Gartner 10-Q 2017
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
Commission File Number 1-14443
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (203) 316-1111
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes þ No ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate website, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files). Yes þ No ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company (check one):
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes ¨ No þ
As of July 31, 2017, 90,597,348 shares of the registrant’s common shares were outstanding.
Table of Contents
PART I. FINANCIAL INFORMATION
ITEM 1. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets
(Unaudited; in thousands, except share data)
See the accompanying notes to the condensed consolidated financial statements.
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations
(Unaudited; in thousands, except per share data)
See the accompanying notes to the condensed consolidated financial statements.
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive (Loss) Income
(Unaudited; in thousands)
See the accompanying notes to the condensed consolidated financial statements.
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows
(Unaudited; in thousands)
See the accompanying notes to the condensed consolidated financial statements.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (Unaudited)
Note 1 — Business and Basis of Presentation
Business. Gartner, Inc. (NYSE: IT) is the world’s leading research and advisory company. The company helps business leaders across all major functions in every industry and enterprise size with the objective insights they need to make the right decisions. Gartner's comprehensive suite of services delivers strategic advice and proven best practices to help clients succeed in their mission-critical priorities. Gartner is headquartered in Stamford, Connecticut, U.S.A., and has more than 13,000 associates serving clients in over 11,000 enterprises in approximately 100 countries. Gartner delivers its products and services globally through four business segments: Research, Consulting, Events, and Talent Assessment & Other. When used in these notes, the terms “Gartner,” “Company,” “we,” “us,” or “our” refer to Gartner, Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries.
The Company acquired two businesses in the six months ended June 30, 2017, L2, Inc. ("L2") and CEB, Inc. ("CEB"). Note 2 — Acquisitions provides additional information regarding these acquisitions. As a result of these acquisitions, the Company has made certain changes to its reportable segments, which are described in Note 5 — Segment Information.
Basis of presentation. The accompanying interim condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States of America (“U.S. GAAP”), as defined in the Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) Topic 270 for interim financial information and with the applicable instructions of the U.S. Securities & Exchange Commission (“SEC”) Rule 10-01 of Regulation S-X on Form 10-Q and should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and related notes of the Company filed in its Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2016. The fiscal year of Gartner is the twelve-month calendar period from January 1 through December 31. In the opinion of management, all normal recurring accruals and adjustments considered necessary for a fair presentation of financial position, results of operations and cash flows at the dates and for the periods presented herein have been included. The results of operations for the three and six months ended June 30, 2017 may not be indicative of the results of operations for the remainder of 2017 or beyond.
Principles of consolidation. The accompanying interim condensed consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company and its wholly-owned subsidiaries. All intercompany transactions and balances have been eliminated.
Use of estimates. The preparation of the accompanying interim condensed consolidated financial statements requires management to make estimates and assumptions about future events. These estimates and the underlying assumptions affect the amounts of assets and liabilities reported, disclosures about contingent assets and liabilities, and reported amounts of revenues and expenses. Such estimates include the valuation of fees receivable, goodwill, intangible assets, and other long-lived assets, as well as tax accruals and other liabilities. In addition, estimates are used in revenue recognition, income tax expense, performance-based compensation charges, depreciation and amortization. Management believes its use of estimates in these interim condensed consolidated financial statements to be reasonable.
Management continually evaluates and revises its estimates using historical experience and other factors, including the general economic environment and actions it may take in the future. Management adjusts these estimates when facts and circumstances dictate. However, these estimates may involve significant uncertainties and judgments and cannot be determined with precision. In addition, these estimates are based on management’s best judgment at a point in time. As a result, differences between our estimates and actual results could be material and would be reflected in the Company’s consolidated financial statements in future periods.
Impact of Stock-Based Compensation Accounting Rule Change. In the third quarter of 2016, the Company early adopted FASB Accounting Standards Update No. 2016-09, "Improvements to Employee Share-Based Payment Accounting" ("ASU No. 2016-09"), which changed the accounting for stock-based compensation awards. The accounting changes required by ASU No. 2016-09 were applied to the beginning of the Company's 2016 fiscal year, and as a result certain previously reported financial results for the three and six months ended June 30, 2016 were revised. These changes included an $8.5 million increase in net income, and an increase in both basic earnings per share and diluted earnings per share. In addition, our previously reported operating cash flow for the six months ended June 30, 2016 increased by $8.5 million.
Adoption of new accounting standards. The Company did not adopt any significant new accounting standards during the six months ended June 30, 2017.
