(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)
(State or other jurisdiction
of incorporation or organization)
(IRS Employer Identification No.)
521 WEST 57TH STREET, NEW YORK, N.Y.>
(Address of principal executive offices)
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code (212) 765-5500
SECURITIES REGISTERED PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(b) OF THE ACT:
TITLE OF EACH CLASS
NAME OF EACH EXCHANGE ON
Common Stock, par value 12½¢ per share
New York Stock Exchange
SECURITIES REGISTERED PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(g) OF THE ACT:
Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes No
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months, and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes No
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes No
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of Registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendments to this Form 10-K.
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of ‘‘accelerated filer’’, ‘‘large accelerated filer’’ and ‘‘smaller reporting company’’ in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
Smaller reporting company
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12B-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes No
For the purpose of reporting the following market value of Registrant’s outstanding common stock, the term ‘‘affiliate’’ refers to persons, entities or groups which directly or indirectly control, are controlled by, or are under common control with the Registrant and does not include individual executive officers, directors or less than 10% shareholders. The aggregate market value of Registrant’s common stock not held by affiliates as of June 30, 2007 was $4,655,751,202.
Indicate the number of shares outstanding of each of the Registrant’s classes of common stock, as of February 11, 2008: 81,020,808 shares of common stock, par value 12½¢ per share.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the Registrant’s Proxy Statement to be sent to shareholders in connection with the 2008 Annual Meeting (the ‘‘IFF 2008 Proxy Statement’’) are incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K.
International Flavors & Fragrances Inc., incorporated in New York in 1909, and its subsidiaries (the ‘‘Registrant’’, ‘‘IFF’’, ‘‘we’’, ‘‘us’’, and ‘‘our’’), is a leading creator and manufacturer of flavor and fragrance products used by other manufacturers to impart or improve flavor or fragrance in a wide variety of consumer products. Fragrance products are sold principally to manufacturers of perfumes, cosmetics, personal care products, hair care products, deodorants, soaps, detergents, fabric care and air care products; our flavor products are sold principally to manufacturers of prepared foods, beverages, dairy foods, pharmaceuticals and confectionery products as well as the food service industry.
We currently have 31 manufacturing facilities with the major manufacturing facilities located in the United States, Great Britain, Ireland, the Netherlands, Spain, Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, Australia, China, India, Indonesia, Japan and Singapore. The remaining manufacturing facilities are located in 8 other countries. We maintain our own sales and distribution facilities in 31 countries and are represented by sales agents and distributors in other countries. Our principal executive offices are located at 521 West 57th Street, New York, New York 10019 (212-765-5500).
Our fragrance products are used by customers in the manufacture of consumer products such as soaps, detergents, fabric care, cosmetic creams, lotions and powders, lipsticks, after-shave lotions, deodorants, hair preparations, candles, air fresheners and all-purpose cleaners as well as in other consumer products designed solely to appeal to the sense of smell, such as perfumes and colognes. The cosmetics industry, including perfume and toiletries manufacturers, is one of our two largest fragrance customer groups. Most of the major United States companies in this industry are our customers, and five of the largest United States cosmetics companies are among principal customers. The household products industry, including soaps, detergents and fabric care, is the other important fragrance customer group. Four of the largest United States household product manufacturers are our major customers. In the three years ended December 31, 2007, sales of fragrance products accounted for 56%, 57% and 57%, respectively, of our total sales.
Our flavor products are sold principally to the food and beverage industries for use in consumer products such as soft drinks, candies, baked goods, desserts, prepared foods, dietary foods, dairy products, drink powders, pharmaceuticals, snack foods and alcoholic beverages. Two of our largest customers for flavor products are major producers of prepared foods and beverages in the United States. In the three years ended December 31, 2007, sales of flavor products accounted for 44%, 43% and 43%, respectively, of our total sales.
See Note 12, Segment Information, for information concerning the two business segments, Flavors and Fragrances, and our geographic regions, which is incorporated by reference.
