Annual Reports

  • 10-K (Feb 26, 2018)
  • 10-K (Feb 27, 2017)
  • 10-K (Mar 2, 2016)
  • 10-K (Feb 22, 2016)
  • 10-K (Feb 23, 2015)
  • 10-K (Feb 28, 2014)

Quarterly Reports



Goldman Sachs Group 10-K 2011
Table of Contents

Washington, D.C. 20549
Form 10-K
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2010
  Commission File Number: 001-14965
The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc.
Delaware   13-4019460
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
  (I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
200 West Street
New York, N.Y.
(Zip Code)
(Address of principal executive offices)    
(212) 902-1000
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class:   Name of each exchange on which registered:
Common stock, par value $.01 per share
  New York Stock Exchange
Depositary Shares, Each Representing 1/1,000th Interest in a Share of Floating Rate Non-Cumulative Preferred Stock, Series A   New York Stock Exchange
Depositary Shares, Each Representing 1/1,000th Interest in a Share of 6.20% Non-Cumulative Preferred Stock, Series B   New York Stock Exchange
Depositary Shares, Each Representing 1/1,000th Interest in a Share of Floating Rate Non-Cumulative Preferred Stock, Series C   New York Stock Exchange
Depositary Shares, Each Representing 1/1,000th Interest in a Share of Floating Rate Non-Cumulative Preferred Stock, Series D   New York Stock Exchange
5.793% Fixed-to-Floating Rate Normal Automatic Preferred Enhanced Capital Securities of Goldman Sachs Capital II (and Registrant’s guarantee with respect thereto)   New York Stock Exchange
Floating Rate Normal Automatic Preferred Enhanced Capital Securities of Goldman Sachs Capital III (and Registrant’s guarantee with respect thereto)   New York Stock Exchange
Medium-Term Notes, Series B, Index-Linked Notes due February 2013; Index-Linked Notes due April 2013; Index-Linked Notes due May 2013; and Index-Linked Notes due 2011   NYSE Amex
Medium-Term Notes, Series B, Floating Rate Notes due 2011   New York Stock Exchange
Medium-Term Notes, Series A, Index-Linked Notes due 2037 of GS Finance Corp. (and Registrant’s guarantee with respect thereto)   NYSE Arca
Medium-Term Notes, Series B, Index-Linked Notes due 2037
  NYSE Arca
Medium-Term Notes, Series D, 7.50% Notes due 2019
  New York Stock Exchange
6.125% Notes due 2060
  New York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
     Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.
Yes  x     No  o
     Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Act.
Yes  o     No  x
     Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.
Yes  x     No  o
     Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).
Yes  x     No  o
     Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of the Annual Report on Form 10-K or any amendment to the Annual Report on Form 10-K.  x
     Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
     Large accelerated filer x  Accelerated filer o  Non-accelerated filer (Do not check if a smaller reporting company) o  Smaller reporting company o
     Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).  Yes  o     No  x
     As of June 30, 2010, the aggregate market value of the common stock of the registrant held by non-affiliates of the registrant was approximately $66.7 billion.
     As of February 11, 2011, there were 520,507,295 shares of the registrant’s common stock outstanding.
     Documents incorporated by reference:  Portions of The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc.’s Proxy Statement for its 2011 Annual Meeting of Shareholders to be held on May 6, 2011 are incorporated by reference in the Annual Report on Form 10-K in response to Part III, Items 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14.


