Alphabet Inc. 10-Q 2017
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
For the quarterly period ended June 30, 2017
For the transition period from _______ to _______
Commission file number: 001-37580
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ý No ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files). Yes ý No ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes ¨ No ý
As of July 17, 2017, there were 298,044,925 shares of Alphabet’s Class A common stock outstanding, 47,100,911 shares of Alphabet's Class B common stock outstanding, and 347,733,652 shares of Alphabet's Class C capital stock outstanding.
For the Quarterly Period Ended June 30, 2017
TABLE OF CONTENTS
NOTE ABOUT FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. These statements include, among other things, statements regarding:
as well as other statements regarding our future operations, financial condition and prospects, and business strategies. Forward-looking statements may appear throughout this report and other documents we file with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), including without limitation, the following sections: Part I, Item 2, "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q and Part I, Item 1A, "Risk Factors" in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2016, as may be updated in our subsequent Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q. Forward-looking statements generally can be identified by words such as "anticipates," "believes," "estimates," "expects," "intends," "plans," "predicts," "projects," "will be," "will continue," "may," "could," "will likely result," and similar expressions. These forward-looking statements are based on current expectations and assumptions that are subject to risks and uncertainties, which could cause our actual results to differ materially from those reflected in the forward-looking statements. Factors that could cause or contribute to such differences include, but are not limited to, those discussed in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, and in particular, the risks discussed in Part I, Item 1A, "Risk Factors" in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2016, and those discussed in other documents we file with the SEC. We undertake no obligation to revise or publicly release the results of any revision to these forward-looking statements, except as required by law. Given these risks and uncertainties, readers are cautioned not to place undue reliance on such forward-looking statements.
As used herein, "Alphabet," "the company," "we," "us," "our," and similar terms include Alphabet Inc. and its subsidiaries, unless the context indicates otherwise.
"Alphabet," "Google," and other trademarks of ours appearing in this report are our property. This report contains additional trade names and trademarks of other companies. We do not intend our use or display of other companies' trade names or trademarks to imply an endorsement or sponsorship of us by such companies, or any relationship with any of these companies.
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(in millions, except share amounts which are reflected in thousands,
and par value per share amounts)
See accompanying notes.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF INCOME
(in millions, except per share amounts; unaudited)
See accompanying notes.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME
(in millions; unaudited)
See accompanying notes.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
(in millions; unaudited)
See accompanying notes.
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
Note 1. Nature of Operations and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Nature of Operations
Google Inc. (Google) was incorporated in California in 1998 and re-incorporated in Delaware in 2003. In 2015, we implemented a holding company reorganization, and as a result, Alphabet Inc. (Alphabet) became the successor issuer to Google. We generate revenues primarily by delivering relevant, cost-effective online advertising.
Basis of Consolidation
The consolidated financial statements of Alphabet include the accounts of Alphabet and all wholly-owned subsidiaries as well as all variable interest entities where we are the primary beneficiary. All intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated.
Unaudited Interim Financial Information
The accompanying Consolidated Balance Sheet as of June 30, 2017, the Consolidated Statements of Income for the three and six months ended June 30, 2016 and 2017, the Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income for the three and six months ended June 30, 2016 and 2017, and the Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows for the six months ended June 30, 2016 and 2017 are unaudited. These unaudited interim consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States (GAAP). In our opinion, the unaudited interim consolidated financial statements include all adjustments of a normal recurring nature necessary for the fair presentation of our financial position as of June 30, 2017, our results of operations for the three and six months ended June 30, 2016 and 2017, and our cash flows for the six months ended June 30, 2016 and 2017. The results of operations for the three and six months ended June 30, 2017 are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected for the year ending December 31, 2017.
These unaudited interim consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and related notes included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2016, filed with the SEC on February 2, 2017.