Our principal fragrance and flavor products consist of compounds of large numbers of ingredients blended in proprietary formulas created by our perfumers and flavorists. Most of these compounds contribute the total fragrance or flavor to the consumer products in which they are used. This fragrance or flavor characteristic is often a major factor in the consumer selection and acceptance of the consumer end product. A smaller number of compounds are sold to manufacturers who further blend them to achieve the finished fragrance or flavor in their products. We produce thousands of compounds, and new compounds are constantly being created in order to meet the many and changing characteristics of our customers’ end products. Most of the fragrance and flavor compounds are created and produced for the exclusive use of particular customers. Our products are sold in solid, powder and liquid forms and in amounts ranging from a few pounds to many tons, depending upon the nature of the product.
The ingredients used by us in our compounds are both synthetic and natural. We manufacture a substantial portion of the synthetic ingredients. While a majority of our synthetic ingredients production is used in our compounds, a substantial portion is also sold to others. Natural ingredients are derived from flowers, fruits and other botanical products as well as from animal products. They contain varying numbers of organic chemicals,
which are responsible for the fragrance or flavor of the natural product. The natural products are purchased in processed or semi-processed form. Some are used in compounds in the state in which they are purchased and others after further processing. Natural products, together with various chemicals, are also used as raw materials for the manufacture of synthetic ingredients by chemical processes. Our flavor products also include extracts and seasonings derived from various fruits, vegetables, nuts, herbs and spices as well as microbiologically-derived ingredients.
The demand for consumer products utilizing flavors and fragrances has been stimulated and broadened by changing social habits resulting from various factors such as increases in personal income, dual-earner households, teenage population, leisure time, urbanization, health and wellness concerns, including increased demand for nature based products and by the continued growth in world population. In the fragrance field, these developments have expanded the market for hair care, candles and air care products and deodorant and personal wash products with finer fragrance quality, as well as the market for colognes, toilet waters, men’s toiletries and other products beyond traditional luxury items such as perfumes. In the flavor field, similar market characteristics have stimulated the demand for products such as convenience foods, soft drinks and low-fat and organic food products that must conform to expected tastes. New and improved methods of packaging, application and dispensing have been developed for many consumer products that utilize some of our flavor or fragrance products. These developments have called for the creation of new compounds and ingredients compatible with the newly introduced materials and methods of application.
PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT AND RESEARCH
The development of new flavors and fragrances is a complex technical and artistic process calling upon the combined knowledge and skill of our creative perfumers and flavorists, and our scientists. With extensive experience, the perfumers and flavorists continuously advance their skills for creating fragrances or flavors best suited to the market requirements of the customers’ products.
Scientists from various disciplines work in project teams with the perfumers and flavorists to develop fragrance and flavor products with consumer preferred performance characteristics. Scientific expertise includes: natural products research, plant science, organic chemistry, analytical chemistry, biochemistry, microbiology, process engineering, food science, material science and sensory science. Analytical and sensory science is applied to understand the complex interactions of the many ingredients in a consumer product in order to optimize the flavor or fragrance performance at all points of use. Material science technology is applied to create controlled release and delivery systems to enhance flavor and fragrance performance in consumer products. An important contribution to the creation of new fragrances and flavors is the discovery and development of new ingredients having improved fragrance or flavor value. The ingredients research program discovers molecules found in natural substances and creates new molecules that are subsequently tested for their fragrance or flavor value. The new molecules that meet rigorous requirements for commercial development are subsequently transferred to manufacturing operations for production.
Creative and technical product development is conducted in 31 fragrance and flavor laboratories in 23 countries. We maintain a research and development center at Union Beach, New Jersey. We spent $199 million in 2007, $186 million in 2006 and $180 million in 2005 on our research and development activities or about 9% of our revenues each year. We expect these expenditures to remain at approximately 9% of our revenues in 2008. Of the amount expended in 2007 on such activities, 65% was for fragrances and the balance was for flavors. We employed 1,132 persons in 2007 and 1,065 persons in 2006 in such activities.
Our business is not materially dependent upon any patents, trademarks or licenses.
Distribution for both the flavors and fragrances business units is similar in that most of our sales are through our own sales force. The flavors business operates from two sales offices in the United States and 38 sales offices in 29 foreign countries; while the fragrances business operates from two sales offices in the United States and 36 sales offices in 28 foreign countries. Sales in additional countries are made through agents and distributors. For the year ended December 31, 2007, 28% of our sales were to customers in North America, 37% in Europe, Africa and Middle East (‘‘EAME’’), 22% in Greater Asia and 13% in Latin America.