Form 10-K Item Number   Page No.    
 EX-10.27: Form of Non-Employee Director RSU Award Agreement
 EX-10.28: Description of Independent Director Compensation
 EX-10.42: Form of One-Time RSU Award Agreement
 EX-10.45: Form of Signature Card for Equity Awards
 EX-10.46: Form of Signature Card for Equity Awards (employees in Asia Outside China)
 EX-10.47: Form of Signature Card for Equity Awards (employees in China)
 EX-10.48: Form of Year-End RSU Award Agreement (not fully vested)
 EX-10.49: Form of Year-End RSU Award Agreement (fully vested)
 EX-10.50: Form of Year-End RSU Award Agreement (Base and/or Supplemental)
 EX-10.51: Form of Year-End Short-Term RSU Award Agreement
 EX-10.52: Form of Year-End Restricted Stock Award Agreement (Base and/or Supplemental)
 EX-10.53: Form of Year-End Restricted Stock Award Agreement (fully vested)
 EX-10.54: Form of Year-End Short-Term Restricted Stock Award Agreement
 EX-12.1: Statement re: Computation of Ratios
 EX-21.1: List of Significant Subsidiaries of The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc.
 EX-23.1: Consent of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
 EX-31.1: Rule 13A-14(A) Certifications
 EX-32.1: Section 1350 Certifications
 EX-99.1: Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm on Selected Financial Data

Table of Contents

Item 1.   Business

Goldman Sachs is a leading global investment banking, securities and investment management firm that provides a wide range of financial services to a substantial and diversified client base that includes corporations, financial institutions, governments and high-net-worth individuals.
When we use the terms “Goldman Sachs,” “the firm,” “we,” “us” and “our,” we mean The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. (Group Inc.), a Delaware corporation, and its consolidated subsidiaries. References to “this Form 10-K” are to our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2010. All references to 2010, 2009 and 2008 refer to our fiscal years ended, or the dates, as the context requires, December 31, 2010, December 31, 2009 and November 28, 2008, respectively.
Group Inc. is a bank holding company and a financial holding company regulated by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (Federal Reserve Board). Our U.S. depository institution subsidiary, Goldman Sachs Bank USA (GS Bank USA), is a New York State-chartered bank.

As of December 2010, we had offices in over 30 countries and 44% of our total staff was based outside the Americas (which includes the countries in North and South America). Our clients are located worldwide, and we are an active participant in financial markets around the world. In 2010, we generated 45% of our net revenues outside the Americas. For more information on our geographic results, see Note 27 to the consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8 of this Form 10-K.
We report our activities in four business segments: Investment Banking; Institutional Client Services; Investing & Lending; and Investment Management. The chart below presents our four business segments. Prior to the end of 2010, we reported our activities in three segments.



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The table below presents our segment operating results.
        Year Ended 1     % of 2010      
$ in millions       2010     2009     2008     Revenues      
Investment Banking
  Net revenues   $ 4,810     $ 4,984     $ 5,453       12%      
    Operating expenses     3,511       3,482       3,269              
    Pre-tax earnings/(loss)   $ 1,299     $ 1,502     $ 2,184              
Institutional Client Services
  Net revenues   $ 21,796     $ 32,719     $ 22,345       56%      
    Operating expenses     14,291       13,691       10,294              
    Pre-tax earnings   $ 7,505     $ 19,028     $ 12,051              
Investing & Lending
  Net revenues   $ 7,541     $ 2,863     $ (10,821 )     19%      
    Operating expenses     3,361       3,523       2,719              
    Pre-tax earnings/(loss)   $ 4,180     $ (660 )   $ (13,540 )            
Investment Management
  Net revenues   $ 5,014     $ 4,607     $ 5,245       13%      
    Operating expenses     4,051       3,673       3,528              
    Pre-tax earnings   $ 963     $ 934     $ 1,717              
  Net revenues   $ 39,161     $ 45,173     $ 22,222              
    Operating expenses 2     26,269       25,344       19,886              
    Pre-tax earnings/(loss)   $ 12,892     $ 19,829     $ 2,336              
1.   Financial information concerning our business segments for 2010, 2009 and 2008 (with prior periods recast to reflect our new segment reporting) is included in “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and the “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data,” which are in Part II, Items 7 and 8, respectively, of this Form 10-K. See Note 27 to the consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8 of this Form 10-K for a further breakdown of our net revenues.
2.   Includes the following expenses that have not been allocated to our segments: (i) charitable contributions of $345 million and $810 million for the years ended December 2010 and December 2009, respectively; (ii) net provisions for a number of litigation and regulatory proceedings of $682 million, $104 million and $(4) million for the years ended December 2010, December 2009 and November 2008, respectively; and (iii) real estate-related exit costs of $28 million, $61 million and $80 million for the years ended December 2010, December 2009 and November 2008, respectively.