Accounting standards issued but not yet adopted. The FASB has issued accounting standards that have not yet become effective and that may impact the Company’s consolidated financial statements or related disclosures in future periods. These standards and their potential impact are discussed below:
Distinguishing Liabilities from Equity — In July 2017, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update ("ASU") No. 2017-11, "Earnings Per Share, Distinguishing Liabilities from Equity, and Derivatives and Hedging" ("ASU No. 2017-11"). ASU No. 2017-11 is intended to simplify the accounting for financial instruments with characteristics of liabilities and equity. Among the issues addressed are: (i) determining whether an instrument (or embedded feature) is indexed to an entity’s own stock; (ii) distinguishing liabilities from equity for mandatorily redeemable financial instruments of certain nonpublic entities; and (iii) identifying mandatorily redeemable non-controlling interests. ASU No. 2017-11 is effective for Gartner on January 1, 2019. We are currently evaluating the potential impact of ASU No. 2017-11 on the Company's consolidated financial statements.
Stock Compensation Award Modifications — In May 2017, the FASB issued ASU No. 2017-09, "Compensation—Stock Compensation - Scope of Modification Accounting" ("ASU No. 2017-09"). ASU No. 2017-09 provides guidance about which changes to the terms or conditions of a share-based payment award require an entity to apply modification accounting. ASU No. 2017-09 is effective for Gartner on January 1, 2018. We are currently evaluating the potential impact of ASU No. 2017-09 on the Company's consolidated financial statements.
Retirement Benefits Cost Presentation — In March 2017, the FASB issued ASU No. 2017-07, "Compensation—Retirement Benefits" ("ASU No. 2017-07"). ASU No. 2017-07 improves the reporting of net benefit cost in the financial statements, and provides additional guidance on the presentation of net benefit cost in the income statement and clarifies the components eligible for capitalization. ASU No. 2017-07 is effective for Gartner on January 1, 2018. We are currently evaluating the potential impact of ASU No. 2017-07 on the Company's consolidated financial statements.
Partial Sales of Non-financial Assets — In February 2017, the FASB issued ASU No. 2017-05, "Clarifying the Scope of Asset Derecognition Guidance and Accounting for Partial Sales of Non-financial Assets" ("ASU No. 2017-05"). ASU No. 2017-05 clarifies the scope of the FASB’s recently established guidance on non-financial asset de-recognition as well as the accounting for partial sales of non-financial assets. It conforms the de-recognition guidance on non-financial assets with the model for revenue transactions. ASU No. 2017-05 is effective for Gartner on January 1, 2018. We are currently evaluating the potential impact of ASU No. 2017-05 on the Company's consolidated financial statements.
Goodwill Impairment — In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU No. 2017-04, "Intangibles—Goodwill and Other - Simplifying the Test for Goodwill Impairment" ("ASU No. 2017-04"). ASU No. 2017-04 simplifies the determination of the amount of goodwill to be potentially charged off by eliminating Step 2 of the goodwill impairment test. ASU No. 2017-04 is effective for Gartner on January 1, 2020. We are currently evaluating the potential impact of ASU No. 2017-04 on the Company's consolidated financial statements.
Definition of a Business — In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU No. 2017-01, "Clarifying the Definition of a Business" ("ASU No. 2017-01"), which is effective for Gartner on January 1, 2018. ASU No. 2017-01 changes the GAAP definition of a business which can impact the accounting for asset purchases, acquisitions, goodwill impairment, and other assessments. We are currently considering the impact of ASU No. 2017-01 on the Company's consolidated financial statements.
Presentation of Restricted Cash — In November 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-18, "Restricted Cash" ("ASU No. 2016-18"). ASU No. 2016-18 requires that amounts generally described as restricted cash and restricted cash equivalents be presented with cash and cash equivalents when reconciling the beginning-of-period and end-of-period total amounts shown on the statement of cash flows. If different, a reconciliation of the cash balances reported in the cash flow statement and the balance sheet would need to be provided along with explanatory information. ASU No. 2016-18 is effective for Gartner on January 1, 2018. We are currently evaluating the impact of ASU No. 2016-18 on the Company's consolidated financial statements.
Income Taxes — In October 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-16, "Intra-Entity Transfers of Assets Other Than Inventory" ("ASU No. 2016-16"). ASU No. 2016-16 accelerates the recognition of taxes on certain intra-entity transactions and is effective for Gartner on January 1, 2018. Current GAAP requires deferral of the income tax implications of an intercompany sale of assets until the assets are sold to a third party or recovered through use. Under the new rule, the seller’s tax effects and the buyer’s deferred taxes will be immediately recognized upon the sale. We have completed an initial evaluation of the impact of ASU No. 2016-16 and believe it could have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements depending on the nature and size of future intra-entity transfers, if any.
Statement of Cash Flows — In August 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-15, "Classification of Certain Cash Receipts and Cash Payments" ("ASU No. 2016-15"). ASU No. 2016-15 sets forth classification requirements for certain cash flow transactions.
ASU No. 2016-15 is effective for Gartner on January 1, 2018, but early adoption is permitted. We have completed an initial evaluation of the impact of ASU No. 2016-15 and we do not expect it will have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements.