During 2007, our 30 largest customers accounted for 57% of our sales. Sales to one customer accounted for 11% of our sales in 2007. These sales were largely in the fragrances business unit. No single customer accounted for more than 10% of our sales in 2006 and 2005.
The manufacture and sale of our products are subject to regulation in the United States by the Food and Drug Administration, the Agriculture Department, the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms, the Environmental Protection Agency, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, the Drug Enforcement Administration and state authorities. Foreign subsidiaries are subject to similar regulation in a number of countries. In particular, the European Union in December 2006 adopted legislation requiring extensive chemical registration and testing over the next 11 years. Compliance with existing governmental requirements regulating the discharge of materials into the environment has not materially affected our operations, earnings or competitive position. In 2008, we expect to spend approximately $8 million in capital projects and $20 million in operating expenses and governmental charges for the purpose of complying with such requirements.
RAW MATERIAL PURCHASES
We purchase roughly 10,000 different raw materials from many sources all over the world. The principal natural raw materials consist of essential oils, extracts and concentrates derived from fruits, vegetables, flowers, woods and other botanicals, animal products and raw fruits. The principal synthetic raw material purchases consist of organic chemicals. We believe that alternate materials or alternate sources of materials are available to enable us to maintain our competitive position in the event of any interruption in the supply of raw materials from present sources.
We have more than 50 competitors in the United States and world markets; two leading competitors have made significant acquisitions in the last two years. While no single factor is responsible, our competitive position is based principally on the creative skills of our perfumers and flavorists, the technological advances resulting from our research and development activities, the quality of our customer service, the support provided by our marketing and application groups, and our understanding of consumers. We believe that we are one of the largest companies producing and marketing on an international basis a wide range of fragrance and flavor products for sale to manufacturers of consumer products. In particular countries and localities, we face competition from numerous companies specializing in certain product lines, among which are some companies larger than us and some more important in a particular product line or lines. Most of our customers do not buy all of their fragrance or flavor products from the same supplier, and some customers make their own fragrance or flavor compounds with ingredients supplied by us or others.
At December 31, 2007, we employed approximately 5,300 persons, of whom approximately 1,400 were employed in the United States. We have never experienced a work stoppage or strike and consider our employee relations to be satisfactory.
Group President, Fragrances since January 2007; Senior
Vice President, Fine Fragrance and Beauty Care
and Regional Manager, North America Region
from April, 2005 to December 2006; Senior
Vice President, Fine Fragrance and Beauty Care
from October 2004 to March 2005; Vice President,
Global Business Development, Fine Fragrance and
Toiletries, prior thereto.
Group President, Flavors since January 2007; Vice
President, Latin America Region from October
2004 to December 2006; Regional Finance Director,
Latin America Region, prior thereto.
Steven J. Heaslip
Senior Vice President, Human Resources since
December 2002; Vice President Human Resources,
Dennis M. Meany
Senior Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary
since January 2004; Associate General Counsel,
Douglas J. Wetmore
Senior Vice President, Chief Financial Officer and
Treasurer since October 2007; Senior Vice
President and Chief Financial Officer, prior thereto.
Vice President and Chief Marketing Officer since March
2005; Vice President, Strategic Marketing, The
Home Depot, Inc., prior thereto.
Kimberly A. Hendricks
Controller since July 2007; Vice President, Finance, JLG
Industries, Inc. from January 2006 to February
2007; Vice President, Finance, Bristol-Myers
Squibb Company, prior thereto.
Employed by us or an affiliated company for the last five years, except as otherwise indicated.
We make available free of charge on or through the Investor Relations link on our website, www.iff.com, all materials that we file electronically with the SEC, including our annual report on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to those reports, filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 as soon as reasonably practicable after electronically filing such materials with, or furnishing them to, the SEC. During the period covered by this Form 10-K, we made all such materials available through our website as soon as reasonably practicable after filing such materials with the SEC.