Investment Banking serves corporate and government clients around the world. We provide financial advisory services and help companies raise capital to strengthen and grow their businesses. We seek to develop and maintain long-term relationships with a diverse global group of institutional clients, including governments, states and municipalities. Our goal is to deliver to our clients the entire resources of the firm in a seamless fashion, with investment banking serving as the main initial point of contact with Goldman Sachs.

Financial Advisory.  Financial Advisory includes strategic advisory assignments with respect to mergers and acquisitions, divestitures, corporate defense activities, risk management, restructurings and spin-offs. In particular, we help clients execute large, complex transactions for which we provide multiple services, including “one-stop” acquisition financing and cross-border structuring expertise.
We also assist our clients in managing their asset and liability exposures and their capital. In addition, we may provide lending commitments and bank loan and bridge loan facilities in connection with our advisory assignments.


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Underwriting.  The other core activity of Investment Banking is helping companies raise capital to fund their businesses. As a financial intermediary, our job is to match the capital of our investing clients — who aim to grow the savings of millions of people — with the needs of our corporate and government clients — who need financing to generate growth, create jobs and deliver products and services. Our underwriting activities include public offerings and private placements, including domestic and cross-border transactions, of a wide range of securities and other financial instruments. Underwriting also includes revenues from derivative transactions entered into with institutional clients in connection with our underwriting activities.
Equity Underwriting.  We underwrite common and preferred stock and convertible and exchangeable securities. We regularly receive mandates for large, complex transactions and have held a leading position in worldwide public common stock offerings and worldwide initial public offerings for many years.
Debt Underwriting.  We underwrite and originate various types of debt instruments, including investment-grade and high-yield debt, bank loans and bridge loans, and emerging and growth market debt, which may be issued by, among others, corporate, sovereign, municipal and agency issuers. In addition, we underwrite and originate structured securities, which include mortgage-related securities and other asset-backed securities.
Institutional Client Services serves our clients who come to the firm to buy and sell financial products, raise funding and manage risk. We do this by acting as a market maker and offering market expertise on a global basis. Institutional Client Services makes markets and facilitates client transactions in fixed income, equity, currency and commodity products. In addition, we make markets in and clear client transactions on major stock, options and futures exchanges worldwide. Market makers provide liquidity and play a critical role in price discovery, which contributes to the overall efficiency of the capital markets. Our willingness to make markets, commit capital and take risk in a broad range of products is crucial to our client relationships.
Our clients are primarily institutions that are professional market participants, including investment entities whose ultimate customers include individual investors investing for their retirement, buying insurance or putting aside surplus cash in a deposit account.