Financial Instrument Credit Losses — In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-13, "Financial Instruments—Credit Losses" ("ASU No. 2016-13"). ASU No. 2016-13 amends the current financial instrument impairment model by requiring entities to use a forward-looking approach based on expected losses to estimate credit losses on certain types of financial instruments, including trade receivables. ASU No. 2016-13 is effective for Gartner on January 1, 2020, with early adoption permitted. We are currently evaluating the potential impact of ASU No. 2016-13 on our consolidated financial statements.
Leases — In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-02, "Leases" ("ASU No. 2016-02") which will require significant changes in the accounting and disclosure for lease arrangements. Currently under U.S. GAAP, lease arrangements that meet certain criteria are considered operating leases and are not recorded on the balance sheet. All of the Company's existing lease arrangements are accounted for as operating leases and are thus not recorded on the Company's balance sheet. ASU No. 2016-02 will significantly change the accounting for leases since a right-of-use ("ROU") model must be used in which the lessee must record a ROU asset and a lease liability on the balance sheet for leases with terms longer than 12 months. Leases will be classified as either finance or operating arrangements, with classification affecting the pattern of expense recognition in the income statement. ASU No. 2016-02 also requires expanded disclosures about leasing arrangements. ASU No. 2016-02 will be effective for Gartner on January 1, 2019. We are currently evaluating the impact of ASU No. 2016-02 on our consolidated financial statements.
Financial Instruments Recognition and Measurement — In January 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-01, "Financial Instruments Overall - Recognition and Measurement of Financial Assets and Liabilities" ("ASU No. 2016-01") to address certain aspects of recognition, measurement, presentation, and disclosure of financial instruments. Among the significant changes required by ASU No. 2016-01 is that equity investments will be measured at fair value with changes in fair value recognized in net income. ASU No. 2016-01 will be effective for Gartner on January 1, 2018. We have completed an initial evaluation of the impact of ASU No. 2016-01 and we do not expect it will have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements but may require additional disclosures.
Revenue Recognition — In May 2014, the FASB issued ASU No. 2014-09, "Revenue from Contracts with Customers" ("ASU No. 2014-09"). ASU No. 2014-09 and related amendments require changes in revenue recognition policies as well as enhanced disclosures. ASU No. 2014-09 is intended to clarify the principles for recognizing revenue by removing inconsistencies and weaknesses in existing revenue recognition rules; provide a more robust framework for addressing revenue recognition issues; improve comparability of revenue recognition practices across entities, industries, jurisdictions and capital markets; and provide more useful information to users of financial statements through improved disclosures. The Company has completed an initial assessment of the impact of ASU No. 2014-09 on its existing revenue recognition policies and plans to adopt the rule on January 1, 2018 using the cumulative effect method of adoption. ASU No. 2014-09 also requires significantly expanded disclosures around the nature, amount, timing and uncertainty of revenue and cash flows arising from contracts with customers, which the Company is currently compiling. While the Company has not fully completed its assessment of the impact of ASU No. 2014-09, including completion of our review of the recently-acquired CEB's revenue recognition policies, based on the analysis completed to date, the Company does not currently anticipate that the new rule will have a material impact on its consolidated financial statements.
The FASB also continues to work on a number of other significant accounting standards which if issued could materially impact the Company's accounting policies and disclosures in future periods. However, since these standards have not yet been issued, the effective dates and potential impact are unknown.
Note 2 — Acquisitions
The Company accounts for business acquisitions in accordance with the acquisition method of accounting as prescribed by FASB ASC Topic 805, Business Combinations. The acquisition method of accounting requires the Company to record the net assets and liabilities acquired based on their estimated fair values as of the acquisition date, with any excess of the consideration transferred over the estimated fair value of the net assets acquired, including identifiable intangible assets, to be recorded to goodwill. Under the acquisition method, the operating results of acquired companies are included in the Company's consolidated financial statements beginning on the date of acquisition.
The Company completed the following business acquisitions during the six months ended June 30, 2017:
On April 5, 2017, the Company acquired 100% of the outstanding capital stock of CEB for an aggregate purchase price of $3.5 billion. The consideration transferred by Gartner at close included approximately $2.69 billion paid in cash and $818.7 million in fair value of Gartner common shares. CEB was a publicly-held company headquartered in Arlington, Virginia with approximately 4,900 employees. CEB's primary business is to serve as a leading provider of subscription-based, best practice research and analysis focusing on human resources, sales, finance, IT, and legal. CEB serves executives and professionals at more than 10,000 large corporate and middle market institutions in over 70 countries.
On March 9, 2017, the Company acquired 100% of the outstanding capital stock of L2, a privately-held firm based in New York City with 150 employees, for an aggregate purchase price of $134.2 million. L2 is a subscription-based research business that benchmarks the digital performance of brands.
