to dismiss our third-party complaint against it. On June 19, 2006, the court denied Teamsters Local 63's motion. Also on June 19, 2006, the court set a trial date of June 26, 2007. Plaintiffs have filed a motion to strike three of our affirmative defenses on the basis that the alleged affirmative defenses could not provide, as a matter of law, a defense to the claims asserted by Plaintiffs. The Plaintiffs set the hearing for their motion to strike affirmative defenses on July 10, 2006. In response, we will file an opposition arguing that it is premature at this stage of the proceedings for the court to make any determination on the merits of the claims and defenses in this case and, in any event, the motion lacks merit. We intend to vigorously defend against this action.

Water Discharge Assessments

        Certain subsidiaries of GIMSA have been notified by the National Water Commission of fee assessments due from different years amounting to Ps.24.9 million plus related penalties and surcharges. These assessments mainly arise from the CNA's determination of discharge of sewage water on public property of the Nation that was being used as receiver facilities. Nevertheless, the subsidiaries are using the water derived from the production process, previously treated, to irrigate several garden properties of the Company, through the sprinkler system. The subsidiaries have asserted the legal defense allowed by law in order to annul these assessments. We have received final favorable judicial resolutions for a total of Ps 10.8 million. One remaining assessment is pending for an amount of Ps.14.2 million. On such matter, a favorable resolution was received, in first instance, but the resolution for an appeal placed by the CNA is pending. According to the Company's lawyers, a reasonable basis exists in order to obtain favorable resolution for the remaining assessment, because, among other things, the water from the production process is previously treated and later on used to irrigate the garden properties of the Company through the sprinkler system, in other words, the water is not discharged on public property of the Nation and, additionally, does not contaminate aquiferous layers nor the underground soil. Consequently, the Company's management considered as unnecessary to recognize a liability for this matter.

Mexican Tax Claim

        The Mexican tax authorities have made certain observations to our asset tax returns for the years 1997, 1998 and 2000, which amounts to a total of Ps.108.5 million including the related surcharges and penalties. We have obtained a favorable resolution from the Supreme Court to annul these observations for an amount of Ps.10 million of the year 1998. Nevertheless, the Mexican authorities have made

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similar observations to the asset tax for the year 1994 amounting to a total of Ps.57.1 million including the related surcharges and penalties. Additionally, the Mexican authorities have made (i) a determination for an amount of Ps.30 million, including the related surcharges and penalties, for tax retentions from payments of interests to our foreign creditors for the years 2000 and 2001 (the Mexican authorities argue that we should have retained 10% of these payments of interest instead of 4.9%); and (ii) a determination for an amount of Ps.36.9 million, including the related surcharges and penalties for the asset tax for the year 1999. The resolution of these matters is not expected to have a material adverse effect on our consolidated financial position or results of operations. We have filed an appeal to annul such determinations and intend to vigorously defend against this action.

Venezuelan Tax Claim

        The Venezuelan tax authorities have made certain assessments to Molinos Nacionales, C.A., one of our Venezuelan subsidiaries related to income tax returns for 1998 and 1999 which amounted to Ps.65.3 million plus tax debts presumable omitted for Ps.346 thousand. The resolution of these claims will be assumed by the previous shareholder, International Multifoods Corporation, in accordance with the purchase agreement of our subsidiary in Venezuela, Molinos Nacionales, C.A.

Venezuelan Labor Lawsuits

        Our subsidiary MONACA has been named in two separate labor lawsuits, one of them from the "caleteros" for a total amount of VEB 4,680 million (U.S.$2.2 million), and the other from the freighters that work for MONACA for an amount of VEB 2,000 million (U.S.$930,000). The "caleteros" are people that help freighters to unload goods, which represent an important source of labor for MONACA. MONACA decided to provision VEB 945 million (U.S.$440,000) during 2005 based on an estimate carried out by MONACA. MONACA reached a settlement agreement regarding the "caleteros" lawsuit on June 2006 and agreed to pay to the 33 caleteros an aggregate of VEB 1,181 million (U.S.$ 550 thousand). With respect to the lawsuit filed by the freighters (6 individuals), on March 2006, MONACA agreed to settle with them for VEB 250 million (U.S.$ 116 thousand). Such separate settlements were made to cover certain fringe benefits which, according to both plaintiffs, MONACA did not cover during approximately the last 20 years, such as profit sharing, social security, vacations, extra hours, seniority and indemnity payments. Such payments were agreed upon by MONACA in view of the fact that both the "caleteros" and the freighters had material evidence to prove that they could be considered employees of MONACA and not independent contractors. MONACA has taken steps to assure that for future "caleteros" and freighters to be contracted by MONACA, there will not be any presumption or circumstance which may give rise to a claim that an employment relationship exists with MONACA. In both settlement agreements, the amounts paid include the legal fees of the plaintiff's attorneys.


ITEM 9.    The Offer And Listing.


TRADING HISTORY

        Our Series B Shares have been traded on the Bolsa Mexicana de Valores, S.A. de C.V., or Mexican Stock Exchange, since 1994. The ADSs, each representing four Series B Shares, commenced trading on the New York Stock Exchange in November 1998. On December 31, 2005, 452,549,952 Series B Shares were outstanding (of which 77,235,272 Series B Shares were represented by 19,308,818 ADSs held by 13 record holders in the United States).

        In January 2006, we issued 30,000,000 of our series B common stock, class I, no par value shares in an offering inside and outside of Mexico at Ps.38.250 per share for a combined offering total of Ps.1,147,500,000. The proceeds of the offering will be allocated to increases in production capacity in Gruma Corporation. This equity offering increased the float of GRUMA's stock from 19% to 26% and improved its liquidity.

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        GIMSA terminated its ADR program in September 2005 and effective November 10, 2005, GIMSA ADSs ceased to be traded on the New York Stock Exchange. On November 30, 2005, the delisting of the ADSs from the New York Stock Exchange became effective. On June 21, 2006, the deregistration of the Series B Shares and ADSs became effective. The delisting of GIMSA's ADSs is a component of our longer-term strategy of increasing the trading volume and liquidity of our shares.


PRICE HISTORY

        The following table sets forth, for the periods indicated, the annual high and low closing sale prices for the Series B Shares and the ADSs as reported by the Mexican Stock Exchange and the New York Stock Exchange, respectively.

 
  Mexican Stock Exchange
  NYSE
 
  Common Stock
  ADS(2)
 
  High
  Low
  High
  Low
 
  (Ps. per share(1))
  (U.S.$ per ADS)
Annual Price History                
2001   8.50   6.00   3.60   2.60
2002   13.00   8.00   5.70   3.50
2003   15.30   9.20   5.62   3.20
2004   26.48   15.7   9.50   5.40
2005   36.00   20.64   13.35   7.63
Quarterly Price History                
2004                
1st Quarter   18.90   15.70   7.00   5.40
2nd Quarter   19.70   18.90   6.95   6.60
3rd Quarter   22.85   19.00   7.95   6.64
4th Quarter   26.48   22.50   9.50   7.82
2005                
1st Quarter   28.30   24.73   10.31   8.75
2nd Quarter   25.40   20.64   9.49   7.63
3rd Quarter   28.00   23.50   10.38   8.70
4th Quarter   36.00   26.72   13.35   9.80
2006                
1st Quarter   39.44   31.83   15.05   11.60
2nd Quarter(3)   34.68   26.61   12.59   9.50
Monthly Price History                
December 2005   35.51   34.49   13.35   12.07
January 2006   39.00   34.50   15.05   13.50
February 2006   39.44   33.65   15.03   12.90
March 2006   35.72   31.83   13.59   11.60
April 2006   34.68   31.69   12.59   11.10
May 2006   33.99   26.61   12.36   9.50
June 2006(3)   29.72   27.71   10.54   9.65

(1)
Pesos per share reflect nominal price at trade date.

(2)
Price per ADS in U.S.$; one ADS represents four Series B Shares.

(3)
Through June 14, 2006.

        On June 14, 2006, the reported last sale price of the B Shares on the Mexican Stock Exchange was Ps.27.71 per B Share. On June 14, 2006, the reported last sale price of the ADSs on the New York Stock Exchange was U.S.$9.65 per ADS.

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MEXICAN STOCK EXCHANGE

        The Mexican Stock Exchange, the Bolsa Mexicana de Valores, S.A. de C. V., located in Mexico City, is the only stock exchange in Mexico. Founded in 1907, it is organized as a corporation whose shares are held by brokerage firms, which are exclusively authorized to trade on the exchange. Trading on the Mexican Stock Exchange takes place principally through automated systems and is open between the hours of 8:30 a.m. and 3:00 p.m. Mexico City time, each business day. Trades in securities listed on the Mexican Stock Exchange can also be performed off the exchange. The Mexican Stock Exchange operates a system of automatic suspension of trading in shares of a particular issuer as a means of controlling excessive price volatility, but under current regulations this system does not apply to securities such as the Series B Shares that are directly or indirectly (for example, through ADSs) quoted on a stock exchange (including for these purposes the New York Stock Exchange) outside Mexico.

        Settlement is effected two business days after a share transaction on the Mexican Stock Exchange. Deferred settlement, even by mutual agreement, is not permitted without the approval of the Comisión Nacional Bancaria y de Valores (the Mexican National Banking and Securities Commission, or CNBV). Most securities traded on the Mexican Stock Exchange, including ours, are on deposit with S.D. Indeval, S.A. de C.V., or Indeval, a privately owned securities depositary that acts as a clearinghouse for Mexican Stock Exchange transactions.

        As of June 1, 2001, the Mexican Securities Law requires issuers to increase the protections offered to minority shareholders and to impose corporate governance controls on Mexican listed companies in line with international standards. The Mexican Securities Law expressly permits Mexican listed companies, with prior authorization from the CNBV, to include in their bylaws antitakeover defenses such as shareholder rights plans, or poison pills. Our bylaws include certain of these protections. See "Additional Information—Bylaws—Antitakeover Protections."


ITEM 10. Additional Information.


BYLAWS

        Set forth below is a brief summary of certain significant provisions of our bylaws, as amended. This description does not purport to be complete and is qualified by reference to our bylaws, which are incorporated by reference as an exhibit to this Annual Report.

Organization and Register

        We are a sociedad anónima de capital variable (a corporation) organized in Mexico under the Ley General de Sociedades Mercantiles, or the Mexican Companies Law. We were incorporated on December 24, 1971 and have a corporate life of 99 years. Our corporate purpose, as fully described in Article 2 of our bylaws, is to act as a holding company. As such, our bylaws grant us the power to engage in various activities, which allow us to function as a holding company. These powers include, but are not limited to, the ability to (1) acquire, sell, import, export, and manufacture all types of goods and products, (2) issue securities and take all actions with respect to securities of any kind, (3) create, organize and manage all types of companies, (4) act as an agent or representative, (5) acquire, sell and maintain real property, (6) perform or receive professional, technical or consulting services, (7) establish branches, agencies or representative offices, (8) acquire, license or use intellectual property, (9) grant and receive loans, (10) subscribe, issue and negotiate all types of credit instruments, and (11) perform any acts necessary to accomplish the foregoing.

Directors

        Our bylaws provide that our management shall be vested in the board of directors. Each director is elected by a simple majority of the shares and there are no provisions for cumulative voting. Under

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Mexican law and our bylaws, any holder or group of holders owning 10% or more of our capital stock may elect one director and its corresponding alternate. The board of directors shall be comprised of a minimum of five and a maximum of twenty directors, as determined by the shareholders at the annual ordinary general shareholders' meeting. Under Mexican law, at least 25% of the members of the board of directors must be independent. Currently, our board of directors consists of 15 members.

        The board of directors shall meet at least once every three months. These meetings can be called by the Chairman of the Board of Directors, by 25% of the members of the board of directors, or by our statutory auditors. Under the terms of our association with Archer-Daniels-Midland, Archer-Daniels-Midland will have the right to appoint two of our directors, and their corresponding alternates, as long as it owns at least 20% of our capital stock. The directors serve for a one year term, or until their successors have taken office. Directors receive compensation as determined by the shareholders at the annual ordinary general shareholders' meeting. A majority of directors is needed to constitute a quorum and board resolutions must be passed by a majority of the votes present at any validly constituted meeting or by unanimous consent if no meeting is convened.

        Under Mexican law, any member of the board of directors who has a conflict of interest with the corporation in any transaction must disclose such fact to the other directors and abstain from voting on that transaction. Any member of the board of directors who violates this provision may be liable for the resulting damages incurred by the company. Members of the board of directors may not represent shareholders at any shareholders' meeting.

        Our bylaws provide that the board of directors is required to approve: (i) related party transactions other than those occurring in the ordinary course of business; (ii) purchases of 10% or more of our corporate assets; (iii) guarantees for more than 30% of our corporate assets; (iv) any of the aforementioned transactions when they are to be carried out by any of our subsidiaries; and (v) any other transaction, different from the aforementioned, the value of which represents more than 1% of our corporate assets. This approval is non-delegable.

        Under Mexican law, shareholders can initiate actions for civil liabilities against directors through resolutions passed by a majority of the shareholders at a general ordinary shareholders' meeting. In the event the majority of the shareholders decide to bring such action, the director against whom such action is brought will immediately cease to be a member of the board of directors. Additionally, shareholders representing not less than 15% of our outstanding shares may directly bring such action against directors. Any recovery of damages with respect to such action will be for our benefit and not for the benefit of the shareholders bringing the action.