Use of Estimates
Preparation of the consolidated financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported and disclosed in the financial statements and the accompanying notes. Actual results could differ materially from these estimates. On an ongoing basis, we evaluate our estimates, including those related to accounts receivable and sales allowances, fair values of financial instruments, intangible assets and goodwill, useful lives of intangible assets and property and equipment, income taxes, and contingent liabilities, among others. We base our estimates on assumptions, both historical and forward looking, that are believed to be reasonable, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
Our financial assets and financial liabilities including cash equivalents, marketable securities, foreign currency and interest rate derivative contracts, and non-marketable debt securities are measured and recorded at fair value on a recurring basis. We measure certain financial assets at fair value for disclosure purposes, as well as on a nonrecurring basis when they are deemed to be other-than-temporarily impaired. Our other current financial assets and our other current financial liabilities have fair values that approximate their carrying value.
Fair value is an exit price, representing the amount that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants. As such, fair value is a market-based measurement that is determined based on assumptions that market participants would use in pricing an asset or a liability. Assets and liabilities recorded at fair value are measured and classified in accordance with a three-tier fair value hierarchy based on the observability of the inputs available in the market used to measure fair value:
Level 1 - Observable inputs that reflect quoted prices (unadjusted) for identical assets or liabilities in active markets.
Level 2 - Include other inputs that are based upon quoted prices for similar instruments in active markets, quoted prices for identical or similar instruments in markets that are not active, and model-based valuation techniques for which all significant inputs are observable in the market or can be derived from observable market data. Where
applicable, these models project future cash flows and discount the future amounts to a present value using market-based observable inputs including interest rate curves, foreign exchange rates, and credit ratings.
Level 3 - Unobservable inputs that are supported by little or no market activities.
The fair value hierarchy requires an entity to maximize the use of observable inputs and minimize the use of unobservable inputs when measuring fair value.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
Recently issued accounting pronouncements not yet adopted
In January 2016, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) issued Accounting Standards Update No. 2016-01 (ASU 2016-01) "Financial Instruments-Overall (Subtopic 825-10): Recognition and Measurement of Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities." ASU 2016-01 amends various aspects of the recognition, measurement, presentation, and disclosure of financial instruments. ASU 2016-01 is effective for annual reporting periods and interim periods within those years beginning after December 15, 2017. The most significant impact to our consolidated financial statements relates to the recognition and measurement of equity investments at fair value in our consolidated statement of income. We expect to elect the measurement alternative, defined as cost, less impairments, adjusted by observable price changes. We anticipate that the adoption of ASU 2016-01 will increase the volatility of our other income (expense), net, as a result of the remeasurement of our equity securities upon the occurrence of observable price changes and impairments.
In February 2016, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update No. 2016-02 (Topic 842) "Leases." Topic 842 supersedes the lease recognition requirements in Accounting Standards Codification (ASC) Topic 840, "Leases." Under Topic 842, lessees are required to recognize assets and liabilities on the balance sheet for most leases and provide enhanced disclosures. Leases will continue to be classified as either finance or operating. Topic 842 is effective for annual reporting periods and interim periods within those years beginning after December 15, 2018. Early adoption by public entities is permitted. Entities are required to use a modified retrospective approach for leases that exist or are entered into after the beginning of the earliest comparative period in the financial statements, and there are certain optional practical expedients that an entity may elect to apply. Full retrospective application is prohibited. We anticipate that the adoption of Topic 842 will materially affect our Consolidated Balance Sheets. We are in the process of implementing changes to our systems and processes in conjunction with our review of existing lease agreements. We plan to adopt Topic 842 effective January 1, 2019 and we are evaluating the use of the optional practical expedients.
In June 2016, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update No. 2016-13 (ASU 2016-13) "Financial Instruments-Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments" which requires the measurement and recognition of expected credit losses for financial assets held at amortized cost. ASU 2016-13 replaces the existing incurred loss impairment model with an expected loss methodology, which will result in more timely recognition of credit losses. ASU 2016-13 is effective for annual reporting periods, and interim periods within those years beginning after December 15, 2019. We are currently in the process of evaluating the impact of the adoption of ASU 2016-13 on our consolidated financial statements.