Total Consideration Transferred
The following table summarizes the aggregate consideration paid or payable for these acquisitions (in thousands):
The allocation of the purchase price for CEB and L2 are preliminary with respect to various matters, to include the valuation of goodwill and intangible assets and property, equipment, and leasehold improvements; tax contingencies; and other items. The Company expects to complete the allocation of the purchase price for both L2 and CEB in late 2017 or early 2018.
Preliminary Allocation of Purchase Price
The following table summarizes the preliminary allocation of the purchase price to the fair value of the assets acquired and liabilities assumed for these acquisitions (in thousands):
The pro forma results have been prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP and include the following pro forma adjustments:
(a) An increase in interest expense and amortization of debt issuance costs related to the financing of the CEB acquisition. Note 7 — Debt provides further information regarding the Company's borrowings related to the CEB acquisition;
(b) A decrease in revenue as a result of the preliminary purchase price allocation for deferred revenue;
(c) An adjustment for additional depreciation and amortization expense as a result of the preliminary purchase price allocation for finite-lived intangible assets and property, equipment, and leasehold improvements.
The Company recognized $98.3 million and $111.6 million of acquisition and integration charges in the three and six months ended June 30, 2017, respectively, compared to $8.0 million and $16.4 million in the three and six months ended June 30, 2016. The additional charges during 2017 primarily consisted of higher professional fees, severance, stock-based compensation charges, and an accrual for exit costs of approximately $20.8 million for office space that the Company does not intend to occupy at a new building in Arlington. To date the Company has not made any payments related to the excess space.
Note 3 — (Loss) Earnings per Share
The following table sets forth the calculation of basic and diluted (loss) earnings per share (in thousands, except per share data):
Note 4 — Stock-Based Compensation
The Company grants stock-based compensation awards as an incentive for employees and directors to contribute to the Company’s long-term success. The Company currently awards stock-settled stock appreciation rights, service-based and performance-based restricted stock units, and common stock equivalents. As of June 30, 2017, the Company had 5.5 million shares of its common stock, par value $.0005 per share (the “Common Stock”), available for stock-based compensation awards under its 2014 Long-Term Incentive Plan.
The Company accounts for stock-based compensation awards in accordance with FASB ASC Topics 505 and 718 and SEC Staff Accounting Bulletins No. 107 and No. 110. Stock-based compensation expense is based on the fair value of the award on the date of grant. The Company recognizes stock-based compensation expense over the period that the related service is performed, which is generally the same as the vesting period of the underlying award. Currently, the Company issues treasury shares upon the exercise, release or settlement of stock-based compensation awards.
Determining the appropriate fair value model and calculating the fair value of stock-based compensation awards requires the use of certain complex and subjective assumptions, including the expected life of a stock-based compensation award and Common Stock price volatility. In addition, determining the appropriate periodic stock-based compensation expense requires management to estimate the likelihood of the achievement of certain performance targets. The assumptions used in calculating the fair values of stock-based compensation awards and the related periodic expense represent management’s best estimates, which involve inherent uncertainties and the application of judgment. As a result, if circumstances change and the Company deems it necessary in the future to modify the assumptions it made or to use different assumptions, or if the quantity and nature of the Company’s stock-based compensation awards changes, then the amount of expense may need to be adjusted and future stock-based compensation expense could be materially different from what has been recorded in the current period.
Stock-Based Compensation Expense
The Company recognized the following stock-based compensation expense by award type and expense category line item in the periods indicated (in millions):
(1) Includes charges of $6.0 million and $3.8 million during the three months ended June 30, 2017 and 2016, respectively, and $20.5 million and $14.1 million during the six months ended June 30, 2017 and 2016, respectively, for awards to retirement-eligible employees. Those awards vest on an accelerated basis.
(2) These charges are the result of the acceleration of the vesting of certain restricted stock units related to the CEB acquisition.
As of June 30, 2017, the Company had $109.2 million of total unrecognized stock-based compensation cost, which is expected to be expensed over the remaining weighted-average service period of approximately 2.7 years.
Stock-Based Compensation Awards
The disclosures presented below provide information regarding the Company’s stock-based compensation awards, all of which are classified as equity awards in accordance with FASB ASC Topic 505.
Stock Appreciation Rights
Stock-settled stock appreciation rights ("SARs") permit the holder to participate in the appreciation of the value of the Common Stock. After the applicable vesting criteria have been satisfied, SARs are settled in shares of Common Stock upon exercise by the employee. SARs vest ratably over a four-year service period and expire seven years from the date of grant. The fair value of a SARs award is recognized as compensation expense on a straight-line basis over four years. SARs have only been awarded to the Company’s executive officers.
When SARs are exercised, the number of shares of Common Stock issued is calculated as follows: (1) the total proceeds from the exercise of the SARs award (calculated as the closing price of the Common Stock on the date of exercise less the exercise price of the SARs award, multiplied by the number of SARs exercised) is divided by (2) the closing price of the Common Stock as reported on the New York Stock Exchange on the date of exercise. The Company withholds a portion of the shares of the Common Stock issued upon exercise to satisfy statutory tax withholding requirements. SARs recipients do not have any stockholder rights until the shares of Common Stock are issued in respect of the award, which is subject to the prior satisfaction of the vesting and other criteria relating to such grants.