        Under our bylaws and in accordance with applicable law, we are required to have an audit committee comprised of directors, of which at least the majority of whom must be independent directors, including the Chairman. Members are appointed at the annual ordinary general shareholders' meeting, hold office for one year and will continue their duties until their successors take their positions. Members shall receive such compensation set at the ordinary general shareholders' meeting. The audit committee is empowered to: (i) prepare an annual report of its activities and render it to the board of directors; (ii) issue opinions with respect to related party transactions that the Company intends to carry out outside of its ordinary course of business as well as to issue opinions with respect to (a) related party transactions that the subsidiaries of the Company intend to carry out outside of the ordinary course of business or (b) transactions that may imply a commitment of its assets under the terms of section IV, paragraph (d) of Article 14-Bis-3 of the Mexican Securities Law; (iii) make proposals relating to the hiring of independent experts, if necessary, so that such experts can issue their opinions with respect to related party transactions; (iv) propose to the board of directors candidates for the external auditor position and the conditions pursuant to which they will be hired; (v) revise our financial information and arrange the issuance process for the same; (vi) contribute to the definition of the general guidelines of the internal control system, assess its effectiveness, as well as coordinate and evaluate the annual internal audits and the activities performed by our internal and external auditors

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and the statutory auditors; (vii) verify that we have the necessary mechanisms to ensure that we are in compliance with applicable laws and inform the board of directors in this respect; and (viii) perform other functions as set forth or deriving from applicable legal provisions to which the Company may be subject. Our statutory auditors will be called to all meetings held by the audit committee.

        According to our bylaws, the board of directors is empowered to execute and negotiate any of our credit instruments and agreements. The board of directors may delegate such power to any individual.

        See also "Item 6. Directors, Senior Management and Employees" for further information about the board of directors.

Voting Rights and Shareholders' Meetings

        Each share entitles the holder thereof to one vote at any general meeting of our shareholders. Shareholders may vote by proxy. At the ordinary general shareholders' meeting, any shareholder or group of shareholders representing 10% or more of the outstanding common stock has the right to appoint one regular director and its corresponding alternate, with the remaining directors being elected by majority vote. Holders of series B shares do not have cumulative voting rights.

        General shareholders' meetings may be ordinary meetings or extraordinary meetings. Extraordinary general shareholders' meetings are called to consider matters specified in Article 182 of the Mexican Companies Law, including, principally, changes in the authorized fixed share capital and other amendments to the bylaws, the issuance of preferred stock, liquidation, mergers and spin-offs, changes in the rights of security holders, and transformation from one corporate form to another. All other matters may be considered at ordinary general shareholders' meetings. Ordinary general shareholders' meetings must be called to consider and approve matters specified in Article 181 of the Mexican Companies Law, including, principally, the appointment of the members of the board of directors and the statutory auditor, the compensation paid to the directors and statutory auditor, the distribution of our profits for the previous year, and the annual reports presented by the board of directors and the statutory auditor.

        A general ordinary shareholders' meeting must be held during the first four months after the end of each fiscal year. In order to attend a general shareholders' meeting, the day before the meeting shareholders must deposit the certificates representing their common stock or other appropriate evidence of ownership either with the secretary of our board of directors, with a credit institution, or with Indeval. The secretary, credit institution or Indeval will hold the certificates until after the general shareholders' meeting has taken place.

        Our shareholders establish the number of members that will serve on our board of directors at the ordinary general shareholders' meeting. Under our bylaws, the board of directors shall be comprised of a minimum of five and a maximum of twenty directors. Pursuant to Mexican law, at least 25% of the members of the board of directors must be independent.

        Under our bylaws, the quorum for an ordinary general shareholders' meeting is at least 50% of the outstanding common stock, and action may be taken by the affirmative vote of holders representing a majority of the shares present. If a quorum is not present, a subsequent meeting may be called at which the shareholders present, whatever their number, will constitute a quorum and action may be taken by a majority of the shares present. A quorum for extraordinary general shareholders' meetings is at least 75% of the outstanding common stock, but if a quorum is not present, a subsequent meeting may be called. A quorum for the subsequent meeting is at least 50% of the outstanding shares. Action at an extraordinary general shareholders' meeting may only be taken by a vote of holders representing at least 50% of the outstanding shares.

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        Shareholders' meetings may be called by the board of directors, the statutory auditor or a court. The board of directors or the statutory auditor may be required to call a shareholders' meeting if holders of at least 10% of our outstanding share capital request a meeting in writing, at the written request of any shareholder if no shareholders' meeting has been held for two consecutive years, or if, during a period of two consecutive years, the board of directors' annual report for the previous year and the company's financial statements were not presented to the shareholders, or if the shareholders did not elect directors and the statutory auditor.

        Notice of shareholders' meetings must be published in the Official Gazette of the State of Nuevo Léon or in a newspaper of general circulation in Monterrey, Nuevo Léon at least 15 days prior to the meeting. Shareholders' meetings may be held without such publication provided that 100% of the outstanding shares are represented. Shareholders' meetings must be held in Monterrey, Nuevo Léon.

        Under Mexican law, holders of 10% of our outstanding capital stock may have any shareholder action set aside by filing a complaint with a Mexican court of competent jurisdiction within 15 days after the close of the meeting at which such action was taken, by showing that the challenged action violates Mexican law or our bylaws. Relief under these provisions is only available to holders who were entitled to vote on the challenged shareholder action and whose shares were not represented when the action was taken or, if represented, were voted against it.

Dividend Rights and Distribution

        Within the first four months of each year, the board of directors must submit our company's financial statements for the preceding fiscal year to the shareholders for their approval at the ordinary general shareholders' meeting. They are required by law to allocate five percent of any new profits to a legal reserve which is not thereafter available for distribution until the amount of the legal reserve equals 20% of our historical capital stock (before adjusting for inflation). Amounts in excess of those allocated to the legal reserve fund may be allocated to other reserve funds as the shareholders determine, including a reserve for the repurchase of our shares. The remaining balance of new profits, if any, is available for distribution as dividends. Cash dividends on the shares held through Indeval will be distributed by us through Indeval. Cash dividends on the shares evidenced by physical certificates will be paid when the relevant dividend coupon registered in the name of its holder is delivered to us. No dividends may be paid, however, unless losses for prior fiscal years have been paid up or absorbed. See "Item 3. Key Information—Dividends."

Liquidation

        Upon our dissolution, one or more liquidators must be appointed by an extraordinary shareholders' general meeting to wind up its affairs. If the extraordinary general shareholders' meeting does not make said appointment, a Civil or District Judge of the Federation can do so at the request of any shareholder. All fully paid and outstanding common stock will be entitled to participate equally in any distribution upon liquidation after the payment of the company's debts, taxes and the expenses of the liquidation. Common stock that has not been paid in full will be entitled to these proceeds in proportion to the paid-in amount.

        If the extraordinary general shareholders' meeting does not give express instructions on liquidation, the bylaws stipulate that the liquidators will (i) conclude all pending matters they deem most convenient, (ii) prepare a general balance and inventory, (iii) collect all credits and pay all debts by selling assets necessary to accomplish this task, (iv) sell assets and distribute income, and (v) distribute the remnant, if any, pro rata among the shareholders.

Changes in Capital Stock

        Our outstanding capital stock consists of Class I and Class II series B shares. Class I shares are the fixed portion of our capital stock and have no par value. The fixed portion of our capital stock cannot be redeemed. Class II shares are the variable portion of our capital stock and have no par value. The

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issuance of variable capital shares, unlike the issuance of fixed capital shares, does not require an amendment of the bylaws, although it does require approval at an ordinary general shareholders' meeting. The fixed portion of our capital stock may only be increased or decreased by resolution of an extraordinary general shareholders' meeting and an amendment to our bylaws, whereas the variable portion of our capital stock may be increased or decreased by resolution of an ordinary general shareholders' meetings. Currently, our outstanding capital stock consists only of fixed capital.

        An increase of capital stock may generally be made through the issuance of new shares for payment in cash or in kind, by capitalization of indebtedness or by capitalization of certain items of shareholders' equity. An increase of capital stock generally may not be made until all previously issued and subscribed shares of capital stock have been fully paid. A reduction of capital stock may be effected to absorb losses, to redeem shares, to repurchase shares in the open market or to release shareholders from payments not made.

        As of December 31, 2004, the Company's outstanding common stock consisted of 452,049,643 shares and 500,309 shares held in Treasury. As of December 31, 2005, GRUMA's outstanding common stock consisted of 452,549,952 shares of Series "B", with no par value, fully subscribed and paid, and no shares held in Treasury. In January 2006, we issued 30,000,000 of our series B common stock, class I, no par value shares. As of April 27, 2006 GRUMA's outstanding common stock consisted of 482,549,952 shares Series "B" with no par value, fully subscribed and paid.

Preemptive Rights

        Except in certain limited circumstances, in the event of a capital increase through the issuance of shares for payment in cash or in kind, a holder of existing shares of a given series at the time of the capital increase has a preferential right to subscribe for a sufficient number of new shares of the same series to maintain the holder's existing proportionate holdings of shares of that series. Preemptive rights must be exercised within the period and under the conditions established for such purpose by the shareholders at the corresponding shareholders' meeting. Under Mexican law and our bylaws, the exercise period may not be less than 15 days following the publication of notice of the capital increase in the Official Gazette of the State of Nuevo Léon or following the date of the shareholders' meeting at which the capital increase was approved if all shareholders were represented; otherwise such rights will lapse.

        Shareholders will not have preemptive rights to subscribe for common stock issued in connection with mergers, upon the conversion of convertible debentures, in a public offering (if the majority of shareholders at a general extraordinary meeting approve the issuance of shares and waive their preemptive rights in accordance with the Mexican securities market law and our bylaws) or in a resale of common stock held in our treasury as a result of repurchases on the Mexican Stock Exchange.

        Under Mexican law, preemptive rights may not be waived in advance by a shareholder, except under limited circumstances, and cannot be represented by an instrument that is negotiable separately from the corresponding share. Holders of ADRs may be restricted in their ability to participate in the exercise of preemptive rights. See "Item 3. Key Information—Risk Factors—Risks Relating to Our Controlling Shareholders and Capital Structure—Holders of ADSs May Not Be Able to Participate in Any Future Preemptive Rights Offering and as a Result May Be Subject to a Dilution of Equity Interest."

Restrictions Affecting Non-Mexican Shareholders

        Foreign investment in capital stock of Mexican corporations is regulated by the 1993 Foreign Investment Law and by the 1998 Foreign Investment Regulations to the extent they are not inconsistent with the Foreign Investment Law. The Ministry of Economy and the National Commission on Foreign Investment are responsible for the administration of the Foreign Investment Law and the Foreign Investment Regulations.

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        Our bylaws do not restrict the participation of non-Mexican investors in our capital stock. However, approval of the National Foreign Investment Commission must be obtained for foreign investors to acquire a direct or indirect participation in excess of 49% of the capital stock of a Mexican company that has an aggregate asset value that exceeds, at the time of filing the corresponding notice of acquisition, an amount determined annually by the National Foreign Investment Commission.

        As required by Mexican law, our bylaws provide that any non-Mexicans who acquire an interest or participation in our capital at any time will be treated as having Mexican nationality for purposes of their interest in us, and with respect to the property, rights, concessions, participations or interests that we may own or rights and obligations that are based on contracts to which we are a party with the Mexican authorities. Such shareholders cannot invoke the protection of their government under penalty of forfeiting to the Mexican State the ownership interest that they may have acquired. See "Item 3. Key Information—Risk Factors—Risks Relating to Our Controlling Shareholders and Capital Structure—Our Bylaws Restrict the Ability of Non-Mexican Shareholders to Invoke the Protection of Their Governments with Respect to Their Rights as Shareholders."

        Under this provision, a non-Mexican shareholder is deemed to have agreed not to invoke the protection of his own government with respect to his rights as a shareholder, but is not deemed to have waived any other rights it may have with respect to its investment in us, including any rights under U.S. securities laws. If a shareholder should invoke governmental protection in violation of this provision, its shares could be forfeited to the Mexican government. Mexican law requires that such a provision be included in the bylaws of all Mexican companies unless such bylaws prohibit ownership of shares by non-Mexicans.

Registration and Transfer

        Our shares are evidenced by certificates in registered form. We maintain a stock registry and, in accordance with Mexican law, only those persons whose names appear on the stock registry are recognized as owners of the series B shares.

Other Provisions

Redemption Rights

        Outstanding variable capital shares, if any, may be fully or partially redeemed by the holders thereof. The minimum fixed portion of our capital stock cannot be redeemed. Currently, we have no outstanding variable capital shares. A holder of variable capital stock that wishes to effect a total or partial redemption of such stock is required to notify us in an authenticated written notice to that effect. If notice of redemption is received prior to the last quarter of the fiscal year, the redemption becomes effective at the end of the fiscal year in which the shareholder gives notice. Otherwise, the redemption becomes effective at the end of the following fiscal year.

        Redemption of our variable capital stock is made at the lower of (i) 95% of the weighted average share price as quoted on the Mexican Stock Exchange for the last 30 days in which our shares were traded, in a period not greater than six months, prior to the effective date of the redemption, or (ii) the book value per variable capital share, calculated from our balance sheet (as approved at an ordinary general shareholders' meeting) for the fiscal year immediately prior to the fiscal year in which the redemption is to become effective. If the number of days in which our shares have traded during the period referred to above is less than 30, then only the actual number of days in which our shares have traded during such period will be taken into account. If shares have not been exchanged during such period, then the tender offer shall be made at a price equal to at least the book value of the shares. Any such amount to be paid by us would become due on the day following the ordinary general shareholders' meeting referred to in clause (ii) above.