You may also read and copy any materials filed by us with the SEC at the SEC’s Public Reference Room at 100 F Street, N.E., Washington, DC 20549, and you may obtain information on the operation of the Public
Reference Room by calling the SEC in the U.S. at 1-800-SEC-0330. In addition, the SEC maintains an Internet website, www.sec.gov, that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information that we file electronically with the SEC.
A copy of our Corporate Governance Guidelines, Code of Business Conduct and Ethics, and the charters of the Audit Committee, Compensation Committee, and Nominating and Governance Committee of the Board of Directors are posted on the Investor Relations section of our website, www.iff.com and are available in print to any shareholder who requests copies by contacting Dennis M. Meany, Senior Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary, at our principal executive office set forth above.
Competitive factors may negatively impact our sales and marketability.
The market for flavor and fragrance products is fragmented and highly competitive. IFF competes with many companies and some of our competitors specialize in one or more of our product lines while others sell many of the same product lines. In addition, some of our competitors may have greater financial and technical resources. Increased competition by existing or future competitors, including aggressive price competition, could result in the need for us to reduce prices or increase spending and this could have an impact on sales and profitability.
We are subject to economic and social changes which may impact sales.
Demand for consumer products using flavors and fragrances has been stimulated and broadened by changing social habits resulting from factors such as increases in personal income, dual-earner households, teenage population, leisure time, health concerns and urbanization and by the continued growth in world population. Changes in any number of external economic factors, or changes in social or consumer preferences, could adversely impact our results of operations. The current macro-economic environment in the United States and Western Europe may adversely impact consumer spending on products for which we supply the flavor or fragrance.
Results may be negatively impacted by the price, quality and availability of raw materials.
Raw materials are purchased from many sources from all over the world, including essential oils, extracts and concentrates derived from fruits, vegetables, flowers, woods and other botanicals, animal products, raw fruits and organic chemicals. Disruptions in the supply or quality of ingredients or rising prices for ingredients purchased could adversely impact our results of operations and profitability.
Results may be negatively impacted by the inability to implement our business strategy, including the achievement of anticipated cost savings, profitability or growth targets.
We are committed to those particular business strategies which have been identified as likely to drive profitable future growth and improve operations and customer service. If we are unable to successfully and timely implement these strategies, it would adversely impact our financial condition and results of operations.
Results may be negatively affected by the impact of currency fluctuation or devaluation in principal foreign markets and the effectiveness of hedging and risk management strategies.
Our operations are conducted in many countries, the results of which are reported in the local currency and then translated into U.S. dollars at applicable exchange rates. The exchange rates between these currencies and the U.S. dollar have fluctuated and may continue to do so in the future. We employ a variety of techniques to reduce the impact of exchange rate fluctuations, including foreign currency hedging activities. However, volatility in currency exchange rates may adversely impact our reported results of operations, financial condition or liquidity.
Results may be negatively impacted by the outcome of uncertainties related to litigation.
We are involved in a number of legal claims. While we believe that related insurance coverage is adequate with respect to such claims, we cannot predict the ultimate outcome of such litigation. In addition, we cannot provide assurance that future events will not require an increase in the amount accrued for any such claims, or require accrual for one or more claims that has not been previously accrued.
Results and cash flows may be negatively impacted by future pension funding and other postretirement obligations.
We establish assumptions concerning discount rates and actuarial assumptions regarding pension funding and other postretirement benefit obligations based on current market conditions, plan participants, asset returns, interest rates and other factors. Changes in pension and other postretirement benefits, and associated expenses, may occur in the future due to changes in demographics and assumptions. These changes may adversely impact our financial condition, results of operations or liquidity.
Results may be negatively impacted by the effect of legal and regulatory requirements, as well as restrictions imposed on operations by foreign and domestic governmental entities.
The manufacture and sale of our products are subject to regulation in the United States by the Food and Drug Administration, the Agriculture Department, the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms, the Environmental Protection Agency, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, the Drug Enforcement Administration and state authorities. Our foreign operations are subject to similar substantial governmental regulation in a number of countries, including extensive new requirements within the European Union. Compliance with existing governmental requirements and future governmental regulations may adversely impact financial condition, results of operations or liquidity.