The following table summarizes changes in SARs outstanding during the six months ended June 30, 2017:
(1) As of June 30, 2017, 0.7 million of the total SARs outstanding were unvested. The Company expects that substantially all of those unvested awards will vest in future periods.
(2) As of June 30, 2017, the total SARs outstanding had an intrinsic value of $61.6 million. On such date, SARs vested and exercisable had an intrinsic value of $32.9 million.
The fair value of a SARs award is determined on the date of grant using the Black-Scholes-Merton valuation model with the following weighted average assumptions:
Restricted Stock Units
Restricted stock units ("RSUs") give the awardee the right to receive shares of Common Stock when the vesting conditions are met and certain restrictions lapse. Each RSU that vests entitles the awardee to one share of Common Stock. RSU awardees do not have any of the rights of a Gartner stockholder, including voting rights and the right to receive dividends and distributions, until
the shares are released. The fair value of an RSU award is determined on the date of grant based on the closing price of the Common Stock as reported on the New York Stock Exchange on that date. Service-based RSUs vest ratably over four years and are expensed on a straight-line basis over the vesting period. Performance-based RSUs are subject to the satisfaction of both performance and service conditions, vest ratably over four years and are expensed on an accelerated basis over the vesting period.
The following table summarizes the changes in RSUs outstanding during the six months ended June 30, 2017:
Common Stock Equivalents
Common stock equivalents ("CSEs") are convertible into Common Stock. Each CSE entitles the holder to one share of Common Stock. Members of our Board of Directors receive directors’ fees payable in CSEs unless they opt to receive up to 50% of their fees in cash. Generally, CSEs have no defined term and are converted into shares of Common Stock when service as a director terminates unless the director has elected an accelerated release. The fair value of a CSE award is determined on the date of grant based on the closing price of the Common Stock as reported on the New York Stock Exchange on that date. CSEs vest immediately and as a result they are recorded as expense on the date of grant.
The following table summarizes the changes in CSEs outstanding during the six months ended June 30, 2017:
Employee Stock Purchase Plan
The Company has an employee stock purchase plan (the “ESP Plan”) under which eligible employees are permitted to purchase shares of Common Stock through payroll deductions, which may not exceed 10% of an employee’s compensation (or $23,750 in any calendar year), at a price equal to 95% of the closing price of the Common Stock as reported on the New York Stock Exchange at the end of each offering period. As of June 30, 2017, the Company had 0.9 million shares available for purchase under the ESP Plan. The ESP Plan is considered non-compensatory under FASB ASC Topic 718 and, as a result, the Company does not record stock-based compensation expense for employee share purchases. The Company received $5.7 million and $4.7 million in cash from employee share purchases under the ESP Plan during the six months ended June 30, 2017 and 2016, respectively.
Note 5 — Segment Information
On April 5, 2017, Gartner completed its previously announced acquisition of CEB.
With the CEB acquisition, Gartner is reporting four business segments reflecting the Company’s enlarged scale and breadth of advisory services aligned to the mission-critical priorities of virtually all functional business leaders across every industry and size of enterprise worldwide. The Company’s reportable segments are as follows:
The Company evaluates segment performance and allocates resources based on gross contribution margin. Gross contribution, as presented in the table below, is defined as operating income excluding certain Cost of services and product development expenses, Selling, general and administrative expenses, Depreciation, Amortization of intangibles, and Acquisition and integration charges. Certain bonus and fringe benefit costs included in consolidated Cost of services and product development are not allocated to segment expense. The accounting policies used by the reportable segments are the same as those used by the Company. There are no intersegment revenues. The Company does not identify or allocate assets, including capital expenditures, by reportable segment. Accordingly, assets are not reported by segment because the information is not available by segment and is not reviewed in the evaluation of segment performance or in making decisions in the allocation of resources.
The following tables present operating information about the Company’s reportable segments for the periods indicated (in thousands). The segment results for the three and six months ended June 30, 2017 include the results of CEB beginning on the acquisition date:
(1) Effective June 30, 2017, the Company is reporting the results of its SAS business in Research whereas previously the SAS business was reported with Consulting. As a result, revenues of $7.5 million and $14.8 million pertaining to the three and six months ended June 30, 2016, respectively, were reclassified from Consulting to Research to be comparable with the current year presentation. Gross contribution of $4.9 million and $9.8 million for the three and six months ended June 30, 2016, respectively, was also reclassified from Consulting to Research.