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Appraisal Rights

        Under Mexican law, whenever the shareholders approve a change of corporate purpose, change of our nationality or transformation from one type of corporate form to another, any shareholder entitled to vote on such change or transformation who has voted against it has the right to tender its shares and receive the amount attributable to its shares, provided such shareholder exercises its right to withdraw within 15 days following the adjournment of the meeting at which the change or transformation was approved. Under Mexican law, the amount which a withdrawing shareholder is entitled to receive is equal to its proportionate interest in our capital stock according to our most recent balance sheet approved by an ordinary general shareholders' meeting. The reimbursement may have certain tax consequences.

Share Repurchases

        We may repurchase our common stock on the Mexican Stock Exchange at any time at the then prevailing market price. The repurchase of shares will be made at the expense of our equity if the repurchased shares remain outstanding, or at the expense of our capital stock if the repurchased shares are placed in our treasury. At the ordinary general shareholders' meeting, shareholders shall determine the maximum amount of funds to be allocated to the repurchase of shares, which amount shall not exceed our total net profits, including retained earnings.

        Repurchased common stock will either be held by us or kept in our treasury, pending future sales thereof on the Mexican Stock Exchange. If the repurchased shares are kept in our treasury, we may not exercise the economic and voting rights corresponding to them, and such shares are not deemed to be outstanding for purposes of calculating any quorum or vote at any shareholders' meeting. The repurchased shares held by us as outstanding shares may not be represented at any shareholder meeting. The decrease or increase of the capital stock as a consequence of the repurchase and sale by the company of its shares does not require the approval of a shareholders' meeting or of the board of directors.

        Under Mexican securities regulation, our directors, officers, statutory auditors, external auditors, and the secretary of the board of directors and holders of 10% or more of our outstanding common stock may not sell common stock to us, or purchase repurchased common stock from us, unless the sale or purchase is made through a tender offer. Mexican securities regulations under the Mexican Securities Market Law require that if we decide to repurchase common stock representing three percent or more of our outstanding share capital in any 20 trading-day period, these repurchases must be conducted by means of a public tender offer.

Repurchase in the Event of Delisting

        If the registration of our common shares in the Securities Section of the Registro Nacional de Valores (National Registry of Securities, or RNV) is canceled, whether at our request or by the CNBV, under our bylaws and CNBV regulations the shareholders holding the majority of our common shares or who are otherwise able to impose, by any means, decisions at the general shareholders' meetings or able to appoint the majority of the directors of our board of directors, shall be obligated to make a tender offer to purchase all of our shares prior to the cancellation. Such tender offer shall be made at least at the greater price of the following: (i) the closing sale price of such shares on the Mexican Stock Exchange, under the terms of the following paragraph, or (ii) the book value of the shares according to the most recent quarterly report submitted to the CNBV and to the Mexican Stock Exchange prior to the commencement of the offer. As set forth in the last paragraph of this subsection below, the tendering shareholder(s) may request approval from the CNBV to use different criteria to determine the price of the shares, in which case, the most recent financial information of the Company shall be taken into account.

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        The quoted share price on the Mexican Stock Market referred to in the preceding paragraph shall be the weighted average share price as quoted on the Mexican Stock Exchange for the last 30 days in which our shares were traded, in a period not greater than six months, prior to the date of the offer. If the number of days in which our shares have traded during the period referred to above is less than 30, then only the actual number of days in which our shares have traded during such period will be taken into account. If shares have not been exchanged during such period, then the tender offer shall be made at a price equal to at least the book value of the shares.

        If the tender offer refers to more than one series of stock, the weighted average price referred to in the preceding paragraph shall be calculated for each series of stock to be cancelled, and the price for the tender offer of all of the series shall be the greatest of such averages.

        Within five business days of the commencement of the tender offer, the board of directors shall disclose its opinion in connection with the reasonableness of the price of such offer, taking into consideration (i) the interests of the minority shareholders in order to comply with the terms of the second paragraph of Article 16 of the Mexican Securities Law, and (ii) an opinion of the audit committee. If the board of directors' and audit committee's opinions are conflicting, then the audit committee's opinion shall be disclosed. If the board of directors has a potential conflict of interest, then the opinion of the board of directors shall be accompanied with an opinion issued by an independent expert selected by the audit committee in which special emphasis is to be made to protect the interests of the minority shareholders.

        The holders of the majority of our common shares, or whoever is otherwise able to, by any means, (i) impose resolutions at the general shareholders' meetings, or (ii) appoint the majority of the directors of our board of directors, shall be under no obligation to make the tender offer to purchase all of our shares prior to the cancellation of the registry if: (i) they have the consent of the holders of at least 95% of our outstanding common shares, by a resolution at a shareholders' meeting, and (ii) the aggregate amount offered for the securities in the market is less than 300,000 investment units (UDIs); provided, however that, in order to obtain the cancellation from the RNV, (x) the trust referred to in the following paragraph must be executed, and (y) notice of such cancellation and of the execution of the trust shall be made through the appropriate means established by the CNBV.

        In the event the shareholders making the tender offer are not able to purchase 100% of our outstanding common shares, then prior to the cancellation of our common shares in the Securities Section of the RNV, they shall execute a trust, for a minimum term of six months, in order to provide sufficient monetary resources to purchase the remaining outstanding common shares at the same tender offer price.

        The shareholders required to make the tender offer referred to above may request the approval from the CNBV to use different criteria to determine the price of the shares. The CNBV shall take into account our financial situation in considering whether to grant such approval. In requesting such approval, the following must be submitted to the CNBV: (i) a resolution of the board of directors approving such request, (ii) a favorable opinion of the audit committee addressing the reasons why it deems appropriate the use of a different price, and (iii) a report from an independent expert indicating that the price is consistent with the terms of Article 16 of the Mexican Securities Law.

Shareholder Conflicts of Interest

        Under Mexican law, any shareholder that has a direct or indirect conflict of interest with respect to any transaction must abstain from voting thereon at the relevant shareholders' meeting. A shareholder that votes on a business transaction in which its interest conflicts with ours may be liable for damages if the transaction would not have been approved without such shareholder's vote.

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Rights of Shareholders

        The protections afforded to minority shareholders under Mexican law are different from those in the United States and many other jurisdictions. The substantive law concerning duties of directors and controlling shareholders has not been the subject of extensive judicial interpretation in Mexico, unlike many states in the United States where duties of care and loyalty elaborated by judicial decisions help to shape the rights of minority shareholders. Mexican civil procedure does not contemplate class actions or shareholder derivative actions, which permit shareholders in U.S. courts to bring actions on behalf of other shareholders or to enforce rights of the corporation itself. Shareholders cannot challenge corporate action taken at a shareholders' meeting unless they meet certain procedural requirements.

        As a result of these factors, in practice it may be more difficult for our minority shareholders to enforce rights against us or our directors or controlling shareholders than it would be for shareholders of a U.S. company. See "Item 3. Key Information—Risk Factors—Risks Relating to Our Controlling Shareholders and Capital Structure—The Protections Afforded to Minority Shareholders in Mexico Are Different From Those in the United States."

        In addition, under the U.S. securities laws, as a foreign private issuer we are exempt from certain rules that apply to domestic U.S. issuers with equity securities registered under the Exchange Act, including the proxy solicitation rules, the rules requiring disclosure of share ownership by directors, officers and certain shareholders. We are also exempt from certain of the corporate governance requirements of the New York Stock Exchange, including certain requirements concerning audit committees and independent directors. A summary of significant ways in which our corporate governance standards differ from those followed by U.S. domestic companies under NYSE listing standards is available on our website at www.gruma.com.

Antitakeover Protections

        Our bylaws provide that, subject to certain exceptions as explained below, prior written approval from the board of directors shall be required for any person (as defined hereunder), or group of persons to acquire, directly or indirectly, any of our common shares or rights to our common shares, by any means or under any title whether in a single event or in a set of consecutive events, such that its total shares or rights to shares would represent 5% or more of our outstanding shares.

        Prior approval from the board of directors must be obtained each time such ownership threshold (and multiples thereof) is intended to be exceeded, except for persons who, directly or indirectly, are competitors (as such term is defined below) of the Company or of any of its subsidiaries, who must obtain the prior approval of the board of directors for future acquisitions where a threshold of 2% (or multiples thereof) of our common shares is intended to be exceeded.

        Pursuant to our bylaws, a "person" is defined as any natural person, corporate entity, trust or similar form of venture, vehicle, entity, corporation or economic or mercantile association or any subsidiaries or affiliates of any of the former or, as determined by the board of directors, any group of persons who may be acting jointly, coordinated or as a whole; and a "competitor" is defined as any person engaged, directly or indirectly, in (i) the business of production and/or marketing of corn or wheat flour, and/or (ii) any other activity carried on by the Company or by any of its subsidiaries or affiliates.

        Persons that acquire our common shares in violation of these requirements will not be considered the beneficial owners of such shares under our bylaws and will not be able to vote such shares or receive any dividends, distributions or other rights in respect of these shares. In addition, pursuant to our bylaws, these holders will be obligated to pay us a penalty in an amount equal to the greater of

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(i) the market value of the shares such party acquired without obtaining the prior approval of the board of directors and (ii) the market value of shares representing 5% of our capital stock.

        Board Notices, Meetings, Quorum Requirements and Approvals.    To obtain the prior approval of our board of directors, a potential acquirer must properly deliver a written application complying with the applicable requirements set forth in our bylaws. Such application shall state, among other things: (i) the number and class of our shares the person beneficially owns or to which such person has any right, (ii) the number and class of shares the Person intends to acquire, (iii) the number and class of shares with respect to which such Person intends to acquire any right, (iv) the percentage that the shares referred to in (i) represent of our total outstanding shares and of the class or series to which such shares belong, (v) the percentage that the shares referred to in (ii) and (iii) represent of our total outstanding shares and of the class or series to which such shares belong, (vi) the person's identity, or in the case of an acquiror which is a corporation, trust or legal entity, its shareholders, partners or beneficiaries as well as the identity and nationality of each person effectively controlling such corporation, trust or legal entity, (vii) the reasons and purpose behind such acquisition, (viii) if such person is, directly or indirectly, a competitor of the Company or any of its subsidiaries or affiliates, and if such person has the authority to legally acquire the shares pursuant to our bylaws and Mexican law, (ix) its source of financing the intended acquisition, (x) if the Person is part of an economic group, formed by one or more of its related parties, which intends to acquire shares of our common stock or rights to such shares, (xi) if the person has obtained any financing from one of its related parties for the payment of the shares, (xii) the identity and nationality of the financial institution, if any, that will act as the underwriter or broker in connection with any tender offer, and (xiii) the person's address for receiving notices.

        Either the Chairman, the Secretary or the Alternate Secretary of our board of directors must call a meeting of the board of directors within 10 business days following the receipt of the written application. The notices for the meeting of the board of directors shall be in writing and sent to each of the directors and their alternates at least 45 calendar days prior to the meeting. Action by unanimous written consent is not permitted.

        Any acquisition of common shares representing at least 2% or 5%, as the case may be, of our outstanding capital stock, must be approved by at least the majority of the members of our board of directors present at a meeting at which at least the majority of the members is present. Such acquisitions must be resolved by our board of directors within 60 calendar days following the receipt of the written application described above, unless the board of directors determines that it does not have sufficient information upon which to base its decision. In such case, the board of directors shall deliver a written request to the potential acquiror for any additional information that it deems necessary to make its determination. The 60 calendar days referred to above will commence following the receipt of the additional information from the potential acquiror.

        Mandatory Tender Offers in the Case of Certain Acquisitions.    If our board of directors authorizes an acquisition of common shares which increases the acquirer's ownership to 30% or more, but not more than 50%, of our capital stock, then the acquiror must effect its acquisition by way of a cash tender offer for a specified number of shares equal to the greater of (i) the percentage of common shares intended to be acquired or (ii) 10% of our outstanding capital stock, in accordance with the applicable Mexican securities regulations.

        No approval of the board of directors will be required if the acquisition would increase the acquirer's ownership to more than 50% of our capital stock or results in a change of control, in which case the acquiror must effect its acquisition by way of a tender offer for 100% minus one of our total outstanding capital stock, which tender shall be made pursuant to applicable Mexican laws.

        The aforementioned tender offers must be made simultaneously in the Mexican and US stock markets. Furthermore, an opinion issued by the board of directors regarding any such tender offer must

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be made available to the public through the authorized means of communication within 10 days after commencement of the tender offer. In the event of any tender offer, the shareholders shall have the right to hear more competitive offers.

        Notices.    In addition to the aforementioned approvals, if a person increases its beneficial ownership by 1% in the case of competitors, or 2% in the case of non-competitors, written notice must be submitted to the board of directors within five days of reaching or exceeding such thresholds.

        Exceptions.    The provisions of our bylaws summarized above will not apply to (a) transfers of shares by operation of the laws of succession; (b) acquisitions of shares by (i) any person who, directly or indirectly, has the authority or possibility of appointing the majority of the directors of our board of directors, (ii) any company, trusts or similar form of venture, vehicle, entity, corporation or economic or mercantile association, which may be under the control of the aforementioned person; (iii) the heirs of the aforementioned person, (iv) the aforementioned person when such person is repurchasing the shares of any corporation, trust or similar form of venture, vehicle, entity, corporation or economic or mercantile association referred to in the item (ii) above; and (v) the Company or by trusts created by the Company; (c) any person(s) that as of December 4, 2003 hold(s), directly or indirectly, more than 20% of the shares representing the Company's capital stock; and (d) any other exceptions provided for in the Mexican Securities Law and other legal dispositions derived from said law.


