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International Business Machines 10-Q 2011

Table of Contents

 

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON, DC 20549

 

FORM 10 - Q

 

QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 or 15(d)
OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

FOR THE QUARTER ENDED MARCH 31, 2011

 

1-2360

(Commission file number)

 

INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATION

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

New York

 

13-0871985

(State of incorporation)

 

(IRS employer identification number)

 

 

 

Armonk, New York

 

10504

(Address of principal executive offices)

 

(Zip Code)

 

914-499-1900

(Registrant’s telephone number)

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.  Yes x  No o

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).  Yes x  No o

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer or a smaller reporting company. See definition of “accelerated filer,” “large accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):

 

Large accelerated filer x

 

Accelerated filer o

 

 

 

Non-accelerated filer o

 

Smaller reporting company o

(Do not check if a smaller reporting company)

 

 

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).  Yes o  No x

 

The registrant has 1,211,200,200 shares of common stock outstanding at March 31, 2011.

 

 

 



Table of Contents

 

Index

 

 

Page

 

 

PART I - Financial Information:

3

 

 

ITEM 1. Consolidated Financial Statements:

3

 

 

Consolidated Statement of Earnings for the three months ended March 31, 2011 and 2010

3

 

 

Consolidated Statement of Financial Position at March 31, 2011 and December 31, 2010

4

 

 

Consolidated Statement of Cash Flows for the three months ended March 31, 2011 and 2010

6

 

 

Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements

7

 

 

ITEM 2. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Results of Operations and Financial Condition

34

 

 

ITEM 4. Controls and Procedures

63

 

 

PART II - Other Information:

63

 

 

ITEM 1. Legal Proceedings

63

 

 

ITEM 2. Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities and Use of Proceeds and Issuer Repurchases of Equity Securities

63

 

 

ITEM 6. Exhibits

64

 

2



Table of Contents

 

PART I - Financial Information

 

ITEM 1. Consolidated Financial Statements:

 

INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATION
AND SUBSIDIARY COMPANIES

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENT OF EARNINGS
(UNAUDITED)

 

(Dollars in millions except

 

Three Months Ended
March 31,

 

per share amounts)

 

2011

 

2010

 

Revenue:

 

 

 

 

 

Services

 

$

14,696

 

$

13,805

 

Sales

 

9,387

 

8,508

 

Financing

 

524

 

545

 

Total revenue

 

24,607

 

22,857

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cost:

 

 

 

 

 

Services

 

10,116

 

9,384

 

Sales

 

3,390

 

3,224

 

Financing

 

243

 

273

 

Total cost

 

13,749

 

12,880

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gross profit

 

10,858

 

9,976

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Expense and other income:

 

 

 

 

 

Selling, general and administrative

 

5,826

 

5,677

 

Research, development and engineering

 

1,587

 

1,509

 

Intellectual property and custom development income

 

(262

)

(261

)

Other (income) and expense

 

(202

)

(545

)

Interest expense

 

93

 

82

 

Total expense and other income

 

7,041

 

6,462

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Income before income taxes

 

3,817

 

3,515

 

Provision for income taxes

 

954

 

914

 

Net income

 

$

2,863

 

$

2,601

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Earnings per share of common stock:

 

 

 

 

 

Assuming dilution

 

$

2.31

 

$

1.97

 

Basic

 

$

2.34

 

$

2.00

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Weighted-average number of common shares outstanding: (millions)

 

 

 

 

 

Assuming dilution

 

1,240.0

 

1,321.6

 

Basic

 

1,222.2

 

1,301.2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash dividend per common share

 

$

0.65

 

$

0.55

 

 

(Amounts may not add due to rounding.)

 

(The accompanying notes are an integral part of the financial statements.)

 

3



Table of Contents

 

INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATION
AND SUBSIDIARY COMPANIES

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENT OF FINANCIAL POSITION
(UNAUDITED)

 

ASSETS

 

 

 

At March 31,

 

At December 31,

 

(Dollars in millions)

 

2011

 

2010

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Assets:

 

 

 

 

 

Current assets:

 

 

 

 

 

Cash and cash equivalents

 

$

12,763

 

$

10,661

 

Marketable securities

 

482

 

990

 

Notes and accounts receivable — trade (net of allowances of $328 in 2011 and $324 in 2010)

 

10,148

 

10,834

 

Short-term financing receivables (net of allowances of $318 in 2011 and $342 in 2010)

 

14,365

 

16,257

 

Other accounts receivable (net of allowances of $12 in 2011 and $10 in 2010)

 

1,145

 

1,134

 

Inventories, at lower of average cost or market:

 

 

 

 

 

Finished goods

 

548

 

432

 

Work in process and raw materials

 