The following table provides a reconciliation of total segment gross contribution to net (loss) income for the periods indicated (in thousands):
Note 6 — Goodwill and Intangible Assets
Goodwill represents the excess of the purchase price of acquired businesses over the estimated fair values of the tangible and identifiable intangible net assets acquired. Evaluations of the recoverability of goodwill are performed in accordance with FASB ASC Topic 350, which requires an annual assessment of potential goodwill impairment at the reporting unit level and whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value of goodwill may not be recoverable. The annual assessment of the recoverability of recorded goodwill can be based on either a qualitative or quantitative assessment or a combination of the two approaches. Both methods utilize estimates which, in turn, require judgments and assumptions regarding future trends and events. As a result, both the precision and reliability of the resulting estimates are subject to uncertainty. If our goodwill impairment evaluation determines that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its related carrying amount, we may recognize an impairment charge. In connection with our most recent annual impairment test of goodwill during the quarter ended September 30, 2016, which indicated no impairment of recorded goodwill, the Company utilized the qualitative approach in assessing the fair values of its reporting units relative to their respective carrying values.
The following table presents changes to the carrying amount of goodwill by reportable segment during the six months ended June 30, 2017 (in thousands):
Finite-Lived Intangible Assets
The following tables present reconciliations of the carrying amounts of the Company's finite-lived intangible assets as of the dates indicated (in thousands):
(1) The additions were primarily due to the acquisitions of CEB and L2 during April 2017 and March 2017, respectively (see Note 2 for additional information regarding our recent acquisitions).
(2) Finite-lived intangible assets are amortized using the straight-line method over the following periods: Trade names—1.5 to 4 years; Customer relationships—4 to 13 years ; Content—1.5 to 4 years; Software—3 to 6 years; and Non-competes—3 to 5 years.
Amortization expense related to finite-lived intangible assets was $65.5 million and $6.2 million during the three months ended June 30, 2017 and 2016, respectively, and $71.8 million and $12.4 million during the six months ended June 30, 2017 and 2016, respectively. The estimated future amortization expense by year for finite-lived intangible assets will be as follows (in thousands):
Note 7 — Debt
2016 Credit Agreement
The Company entered into a term loan and revolving credit facility on June 17, 2016 (the "2016 Credit Agreement"). As discussed below, the 2016 Credit Agreement was amended three times during 2017 in conjunction with the acquisition of CEB. As of June 30, 2017, the 2016 Credit Agreement provides for a $1.5 billion Term loan A facility, a $500.0 million Term loan B facility, and a $1.2 billion revolving credit facility. The 2016 Credit Agreement contains certain customary restrictive loan covenants, including, among others, financial covenants that apply a maximum leverage ratio and a minimum interest expense coverage ratio, and covenants limiting Gartner’s ability to incur indebtedness, grant liens, make acquisitions, merge, dispose of assets, pay dividends, repurchase stock, make investments and enter into certain transactions with affiliates. The Company was in full compliance with the covenants as of June 30, 2017.
The Company borrowed a total of $2.78 billion for the CEB acquisition. The Company borrowed $1.675 billion under the 2016 Credit Agreement, which consisted of $900.0 million under an increased Term loan A facility, $500.0 million under a new Term loan B facility, and $275.0 million on its existing revolving credit facility. The $1.675 billion drawn under the 2016 Credit Agreement, along with the funds raised through the issuance of $800.0 million Senior Notes and $300.0 million 364-Bridge Credit Facility discussed below, were used to fund the CEB acquisition and related costs.
On January 20, 2017, the Company entered into a First Amendment to the 2016 Credit Agreement, which was entered into to permit the acquisition of CEB and the incurrence of additional debt to finance, in part, the acquisition and repay certain debt of CEB, and to modify certain covenants. On March 20, 2017, the Company entered into a Second Amendment to the 2016 Credit Agreement. The Second Amendment was also entered into in connection with the acquisition of CEB and was executed primarily to extend the maturity date of the Term loan A facility and revolving credit facility through March 20, 2022 and to revise the interest rate and amortization schedule. On April 5, 2017, in conjunction with the closing of the CEB acquisition, the Company entered into a Third Amendment to the 2016 Credit Agreement with its lenders (the "Incremental Amendment"). The Incremental Amendment increased the aggregate principal amount of the existing Term loan A facility by $900.0 million and added a new incremental Term loan B facility in an aggregate principal amount of $500.0 million.
The Term loan A facility will be repaid in 16 consecutive quarterly installments that commenced on June 30, 2017, plus a final payment to be made on March 20, 2022. The additional amount drawn under the Term loan A facility has the same maturity date and is subject to the same interest, repayment terms, amortization schedules, representations and warranties, affirmative and negative covenants and events of default as the amounts outstanding under such facility prior to entry by the Company into the Incremental Amendment. The revolving credit facility may be borrowed, repaid, and re-borrowed through March 20, 2022, at which time all amounts must be repaid. Amounts borrowed under the Term loan A facility and the revolving credit facility bear interest at a rate equal to, at the Company's option, either:
(i) the greatest of: (x) the Administrative Agent’s prime rate; (y) the average rate on Federal Reserve Board of New York rate plus 1/2 of 1%; and (z) the eurodollar rate (adjusted for statutory reserves) plus 1%, in each case plus a margin equal to between 0.125% and 1.50% depending on Gartner’s consolidated leverage ratio as of the end of the four consecutive fiscal quarters most recently ended; or
(ii) the eurodollar rate (adjusted for statutory reserves) plus a margin equal to between 1.125% and 2.50%, depending on Gartner’s leverage ratio as of the end of the four consecutive fiscal quarters most recently ended.