MATERIAL CONTRACTS

Archer-Daniels-Midland

        We entered into an association with Archer-Daniels-Midland in September 1996. We believe that this association has improved our position in the U.S. corn flour market by combining our proprietary corn flour technology, our leading position in the corn flour industry in Mexico, the United States, Central America and Venezuela and our operational expertise with Archer-Daniels-Midland's logistical resources and financial strength.

        As a result of this association, we received U.S.$258.0 million in cash, 80% partnership interest in Azteca Milling, our combined U.S. corn flour operations and 60% of the capital stock of Molinera de México, Archer-Daniels-Midland's wholly-owned Mexican wheat milling operations. We also gained exclusivity rights from Archer-Daniels-Midland in specified corn flour and wheat flour markets. In return, Archer-Daniels-Midland received 74,696,314 of our newly issued shares, which represented approximately 22% of our total outstanding shares, and 20% partnership interest in Azteca Milling and retained 40% of the capital stock of Molinera de México. Archer-Daniels-Midland also obtained the right to designate two of the 15 members of our board of directors and their corresponding alternates.

        Under the terms of this association, Archer-Daniels-Midland may not, without the consent of Mr. Roberto González Barrera, the Chairman of our board of directors or our board of directors, acquire additional shares of us. In 1999, Mr. González Barrera authorized Archer-Daniels-Midland to acquire additional shares of us issued as a result of an increase in capital stock and subsequent rights offering to our shareholders. In connection with the rights offering on August 19, 1999, Archer-Daniels-Midland directly and indirectly purchased a total of 51,408,337 new shares, increasing its ownership of our outstanding shares to approximately 29.2%, directly and indirectly. Currently, Archer-Daniels-Midland owns, directly and indirectly, approximately 27.13% of our outstanding shares. A total of 24,566,561 of these new shares are held by Archer-Daniels Midland through a Mexican corporation jointly owned with Mr. González Barrera and controlled by him. Furthermore, Archer-Daniels-Midland must give Mr. González Barrera a right of first refusal on any sale of our shares. Mr. González Barrera must give Archer-Daniels-Midland a similar right on any sale of his shares in us if at the time of the sale, he owns, or as a result of the sale will own, less than 30% of our outstanding shares. See "Item 7. Major Stockholders and Related Party Transactions—Related Party Transactions."

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        The documents which detail the terms of the association include the Shareholders Agreement by and among us, Roberto González Barrera, Archer-Daniels-Midland and ADM Bioproductos, S.A. de C.V., the Asset Contribution Agreement among Gruma Corporation, Gruma Holding, Inc., ADM Milling Co., Valley Holding, Inc., GRUMA-ADM, and Azteca Milling, L.P., and the Investment Agreement by and between us and Archer-Daniels-Midland, all dated as of August 21, 1996, as well as Amendment No. 1 and Amendment No. 2 to the Shareholders Agreement, dated as of September 13, 1996 and August 18, 1999, respectively. See "Item 19. Exhibits."

BBVA Bancomer

        On July 28, 2005, we obtained a US$250 million, five-year syndicated senior credit facility, which we refer to as the 2005 Facility, from a group of five banks, led by BBVA Bancomer, which consists of a US$150 million senior term loan facility and a US$100 million revolving credit facility, both with a five-year tenor and bullet payment. Funds from the 2005 Facility were used to repay in full the outstanding balance of US$244 million under our now-terminated 2004 Facility. As of June 15, 2006, there was US$150 million outstanding under the term facility with US$100 of revolving credit available. The interest rate for the facility is LIBOR plus 40 basis points for the first year. Thereafter, the spread could fluctuate in relation to our leverage and could be between 37.5 and 45 basis points. This Loan Agreement was executed in July 22, 2005 among us, the Lenders party thereto, BBVA Securities Inc. as Bookrunner and Documentation Agent, and BBVA Bancomer, S.A. as Administrative Agent. See "Item 19. Exhibits."

Perpetual Bond

        We issued U.S.$300.0 million 7.75% perpetual bonds under an indenture dated as of December 3, 2004, among Gruma, S.A. de C.V., and JP Morgan Chase Bank, N.A. as trustee. Pursuant to the indenture, the bonds have no stated maturity, have a call option exercisable by GRUMA at any time beginning five years after the issue date and will bear interest at a fixed rate of 7.75% per annum from the date of issuance. Interest on the bonds will be paid quarterly in arrears on March 3, June 3, September 3 and December 3 of each year, commencing on March 3, 2005, to the person in whose name such bond (or any predecessor bond) is registered at the close of business on the preceding February 15, May 15, August 15 or November 15, as the case may be. Interest on the Bonds will be computed on the basis of a 360-day year of twelve 30-day months. The Bonds will constitute direct senior unsecured obligations of Gruma S.A. de C.V. and will rank at least pari passu in priority of payment with all other present and future unsecured and unsubordinated indebtedness of Gruma S.A. de C.V. See "Item 19. Exhibits."

        The indenture describes covenants with which we must comply, including:

    limitations on liens;

    limitations with respect to consolidations, mergers or transfer of property; and

    limitations on certain sale and lease-back transactions.

        These covenants are subject to a number of important qualifications and exceptions as described in the indenture.

        The indenture contains certain events of default, consisting of, among others, the following:

    failure to pay interest and other amounts within 30 calendar days of the due date; and

    breach by us of any covenant or agreement in the indenture or any of the other relevant transaction documents.

Supplemental Indenture

        In connection with Gruma S.A. de C.V.'s offer to purchase its outstanding $250,000,000 aggregate principal amount of 7.625% Notes Due 2007 and the related solicitation of consents, Gruma S.A. de C.V. executed and delivered a supplemental indenture setting forth amendments to the original indenture governing the $250,000,000 7.625% Notes Due 2007. The supplemental indenture amends certain terms and covenants in the original indenture. See "Item 19. Exhibits."

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EXCHANGE CONTROLS

        Mexican law does not restrict our ability to remit dividends and interest payments, if any, to non-Mexican holders of our securities. Payments of dividends to equity-holders generally will not be subject to Mexican withholding tax. See "—Taxation—Mexican Tax Considerations—Payment of Dividends." Mexico has had a free market for foreign exchange since 1991, and the government has allowed the peso to float freely against the U.S. dollar since December 1994.

        Our ability to repatriate dividends from Gruma Venezuela may be adversely affected by exchange controls and other recent events. See "Item 3. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Venezuela—Venezuela Presents Significant Economic Uncertainty and Political Risk."


TAXATION

        The following summary contains a description of certain Mexican federal and U.S. federal income tax consequences of the acquisition, ownership and disposition of B Shares or B Share ADSs (which are evidenced by ADRs), but it does not purport to be a comprehensive description of all of the tax considerations that may be relevant to a decision to purchase or hold B Shares or ADSs, such as the tax treatment of holders that are dealers or that own (actually or constructively under rules prescribed in the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, or the Code), 10% or more of the voting shares of GRUMA.

        The Convention for the Avoidance of Double Taxation and a Protocol thereto, or the Tax Treaty, between the United States and Mexico entered into force on January 1, 1994. The United States and Mexico have also entered into an agreement concerning the exchange of information with respect to tax matters.

        The summary is based upon tax laws of the United States and Mexico as in effect on the date of this document, which are subject to change, including changes that may have retroactive effect. Holders of B Shares or ADSs should consult their own tax advisers as to the Mexican, U.S. or other tax consequences of the purchase, ownership and disposition of shares or ADSs, including, in particular, the effect of any foreign, state or local tax laws.

Mexican Tax Considerations

        The following is a general summary of the principal consequences under the Ley del Impuesto sobre la Renta (the Mexican Income Tax Law) and rules and regulations thereunder, as currently in effect, of an investment in Shares or ADSs by a holder that is not a resident of Mexico and that will not hold shares or ADSs or a beneficial interest therein in connection with the conduct of a trade or business through a permanent establishment or fixed base in Mexico.

        For purposes of Mexican taxation, a natural person is a resident of Mexico for tax purposes if he has established his home in Mexico, unless he has resided in another country for more than 183 days, whether consecutive or not, in any one calendar year and can demonstrate that he has become a resident of that country for tax purposes, and a legal entity is a resident of Mexico if it was incorporated in Mexico or maintains the principal administration of its business or the effective location of its management in Mexico. A Mexican citizen is presumed to be a resident of Mexico unless such person can demonstrate the contrary. If a non-resident of Mexico is deemed to have a permanent establishment or fixed base in Mexico for tax purposes, all income attributable to such permanent establishment or fixed base will be subject to Mexican taxes, in accordance with applicable tax laws.

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Tax Treaties

        Provisions of the Tax Treaty that may affect the taxation of certain U.S. holders are summarized below. The United States and Mexico have also entered into an agreement that covers the exchange of information with respect to tax matters.

        Mexico has also entered into and is negotiating several other tax treaties that may reduce the amount of Mexican withholding tax to which payment of dividends on shares or ADSs may be subject. Holders of shares or ADSs should consult their own tax advisors as to the tax consequences, if any, of such treaties.

        Under the Mexican Income Tax Law, in order for any benefits from the Tax Treaty or any other tax treaties to be applicable, residence for tax purposes must be demonstrated.

Payment of Dividends

        Under the Mexican Income Tax Law, dividends, either in cash or in kind, paid with respect to shares represented by ADSs are not subject to Mexican withholding tax. A Mexican corporation will not be subject to any tax if the amount of declared dividends does not exceed the net tax profit account (cuenta de utilidad fiscal neta, or CUFIN).

        If we pay a dividend in 2006 in an amount greater than our CUFIN balance (which may occur in a year when net profits exceed the balance in such accounts), then we are required to pay a 29% for 2006, 28% for 2007 and thereafter income tax on an amount equal to the product of the portion of the grossed-up amount which exceeds such balance multiplied by 1.4085 for 2006 and 1.3889 for 2007 and thereafter.

Taxation of Dispositions

        The sale or other disposition of ADSs by a non-resident holder will not be subject to Mexican tax. Deposits of shares in exchange for ADSs and withdrawals of shares in exchange for ADSs will not give rise to Mexican tax or transfer duties.

        The sale of shares by a non-resident holder will not be subject to any Mexican tax if the transaction is carried out through the Mexican Stock Exchange or other securities markets approved by the Mexican Ministry of Finance. Sales or other dispositions of shares made in other circumstances generally would be subject to Mexican tax, regardless of the nationality or residence of the transferor.

        Under the Mexican Income Tax Law, gains realized by a nonresident holder of shares on the sale or disposition of shares not conducted through a recognized stock exchange generally are subject to a Mexican tax at a rate of 25% of the gross sale price. However, if the holder is a resident of a country which (i) is not considered to be a low tax rate country, (ii) its legislation does not contain territorial taxation, and (iii) such income is not subject to a preferential tax regime, the holder may elect to designate a resident of Mexico as its representative, in which case taxes would be payable at a 29% rate on the gain on such disposition of shares in 2006 (28% in 2007 and thereafter).

        Pursuant to the Tax Treaty, gains realized by qualifying U.S. holders from the sale or other disposition of shares, even if the sale is not conducted through a recognized stock exchange, will not be subject to Mexican income tax except that Mexican taxes may apply if:

    50% or more of our assets consist of fixed assets situated in Mexico;

    such U.S. holder owned 25% or more of the shares representing the capital stock of GRUMA (including ADSs), directly or indirectly, during the 12-month period preceding such disposition; or

    the gain is attributable to a permanent establishment or fixed base of the U.S. holder in Mexico.

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Other Mexican Taxes

        A non-resident holder will not be liable for estate, inheritance or similar taxes with respect to its holdings of shares or ADSs; provided, however, that gratuitous transfers of shares may in certain circumstances result in imposition of a Mexican tax upon the recipient. There are no Mexican stamp, issue registration or similar taxes payable by a non-resident holder with respect to shares or ADSs.

        Reimbursement of capital pursuant to a redemption of shares will be tax exempt up to an amount equivalent to the adjusted contributed capital corresponding to the shares that will be redeemed. Any excess distribution pursuant to a redemption will be considered a dividend for tax purposes and we may be taxed as described above.

U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations

        The following is a summary of certain U.S. federal income tax consequences to U.S. holders (as defined below) of the acquisition, ownership and disposition of B Shares or ADSs. This summary is based upon the federal income tax laws of the United States as in effect on the date of this Annual Report, including the provisions of the Tax Treaty, all of which are subject to change, possibly with retroactive effect in the case of U.S. federal income tax law.

        The summary does not purport to be a comprehensive description of all of the tax consequences of the acquisition, ownership or disposition of B Shares or ADSs. The summary applies only to U.S. holders that will hold their B Shares or ADSs as capital assets and does not apply to special classes of holders such as dealers in securities or currencies, holders with a functional currency other than the U.S. dollar, holders of 10% or more of our voting shares (whether held directly or through ADSs or both), tax-exempt organizations, financial institutions, holders liable for the alternative minimum tax, securities traders electing to account for their investment in their B Shares or ADSs on a mark-to-market basis, and persons holding their B Shares or ADSs in a hedging transaction or as part of a straddle or conversion transaction.

        For purposes of this discussion, a "U.S. holder" is a beneficial owner of B Shares or ADSs that is:

    a citizen or resident of the United States of America;

    a corporation or partnership organized in or under the laws of the United States of America or any state thereof or the District of Columbia;

    an estate the income of which is subject to United States federal taxation regardless of its source;

    a trust if a court within the U.S. is able to exercise primary supervision over the administration and one or more U.S. persons have the authority to control all substantial decisions of the trust; or

    otherwise subject to U.S. federal income taxation on a net income basis with respect to the shares or ADSs.