Through our global sales force, we maintain relationships with our clients, receiving orders and distributing investment research, trading ideas, market information and analysis. As a market maker, we provide prices to clients globally across thousands of products in all major asset classes and markets. At times we take the other side of transactions ourselves if a buyer or seller is not readily available and at other times we connect our clients to other parties who want to transact. Much of this connectivity between the firm and its clients is maintained on technology platforms and operates globally wherever and whenever markets are open for trading.
Institutional Client Services and our other businesses are supported by our Global Investment Research division, which, as of December 2010, provided fundamental research on more than 3,300 companies worldwide and over 45 national economies, as well as on industries, currencies and commodities.
Institutional Client Services generates revenues in three ways:
•   In large, highly liquid markets (such as markets for U.S. Treasury bills or large capitalization S&P 500 stocks), we execute a high volume of transactions for our clients for modest spreads and fees.
•   In less liquid markets (such as mid-cap corporate bonds and growth market currencies), we execute transactions for our clients for spreads and fees that are generally somewhat larger.
•   We also structure and execute transactions involving customized or tailor-made products that address our clients’ risk exposures, investment objectives or other complex needs (such as a jet fuel hedge for an airline).
Institutional Client Services activities are organized by asset class and include both “cash” and “derivative” instruments. “Cash” refers to trading the underlying instrument (such as a stock, bond or barrel of oil). “Derivative” refers to instruments that derive their value from underlying asset prices, indices, reference rates and other inputs, or a combination of these factors (such as an option, which is the right or obligation to buy or sell a certain bond or stock index on a specified date in the future at a certain price, or an interest rate swap, which is the right to convert a fixed rate of interest into a floating rate or vice versa).


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Fixed Income, Currency and Commodities Client Execution.  Includes interest rate products, credit products, mortgages, currencies and commodities.
•   Interest Rate Products.  Government bonds, money market instruments such as commercial paper, treasury bills, repurchase agreements and other highly liquid securities and instruments, as well as interest rate swaps, options and other derivatives.
•   Credit Products.  Investment-grade corporate securities, high-yield securities, bank and secured loans, municipal securities, emerging market and distressed debt, and credit derivatives.
•   Mortgages.  Commercial and residential mortgage-related securities and loan products, and other asset-backed and derivative instruments.
•   Currencies.  Most currencies, including growth market currencies.
•   Commodities.  Oil and natural gas, base, precious and other metals, electricity, coal, agricultural and other commodity products.
Equities.  Includes equity client execution, commissions and fees, and securities services.
Equities Client Execution.  We make markets in equity securities and equity-related products, including convertible securities, options, futures and over-the-counter (OTC) derivative instruments, on a global basis. As a principal, we facilitate client transactions by providing liquidity to our clients with large blocks of stocks or options, requiring the commitment of our capital. In addition, we engage in insurance activities where we reinsure and purchase portfolios of insurance risk and acquire pension liabilities.
We also structure and execute derivatives on indices, industry groups, financial measures and individual company stocks. We develop strategies and provide information about portfolio hedging and restructuring and asset allocation transactions for our clients. We also work with our clients to create specially tailored instruments to enable sophisticated investors to establish or liquidate investment positions or undertake hedging strategies. We are one of the leading participants in the trading and development of equity derivative instruments.

Our exchange-based market-making activities include making markets in stocks and exchange-traded funds. In the United States, we are one of the leading Designated Market Makers (DMMs) for stocks traded on the NYSE. For ETFs, we are registered market makers on NYSE Arca. In listed options, we are registered as a primary or lead market maker or otherwise make markets on the International Securities Exchange, the Chicago Board Options Exchange, NYSE Arca, the Boston Options Exchange, the Philadelphia Stock Exchange and NYSE Amex. In futures and options on futures, we are market makers on the Chicago Mercantile Exchange and the Chicago Board of Trade.
Commissions and Fees.  We generate commissions and fees from executing and clearing institutional client transactions on major stock, options and futures exchanges worldwide. We increasingly provide our clients with access to electronic “low-touch” equity trading platforms, and electronic trades account for the majority of our equity trading activity. However, a majority of our net revenues in these activities continue to be derived from our traditional “high-touch” handling of more complex trades. We expect both types of activity to remain important.
Securities Services.  Includes financing, securities lending and other prime brokerage services.
•   Financing Services.  We provide financing to our clients for their securities trading activities through margin loans that are collateralized by securities, cash or other acceptable collateral. We earn a spread equal to the difference between the amount we pay for funds and the amount we receive from our client.
•   Securities Lending Services.  We provide services that principally involve borrowing and lending securities to cover institutional clients’ short sales and borrowing securities to cover our short sales and otherwise to make deliveries into the market. In addition, we are an active participant in broker-to-broker securities lending and third-party agency lending activities.
•   Other Prime Brokerage Services.  We earn fees by providing clearing, custody and settlement services globally. In addition, we help our hedge fund and other clients maintain the infrastructure that supports their investing activity by providing a suite of services from the moment a client begins the process of establishing a new investing business. We provide a technology platform and reporting which enables clients to monitor their security portfolios, and manage risk exposures.