2,001

 

2,018

 

Total inventories

 

2,549

 

2,450

 

Deferred taxes

 

1,695

 

1,564

 

Prepaid expenses and other current assets

 

4,376

 

4,226

 

Total current assets

 

47,524

 

48,116

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Plant, rental machines and other property

 

40,765

 

40,289

 

Less: Accumulated depreciation

 

26,557

 

26,193

 

Plant, rental machines and other property — net

 

14,208

 

14,096

 

Long-term financing receivables (net of allowances of $39 in 2011 and $58 in 2010)

 

10,254

 

10,548

 

Prepaid pension assets

 

3,788

 

3,068

 

Deferred taxes

 

3,076

 

3,220

 

Goodwill

 

25,408

 

25,136

 

Intangible assets — net

 

3,324

 

3,488

 

Investments and sundry assets

 

5,380

 

5,778

 

Total assets

 

$

112,960

 

$

113,452

 

 

(Amounts may not add due to rounding.)

 

(The accompanying notes are an integral part of the financial statements.)

 

4



Table of Contents

 

INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATION
AND SUBSIDIARY COMPANIES

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENT OF FINANCIAL POSITION — (CONTINUED)
(UNAUDITED)

 

LIABILITIES AND EQUITY

 

(Dollars in millions)

 

At March 31,
2011

 

At December 31,
2010

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Liabilities and equity:

 

 

 

 

 

Current liabilities:

 

 

 

 

 

Taxes

 

$

2,531

 

$

4,216

 

Short-term debt

 

8,508

 

6,778

 

Accounts payable

 

6,747

 

7,804

 

Compensation and benefits

 

4,446

 

5,028

 

Deferred income

 

12,820

 

11,580

 

Other accrued expenses and liabilities

 

5,336

 

5,156

 

Total current liabilities

 

40,387

 

40,562

 

Long-term debt

 

21,749

 

21,846

 

Retirement and nonpension postretirement benefit obligations

 

15,995

 

15,978

 

Deferred income

 

3,724

 

3,666

 

Other liabilities

 

8,330

 

8,226

 

Total liabilities

 

90,185

 

90,279

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Equity:

 

 

 

 

 

IBM stockholders’ equity:

 

 

 

 

 

Common stock, par value $0.20 per share, and additional paid-in capital

 

46,278

 

45,418

 

Shares authorized: 4,687,500,000

 

 

 

 

 

Shares issued: 2011 - 2,169,188,522

 

 

 

 

 

2010 - 2,161,800,054

 

 

 

 

 

Retained earnings

 

94,590

 

92,532

 

Treasury stock - at cost

 

(100,078

)

(96,161

)

Shares: 2011 - 957,988,323

 

 

 

 

 

2010 - 933,806,510

 

 

 

 

 

Accumulated other comprehensive income/(loss)

 

(18,119

)

(18,743

)

Total IBM stockholders’ equity

 

22,671

 

23,046

 

Noncontrolling interests

 

104

 

126

 

Total equity

 

22,776

 

23,172

 

Total liabilities and equity

 

$

112,960

 

$

113,452

 

 

(Amounts may not add due to rounding.)

 

(The accompanying notes are an integral part of the financial statements.)

 

5



Table of Contents

 

INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATION
AND SUBSIDIARY COMPANIES

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENT OF CASH FLOWS
FOR THE THREE MONTHS ENDED MARCH 31, (UNAUDITED)

 

(Dollars in millions)

 

2011

 

2010

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash flow from operating activities:

 

 

 

 

 

Net income

 

$

2,863

 

$

2,601

 

Adjustments to reconcile net income to cash provided by operating activities:

 

 

 

 

 

Depreciation

 

918

 

924

 

Amortization of intangibles

 

310

 

286

 

Stock-based compensation

 

170

 

169

 

Net (gain)/loss on asset sales and other

 

(320

)

(578

)

Changes in operating assets and liabilities, net of acquisitions/divestitures

 

(147

)

1,033

 

Net cash provided by operating activities

 

3,792

 

4,437

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash flow from investing activities:

 

 

 

 

 

Payments for plant, rental machines and other property, net of proceeds from dispositions

 

(915

)

(758

)

Investment in software

 

(143

)

(146

)

Acquisition of businesses, net of cash acquired

 

(51

)

(824

)

Non-operating finance receivables — net

 

541

 

457

 

Purchases of marketable securities and other investments

 

(415

)

(1,747

)

Proceeds from disposition of marketable securities and other investments

 

1,481

 

2,319

 

Net cash provided by/(used in) investing activities

 

498

 

(699

)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash flow from financing activities:

 

 

 

 

 

Proceeds from new debt

 

1,054

 