In January 2017, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update No. 2017-04 (ASU 2017-04) “Intangibles-Goodwill and Other (Topic 350): Simplifying the Test for Goodwill Impairment.” ASU 2017-04 eliminates step two of the goodwill impairment test and specifies that goodwill impairment should be measured by comparing the fair value of a reporting unit with its carrying amount. Additionally, the amount of goodwill allocated to each reporting unit with a zero or negative carrying amount of net assets should be disclosed. ASU 2017-04 is effective for annual or interim goodwill impairment tests performed in fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019; early adoption is permitted. We currently anticipate that the adoption of ASU 2017-04 will not have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements.
Recently adopted accounting pronouncements
In May 2014, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update No. 2014-09 (Topic 606) "Revenue from Contracts with Customers." Topic 606 supersedes the revenue recognition requirements in Topic 605 “Revenue Recognition” (Topic 605), and requires entities to recognize revenue when control of the promised goods or services is transferred to customers at an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled to in exchange for those goods or services. We adopted Topic 606 as of January 1, 2017 using the modified retrospective transition method. See Note 2 for further details.
In January 2017, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update No. 2017-01 (ASU 2017-01) “Business Combinations (Topic 805): Clarifying the Definition of a Business.” ASU 2017-01 provides guidance to evaluate whether transactions should be accounted for as acquisitions (or disposals) of assets or businesses. If substantially all of the
fair value of the gross assets acquired (or disposed of) is concentrated in a single asset or a group of similar assets, the assets acquired (or disposed of) are not considered a business. We adopted ASU 2017-01 as of January 1, 2017 on a prospective basis.
Prior Period Reclassifications
Certain amounts in prior periods have been reclassified to conform with current period presentation.
Note 2. Revenues
Adoption of ASC Topic 606, "Revenue from Contracts with Customers"
On January 1, 2017, we adopted Topic 606 using the modified retrospective method applied to those contracts which were not completed as of January 1, 2017. Results for reporting periods beginning after January 1, 2017 are presented under Topic 606, while prior period amounts are not adjusted and continue to be reported in accordance with our historic accounting under Topic 605.
We recorded a net reduction to opening retained earnings of $15 million as of January 1, 2017 due to the cumulative impact of adopting Topic 606, with the impact primarily related to our non-advertising revenues. The impact to revenues as a result of applying Topic 606 was an increase of $8 million and $22 million for the three and six months ended June 30, 2017, respectively.
Revenues are recognized when control of the promised goods or services is transferred to our customers, in an amount that reflects the consideration we expect to be entitled to in exchange for those goods or services.
The following table presents our revenues disaggregated by revenue source (in millions, unaudited). Sales and usage-based taxes are excluded from revenues.
The following table presents our revenues disaggregated by geography, based on the billing addresses of our customers (in millions, unaudited):
We generate revenues primarily by delivering advertising on Google properties and Google Network Members’ properties.
Google properties revenues consist primarily of advertising revenues generated on Google.com, the Google app, YouTube, and other Google owned and operated properties like Gmail, Google Maps, and Google Play.
Google Network Members’ properties revenues consist primarily of advertising revenues generated from placing ads on Google Network Members’ properties.
Our customers generally purchase advertising inventory through AdWords, DoubleClick Bid Manager, and DoubleClick AdExchange, among others.
Most of our customers pay us on a cost-per-click basis (CPC), which means that an advertiser pays us only when a user clicks on an ad on Google properties or Google Network Members' properties or views certain YouTube ad formats like TrueView. For these customers, we recognize revenue each time a user clicks on the ad or when a user views the ad for a specified period of time.
We also offer advertising on other bases such as cost-per-impression (CPM), which means an advertiser pays us based on the number of times their ads are displayed on Google properties or Google Network Members’ properties. For these customers, we recognize revenue each time an ad is displayed.