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Our investing and lending activities, which are typically longer-term, include the firm’s investing and relationship lending activities across various asset classes, primarily including debt securities and loans, public and private equity securities, and real estate. These activities include investing directly in publicly and privately traded securities and also through certain investment funds that we manage. We also provide financing to our clients. We manage a diversified global portfolio of investments in equity and debt securities and other investments in privately negotiated transactions, leveraged buyouts, acquisitions and investments in funds managed by external parties.
ICBC.  We have an investment in the ordinary shares of ICBC, the largest bank in China.
Equity Securities (excluding ICBC).  We make corporate, real estate and infrastructure equity-related investments.
Debt Securities and Loans.  We make corporate, real estate and infrastructure debt security-related investments. In addition, we provide credit to corporate clients through loan facilities and to high-net-worth individuals through secured loans.
Other.  Our other investments primarily include our consolidated investment entities, which are entities we hold for investment purposes strictly for capital appreciation. These entities have a defined exit strategy and are engaged in activities that are not closely related to our principal businesses. We also invest directly in distressed assets, currencies, commodities and other assets, including power generation facilities.
Investment Management provides investment and wealth advisory services to help clients preserve and grow their financial assets. Our clients include institutions and high-net-worth individuals as well as retail investors, who access our products through a network of third-party distributors around the world.
We manage client assets across a broad range of asset classes and investment strategies, including equity, fixed income and alternative investments. Alternative investments primarily include hedge funds, private equity, real estate, currencies, commodities, and asset allocation strategies. Our investment offerings include those managed on a fiduciary basis by our portfolio managers as well as strategies managed by third-party managers. We offer our investments in a variety of structures, including separately managed

accounts, mutual funds, private partnerships and other commingled vehicles.
We also provide customized investment advisory solutions designed to address our clients’ investment needs. These solutions begin with identifying clients’ objectives and continue through portfolio construction, ongoing asset allocation and risk management and investment realization. We draw from a variety of third-party managers as well as our proprietary offerings to implement solutions for clients.
We supplement our investment advisory solutions for high-net-worth clients with wealth advisory services that include income and liability management, trust and estate planning, philanthropic giving and tax planning. We also use the firm’s global securities and derivatives market-making capabilities to address clients’ specific investment needs.
Management and Other Fees.  The majority of revenues in management and other fees is comprised of asset-based management fees on client assets. The fees that we charge vary by asset class and are affected by investment performance as well as asset inflows and redemptions. Other fees we receive include financial counseling fees generated through our wealth advisory services and fees related to the administration of real estate assets.
Assets under management include only those client assets where we earn a fee for managing assets on a discretionary basis. This includes assets in our mutual funds, hedge funds, private equity funds and separately managed accounts for institutional and individual investors. Assets under management do not include the self-directed assets of our clients, including brokerage accounts, or interest-bearing deposits held through our bank depository institution subsidiaries.
Incentive Fees.  In certain circumstances, we are also entitled to receive incentive fees based on a percentage of a fund’s or a separately managed account’s return, or when the return exceeds a specified benchmark or other performance targets. Such fees include overrides, which consist of the increased share of the income and gains derived primarily from our private equity and real estate funds when the return on a fund’s investments over the life of the fund exceeds certain threshold returns. Incentive fees are recognized only when all material contingencies are resolved.
Transaction Revenues.  We receive commissions and net spreads for facilitating transactional activity in high-net-worth client accounts. In addition, we earn net interest income primarily associated with client deposits and margin lending activity undertaken by such clients.