1,190

 

Payments to settle debt

 

(1,539

)

(2,382

)

Short-term borrowings/(repayments) less than 90 days — net

 

2,135

 

1,673

 

Common stock repurchases

 

(4,045

)

(4,017

)

Common stock transactions — other

 

877

 

885

 

Cash dividends paid

 

(795

)

(718

)

Net cash used in financing activities

 

(2,314

)

(3,368

)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Effect of exchange rate changes on cash and cash equivalents

 

126

 

(81

)

Net change in cash and cash equivalents

 

2,102

 

289

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash and cash equivalents at January 1

 

10,661

 

12,183

 

Cash and cash equivalents at March 31

 

$

12,763

 

$

12,472

 

 

(Amounts may not add due to rounding.)

 

(The accompanying notes are an integral part of the financial statements.)

 

6



Table of Contents

 

Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements:

 

1. Basis of Presentation: The accompanying Consolidated Financial Statements and footnotes of the International Business Machines Corporation (IBM or the company) have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (GAAP). The financial statements and footnotes are unaudited. In the opinion of the company’s management, these statements include all adjustments, which are of a normal recurring nature, necessary to present a fair statement of the company’s results of operations, financial position and cash flows.

 

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the assets, liabilities, revenue, costs, expenses and accumulated other comprehensive income/(loss) that are reported in the Consolidated Financial Statements and accompanying disclosures. Actual results may be different. See the company’s 2010 Annual Report on pages 50 to 53 for a discussion of the company’s critical accounting estimates.

 

Interim results are not necessarily indicative of financial results for a full year. The information included in this Form 10-Q should be read in conjunction with the company’s 2010 Annual Report.

 

Noncontrolling interest amounts in income of $2.6 million and $1.8 million, net of tax, for the three months ended March 31, 2011 and March 31, 2010, respectively, are not presented separately in the Consolidated Statement of Earnings due to immateriality, but are reflected within the other (income) and expense line item. Additionally, changes to noncontrolling interests which are presented in Note 9, “Equity Activity”, on page 25 were $(22) million and $(2) million at March 31, 2011 and 2010, respectively.

 

Within the financial statements and tables presented, certain columns and rows may not add due to the use of rounded numbers for disclosure purposes. Percentages presented are calculated from the underlying whole-dollar amounts. Certain prior year amounts have been reclassified to conform to the current year presentation. This is annotated where applicable.

 

2. Accounting Changes: In December 2010, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) issued amended guidance to clarify the acquisition date that should be used for reporting pro-forma financial information for business combinations. If comparative financial statements are presented, the pro-forma revenue and earnings of the combined entity for the comparable prior reporting period should be reported as though the acquisition date for all business combinations that occurred during the current year had been completed as of the beginning of the comparable prior annual reporting period. The amendments in this guidance became effective prospectively for business combinations for which the acquisition date is on or after January 1, 2011. There was no impact in the consolidated financial results as the amendments relate only to additional disclosures.

 

In December 2010, the FASB issued amendments to the guidance on goodwill impairment testing. The amendments modify Step 1 of the goodwill impairment test for reporting units with zero or negative carrying amounts. For those reporting units, an entity is required to perform Step 2 of the goodwill impairment test if it is more likely than not that a goodwill impairment exists. In making that determination, an entity should consider whether there are any adverse qualitative factors indicating that impairment may exist. The amendments were effective January 1, 2011 and did not have a material impact in the Consolidated Financial Statements.

 

In January 2011, the FASB temporarily deferred the disclosures regarding troubled debt restructurings which were included in the disclosure requirements about the credit quality of financing receivables and the allowance for credit losses which was issued in July 2010.  In April 2011, the FASB issued additional guidance and clarifications to help creditors in determining whether a creditor has granted a concession, and whether a debtor is experiencing financial difficulties for purposes of determining whether a restructuring constitutes a troubled debt restructuring. The new guidance and the previously deferred disclosures are effective July 1, 2011 applied retrospectively to January 1, 2011. Prospective application is required for any new impairments identified as a result of this guidance. These changes are not expected to have a material impact in the Consolidated Financial Statements. For further information on the disclosures regarding the credit quality of financing receivables, see Note 5 on pages 13 to 17.

 

In January 2010, the FASB issued additional disclosure requirements for fair value measurements which the company included in its interim and annual financial statements in 2010.  Certain disclosure requirements relating to fair value measurements using significant unobservable inputs (Level 3) were deferred until January 1, 2011. These new requirements did not have an impact in the consolidated financial results as they relate only to additional disclosures.