Certain customers may receive cash-based incentives or credits, which are accounted for as variable consideration. We estimate these amounts based on the expected amount to be provided to customers and reduce revenues recognized. We believe that there will not be significant changes to our estimates of variable consideration.
For ads placed on Google Network Members’ properties, we evaluate whether we are the principal (i.e., report revenues on a gross basis) or agent (i.e., report revenues on a net basis). Generally, we report advertising revenues for ads placed on Google Network Members’ properties on a gross basis, that is, the amounts billed to our customers are recorded as revenues, and amounts paid to publishers are recorded as cost of revenues. We are the principal because we control the advertising inventory before it is transferred to our customers. Our control is evidenced by our sole ability to monetize the advertising inventory, being primarily responsible to our customers, having discretion in establishing pricing, or a combination of these.
Google other revenues and Other Bets revenues consist primarily of revenues from:
As it relates to Google other revenues, the most significant judgment is determining whether we are the principal or agent for app sales and in-app purchases through the Google Play store. We report revenues from these transactions on a net basis because our performance obligation is to facilitate a transaction between app developers and end users, for which we earn a commission. Consequently, the portion of the gross amount billed to end users that is remitted to app developers is not reflected as revenues.
Arrangements with Multiple Performance Obligations
Our contracts with customers may include multiple performance obligations. For such arrangements, we allocate revenue to each performance obligation based on its relative standalone selling price. We generally determine standalone selling prices based on the prices charged to customers or using expected cost plus margin.
We record deferred revenues when cash payments are received or due in advance of our performance, including amounts which are refundable. The increase in the deferred revenue balance for the six months ended June 30, 2017 is primarily driven by cash payments received or due in advance of satisfying our performance obligations, offset by $637 million of revenues recognized that were included in the deferred revenue balance as of December 31, 2016.
Our payment terms vary by the type and location of our customer and the products or services offered. The term between invoicing and when payment is due is not significant. For certain products or services and customer types, we require payment before the products or services are delivered to the customer.
Practical Expedients and Exemptions
We generally expense sales commissions when incurred because the amortization period would have been one year or less. These costs are recorded within sales and marketing expenses.
We do not disclose the value of unsatisfied performance obligations for (i) contracts with an original expected length of one year or less and (ii) contracts for which we recognize revenue at the amount to which we have the right to invoice for services performed.
Note 3. Financial Instruments
We classify our cash equivalents and marketable securities within Level 1 or Level 2 in the fair value hierarchy because we use quoted market prices or alternative pricing sources and models utilizing market observable inputs to determine their fair value. We classify our foreign currency and interest rate derivative contracts primarily within Level 2 in the fair value hierarchy as the valuation inputs are based on quoted prices and market observable data of similar instruments.
Cash, Cash Equivalents, and Marketable Securities
The following tables summarize our cash, cash equivalents, and marketable securities by significant investment categories as of December 31, 2016 and June 30, 2017 (in millions):
We determine realized gains or losses on the sale of marketable securities on a specific identification method. We recognized gross realized gains of $91 million and $24 million for the three months ended June 30, 2016 and 2017, respectively, and $159 million and $172 million for the six months ended June 30, 2016 and 2017, respectively. We recognized gross realized losses of $100 million and $39 million for the three months ended June 30, 2016 and 2017, respectively, and $335 million and $209 million for the six months ended June 30, 2016 and 2017, respectively. We reflect these gains and losses as a component of other income (expense), net, in the accompanying Consolidated Statements of Income.
The following table summarizes the estimated fair value of our investments in marketable debt securities, accounted for as available-for-sale securities and classified by the contractual maturity date of the securities (in millions, unaudited):
Impairment Considerations for Marketable Investments
The following tables present gross unrealized losses and fair values for those investments that were in an unrealized loss position as of December 31, 2016 and June 30, 2017, aggregated by investment category and the length of time that individual securities have been in a continuous loss position (in millions):
During the three months ended June 30, 2016 and the three and six months ended June 30, 2017, we did not recognize any other-than-temporary impairment losses. During the six months ended June 30, 2016, we recognized $87 million of other-than-temporary impairment losses related to our marketable equity securities. Those losses are included in loss on marketable securities, net, as a component of other income (expense), net, in the accompanying Consolidated Statements of Income. See Note 6 for further details on other income (expense), net.