The Term loan B facility contains representations and warranties, affirmative and negative covenants and events of default that are the same as the Term loan A facility and revolving credit facility, except that a breach of financial maintenance covenants will not result in an event of default under the Term loan B facility unless the lenders under the revolving credit facility and Term loan A facility have accelerated the revolving loans and Term loan A loans and terminated their commitments thereunder. Additionally, the Term loan B facility includes mandatory prepayment requirements related to asset sales (subject to reinvestment), debt incurrence (other than permitted debt) and excess cash flow, subject to certain limitations described therein. Any voluntary prepayment of the Term loan B facility made in connection with a repricing transaction in the first six months following April 5, 2017 will be subject to a 1.00% prepayment premium. The Term loan B facility will mature on April 5, 2024 and amounts outstanding thereunder will bear interest at a rate per annum equal to, at the option of Gartner, (i) adjusted LIBOR plus 2.00% or (ii) an alternate base rate plus 1.00%.
364-day Bridge Credit Facility
On April 5, 2017, in conjunction with the acquisition of CEB, the Company entered into a senior unsecured 364-day Bridge Credit Facility in an aggregate principal amount of $300.0 million, which was immediately drawn down to fund a portion of the purchase price associated with the CEB acquisition.
The 364-day Bridge Credit Facility will mature on the 364th day after the closing date of the acquisition. Amounts outstanding under the 364-day Bridge Credit Facility bear interest at a rate per annum equal to, at the option of the Company: (i) adjusted LIBOR plus 2.75% or (ii) an alternate base rate plus 1.75%, with the margins on both increasing by 0.25% 180 days after the closing date and an additional 0.25% each 90 days thereafter. The 364-day Bridge Credit Facility contains representations and warranties, affirmative and negative covenants and events of default that are substantially the same as in the 2016 Credit Agreement. Additionally, the 364-Day Bridge Credit Facility includes mandatory prepayment requirements related to the receipt by the Company of repatriated funds from its foreign subsidiaries, subject to certain exceptions and reduced by any taxes payable or reasonably estimated by the Company to be payable upon such repatriation and proceeds from certain debt and equity issuances.
On March 30, 2017, also in conjunction with the acquisition of CEB, the Company issued $800.0 million aggregate principal amount of 5.125% Senior Notes due 2025 (the “Senior Notes”). The proceeds of the Senior Notes were also used to fund a portion of the purchase price associated with the CEB acquisition.
The Senior Notes were issued at an issue price of 100.00% and bear interest at a fixed rate of 5.125% per annum. Interest on the Senior Notes is payable on April 1 and October 1 of each year, beginning on October 1, 2017. The Senior Notes will mature on April 1, 2025. The Company may redeem some or all of the Senior Notes at any time on or after April 1, 2020 for cash at the redemption prices set forth in the Note Indenture, plus accrued and unpaid interest to, but not including, the redemption date. Prior to April 1, 2020, the Company may redeem up to 40% of the aggregate principal amount of the Senior Notes with the proceeds of certain equity offerings at a redemption price of 105.125% plus accrued and unpaid interest to, but not including, the redemption date. In addition, the Company may redeem some or all of the Senior Notes prior to April 1, 2020, at a redemption price of 100% of the principal amount of the Senior Notes plus accrued and unpaid interest to, but not including, the redemption date, plus a “make-whole” premium. If the Company experiences specific kinds of change of control, it will be required to offer to purchase the Senior Notes at a price equal to 101% of the principal amount thereof plus accrued and unpaid interest.
The Senior Notes are the Company’s general unsecured senior obligations, and are effectively subordinated to all of the Company’s existing and future secured indebtedness to the extent of the value of the collateral securing such indebtedness, structurally subordinated to all existing and future indebtedness and other liabilities of the Company’s non-guarantor subsidiaries, equal in right of payment to all of the Company’s and Company’s guarantor subsidiaries’ existing and future senior indebtedness and senior in right of payment to all of the Company’s future subordinated indebtedness, if any.