 

7



Table of Contents

 

Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements — (continued)

 

3. Fair Value: Exit prices are used to measure assets and liabilities that fall within the scope of the fair value measurements guidance. Under this guidance, the company is required to classify certain assets and liabilities based on the following fair value hierarchy:

 

·                  Level 1—Quoted prices in active markets that are unadjusted and accessible at the measurement date for identical, unrestricted assets or liabilities;

·                  Level 2—Quoted prices for identical assets and liabilities in markets that are not active, quoted prices for similar assets and liabilities in active markets or financial instruments for which significant inputs are observable, either directly or indirectly; and

·                  Level 3—Prices or valuations that require inputs that are both significant to the fair value measurement and unobservable.

 

The guidance requires the use of observable market data if such data is available without undue cost and effort.

 

When available, the company uses unadjusted quoted market prices to measure the fair value and classifies such items within Level 1. If quoted market prices are not available, fair value is based upon internally developed models that use current market-based or independently sourced market parameters such as interest rates and currency rates. Items valued using internally generated models are classified according to the lowest level input or value driver that is significant to the valuation.

 

The determination of fair value considers various factors including interest rate yield curves and time value underlying the financial instruments. For derivatives and debt securities, the company uses a discounted cash flow analysis using discount rates commensurate with the duration of the instrument.

 

In determining the fair value of financial instruments, the company considers certain market valuation adjustments to the “base valuations” calculated using the methodologies described below for several parameters that market participants would consider in determining fair value:

 

·                  Counterparty credit risk adjustments are applied to financial instruments, taking into account the actual credit risk of a counterparty as observed in the credit default swap market to determine the true fair value of such an instrument.

·                  Credit risk adjustments are applied to reflect the company’s own credit risk when valuing all liabilities measured at fair value. The methodology is consistent with that applied in developing counterparty credit risk adjustments, but incorporates the company’s own credit risk as observed in the credit default swap market.

 

As an example, the fair value of derivatives is derived utilizing a discounted cash flow model that uses observable market inputs such as known notional value amounts, yield curves, spot and forward exchange rates as well as discount rates. These inputs relate to liquid, heavily traded currencies with active markets which are available for the full term of the derivative.

 

Certain financial assets are measured at fair value on a nonrecurring basis. These assets include equity method investments that are recognized at fair value at the end of the period to the extent that they are deemed to be other-than-temporarily impaired. Certain assets that are measured at fair value on a recurring basis can be subject to nonrecurring fair value measurements. These assets include public cost method investments that are deemed to be other-than-temporarily impaired. In the event of an other-than-temporary impairment of a financial investment, fair value is measured using a model described above.

 

Non-financial assets such as property, plant and equipment, land, goodwill and intangible assets are also subject to nonrecurring fair value measurements if they are deemed to be impaired. The impairment models used for nonfinancial assets depend on the type of asset. See Note A, “Significant Accounting Policies,” on pages 68 to 79 in the 2010 Annual Report for further information. There were no material impairments of non-financial assets for the three months ended March 31, 2011 and 2010, respectively.

 

Accounting guidance permits the measurement of eligible financial assets, financial liabilities and firm commitments at fair value, on an instrument-by-instrument basis, that are otherwise not permitted to be accounted for at fair value under other accounting standards. This election is irrevocable. The company does not apply the fair value option to any eligible assets or liabilities.

 

8



Table of Contents

 

Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements — (continued)

 

The following tables present the company’s financial assets and financial liabilities that are measured at fair value on a recurring basis at March 31, 2011 and December 31, 2010.

 

(Dollars in millions)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

At March 31, 2011

 

Level 1

 

Level 2

 

Level 3

 

Total

 

Assets:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash and cash equivalents(1)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Time deposits and certificates of deposit

 

$

 

$

4,874

 

$

 

$

4,874

 

Commercial paper

 

 

2,269

 

 

2,269

 

Money market funds

 

2,708

 

 

 

2,708

 

Other securities

 

 

10

 

 

10

 

Total

 

2,708

 

7,153

 

 

9,861

 

Debt securities — current(2)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Commercial paper

 

 

282

 

 

282

 

U.S. government securities

 

 

200

 

 

200

 

Total

 

 

482

 

 

482

 

Debt securities — noncurrent(3)

 

1

 

6

 

 

7

 

Non-equity method alliance investments(3) 

 

121

 

21

 

 

142

 

Derivative assets(4)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Interest rate contracts

 

 

548

 

 

548

 

Foreign exchange contracts

 

 

279

 

 

279

 

Equity contracts

 

 

21

 

 

21

 

Total

 

 

848

 

 

848

(6)

Total assets

 

$

2,830

 

$

8,511

 

$

 

$

11,340

(6)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Liabilities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Derivative liabilities(5) 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Foreign exchange contracts

 

$

 

$

967

 

$

 

$

967

 

Equity contracts

 

 

 

4

 

 

 

4

 

Total liabilities

 

$

 

$

971

 

$

 

$

971

(6)

 


(1) Included within cash and cash equivalents in the Consolidated Statement of Financial Position.