        A holder of B Shares or ADSs that is a partnership, and partners in such partnership, should consult their tax advisors about the United States federal income tax consequences of holding and disposing of the B Shares or the ADSs, as the case may be.

        Prospective investors in the B Shares or ADSs should consult their own tax advisors as to the U.S. federal, Mexican or other tax consequences of the purchase, ownership and disposition of the B Shares or ADSs, including, in particular, the effect of any foreign, state or local tax laws and their entitlement to the benefits, if any, afforded by the Tax Treaty.

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Treatment of ADSs

        In general, a U.S. holder of ADSs will be treated as the beneficial owner of the B Shares represented by those ADSs for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Deposits or withdrawals of B Shares by U.S. holders in exchange for the ADSs will not result in the realization of gain or loss for U.S. federal income tax purposes. U.S. holders that withdraw any shares should consult their own tax advisors regarding the treatment of any foreign currency gain or loss on any pesos received in respect of such shares.

Taxation of Distributions

        In this discussion, the term "dividends" is used to mean distributions paid out of our current or accumulated earnings and profits (calculated for U.S. federal income tax purposes) with respect to B Shares or ADSs. In general, the gross amount of any dividends will be includible in the gross income of a U.S. holder as ordinary income on the day on which the dividends are received by the U.S. holder in the case of shares, or by the depositary in the case of ADSs. Dividends paid by us will not be eligible for the dividends-received deduction allowed to corporations under the Code. To the extent that a distribution exceeds the amount of our earnings and profits (calculated for U.S. federal income tax purposes), it will be treated as a non-taxable return of capital to the extent of the U.S. holder's basis in the B Shares or ADSs, and thereafter as capital gain (provided that the B Shares or ADSs are held as capital assets). Distributions will be paid in pesos and will be includible in the income of a U.S. holder in a U.S. dollar amount calculated by reference to the exchange rate in effect on the day that they are received by the U.S. holder in the case of shares, or by the depositary in the case of ADSs. U.S. holders should consult their own tax advisors regarding the treatment of foreign currency gain or loss, if any, on any pesos received by a U.S. holder or depositary that are converted into U.S. dollars on a date subsequent to receipt.

        Distributions of additional shares or ADSs to U.S. holders with respect to their shares or ADSs that are made as part of a pro rata distribution to all of our shareholders generally will not be subject to U.S. federal income tax.

        Dividends paid on shares or ADSs generally will be treated for U.S. foreign tax credit purposes as foreign source passive category income. In the event Mexican withholding taxes are imposed on such dividends, any such withheld taxes would be treated as part of the gross amount of the dividend includible in income of a U.S. holder for U.S. federal income tax purposes (to the extent of current or accumulated earnings and profits), and such taxes may be treated as a foreign income tax eligible, subject to generally applicable limitations and conditions under U.S. federal income tax law, for credit against a U.S. holder's U.S. federal income tax liability or, at the U.S. holder's election, for deduction from gross income in computing the U.S. holder's taxable income. The calculation and availability of foreign tax credits and, in the case of a U.S. holder that elects to deduct foreign taxes, the availability of deductions, involves the application of rules that depend on a U.S. holder's particular circumstances. In the event Mexican withholding taxes are imposed, U.S. holders should consult their own tax advisors regarding the availability of foreign tax credits.

Qualified Dividend Income

        Notwithstanding the foregoing, certain dividends received by individual U.S. holders that constitute "qualified dividend income" will be subject to a reduced maximum marginal U.S. federal income tax rate. Qualified dividend income generally includes, among other dividends, dividends received during the taxable year from "qualified foreign corporations." In general, the term "qualified foreign corporation" includes a foreign corporation that is eligible for the benefits of a comprehensive income tax treaty with the United States which the U.S. Treasury Department determines to be satisfactory, and which includes an exchange of information program. In addition, a foreign corporation is treated as

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a qualified foreign corporation with respect to any dividend paid by the corporation with respect to stock of the corporation that is readily tradable on an established securities market in the United States. For this purpose, a share is treated as readily tradable on an established securities market in the United States if an ADR backed by such share is so traded.

        Notwithstanding the previous rule, dividends received from a foreign corporation that is a passive foreign investment company (as defined in section 1297 of the Code) will not constitute qualified dividend income. In addition, the term "qualified dividend income" will not include, among other dividends, any (i) dividends on any share of stock or ADS which is held by a taxpayer for 60 days or less during the 120-day period beginning on the date which is 60 days before the date on which such share or the shares backing the ADS become ex-dividend with respect to such dividends (as measured under section 246(c) of the Code) or (ii) dividends to the extent that the taxpayer is under an obligation (whether pursuant to a short sale or otherwise) to make related payments with respects to positions in substantially similar or related property. Moreover, special rules apply in determining a taxpayer's foreign tax credit limitation under section 904 of the Code in the case of qualified dividend income.

        Individual U.S. holders should consult their own tax advisors to determine whether or not amounts received as dividends from us will constitute qualified dividend income subject to a reduced maximum marginal U.S. federal income tax rate and, in such case, the effect, if any, on the individual U.S. holder's foreign tax credit.

Taxation of Dispositions

        Gain or loss realized by a U.S. holder on the sale, redemption or other disposition of B Shares or ADSs will be subject to U.S. federal income taxation as capital gain or loss in an amount equal to the difference between such U.S. holder's adjusted basis in the B Shares or the ADSs and the amount realized on the disposition (including any amounts withheld in respect of Mexican withholding tax). Gain (including gain that arises because the U.S. holder's basis in the B Shares or ADSs has been reduced because a distribution is treated as a return of capital rather than as a dividend) and loss realized by a U.S. holder on a sale, redemption or other disposition of B Shares or ADSs generally will be treated as U.S. source income or loss for U.S. foreign tax credit purposes.

        The availability of U.S. foreign tax credits or any deduction from gross income for any Mexican taxes imposed on the sale, redemption or other disposition is subject to certain limitations and involves the application of rules that depend on a U.S. holder's particular circumstances. U.S. holders should consult their own tax advisors regarding the application of the foreign tax credit rules to their investment in, and disposition of, B Shares or ADSs.

Tax Return Disclosure Regulations

        Pursuant to U.S. Treasury regulations (the "Disclosure Regulations"), any taxpayer that has participated in a "reportable transaction" and who is required to file a U.S. Federal income tax return must generally attach a disclosure statement disclosing such taxpayer's participation in the reportable transaction to the taxpayer's tax return for each taxable year for which the taxpayer participates in the reportable transaction. The Disclosure Regulations provide that, in addition to certain other transactions, "loss transactions" and "transactions involving a brief asset holding period" constitute "reportable transactions." "Loss transactions" include transactions that produce a foreign currency exchange loss in an amount equal to or in excess of certain threshold amounts. "Transactions involving a brief asset holding period" are generally transactions resulting in the taxpayer claiming a tax credit in excess of $250,000 if the underlying asset giving rise to the credit is held by the taxpayer for 45 days or less. U.S. holders should consult their own advisors concerning the implications of the tax return disclosure requirements in light of their particular circumstances.

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Information Reporting and Backup Withholding

        Dividends on, and proceeds from the sale or other disposition of, the B Shares or ADSs paid to a U.S. holder generally may be subject to the information reporting requirements of the Code and may be subject to backup withholding at the applicable rate unless the holder:

    establishes that it is a corporation or other exempt holder; or

    provides an accurate taxpayer identification number on a properly completed Internal Revenue Service Form W-9 and certifies that no loss of exemption from backup withholding has occurred.

        The amount of any backup withholding from a payment to a holder will be allowed as a credit against the U.S. holder's U.S. federal income tax liability and may entitle such holder to a refund, provided that certain required information is furnished to the Internal Revenue Service.

U.S. Tax Consequences for Non-U.S. Holders

        A holder of shares or ADSs that is, with respect to the United States, a foreign corporation or a non-resident alien individual (a "non-U.S. holder") generally will not be subject to U.S. federal income or withholding tax on dividends received on shares or ADSs, unless such income is effectively connected with the conduct by the holder of a U.S. trade or business.

        A non-U.S. holder of shares or ADSs will not be subject to U.S. federal income or withholding tax on gain realized on the sale of shares or ADSs, unless:

    such gain is effectively connected with the conduct by the holder of a U.S. trade or business, or

    in the case of gain realized by an individual holder, the holder is present in the United States for 183 days or more in the taxable year of the sale and certain other conditions are met.

        Although non-U.S. holders generally are exempt from backup withholding, a non-U.S. holder may be required to comply with certification and identification procedures in order to establish its exemption from information reporting and backup withholding.


DOCUMENTS ON DISPLAY

        We are subject to the information requirements of the Exchange Act and, in accordance therewith, we are required to file reports and other information with the SEC. These materials, including this Form 20-F and the exhibits thereto, may be inspected and copied at the SEC's Public Reference Room at 450 Fifth Street, NW, Washington, D.C. 20549. The public may obtain information on the operation of the Public Reference Room by calling the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330.


ITEM 11. Quantitative And Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk.

        The following information includes "forward-looking statements" that involve risk and uncertainties. Actual results could differ from those presented. All information below is presented on a Mexican GAAP basis in pesos of constant purchasing power as of December 31, 2005.

        We are exposed to market risks arising from changes in interest rates, foreign exchange rates, equity prices and commodity prices. We use derivative instruments, on a selective basis, to manage these risks. We do not use derivative instruments for trading or speculative purposes. We maintain and

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control our treasury operations and overall financial risk through practices approved by senior management.


INTEREST RATE RISKS

        We depend upon debt financing transactions, including debt securities, bank and vendor credit facilities and leases, to finance our operations. These transactions expose us to interest rate risk, with the primary interest-rate risk exposure resulting from changes in the relevant base rates (mostly LIBOR and to a lesser extent, Prime, TIIE and Tasa Promedio Poderadain Venezuela) which are used to determine the interest rates that are applicable to borrowings under our credit facilities. We are also exposed to interest rate risk in connection with refinancing of maturing debt. We had approximately U.S.$372.8 million (Ps.3,962.8 million) of fixed rate debt and approximately U.S.$277.2 million (Ps.2,947.1 million) in floating rate debt at December 31, 2005.

        We enter into interest rate swaps with the intention of hedging our exposure to increases in interest rates. However, from an accounting perspective some of these contracts might not eligible to be treated as hedging transactions as described in Note 21-J to our financial statements. In April 2001, we entered into an interest rate swap converting the interest payments on our U.S.$250,000,000 7.625% Notes Due 2007 from a fixed rate (7.625%) to a variable rate (LIBOR plus 2.035%). We immediately entered into a further swap agreement with respect to the interest payments on the same U.S.$250,000,000 debt whereby we receive a fixed interest rate of 5.485% and will pay a LIBOR rate. These swaps agreements remain in place with respect to interest payments on the U.S.$250,000,000 principal amount. These swap agreements offset each other effectively leaving us with the original fixed interest rate payment of 7.625% on the approximately U.S.$50,000,000 in aggregate principal amount which remains outstanding after the tender offer.

        On November 2, 2004, we entered into an interest rate swap transaction with five banks with an aggregate notional amount of US$150 million maturing on April 5, 2008, whereby we fixed the 6-month LIBOR rate associated with the term portion of the 2004 Facility at an average rate of 3.2725%. On September 30, 2005, this interest rate swap was modified resulting in a average fixed rate of 3.2775% and a maturity date of March 30, 2008. The swap transaction provides that the counterparty pay us unless 6-month LIBOR reaches 6%, in which case the parties have no obligation to pay any amount for the applicable period.

        However, in March 8, 2006 we modified this 6% level up to 6.5% and 6.75% for the interest payment dates due in 2007 obtaining a fixed average rate of 3.6175% for this year. In addition, in December 12, 2005 we entered into a new interest rate swap for the 2005 Facility with a single bank, starting on March 30, 2008 and maturing on March 30, 2009, whereby we fixed the 6-month LIBOR rate associated with the term portion at an average rate of 4.505%. The swap transaction provides that the counterparty pay us unless 6-month LIBOR reaches 7%, in which case the parties have no obligation to pay any amount for the applicable period. For a description of our debt, see Note 10 to our financial statements.

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        The following table sets forth, as of December 31, 2005, the interest rate and maturity profile of our debt portfolio.

 
  Maturity Dates
 
  2006
  2007
  2008
  2009
  2010
  Thereafter
  Total
  Fair Value
 
  (in millions of pesos of constant purchasing power
as of December 31, 2005, except percentages)

Liabilities                                
Debt                                
  Fixed Rate (Ps.)   27   568   24   119   35   3,189   3,962   4,156
  Average Rate   7.66 % 7.67 % 7.68 % 7.69 % 7.69 % 7.75 %      
  Floating Rate (Ps.)   487   422   26   118   1,894       2,947   2,947
  Average Rate   5.83 % 4.85 % 4.64 % 4.60 % 4.64 %          

        In the case of our cash and short-term investments, declines in interest rates decrease the interest return on floating rate cash deposits and short-term investments. A hypothetical 100 basis point (1.0%) decrease in interest rates would not have a significant effect on our results of operations. We use derivative financial instruments such as interest rate swaps for purposes of hedging a portion of our long-term debt, in order to reduce the risk from interest rate fluctuations.