Outstanding Borrowings - June 30, 2017
The following table summarizes the Company’s total outstanding borrowings (in thousands):
Interest Rate Swaps
The Company has fixed-for-floating interest rate swap contracts which it designates as accounting hedges of the forecasted interest payments on the Company’s variable rate borrowings. The Company pays base fixed rates on the swaps and in return receives a floating eurodollar base rate on 30 day notional borrowings. The Company accounts for the interest rate swaps as cash flow hedges in accordance with FASB ASC Topic 815. Since the swaps hedge forecasted interest payments, changes in the fair value of the swaps are recorded in accumulated other comprehensive income (loss), a component of equity, as long as the swaps continue to be highly effective hedges of the designated interest rate risk. Any ineffective portion of change in the fair value of the hedges is recorded in earnings. All of the swaps were highly effective hedges of the forecasted interest payments as of June 30, 2017. The
interest rate swaps had a total negative fair value (liability) to the Company of $10.2 million at June 30, 2017, which is deferred and recorded in Accumulated other comprehensive loss, net of tax effect.
Note 8 — Equity
Share Repurchase Program
The Company has a $1.2 billion board approved authorization to repurchase the Company's common stock, of which $1.1 billion remained available as of June 30, 2017. The Company may repurchase its common stock from time to time in amounts and at prices the Company deems appropriate, subject to the availability of stock, prevailing market conditions, the trading price of the stock, the Company’s financial performance and other conditions. Repurchases may be made through open market purchases, private transactions or other transactions and will be funded from cash on hand and borrowings under the Company’s credit arrangement.
The Company’s recent share repurchase activity is presented in the following table:
(1) The average purchase price for repurchased shares was $116.20 and $105.46 for the three and six months ended June 30, 2017, respectively, and $98.03 and $84.00 for the three and six months ended June 30, 2016.
(2) The cash paid for the six months ended June 30, 2016 included $7.2 million for share repurchases that were executed in late December 2015 and were settled in early January 2016.
Share Issuance Related to the Acquisition of CEB
On April 5, 2017, the Company completed the CEB acquisition and issued 7.4 million of its common shares at a fair value of $109.65 per common share. Note 2 — Acquisitions provides additional information regarding the CEB acquisition. The fair value of the Company's common stock was determined based on an average of the high and low prices of the common stock as reported by the New York Stock Exchange on April 5, 2017, the date of the acquisition.
Accumulated Other Comprehensive (Loss) Income ("AOCL/I")
The following tables disclose information about changes in AOCL/I by component and the related amounts reclassified out of AOCL/I to income during the periods indicated (net of tax, in thousands) (1):
For the three months ended June 30, 2017:
For the three months ended June 30, 2016:
For the six months ended June 30, 2017:
For the six months ended June 30, 2016:
Note 9 — Income Taxes
The provision for income taxes for the three months ended June 30, 2017 was a benefit of $50.5 million on a pretax loss of $(142.8) million compared to an expense of $25.6 million on pretax income of $77.2 million in the three months ended June 30, 2016. The effective income tax rate was 35.4% for the three months ended June 30, 2017 and 33.1% for the same period in 2016. The quarter-
over-quarter change in the effective income tax rate was primarily attributable to favorable estimated mix of earnings and an increase in stock-based compensation benefits.
The provision for income taxes for the six months ended June 30, 2017 was a benefit of $38.4 million on a pretax loss of $(94.3) million compared to an expense of $40.9 million on pretax income of $137.5 million in the six months ended June 30, 2016. The effective income tax rate was 40.7% for the six months ended June 30, 2017 and 29.7% for the same period in 2016. The increase in the effective income tax rate was primarily attributable to a favorable estimated mix of earnings and an increase in stock-based compensation benefits.
As of June 30, 2017 and December 31, 2016, the Company had gross unrecognized tax benefits of $64.7 million and $37.1 million, respectively. The increase is largely attributable to unrecognized tax benefits of CEB included in the purchase price allocation. It is reasonably possible that gross unrecognized tax benefits will decrease by approximately $8.0 million within the next 12 months, due to the anticipated closure of audits and the expiration of certain statutes of limitation.
In July 2015, the United States Tax Court (the “Court”) issued an opinion relating to the treatment of stock-based compensation expense in an inter-company cost-sharing arrangement. In its opinion, the Court held that affiliated companies may exclude stock-based compensation expense from their cost-sharing arrangement. The Internal Revenue Service is appealing the decision. Because of uncertainty related to the final resolution of this litigation and the recognition of potential benefits to the Company, the Company has not recorded any financial statement benefit associated with this decision. The Company will monitor developments related to this case and the potential impact of those developments on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
Note 10 — Derivatives and Hedging
The Company enters into a limited number of derivative contracts to mitigate the cash flow risk associated with changes in interest rates on variable rate debt and changes in foreign exchange rates on forecasted foreign currency transactions. The Company accounts for its outstanding derivative contracts in accordance with FASB ASC Topic 815, which requires all derivatives, including derivatives designated as accounting hedges, to be recorded on the balance sheet and recognized at fair value. The following tables provide information regarding the Company’s outstanding derivatives contracts as of the dates indicated (in thousands, except for number of outstanding contracts):