(2) Reported as marketable securities in the Consolidated Statement of Financial Position.

(3) Included within investments and sundry assets in the Consolidated Statement of Financial Position.

(4) The gross balances of derivative assets contained within prepaid expenses and other current assets, and investments and sundry assets in the Consolidated Statement of Financial Position at March 31, 2011 are $292 million and $556 million, respectively.

(5) The gross balances of derivative liabilities contained within other accrued expenses and liabilities, and other liabilities in the Consolidated Statement of Financial Position at March 31, 2011 are $894 million and $77 million, respectively.

(6) If derivative exposures covered by a qualifying master netting agreement had been netted in the Consolidated Statement of Financial Position, the total derivative asset and liability positions would have been reduced by $396 million each.

 

9



Table of Contents

 

Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements — (continued)

 

(Dollars in millions)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

At December 31, 2010

 

Level 1

 

Level 2

 

Level 3

 

Total

 

Assets:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash and cash equivalents(1)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Time deposits and certificates of deposit

 

$

 

$

2,473

 

$

 

$

2,473

 

Commercial paper

 

 

2,673

 

 

2,673

 

Money market funds

 

1,532

 

 

 

1,532

 

Foreign government securities

 

 

1,054

 

 

1,054

 

U.S. government securities

 

 

44

 

 

44

 

U.S. government agency securities

 

 

22

 

 

22

 

Other securities

 

 

3

 

 

3

 

Total

 

1,532

 

6,269

 

 

7,801

 

Debt securities — current(2)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Commercial paper

 

 

490

 

 

490

 

U.S. government securities

 

 

500

 

 

500

 

Other securities

 

 

1

 

 

1

 

Total

 

 

990

 

 

990

 

Debt securities — noncurrent(3)

 

1

 

6

 

 

7

 

Non-equity method alliance investments(3) 

 

445

 

13

 

 

458

 

Derivative assets(4)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Interest rate contracts

 

 

548

 

 

548

 

Foreign exchange contracts

 

 

539

 

 

539

 

Equity contracts

 

 

12

 

 

12

 

Total

 

 

1,099

 

 

1,099

(6)

Total assets

 

$

1,978

 

$

8,377

 

$

 

$

10,355

(6)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Liabilities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Derivative liabilities(5) 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Foreign exchange contracts

 

$

 

$

1,003

 

$

 

$

1,003

 

Equity contracts

 

 

3

 

 

3

 

Total liabilities

 

$

 

$

1,006

 

$

 

$

1,006

(6)

 


(1) Included within cash and cash equivalents in the Consolidated Statement of Financial Position.

(2) Reported as marketable securities in the Consolidated Statement of Financial Position.

(3) Included within investments and sundry assets in the Consolidated Statement of Financial Position.

(4) The gross balances of derivative assets contained within prepaid expenses and other current assets, and investments and sundry assets in the Consolidated Statement of Financial Position at December 31, 2010 are $511 million and $588 million, respectively.

(5) The gross balances of derivative liabilities contained within other accrued expenses and liabilities, and other liabilities in the Consolidated Statement of Financial Position at December 31, 2010 are $871 million and $135 million, respectively.

(6) If derivative exposures covered by a qualifying master netting agreement had been netted in the Consolidated Statement of Financial Position, the total derivative asset and liability positions would have been reduced by $475 million each.

 

There were no significant transfers between Levels 1 and 2 for the quarter ended March 31, 2011 and for the year ended December 31, 2010.

 

10



Table of Contents

 

Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements — (continued)

 

4. Financial Instruments (excluding derivatives): Cash and cash equivalents, debt and marketable equity securities are recognized and measured at fair value in the company’s Consolidated Financial Statements. Notes and other accounts receivable and other investments are financial assets with carrying values that approximate fair value. Accounts payable, other accrued expenses and short-term debt are financial liabilities with carrying values that approximate fair value. In the absence of quoted prices in active markets, considerable judgment is required in developing estimates of fair value. Estimates are not necessarily indicative of the amounts the company could realize in a current market transaction. The following methods and assumptions are used to estimate fair values:

 

Loans and Long-term Receivables

 

Fair values are based on discounted future cash flows using current interest rates offered for similar loans to clients with similar credit ratings for the same remaining maturities.

 

Long-term Debt

 

Fair value of publicly-traded long-term debt is based on quoted market prices for the identical liability when traded as an asset in an active market. For other long-term debt for which a quoted market price is not available, an expected present value technique that uses rates currently available to the company for debt with similar terms and remaining maturities is used to estimate fair value. The carrying amount of long-term debt is $21,749 million and $21,846 million and the estimated fair value is $23,668 million and $24,006 million at March 31, 2011 and December 31, 2010, respectively.