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The tables below present assets under management by asset class and by distribution channel and client category.
    As of
    December 31,
    December 31,
    November 30,
in billions   2010     2009     2008      
Alternative investments
  $ 148     $ 146     $ 146      
    144       146       112      
Fixed income
    340       315       248      
Total non-money market assets
    632       607       506      
Money markets
    208       264       273      
Total assets under management
  $ 840     $ 871     $ 779      
    As of
    December 31,
    December 31,
    November 30,
in billions   2010     2009     2008      
Directly Distributed:
  $ 286     $ 297     $ 273      
High-net-worth individuals
    229       231       215      
Third-Party Distributed:
Institutional, high-net-worth individuals and retail
    325       343       291      
  $ 840     $ 871     $ 779      

Business continuity and information security are high priorities for Goldman Sachs. Our Business Continuity Program has been developed to provide reasonable assurance of business continuity in the event of disruptions at the firm’s critical facilities and to comply with regulatory requirements, including those of FINRA. Because we are a bank holding company, our Business Continuity Program is also subject to review by the Federal Reserve Board. The key elements of the program are crisis management, people recovery facilities, business recovery, systems and data recovery, and process improvement. In the area of information security, we have developed and implemented a framework of principles, policies and technology to protect the information assets of the firm and our clients. Safeguards are applied to maintain the confidentiality, integrity and availability of information resources.

Management believes that a major strength and principal reason for the success of Goldman Sachs is the quality and dedication of our people and the shared sense of being part of a team. We strive to maintain a work environment that fosters professionalism, excellence, diversity, cooperation among our employees worldwide and high standards of business ethics.
Instilling the Goldman Sachs culture in all employees is a continuous process, in which training plays an important part. All employees are offered the opportunity to participate in education and periodic seminars that we sponsor at various locations throughout the world. Another important part of instilling the Goldman Sachs culture is our employee review process. Employees are reviewed by supervisors, co-workers and employees they supervise in a 360-degree review process that is integral to our team approach, and includes an evaluation of an employee’s performance with respect to risk management, compliance and diversity.
As of December 2010, we had 35,700 total staff, excluding staff at consolidated entities held for investment purposes. See “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations — Results of Operations — Operating Expenses” in Part II, Item 7 of this Form 10-K for additional information on our consolidated entities held for investment purposes.


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The financial services industry — and all of our businesses — are intensely competitive, and we expect them to remain so. Our competitors are other entities that provide investment banking, securities and investment management services, as well as those entities that make investments in securities, commodities, derivatives, real estate, loans and other financial assets. These entities include brokers and dealers, investment banking firms, commercial banks, insurance companies, investment advisers, mutual funds, hedge funds, private equity funds and merchant banks. We compete with some entities globally and with others on a regional, product or niche basis. Our competition is based on a number of factors, including transaction execution, our products and services, innovation, reputation and price.
We also face intense competition in attracting and retaining qualified employees. Our ability to continue to compete effectively will depend upon our ability to attract new employees, retain and motivate our existing employees and to continue to compensate employees competitively amid intense public and regulatory scrutiny on the compensation practices of large financial institutions. Our pay practices and those of our principal competitors are subject to review by, and the standards of, the Federal Reserve Board and regulators outside the United States, including the Financial Services Authority (FSA) in the United Kingdom. See “Regulation — Banking Regulation” and “Regulation — Compensation Practices” below and “Risk Factors — Our businesses may be adversely affected if we are unable to hire and retain qualified employees” in Part I, Item 1A of this Form 10-K for more information on the regulation of our compensation practices.
Over time, there has been substantial consolidation and convergence among companies in the financial services industry. This trend accelerated in recent years as the credit crisis caused numerous mergers and asset acquisitions among industry participants. Many commercial banks and other broad-based financial services firms have had the ability for some time to offer a wide range of products, from loans, deposit-taking and insurance to brokerage, asset management and investment banking services, which may enhance their competitive position. They also have had the ability to support investment banking and securities products with commercial banking, insurance and other financial services revenues in an effort to gain market share, which has resulted in pricing pressure in our investment banking and client execution