FOREIGN EXCHANGE RATE RISKS

        Our net sales are denominated in U.S. dollars, Mexican pesos and other currencies. During 2005, 50% of our revenues were generated in U.S. dollars, and 3% in Euros. In addition, as of December 31, 2005, 50% of our total assets were denominated in currencies other than Mexican pesos, particularly U.S. dollars. A significant portion of our operations is financed through U.S. dollar-denominated debt.

        We believe that we have natural foreign exchange hedges incorporated in our balance sheet, in significant part because we have subsidiaries outside Mexico, and the peso-denominated value of our equity in these subsidiaries is also exposed to fluctuations in exchange rates. Changes in the peso value of equity in our subsidiaries caused by movements in foreign exchange rate are recognized as a component of equity. See Note 13 to our financial statements.

        Fluctuations in exchange rates relative to the Mexican peso expose us to foreign-currency exchange rate risk. In the near term, the foreign-currency exchange rate exposure associated with our debt repayment obligations is primarily limited to our short-term debt.

        As of June 15, 2006 we had exchange rate forward contracts for part of the interest payments due in 2006 and 2007 on our US$300 million 7.75% perpetual bond, for an aggregate notional amount of U.S.$15.3 million at an average exchange rate of Ps.11.8205 per U.S. dollar.

        Our primary foreign exchange rate risk relates to our substantial U.S. dollar-denominated debt for our non-U.S. subsidiaries. As of December 31, 2005, 94% of our debt obligations was denominated in U.S. dollars. The following table sets forth information concerning our U.S. dollar-denominated debt as

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of December 31, 2005. The table does not reflect our U.S. dollar sales or our U.S. dollar-denominated assets.

 
  Expected Maturity or Transaction Date
U.S. dollar-denominated debt

  2006
  2007
  2008
  2009
  2010
  Thereafter
  Total
  Fair Value
 
  (in millions of pesos of constant purchasing power
as of December 31, 2005)

7.75% Perpetual bond                       3,189   3,189   3,367
Syndicated loan                   1,892       1,892   1,892
7.625% notes due 2007       537                   537   553
Revolving credit facility       377                   377   377
7.96% senior notes   14   16   17   112           159   159
Other*   500   59   33   126   37       755   755
   
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
    514   989   50   238   1,929   3,189   6,909   7,103

*
Includes debt in Euros, Mexican Pesos and Bolívares


COMMODITY PRICE RISKS

        The availability and price of corn and other agricultural commodities are subject to wide fluctuations due to factors outside our control, such as weather, plantings, government (domestic and foreign) farm programs and policies, changes in global demand created by population growth and global production of similar and competitive crops. We hedge a portion of our production requirements through commodity futures and options contracts in order to reduce the risk created by price fluctuations and supply of corn, wheat, natural gas and soy oils which exist as part of ongoing business operations. The open positions for hedges of purchases do not exceed the maximum production requirements for a one-year period. In Mexico, sometimes we fix the price of certain commodities for a period of time, for example, natural gas.

        During 2005, we entered into short-term hedge transactions through commodity futures and options for a portion of our requirements. For cash-flow hedge transactions, changes in the fair value of the derivative financial instrument are included as other comprehensive income in stockholders' equity, based on the evaluation of the hedge effectiveness, and are reclassified to income in the periods when the hedged commitment or projected transaction is effected. Hedge contracts other than cash flow are recognized at fair value and their valuation gain or loss is recognized in income. As of December 31, 2005, we had a negative impact on our income due to changes in the fair value of cash flow hedges amounting to Ps.25.1 million (Ps.16.2 million net of taxes, from which Ps.14.8 million was recognized as comprehensive income within stockholders' equity and Ps.1.4 million was registered as income for the year). We expect to reclassify the effects initially registered as stockholders' equity to income within the following 12 months. As of December 31, 2005, we have outstanding fair value hedge contracts of natural gas for Ps.1.9 million.


EQUITY PRICE RISKS

        We classify our equity investments, consisting primarily of shares of Grupo Financiero Banorte, S.A. de C.V., a Mexican financial services holding company, as long-term assets. Since these investments are accounted for using the equity method, we do not believe our exposure to a hypothetical 10% decrease in the value of these equity investments would have a material effect on our results. For additional information concerning our investment in Grupo Financiero Banorte, see "Item 4. Information on the Company—Description of Business—Miscellaneous—Banorte Investment." We did not enter into any equity swap agreements in 2005.

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COUNTERPARTY RISKS

        We maintain centralized treasury operations in Mexico for our Mexican operations and in the United States for our U.S. operations. Liquid assets are invested primarily in government bonds and short-term debt instruments with a minimum "A1/P1" rating for our U.S. operations and "A" for our Mexican operations. We face credit risk from the potential non-performance by the counterparties in respect of the financial instruments that we utilize. Substantially all of these financial instruments are unsecured. We do not anticipate non-performance by the counterparties, which are principally licensed commercial banks and investment banks with long-term credit ratings. For our Central American operations and Gruma Venezuela, we only invest cash reserves with well-known local banks and local branches of international banks. In addition, we also keep small investments abroad.

        The above discussion of the effects on us of changes in interest rates, foreign exchange rates, commodity prices and equity prices is not necessarily indicative of our actual results in the future. Future gains and losses will be affected by actual changes in interest rates, foreign exchange rates, commodity prices, equity prices and other market exposures, as well as changes in the actual derivative instruments employed during any period.


ITEM 12. Description Of Securities Other Than Equity Securities.

        Not applicable.


PART II

ITEM 13. Defaults, Dividend Arrearages And Delinquencies.

        None.


ITEM 14. Material Modifications To The Rights Of Security Holders And Use Of Proceeds.

        None.


ITEM 15. Controls and Procedures.


EVALUATION OF DISCLOSURE CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES

        The conclusions of our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Corporate Officer about the effectiveness of our disclosure controls and procedures, based on their evaluation of these controls and procedures as of December 31, 2005, are as follows:

        Our disclosure controls and procedures are designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by us is recorded, processed, summarized and reported within required timeframes. Our disclosure controls and procedures include controls and procedures designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed is accumulated and communicated to our management, including our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Corporate Officer, as appropriate to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosure. Based on their assessments of our disclosure controls and procedures, our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Corporate Officer have concluded that the disclosure controls and procedures have functioned effectively and that the consolidated financial statements fairly present our consolidated financial position and the results of our operations for the periods presented.


CHANGES IN INTERNAL CONTROLS

        There has been no change in our internal control over financial reporting during 2005 that has materially affected, or is reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting.

94




ITEM 16A. Financial Expert

        At our annual ordinary shareholders' meeting in April 2006, our shareholders elected the following three members of the Audit Committee: Javier Vélez Bautista, Juan Diez-Canedo Ruiz, and Héctor Rangel Domene. Juan Diez-Canedo Ruiz was designated as the "audit committee financial expert" within the meaning of this Item 16A. Although under Mexican law the determination of the shareholders is binding on our company, our board of directors will confirm this designation at its next board meeting.


ITEM 16B. Code of Ethics

        We have adopted a code of ethics, as defined in Item 16B of Form 20-F under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. Our code of ethics applies to our Chief Executive Officer, Chief Financial Officer and persons performing similar functions as well as to our directors and other officers and employees. Our code of ethics is available on our web site at www.gruma.com. If we amend the provisions of our code of ethics that apply to our Chief Executive Officer, Chief Financial Officer and persons performing similar functions, or if we grant any waiver of such provisions, we will disclose such amendment or waive on our web site at the same address.


ITEM 16C. Principal Accountant Fees and Services

Audit and Non-Audit Fees

        The following table summarizes the aggregate fees billed to us by PricewaterhouseCoopers, during the fiscal years ended December 31, 2004 and 2005:

 
  Year ended December 31,
 
  2005
  2004
 
  (thousands of Mexican pesos)

Audit fees   Ps. 28,432   Ps. 24,393
Audit-related fees    
Tax fees   6,915   2,603
Other fees   377   585
   
 
  Total fees   Ps. 35,724   Ps. 27,581

        Audit fees.    Audit fees in the above table are the aggregate fees billed by PricewaterhouseCoopers, in connection with the audit of our annual financial statements and statutory and regulatory audits.

        Audit-related Fees.    Audit-related fees in the above table are the aggregate fees billed by PricewaterhouseCoopers, for financial accounting and reporting consultations.

        Tax Fees.    Tax fees in the above table are fees billed by PricewaterhouseCoopers for services such as tax filings, value-added tax return, transfer pricing and requests for technical advice from taxing authorities.

        Other Fees.    Other fees in the above table are fees billed by PricewaterhouseCoopers, for non-audit services. As a percentage of total fees billed to GRUMA, other fees represent 1% and 2% for 2005 and 2004 respectively.

Audit Committee Pre-Approval Policies and Procedures

        We have adopted pre-approval policies and procedures under which all audit and non-audit services provided by our external auditors must be pre-approved by the audit committee. Any service proposals submitted by external auditors need to be discussed and approved by the audit committee during its meetings, which take place at least four times a year. Once the proposed service is approved,

95



we or our subsidiaries formalize the engagement of services. The approval of any audit and non-audit services to be provided by our external auditors is specified in the minutes of our audit committee. In addition, the members of our board of directors are briefed on matters discussed in the meetings of the audit committee.


ITEM 16D. Exemptions from the Listing Standards for Audit Committees

    Not Applicable


ITEM 16E. Purchases of Equity Securities by the Issuer and Affiliated Purchasers

        The following table sets out certain information concerning purchases of our shares by us and our affiliates during 2005.


Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
(for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2005)

Period

  Total Number of
Shares (or Units)
Purchased

  Average Price Paid
per Share (or Unit)

  Total Number of
Shares (or Units)
Purchased as Part of
Publicly Announced
Plans or Programs

  Maximum Number (or
Approximate Dollar
Value) of Shares (or
Units) that May Yet be
Purchased Under the
Plans or Programs

January   692,200   Ps. 26.16        
February   11,700   Ps. 26.63        
March   1,426,600   Ps. 26.15        
April   1,240,000   Ps. 22.87        
May   1,452,800   Ps. 21.52        
June   92,800   Ps. 24.00        
July            
August            
September            
October            
November            
December            

96



PART III

ITEM 17. Financial Statements.

        Not applicable.


ITEM 18. Financial Statements.

        See pages F-1 through F-159, incorporated herein by reference.


ITEM 19. Exhibits.

Exhibit No.

   

1

 

Our bylaws (
estatutos sociales) as amended through December 4, 2003, together with an English translation.*

2(a)(1)

 

Deposit Agreement, dated as of September 18, 1998, by and among us, Citibank, N.A. as Depositary and the Holders and Beneficial Owners of American Depositary Shares Evidenced by American Depositary Receipts Issued Thereunder (including form of American Depositary Receipt).**

2(b)(1)

 

Indenture, dated as of October 9, 1997, between us and The Chase Manhattan Bank, as Indenture Trustee representing up to U.S.$250,000,000 of our 7.625% Notes due 2007.***

2(b)(2)

 

Supplemental Indenture, dated as of November 30, 2004, between us and JPMorgan Chase Bank, N.A., a national banking association (as successor to JPMorgan Chase Bank), as Indenture Trustee under the Indenture referred to above.*****

2(b)(3)

 

Registration Rights Agreement by and among us, Lehman Brothers Inc., Bear Stearns International Limited, and AFIN Securities International Ltd., dated October 9, 1997.***

2(b)(4)

 

Indenture, dated as of December 3, 2004, between us and JPMorgan Chase Bank, N.A., as Indenture Trustee representing up to U.S.$300,000,000 of our 7.75% Perpetual Bonds.*****

2(b)(5)

 

U.S.$250 million Loan Agreement among us, the Lenders party thereto, BBVA Securities Inc. as Bookrunner and Documentation Agent, and BBVA Bancomer, S.A. as Administrative Agent dated as of July, 22, 2005.

4(a)(1)

 

Shareholders Agreement by and among us, Roberto González Barrera, Archer Daniels-Midland Company and ADM Bioproductos, S.A. de C.V., dated August 21, 1996.***

4(a)(2)

 

Amendment No. 1 to Shareholders Agreement by and among us, Roberto González Barrera, Archer Daniels-Midland Company and ADM Bioproductos, S.A. de C.V., dated September 13, 1996.****

4(a)(3)

 

Amendment No. 2 to Shareholders Agreement by and among us, Roberto González Barrera, Archer Daniels-Midland Company and ADM Bioproductos, S.A. de C.V., dated August 18, 1999.****

4(a)(4)

 

Asset Contribution Agreement among Gruma Corporation, Gruma Holding, Inc., ADM Milling Co., Valley Holding, Inc., GRUMA-ADM, and Azteca Milling, L.P., dated as of August 21, 1996.***

4(a)(5)

 

Investment Agreement by and between us and Archer-Daniels-Midland Company, dated as of August 21, 1996.***
     

97



7

 

Statement of Computation of Ratio of Earnings to Fixed Charges (Mexican GAAP and U.S. GAAP).

8

 

List of Principal Subsidiaries.

12(a)(1)

 

CEO Certification pursuant to Section 302 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, dated June 30, 2006.

12(a)(2)

 

CFO Certification pursuant to Section 302 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, dated June 30, 2006.

13

 

Officer Certifications pursuant to Section 906 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, dated June 30, 2006.

*   Previously filed in Annual Report on Form 20-F (File No. 1-14852), originally filed with the SEC on June 30, 2004. Incorporated herein by reference.
**   Previously filed in Registration Statement on Form F-6 (File No. 333-9282), originally filed with the SEC on August 13, 1998. Incorporated herein by reference.
***   Previously filed in Registration Statement on Form F-4 (File No. 333-8266), originally filed with the SEC on January 28, 1998. Incorporated herein by reference.
****   Previously filed in Annual Report on Form 20-F (File No. 1-14852), originally filed with the SEC on July 1, 2002. Incorporated herein by reference.
*****   Previously filed in Annual Report on Form 20-F (File No. 1-14852), originally filed with the SEC on June 30, 2005. Incorporated herein by reference.