 

Debt and Marketable Equity Securities

 

The following tables summarize the company’s debt and marketable equity securities all of which are considered available-for-sale and recorded at fair value in the Consolidated Statement of Financial Position.

 

 

 

 

 

Gross

 

Gross

 

 

 

(Dollars in millions)

 

Adjusted

 

Unrealized

 

Unrealized

 

Fair

 

At March 31, 2011

 

Cost

 

Gains

 

Losses

 

Value

 

Cash and cash equivalents(1)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Time deposits and certificates of deposit

 

$

4,874

 

$

 

$

(0

)

$

4,874

 

Commercial paper

 

2,269

 

 

(0

)

2,269

 

Money market funds

 

2,708

 

 

 

2,708

 

Other securities

 

10

 

 

 

10

 

Total

 

$

9,861

 

$

 

$

(0

)

$

9,861

 

Debt securities — current(2)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Commercial paper

 

$

282

 

$

0

 

$

 

$

282

 

U.S. government securities

 

200

 

0

 

 

200

 

Other securities

 

2

 

 

(2

)

0

 

Total

 

$

484

 

$

0

 

$

(2

)

$

482

 

Debt securities — noncurrent(3)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Other securities

 

$

7

 

$

0

 

$

 

$

7

 

Total

 

$

7

 

$

0

 

$

 

$

7

 

Non-equity method alliance investments(3) 

 

$

80

 

$

63

 

$

(0

)

$

142

 

 


(1) Included within cash and cash equivalents in the Consolidated Statement of Financial Position.

(2) Reported as marketable securities within the Consolidated Statement of Financial Position.

(3) Included within investments and sundry assets in the Consolidated Statement of Financial Position.

 

11



Table of Contents

 

Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements — (continued)

 

 

 

 

 

Gross

 

Gross

 

 

 

(Dollars in millions)

 

Adjusted

 

Unrealized

 

Unrealized

 

Fair

 

At December 31, 2010

 

Cost

 

Gains

 

Losses

 

Value

 

Cash and cash equivalents(1)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Time deposits and certificates of deposit

 

$

2,473

 

$

 

$

(0

)

$

2,473

 

Commercial paper

 

2,673

 

 

(0

)

2,673

 

Money market funds

 

1,532

 

 

 

1,532

 

Foreign government securities

 

1,054

 

 

 

1,054

 

U.S. government securities

 

44

 

0

 

(0

)

44

 

U.S. government agency securities

 

22

 

0

 

(0

)

22

 

Other securities

 

3

 

 

 

3

 

Total

 

$

7,801

 

$

0

 

$

(0

)

$

7,801

 

Debt securities — current(2)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Commercial paper

 

$

490

 

$

 

$

(0

)

$

490

 

U.S. government securities

 

500

 

 

(0

)

500

 

Other securities

 

1

 

 

(0

)

1

 

Total

 

$

990

 

$

 

$

(0

)

$

990

 

Debt securities — noncurrent(3)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Other securities

 

$

6

 

$

1

 

$

(0

)

$

7

 

Total

 

$

6

 

$

1

 

$

(0

)

$

7

 

Non-equity method alliance investments(3) 

 

$

194

 

$

264

 

$

(0

)

$

458

 

 


(1) Included within cash and cash equivalents in the Consolidated Statement of Financial Position.

(2) Reported as marketable securities within the Consolidated Statement of Financial Position.

(3) Included within investments and sundry assets in the Consolidated Statement of Financial Position.

 

Based on an evaluation of available evidence as of March 31, 2011, the company believes that unrealized losses on debt and marketable equity securities are temporary and do not represent a need for an other-than-temporary impairment.

 

Proceeds from sales of debt securities and marketable equity securities were approximately $315 million and $9 million for the three months ended March 31, 2011 and 2010, respectively. The gross realized gains (before taxes) on these sales totaled $203 million for the three months ended March 31, 2011. The gross realized losses (before taxes) on these sales totaled less than $1 million for the three months ended March 31, 2011. The gross realized gains (before taxes) on these sales totaled $4 million for the three months ended March 31, 2010. The company determines the cost of the securities sold based on the specific identification method.

 

The after tax net unrealized holding gains/(losses) on available-for-sale debt and marketable equity securities that have been included in accumulated other comprehensive income/(loss) and the after tax net gains/(losses) reclassified from accumulated other comprehensive income/(loss) into net income were as follows:

 

(Dollars in millions)

 

 

 

 

 

For the three months ended March 31:

 

2011

 

2010

 

Net unrealized gains/(losses) arising during the period

 

$

1

 

$

41

 

Less: Net (losses)/gains included in net income for the period*

 

124

 

(1

)

Net unrealized gains/(losses) on marketable securities

 

$

(123

)

$

42

 

 


* Includes writedowns of $3.1 million for the three months ended March 31, 2010.