Derivative Financial Instruments
We recognize derivative instruments as either assets or liabilities in the accompanying Consolidated Balance Sheets at fair value. We record changes in the fair value (i.e., gains or losses) of the derivatives in the accompanying Consolidated Statements of Income as other income (expense), net, revenues, or accumulated other comprehensive income (AOCI) in the accompanying Consolidated Balance Sheets, as discussed below.
We enter into foreign currency contracts with financial institutions to reduce the risk that our cash flows and earnings will be adversely affected by foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations. We use certain interest rate derivative contracts to hedge interest rate exposures on our fixed income securities and debt issuances. Our program is not used for trading or speculative purposes.
We enter into master netting arrangements, which reduce credit risk by permitting net settlement of transactions with the same counterparty. To further reduce credit risk, we enter into collateral security arrangements under which the counterparty is required to provide collateral when the net fair value of certain financial instruments fluctuates from contractually established thresholds. We can take possession of the collateral in the event of counterparty default. As of December 31, 2016 and June 30, 2017, we received cash collateral related to the derivative instruments under our collateral security arrangements of $362 million and $54 million, respectively.
Cash Flow Hedges
We use foreign currency forwards and option contracts, including collars (an option strategy comprised of a combination of purchased and written options), designated as cash flow hedges to hedge certain forecasted revenue transactions denominated in currencies other than the U.S. dollar and at times we use interest rate swaps to effectively lock interest rates on anticipated debt issuances. These transactions are designated as cash flow hedges. The notional principal of these contracts was approximately $10.7 billion and $11.0 billion as of December 31, 2016 and June 30, 2017, respectively. These contracts have maturities of 24 months or less.
We reflect gain or loss on the effective portion of a cash flow hedge as a component of AOCI and subsequently reclassify cumulative gains and losses to revenues or interest expense when the hedged transactions are recorded. If the hedged transactions become probable of not occurring, the corresponding amounts in AOCI are immediately reclassified to other income (expense), net. For foreign currency collars, we include the change in time value in our assessment of hedge effectiveness. For forwards and all other option contracts, we exclude the change in the forward points and time value from our assessment of hedge effectiveness. We recognize changes of the excluded components in other income (expense), net.
As of June 30, 2017, the effective portion of our cash flow hedges before tax effect was a net accumulated loss of $306 million, of which a net loss of $339 million is expected to be reclassified from AOCI into earnings within the next 12 months.
Fair Value Hedges
We use forward contracts designated as fair value hedges to hedge foreign currency risks for our investments denominated in currencies other than the U.S. dollar. We exclude changes in forward points for the forward contracts from the assessment of hedge effectiveness. The notional principal of these contracts was $2.4 billion as of December 31, 2016 and June 30, 2017.
Gains and losses on these forward contracts are recognized in other income (expense), net, along with the offsetting gains and losses of the related hedged items.
Other derivatives not designated as hedging instruments consist of foreign currency forward contracts that we use to hedge intercompany transactions and other monetary assets or liabilities denominated in currencies other than the local currency of a subsidiary. We recognize gains and losses on these contracts, as well as the related costs in other income (expense), net, along with the foreign currency gains and losses on monetary assets and liabilities. The notional principal of the outstanding foreign exchange contracts was $7.9 billion and $7.5 billion as of December 31, 2016 and June 30, 2017, respectively.
The fair values of our outstanding derivative instruments were as follows (in millions):
The effect of derivative instruments in cash flow hedging relationships on income and other comprehensive income (OCI) is summarized below (in millions, unaudited):