98



SIGNATURE

        The registrant, Gruma, S.A. de C.V., hereby certifies that it meets all of the requirements for filing on Form 20-F and that it has duly caused and authorized the undersigned to sign this annual report on its behalf.

    GRUMA, S.A. DE C.V.

 

 

By:

/s/  
JUAN ANTONIO QUIROGA GARCÍA      
Name:    Juan Antonio Quiroga García
Title:        
Chief Corporate Officer

Dated: June 30, 2006

99



GRUMA, S.A. DE C.V. AND SUBSIDIARIES

INDEX TO REPORTS OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBIC ACCOUNTING
FIRMS AND CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS 2005, 2004 AND 2003

 
  Page
Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm   F-2

Consolidated Balance Sheets as of December 31, 2004 and 2005

 

F-3

Consolidated Statements of Income for the Years Ended December 31, 2003, 2004 and 2005

 

F-4

Consolidated Statements of Changes in Stockholders' Equity for the Years Ended December 31, 2003, 2004 and 2005

 

F-5

Consolidated Statements of Changes in Financial Position for the Years Ended December 31, 2003, 2004 and 2005

 

F-7

Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements

 

F-9


GRUPO FINANCIERO BANORTE, S.A. DE C.V. (1)

INDEX TO REPORTS OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING
FIRMS AND CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS 2005, 2004 and 2003

Table of Contents   F-58

Reports of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firms

 

F-59

Consolidated Balance Sheets as of December 31, 2004 and 2005

 

F-62

Consolidated Statements of Income for the Years Ended December 31, 2003, 2004 and 2005

 

F-65

Consolidated Statements of Changes in Stockholders' Equity for the Years Ended December 31, 2003, 2004 and 2005

 

F-66

Consolidated Statements of Changes in Financial Position for the Years Ended December 31, 2003, 2004
and 2005

 

F-68

Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements

 

F-70

(1)
The accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Grupo Financiero Banorte, S. A. de C.V. and subsidiaries as of December 31, 2005 and 2004, and the related consolidated statements of income, of changes in stockholders' equity, of changes in financial position and of cash flows for the years ended December 31, 2005, 2004 and 2003 are presented herein as required by Rule 3-09 of Regulation S-X.

F-1



Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

To the Stockholders of Gruma, S.A. de C.V.:

        In our opinion, based on our audits and the report of the other auditors, the accompanying consolidated balance sheets and the related consolidated statements of income, changes in stockholders' equity and changes in financial position present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of Gruma, S.A. de C.V. and subsidiaries (collectively "the Company") at December 31, 2005 and 2004, and the results of their operations and changes in their financial position for each of the three years ended December 31, 2005, in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in Mexico. These consolidated financial statements are the responsibility of the management of Gruma, S.A. de C.V.; our responsibility is to express an opinion on these financial statements based on our audits. We did not audit the 2005 financial statements of Grupo Financiero Banorte, S.A. de C.V. and subsidiaries, an equity method associated company, which investment as of December 31, 2005 represents 8% of the consolidated total assets, and equity in their earnings represents 47% of the 2005 consolidated net income. Those statements were audited by other auditors whose report thereon has been furnished to us, and our opinion expressed herein, insofar as it relates to the amounts included for the associated company mentioned above, is based solely on the report of the other auditors. We conducted our audits of these statements in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States of America), which require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement. An audit includes examining, on a test basis, evidence supporting the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements, assessing the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, and evaluating the overall financial statement presentation. We believe that our audits and the report of the other auditors provide a reasonable basis for the opinion expressed above.

        Effective January 1, 2005, the Company adopted the amendments to Statement D-3, "Labor Obligations", issued by the Mexican Institute of Public Accountants. These amendments provide additional valuation and disclosure rules for recognizing severance payments due to causes other than from restructuring activities. The adoption of these amendments resulted the recognition of an initial liability effect related to the cost of the services of prior years and a cumulative effect charge to income for the year, net of taxes, in the amount of Ps.54,127 thousands.

        Accounting principles generally accepted in Mexico vary in certain significant respects from accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (U.S. GAAP). The application of the latter would have affected the determination of consolidated net income for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2005 and the determination of consolidated stockholders' equity at December 31, 2005 and 2004 to the extent summarized in Note 22 to the consolidated financial statements. We did not audit the 2005 U.S. GAAP equity method adjustment related to Grupo Financiero Banorte, S.A. de C.V. and subsidiaries described in Note 22-M. The 2005 impact of the U.S. GAAP adjustment related to this equity method investee represents 1.6% of the consolidated stockholders' equity and 0.4% of consolidated net income, both on a U.S. GAAP basis. This adjustment was audited by other auditors whose report thereon has been furnished to us, and our opinion expressed herein, insofar as it relates to the U.S. GAAP amounts related to Grupo Financiero Banorte, S.A. de C.V. and subsidiaries in 2005 is based solely on the report of the other auditors.

PricewaterhouseCoopers, S.C.

Monterrey, N.L., Mexico
June 29, 2006

F-2



GRUMA, S.A. DE C.V. AND SUBSIDIARIES

CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
AS OF DECEMBER 31, 2004 AND 2005

(Expressed in thousands of Mexican pesos of constant purchasing power as of December 31, 2005)
(Notes 1 and 3)

 
  2004
  2005
 
ASSETS              
Current:              
  Cash   Ps. 183,453   Ps. 232,900  
  Temporary investments (Note 3-F)     297,005     94,144  
  Accounts receivable, net (Note 4)     3,159,932     3,451,803  
  Refundable taxes (Note 4)     423,893     518,836  
  Inventories (Note 5)     3,643,524     3,608,127  
  Prepaid expenses     255,282     269,521  
   
 
 
    Total current assets     7,963,089     8,175,331  

Investment in common stock of associated companies (Note 6)

 

 

1,769,418

 

 

2,348,560

 
Property, plant and equipment, net (Note 7)     12,992,314     13,743,315  
Intangible assets, net (Note 8)     1,065,076     1,171,519  
Excess of cost over book value of subsidiaries acquired, net     939,032     1,266,204  
Other assets (Note 9)     61,435     70,159  
   
 
 
    Total assets   Ps. 24,790,364   Ps. 26,775,088  
   
 
 
LIABILITIES              
Current:              
Bank loans (Note 10)   Ps. 421,536   Ps. 429,433  
  Current portion of long-term debt (Note 10)     91,194     84,778  
  Trade accounts payable     1,426,722     1,981,752  
  Accrued liabilities and other accounts payable     1,635,800     1,540,872  
  Income taxes payable     10,347      
  Employees' statutory profit sharing payable     14,799     30,465  
   
 
 
    Total current liabilities     3,600,398     4,067,300  
   
 
 
Long-term debt (Note 10)     5,916,013     6,395,650  
Deferred income taxes (Note 15-B)     1,470,060     1,492,174  
Deferred employees' statutory profit sharing (Note 15-D)     25,247     18,280  
Other liabilities     246,153     704,077  
   
 
 
    Total long-term liabilities     7,657,473     8,610,181  
   
 
 
    Total liabilities     11,257,871     12,677,481  
   
 
 
Contingencies and commitments (Note 12)              
Subsequent events (Note 21)              
STOCKHOLDERS' EQUITY              
Majority interest (Note 13):              
  Common stock     4,563,775     4,575,894  
  Restatement of common stock     7,456,937     7,456,937  
   
 
 
        12,020,712     12,032,831  
  Additional paid-in capital     3,666,974     3,680,701  
   
 
 
        15,687,686     15,713,532  
  Deficit from restatement     (13,575,321 )   (13,819,535 )
  Derivative financial instruments     19,276     88  
  Cumulative effect of a change in an accounting principle for deferred income taxes and employees' statutory profit sharing     (209,620 )   (209,620 )
  Retained earnings (Note 13-B):              
    Prior years     8,448,171     9,481,227  
    Net income for the year     907,856     1,185,977  
  Foreign currency translation adjustments (Note 13-E)     (613,622 )   (1,115,831 )
   
 
 
    Total majority interest     10,664,426     11,235,838  
Minority interest     2,868,067     2,861,769  
   
 
 
    Total stockholders' equity     13,532,493     14,097,607  
   
 
 
    Ps. 24,790,364   Ps. 26,775,088  
   
 
 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.

F-3



GRUMA, S.A. DE C.V. AND SUBSIDIARIES

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF INCOME
FOR THE YEARS ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2003, 2004 AND 2005

(Expressed in thousands of Mexican pesos of constant purchasing power as of
December 31, 2005, except share and per share amounts)
(Notes 1 and 3)

 
  2003
  2004
  2005
 
Net sales   Ps. 22,967,791   Ps. 24,577,608   Ps. 26,675,824  
Cost of sales     (14,624,622 )   (15,768,628 )   (17,422,357 )
   
 
 
 
    Gross profit     8,343,169     8,808,980     9,253,467  
Selling, general and administrative expenses     (6,600,436 )   (6,901,259 )   (7,689,918 )
   
 
 
 
    Operating income     1,742,733     1,907,721     1,563,549  
   
 
 
 
Comprehensive financing cost, net:                    
  Interest expense     (530,158 )   (478,634 )   (571,170 )
  Interest income     64,472     224,605     53,363  
  Monetary position gain, net     187,473     238,792     300,987  
  Foreign exchange loss, net (Note 16-A)     (181,085 )   (50,493 )   (51,196 )
   
 
 
 
      (459,298 )   (65,730 )   (268,016 )
   
 
 
 
Other expense, net (Note 14)     (174,456 )   (282,066 )   (140,866 )
   
 
 
 
    Income before income taxes, employees' statutory profit sharing, equity in earnings of associated companies, cumulative effect of change in accounting principle and minority interest     1,108,979     1,559,925     1,154,667  
   
 
 
 
Income taxes (Note 15):                    
  Current     (311,168 )   (398,368 )   (525,212 )
  Deferred     (362,642 )   (352,340 )   155,253  
   
 
 
 
      (673,810 )   (750,708 )   (369,959 )
   
 
 
 

Employees' statutory profit sharing (Note 15):

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
  Current     (13,976 )   (14,821 )   (27,930 )
  Deferred     18,658     5,739     8,125  
   
 
 
 
      4,682     (9,082 )   (19,805 )
   
 
 
 
    Income before equity in earnings of associated companies, cumulative effect of change in accounting principle and minority interest     439,851     800,135     764,903  
Equity in earnings of associated companies     234,396     277,512     622,528  
Cumulative effect of change in accounting principle, net of taxes of Ps.20,902             (54,127 )
   
 
 
 
    Income before minority interest     674,247     1,077,647     1,333,304  
Minority interest     (182,849 )   (169,791 )   (147,327 )
    Majority net income for the year   Ps. 491,398   Ps. 907,856   Ps. 1,185,977  
   
 
 
 
Earnings per share (in pesos):                    
  Income from continuing operations   Ps. 1.10   Ps. 2.02   Ps. 2.75  
  Cumulative effect of change in accounting principle             (0.12 )
   
 
 
 
  Net income   Ps. 1.10   Ps. 2.02   Ps. 2.63  
   
 
 
 
  Weighted average shares outstanding (thousands)     445,098     450,306     451,446  
   
 
 
 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements

F-4


GRUMA, S.A. DE C.V. AND SUBSIDIARIES CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CHANGES IN STOCKHOLDER'S EQUITY
FOR THE YEARS ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2003, 2004 AND 2005

(Expressed in thousands of Mexican pesos of constant purchasing power as of
December 31, 2005, except share and per share amounts)
(Notes 1 and 3)

 
  Common stock (Note 13-A)
   
   
   
   
  Retained earnings (Note 13-B)
   
   
   
   
 
 
   
   
   
  Cumulative effect of deferred income taxes and employee's statutory profit sharing
   
   
   
   
 
 
  Number of shares (thousands)
  Amount
  Additional paid-in capital
  Deficit from restatement
  Derivative financial instruments
  Prior years
  Net income for the year
  Foreign currency translation adjustments (Note 13-E)
  Total majority interest
  Minority interest
  Total stockholder's equity
 
Balances at December 31, 2002   441,402   Ps. 11,638,591   Ps. 3,366,262   Ps. (12,613,510 ) Ps.   Ps. (209,620 ) Ps. 8,248,464   Ps. 423,389   Ps. (679,491 ) Ps. 10,174,085   Ps. 2,783,075   Ps. 12,957,160  
   
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Appropriation of prior year net income                                       423,389     (423,389 )                    
Contributions by minority interest                                                               139,771     139,771  
Decrease of minority interest                                                               (7,810 )   (7,810 )
Dividends paid ($0.71 per share)                                       (319,334 )               (319,334 )   (194,327 )   (513,661 )
Net purchases and sales of Company's common stock   8,731     213,430     90,210                       (178,763 )               124,877           124,877  
Derivative financial operations in Company's own stock               42,689                       126,645                 169,334           169,334  
   
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
    8,731     213,430     132,899                       51,937     (423,389 )         (25,123 )   (62,366 )   (87,489 )
   
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Comprehensive income (loss):

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
  Recognition of inflation effects for the year                     (370,146 )               (302,465 )               (672,611 )   (82,526 )   (755,137 )
  Foreign currency translation adjustments                                                   62,536     62,536     32,141     94,677  
  Net income for the year                                             491,398           491,398     182,845     674,243  
   