 

The contractual maturities of substantially all available-for-sale debt securities are less than one year at March 31, 2011.

 

12



Table of Contents

 

Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements — (continued)

 

5. Financing Receivables: The following table presents financing receivables, net of allowances for credit losses, including residual values.

 

 

 

At March 31,

 

At December 31,

 

(Dollars in millions)

 

2011

 

2010

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Current:

 

 

 

 

 

Net investment in sales-type and direct financing leases

 

$

4,063

 

$

3,945

 

Commercial financing receivables

 

4,873

 

6,777

 

Client loan receivables

 

4,651

 

4,718

 

Installment payment receivables

 

777

 

816

 

Total

 

$

14,365

 

$

16,257

 

Noncurrent:

 

 

 

 

 

Net investment in sales-type and direct financing leases

 

$

5,290

 

$

5,384

 

Commercial financing receivables

 

42

 

43

 

Client loan receivables

 

4,612

 

4,734

 

Installment payment receivables

 

310

 

388

 

Total

 

$

10,254

 

$

10,548

 

 

Net investment in sales-type and direct financing leases relates principally to the company’s systems products and are for terms ranging generally from two to six years. Net investment in sales-type and direct financing leases includes unguaranteed residual values of $814 million and $871 million at March 31, 2011 and December 31, 2010, respectively, and is reflected net of unearned income of $808 million and $816 million and net of the allowance for credit losses of $116 million and $126 million at those dates, respectively.

 

Commercial financing receivables relate primarily to inventory and accounts receivable financing for dealers and remarketers of IBM and non-IBM products. Payment terms for inventory and accounts receivable financing generally range from 30 to 90 days.

 

Client loan receivables are loans that are provided by Global Financing primarily to clients to finance the purchase of  software and services. Separate contractual relationships on these financing arrangements are for terms ranging generally from two to seven years. Each financing contract is priced independently at competitive market rates. The company has a history of enforcing the terms of these separate financing agreements.

 

The company utilizes certain of its financing receivables as collateral for non-recourse borrowings. Financing receivables pledged as collateral for borrowings were $263 million and $302 million at March 31, 2011 and December 31, 2010, respectively.

 

The company did not have any financing receivables held for sale as of March 31, 2011 and December 31, 2010.

 

Financing Receivables by Portfolio Segment

 

The following tables present financing receivables on a gross basis excluding the allowance for credit losses and residual value, by portfolio segment and by class, excluding current commercial financing receivables and other miscellaneous current financing receivables at March 31, 2011 and December 31, 2010. The company determines its allowance for credit losses based on two portfolio segments: lease receivables and loan receivables, and further segments the portfolio via two classes: major markets and growth markets. For additional information on the company’s accounting policies for the allowance for credit losses, see the company’s 2010 Annual Report beginning on page 77.

 

13



Table of Contents

 

Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements — (continued)

 

(Dollars in millions)
At March 31, 2011

 

Major
Markets

 

Growth
Markets

 

Total

 

Financing receivables:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lease receivables

 

$

6,542

 

$

2,055

 

$

8,597

 

Loan receivables

 

8,597

 

2,013

 

10,610

 

Ending balance

 

$

15,139

 

$

4,068

 

$

19,207

 

Collectively evaluated for impairment

 

$

14,774

 

$

3,878

 

$

18,651

 

Individually evaluated for impairment

 

$

365

 

$

190

 

$

556

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Allowance for credit losses:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lease receivables*

 

$

84

 

$

42

 

$

126

 

Loan receivables*

 

150

 

76

 

226

 

Beginning balance at January 1, 2011

 

$

234

 

$

119

 

$

353

 

Charge-offs

 

(29

)

(1

)

(30

)

Provision

 

(11

)

2

 

(9

)

Other

 

6

 

1

 

7

 

Lease receivables

 

71

 

45

 

116

 

Loan receivables

 

129

 

75

 

204

 

Ending balance at March 31, 2011

 

$

201

 

$

120

 

321

 

Collectively evaluated for impairment

 

$

45

 

$

9

 

$

54

 

Individually evaluated for impairment

 

$

156

 

$

111

 

$

267

 

 

(Dollars in millions)
At December 31, 2010

 

Major
Markets

 

Growth
Markets

 

Total

 

Financing receivables:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lease receivables

 

$

6,562

 

$

1,983

 

$

8,545

 

Loan receivables

 