businesses and could result in pricing pressure in other of our businesses.
Moreover, we have faced, and expect to continue to face, pressure to retain market share by committing capital to businesses or transactions on terms that offer returns that may not be commensurate with their risks. In particular, corporate clients seek such commitments (such as agreements to participate in their commercial paper backstop or other loan facilities) from financial services firms in connection with investment banking and other assignments.
Consolidation and convergence have significantly increased the capital base and geographic reach of some of our competitors, and have also hastened the globalization of the securities and other financial services markets. As a result, we have had to commit capital to support our international operations and to execute large global transactions. To take advantage of some of our most significant challenges and opportunities, we will have to compete successfully with financial institutions that are larger and have more capital and that may have a stronger local presence and longer operating history outside the United States.
We have experienced intense price competition in some of our businesses in recent years. For example, over the past several years the increasing volume of trades executed electronically, through the internet and through alternative trading systems, has increased the pressure on trading commissions, in that commissions for “low-touch” electronic trading are generally lower than for “high-touch” non-electronic trading. It appears that this trend toward electronic and other “low-touch,” low-commission trading will continue. In addition, we believe that we will continue to experience competitive pressures in these and other areas in the future as some of our competitors seek to obtain market share by further reducing prices.
The provisions of the U.S. Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (Dodd-Frank Act) and other financial regulation could affect our competitive position to the extent that limitations on activities, increased fees and compliance costs or other regulatory requirements do not apply, or do not apply equally, to all of our competitors. The impact of the Dodd-Frank Act on our competitive position will depend to a large extent on the details of the required rulemaking, as discussed further under “Regulation” below.


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As a participant in the banking, securities, futures and options and insurance industries, we are subject to extensive regulation worldwide. Regulatory bodies around the world are generally charged with safeguarding the integrity of the securities and other financial markets and with protecting the interests of the customers of market participants, including depositors in banking entities and the customers of broker-dealers. They are not, however, generally charged with protecting the interests of security holders.
The financial services industry has been the subject of intense regulatory scrutiny in recent years. Our businesses have been subject to increasing regulation in the United States and other countries, and we expect this trend to continue in the future. The Dodd-Frank Act, which was enacted in July 2010, significantly alters the framework within which we operate, including through the creation of a new systemic risk oversight body, the Financial Stability Oversight Council (FSOC). The FSOC will oversee and coordinate the efforts of the primary U.S. financial regulatory agencies (including the Federal Reserve Board, the SEC, the CFTC and the FDIC) in establishing regulations to address financial stability concerns. The Dodd-Frank Act directs the FSOC to make recommendations to the Federal Reserve Board as to supervisory requirements and prudential standards applicable to systemically important financial institutions, including risk-based capital, leverage, liquidity and risk-management requirements. The Dodd-Frank Act mandates that the requirements applicable to systemically important financial institutions be more stringent than those applicable to other financial companies. Although the criteria for treatment as a systemically important financial institution have not yet been determined, it is probable that they will apply to our firm.
The implications of the Dodd-Frank Act for our businesses will depend to a large extent on the provisions of required future rulemaking by the Federal Reserve, the FDIC, the SEC, the CFTC and other agencies, as well as the development of market practices and structures under the regime established by the legislation and the rules adopted pursuant to it, as discussed further throughout this section.

Banking Regulation
In September 2008, Group Inc. became a bank holding company under the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956 (BHC Act) and the Federal Reserve Board became the primary regulator of Group Inc., as a consolidated entity. In August 2009, Group Inc. became a financial holding company under amendments to the BHC Act effected by the U.S. Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act of 1999 (GLB Act).