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  Comprehensive income of the year                     (370,146 )               (302,465 )   491,398     62,536     (118,677 )   132,460     13,783  
   
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Balances at December 31, 2003   450,133     11,852,021     3,499,161     (12,983,656 )       (209,620 )   7,997,936     491,398     (616,955 )   10,030,285     2,853,169     12,883,454  
   
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

F-5


Appropriation of prior year net income                           491,398   (491,398 )            
Contributions by minority interest                                         92,565   92,565  
Decrease of minority interest                                         (29,086 ) (29,086 )
Dividends paid ($0.75 per share)                           (336,949 )         (336,949 ) (222,373 ) (559,322 )
Net purchases and sales of Company's common stock   1,916   168,691   167,813               (43,190 )         293,314       293,314  
   
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
    1,916   168,691   167,813               111,259   (491,398 )     (43,635 ) (158,894 ) (202,529 )
   
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Comprehensive income (loss):

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
  Recognition of inflation effects for the year               (591,665 )         338,976           (252,689 ) 20,393   (232,296 )
  Foreign currency translation adjustments                                   3,333   3,333   (16,392 ) (13,059 )
  Derivative financial instruments, net of taxes                   19,276                   19,276     19,276  
  Net income for the year                               907,856       907,856   169,791   1,077,647  
   
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  Comprehensive income of the year               (591,665 ) 19,276       338,976   907,856   3,333   677,776   173,792   851,568  
   
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Balances at December 31, 2004   452,049   12,020,712   3,666,974   (13,575,321 ) 19,276   (209,620 ) 8,448,171   907,856   (613,622 ) 10,664,426   2,868,067   13,532,493  
   
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

F-6


GRUMA, S.A. DE C.V. AND SUBSIDIARIES

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CHANGES IN STOCKHOLDER'S EQUITY
FOR THE YEARS ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2003, 2004 AND 2005

(Expressed in thousands of Mexican pesos of constant purchasing power as of
December 31, 2005, except share and per share amounts)
(Notes 1 and 3)

 
   
   
   
   
   
  Cumulative effect of deferred income taxes and employee's statutory profit sharing
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
 
  Common stock (Note 13-A)
   
   
   
  Retained earnings (Note 13-B)
   
   
   
   
 
 
   
   
   
  Foreign currency translation adjustments (Note 13-E)
   
   
   
 
 
  Number of shares (thousands)
  Amount
  Additional paid-in capital
  Deficit from restatement
  Derivative financial instruments
  Prior years
  Net income for the year
  Total majority interest
  Minority interest
  Total stockholder's equity
 
Appropriation of prior year net income                             907,856   (907,856 )            
Decrease of minority interest                                           (1,499 ) (1,499 )
Dividends paid ($0.81 per share)                             (366,582 )         (366,582 ) (168,337 ) (534,919 )
Net purchases and sales of Company's common stock   501   12,119   13,727                 (3,838 )         22,008     22,008  
   
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
    501   12,119   13,727                 537,436   (907,856 )     (344,574 ) (169,836 ) (514,410 )
   
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Comprehensive income (loss):

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
  Recognition of inflation effects for the year               (244,214 )           495,620           251,406   60,860   312,266  
  Foreign currency translation adjustments                                     (502,209 ) (502,209 ) (35,039 ) (537,248 )
  Derivative financial instruments, net of taxes                     (19,188 )                 (19,188 ) (9,610 ) (28,798 )
  Net income for the year                                 1,185,977       1,185,977   147,327   1,333,304  
   
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  Comprehensive income for the year               (244,214 )   (19,188 )     495,620   1,185,977   (502,209 ) 915,986   163,538   1,079,524  
   
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Balances at December 31, 2005   452,550   Ps.12,032,831   Ps.3,680,701   Ps.(13,819,535 ) Ps .88   Ps.(209,620 ) Ps.9,481,227   Ps.1,185,977   Ps.(1,115,831 ) Ps.11,235,838   Ps.2,861,769   Ps.14,097,607  
   
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.

F-7



GRUMA, S.A. DE C.V. AND SUBSIDIARIES

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CHANGES IN FINANCIAL POSITION
FOR THE YEARS ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2003, 2004 AND 2005

(Expressed in thousands of Mexican pesos of constant purchasing power as of December 31, 2005)
(Notes 1 and 3)

 
  2003
  2004
  2005
 
Operating activities:                    
  Majority net income for the year   Ps. 491,398   Ps. 907,856   Ps. 1,185,977  
  Minority interest     182,849     169,791     147,327  
   
 
 
 
  Consolidated net income     674,247     1,077,647     1,333,304  
  Adjustments to reconcile consolidated net income to net resources provided by operating activities:                    
    Depreciation and amortization     1,122,251     1,037,916     1,110,523  
    Impairment of long-lived assets     17,032     223,915     39,456  
    Equity in earnings of associated companies, net of dividends received     (195,696 )   (223,071 )   (553,141 )
    Deferred income taxes and employees' statutory profit sharing     343,983     346,600     (163,378 )
    Write-off of debt issuance costs due to early extinguishment of debt         23,395      
    Cumulative effect of change in accounting principle             54,127  
    Seniority premiums and other long-term accrued liabilities     7,925     8,655     44,027  
   
 
 
 
      1,969,742     2,495,057     1,864,918  
   
 
 
 
  Changes in working capital:                    
    Restricted cash     360     636     482  
    Accounts receivable, net     94,582     (511,458 )   (135,404 )
    Inventories     (810,003 )   (521,729 )   84,281  
    Prepaid expenses     (107,871 )   (29,991 )   (35,901 )
    Trade accounts payable     (181,661 )   519,972     507,607  
    Accrued liabilities and other accounts payables     363,059     (28,677 )   (475,033 )
    Income taxes and employees' statutory profit sharing payable     1,825     6,607     (16,514 )
   
 
 
 
      (639,709 )   (564,640 )   (70,482 )
   
 
 
 
      Net resources provided by operating activities     1,330,033     1,930,417     1,794,436  
   
 
 
 

Financing activities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
  Proceeds from bank loans and long-term debt     1,792,994     4,221,142     2,379,334  
  Repayment of bank loans and long-term debt     (2,761,500 )   (4,400,443 )   (1,928,637 )
  Proceeds from long-term note payable             376,972  
  Contributions by minority interest     139,771     92,565      
  Decrease of minority interest     (7,810 )   (29,086 )   (1,499 )
  Net purchases and sales of Company's common stock and derivative financial operations     294,211     293,314     22,008  
  Dividends paid     (513,661 )   (559,322 )   (534,919 )
  Other     3,938     (9,055 )   (102,096 )
   
 
 
 
      Net resources (used in) provided by financing activities     (1,052,057 )   (390,885 )   211,163  
   
 
 
 
Investing activities:                    
  Acquisition of property, plant and equipment     (644,375 )   (886,025 )   (1,234,263 )
  Acquisition of subsidiaries, net of cash acquired         (377,840 )   (1,057,550 )
  Sale of property, plant and equipment     35,429     186,755     173,151  
  Trust funds for technology research and development     213,030          
  Intangible assets     (15,164 )   (361,519 )   (10,056 )
  Other     15,715     11,709     (29,813 )
   
 
 
 
      Net resources used in investing activities     (395,365 )   (1,426,920 )   (2,158,531 )
   
 
 
 
Net increase (decrease) in cash and temporary investments     (117,389 )   112,612     (152,932 )
Cash and temporary investments at beginning of year     484,753     367,364     479,976  
   
 
 
 
Cash and temporary investments at end of year   Ps. 367,364   Ps. 479,976   Ps. 327,044  
   
 
 
 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.

F-8



GRUMA, S.A. DE C.V. AND SUBSIDIARIES

NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

FOR THE YEARS ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2003, 2004 AND 2005

(Expressed in thousands of Mexican pesos of constant purchasing power as of December 31, 2005, except where otherwise indicated)

1.    ENTITY AND NATURE OF BUSINESS

        Gruma, S.A. de C.V., a Mexican corporation, is a holding company whose subsidiaries are located in Mexico, the United States of America, Central America, Venezuela and Europe. These subsidiaries are primarily engaged in manufacturing and distributing corn flour, tortillas, wheat flour and other related products. Gruma, S.A de C.V. and its subsidiaries are herein collectively referred to as "the Company".

2.    NEW OPERATIONS

        The results of operations of the new investments have been consolidated since their acquisition dates.

        The investments carried out during 2005 are described as follows:

    In May 2005, the Company, through its subsidiary Gruma Corporation, entered into an asset purchase agreement to acquire from CHS Inc., located in Minnesota, Texas and Arizona in the United States of America, all the assets related to the production and distribution of tortilla and related products. The Company paid Ps.419,215 (U.S.$39,437,000).

      The estimated fair values of the net assets acquired are summarized as follows:

Inventories   Ps. 24,672
Property, plant and equipment     211,378
Excess of cost over book value     94,936
Trade names and other intangible assets     88,229
   
  Total assets acquired   Ps. 419,215
   
    In September 2005, the Company, through its subsidiary Gruma Corporation, acquired all issued and outstanding shares of La Tapatía Norcal, Inc. for Ps.50,227 (U.S.$4,725,000). According to the terms of the agreement, Gruma Corporation paid an initial amount of Ps.7,972 (U.S.$750,000) with a final payment for the amount of Ps.42,255 (U.S.$3,975,000) due in January 2006. At the acquisition date, La Tapatía had cash balances that reduced the cash expenditure to a net amount of approximately Ps.6,793 (U.S.$639,000). Additionally, it had bank debt of Ps.14,531 (U.S.$1,367,000).

      La Tapatía manufactures and distributes tortillas, chips and related products in San Francisco, California. The excess of cost over book value is for an amount of Ps.26,809.

F-9


      The estimated fair values of the net assets acquired are summarized as follows:

    Current assets   Ps. 17,305
    Property, plant and equipment     18,486
    Excess of cost over book value     26,809
    Trade names and other intangible assets     21,090
    Other assets     1,744
       
      Total assets acquired     85,434

 

 

Current portion of long-term debt

 

 

14,531
    Other current liabilities     15,786
    Deferred income taxes     4,890
       
      Net assets acquired   Ps. 50,227
       
    In August 2005, the Company, through its subsidiary Grupo Industrial Maseca, S.A. de C.V., acquired all issued and outstanding shares of Agroinsa de México, S.A. de C.V. and Agroindustrias Integradas del Norte, S.A. de C.V. for Ps.469,230 (U.S.$43,100,000). The businesses acquired are Mexican companies that mainly produce corn and wheat flour. Under the terms of the agreement, Grupo Industrial Maseca initially paid Ps.43,548 (U.S.$4,000,000) and has two notes payable for Ps.39,596 each (U.S.$3,637,000 each) due in August 2006 and 2007, and a third note for Ps.346,490 (U.S.$31,826,000) due in August 2008. The balances maturing in 2007 and 2008 are included in other long-term liabilities. The net assets acquired, adjusted to its fair value, and the notes payable have been included in the consolidated financial statements. The legal status of this acquisition with respect to the Comisión Federal de Competencia ("Federal Competition Commission" or "CFC") is discussed in Note 12-A.

      The estimated fair values of the net assets acquired are summarized as follows:

    Current assets   Ps. 287,250
    Property, plant and equipment     582,160
    Excess of cost over book value     115,099
       
      Total assets acquired     984,509

 

 

Current liabilities

 

 

328,116
    Deferred income taxes     177,541
    Other long-term liabilities     9,622
       
    Net assets acquired   Ps. 469,230
       
    In December 2005, the Company, through its subsidiary Gruma Centroamérica, L.L.C., acquired all issued and outstanding shares of Maíz Industrializado de C.A., S.A. de C.V. for Ps.42,916 (2,005 million Costa Rican colons).

F-10


      The estimated fair values of the net assets acquired are summarized as follows:

    Current assets   Ps. 39,882
    Property, plant and equipment     7,415
    Excess of cost over book value     4,190
    Deferred income tax asset     6,048
    Other assets     2,194
       
      Total assets acquired     59,729

 

 

Current liabilities

 

 

16,813
       
    Net assets acquired   Ps. 42,916
       

      The investments carried out during 2004 are described as follows:

    In June 2004, the Company acquired, through its subsidiary Gruma Corporation, all the shares of Ovis Holding B.V. for Ps.140,022 (U.S.$12,770,000). Ovis Holding B.V. is a company incorporated under the laws of Holland, which owns 100% of the Ovis Boske Speciaalbrood B.V. shares, herein collectively referred to as Ovis Boske. Cash on the Ovis Boske balance sheet at the acquisition date reduced the cash expenditure to a net amount of approximately Ps.124,079 (U.S.$11,316,000). Additionally, the Company has long-term debt of Ps.51,283 (U.S.$4,677,000).

      Pursuant to the terms of the agreement, further contingent consideration in the form of a one time earn-out payment of approximately Ps.75,962 (U.S.$7,146,000) was paid to the sellers in 2005, based upon the operating results of Ovis Boske for the 2004 calendar year.

      Ovis Boske manufactures and distributes tortillas, dinner kits, and related products to the European market. The acquisition of Ovis Boske provides the Company with further growth opportunities for its existing European tortilla operations.

      The estimated fair values of the net assets acquired are summarized as follows:

    Current assets   Ps. 56,151
    Property, plant and equipment     129,649
    Excess of cost over book value     110,887
    Trade names and other intangible assets     31,210
       
      Total assets acquired     327,897