9,087

 

1,993

 

11,080

 

Ending balance

 

$

15,650

 

$

3,975

 

$

19,625

 

Collectively evaluated for impairment

 

$

15,199

 

$

3,794

 

$

18,993

 

Individually evaluated for impairment

 

$

451

 

$

181

 

$

632

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Allowance for credit losses:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lease receivables*

 

$

84

 

$

42

 

$

126

 

Loan receivables*

 

150

 

76

 

226

 

Ending balance at December 31, 2010

 

$

234

 

$

119

 

$

353

 

Collectively evaluated for impairment

 

$

60

 

$

11

 

$

71

 

Individually evaluated for impairment

 

$

174

 

$

108

 

$

282

 

 


* Reclassified to conform with 2011 presentation.

 

When calculating the allowances, financing receivables are evaluated either on an individual or a collective basis. For individually evaluated receivables, the company determines the expected cash flow for the receivable and calculates an estimate of the potential loss and the probability of loss. For those accounts in which the loss is probable, the company records a specific reserve. In addition, the company records an unallocated reserve that is calculated by applying a reserve rate to its different portfolios, excluding accounts that have been specifically reserved. This reserve rate is based upon credit rating, probability of default, term, characteristics (lease/loan) and loss history.

 

Financing Receivables on Non-Accrual Status

 

Certain receivables for which the company has recorded a specific reserve may also be placed on non-accrual status. Non-accrual assets are those receivables with specific reserves and other accounts for which it is likely that the company will be unable to collect all amounts due according to original terms of the lease or loan agreement. Income recognition is discontinued on these receivables.

 

14



Table of Contents

 

Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements — (continued)

 

The following table presents the recorded investment in financing receivables which were on non-accrual status at March 31, 2011 and December 31, 2010.

 

(Dollars in millions) 

 

At March 31,
2011

 

At December 31,
 2010

 

Major markets

 

$

69

 

$

69

 

Growth markets

 

39

 

33

 

Total lease receivables

 

$

108

 

$

101

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Major markets

 

$

109

 

$

141

 

Growth markets

 

98

 

123

 

Total loan receivables

 

$

207

 

$

264

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total receivables

 

$

315

 

$

366

 

 

Impaired Loans

 

The company considers any loan with an individually evaluated reserve as an impaired loan. Depending on the level of impairment, loans will also be placed on non-accrual status (see section “Financing Receivables on Non-Accrual Status”).

 

The following tables present impaired client loan receivables at March 31, 2011 and December 31, 2010.

 

(Dollars in millions)
At March 31, 2011:

 

Recorded
Investment

 

Related
Allowance

 

Average
Recorded
Investment

 

Interest
Income
Recognized*

 

Interest
Income
Recognized on
 Cash Basis

 

Major markets

 

$

155

 

$

98

 

$

176

 

$

0

 

$

0

 

Growth markets

 

136

 

70

 

134

 

0

 

0

 

Total

 

$

292

 

$

168

 

$

310

 

$

1

 

$

0

 

 


* Impaired loans are placed on non-accrual status, depending on the level of impairment.

 

(Dollars in millions)

 

Recorded

 

Related

 

At December 31, 2010:

 

Investment

 

Allowance

 

Major markets

 

$

196

 

$

119

 

Growth markets

 

132

 

68

 

Total

 

$

328

 

$

187

 

 

Credit Quality Indicators

 

The company’s credit quality indicators are based on rating agency data, publicly available information and information provided by the companies, and are reviewed periodically based on the relative level of risk. The resulting indicators are a numerical rating system that maps to Moody’s Investors Service credit ratings as shown below. Moody’s has not provided to the company a credit rating on its clients.

 

The tables on page 16 present the gross recorded investment for each class of receivables, by credit quality indicator, at March 31, 2011 and December 31, 2010. Receivables with a credit quality indicator ranging from Aaa to Baa3 are considered investment grade. All others are considered non-investment grade.

 

15



Table of Contents

 

Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements — (continued)

 

 

 

Lease Receivables

 

Loan Receivables

 

(Dollars in millions)
At March 31, 2011:

 

Major
Markets

 

Growth
Markets

 

Major
Markets

 

Growth
Markets

 

Credit Rating:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Aaa — Aa3

 

$

916

 

$

162

 

$

1,204

 

$

159

 

A1 — A3

 

1,367

 

210

 

1,797

 

205

 

Baal — Baa3

 

2,414

 

849

 

3,172

 

831

 

Bal — Ba2

 

929

 

454

 

1,221

 

445

 

Ba3 — B1

 

530

 

236

 

696

 

231

 

B2 — B3

 

249

 

90

 

327

 

89

 

Caa — D

 

137

 

53

 

181

 

52