We may face risks associated with events which may affect the world economy.
World events such as terrorist attacks, or regional conflicts have and may in the future weaken world economies. Any resulting weaknesses in these economies may adversely affect our business or the businesses of our customers, with a resultant negative impact on our financial condition, results of operations or liquidity.
We are subject to various claims and legal actions in the ordinary course of our business. For purposes of reporting these actions, Bush Boake Allen (‘‘BBA’’) a wholly owned subsidiary of IFF and/or IFF are referred to as the ‘‘Company’’.
In September 2001, the Company was named as a defendant in a purported class action brought against it in the Circuit Court of Jasper County, Missouri, on behalf of employees of a plant owned and operated by Gilster-Mary Lee Corp. in Jasper, Missouri (‘‘Benavides case’’). The plaintiffs alleged that they sustained respiratory injuries in the workplace due to the use by Gilster-Mary Lee of a BBA, and/or IFF flavor. We are subject to various claims and legal actions in the ordinary course of our business.
In January 2004, the Court ruled that class action status was not warranted. As a result of this decision, each of the 47 plaintiff cases was to be tried separately. Subsequently, 8 cases were tried to a verdict, 4 verdicts resulted for the plaintiffs and 4 verdicts resulted for the Company, all of which were appealed by the losing party. Subsequently all plaintiff cases related to the Benavides case, including those on appeal, were settled.
Sixteen actions based on similar claims of alleged respiratory illness due to workplace exposure to flavor ingredients are currently pending against the Company and other flavor suppliers and related companies.
In May 2004, the Company and another flavor supplier were named defendants, and subsequently a number of third party defendants were added, in a lawsuit by 4 former workers and their spouses at a Ridgeway, Illinois factory in an action brought in the Circuit Court for the Second Judicial Circuit, Gallatin County, Illinois (Barker case) and another concerning 8 other workers and 5 spouses at this same plant was filed in July 2004 and is pending in this same Court against the same defendants (Batteese case). In June 2004, the Company and 2 other flavor suppliers were named defendants in a lawsuit by 1 former worker and spouse at a Northlake, Illinois facility in an action brought in the Circuit Court of Cook County, Illinois. Nine third party defendants have been added (Lopez case). In March 2005, the Company and 8 other companies were named defendants in a lawsuit by 1 former employee and spouse of Bell Flavors and Fragrances, Inc. in an action brought in the Circuit Court of Cook County, Illinois (Robinson case). The Company was dismissed from this lawsuit in November 2007. In July 2005, the Company and 11 other flavor and chemical suppliers were named defendants in a lawsuit by 1 former worker and spouse of Brach’s Confections, Inc. in an action brought in the Circuit Court of Cook County, Illinois. Brach’s has been added as a third party defendant (Campbell case). In August 2005, the Company and 16 other companies were named defendants in a lawsuit by 3 former employees of the Gilster-Mary Lee facility in McBride, Missouri in the Missouri Circuit Court, 32nd Judicial Circuit (Fults case). In August 2006, the Company and 3 other flavor and chemical suppliers were named defendants in a lawsuit by 34 current and former employees and/or a neighbor of the Gilster-Mary Lee facility in Jasper, Missouri in the Missouri Circuit Court of Jasper County (Arles case) and 5 other current and former employees in the same Court (Bowan case). A similar case involving 5 former employees, originally plaintiffs in the Arles case, was filed in the same Court in August 2006 and then removed to the U.S. District Court, Western District of Missouri, Southwest Division (Parker case). In November 2006, the Company, 15 other flavor and chemical suppliers, a trade association and a third party defendant company were named defendants in a lawsuit filed in the Circuit Court of Cook County, Illinois by 1 plaintiff allegedly injured by exposure to butter flavor and other substances at various facilities in which he worked (Solis case). In January 2007, the Company and another flavor supplier were named defendants in a lawsuit filed in Hamilton County, Ohio Court of Common Pleas by approximately 245 current and former employees of two separate Marion, Ohio factories and 92 spouses of such employees (Aldrich case). In May 2007, the Company and 13 other companies were named defendants in a lawsuit filed in Circuit Court of Cook County, Illinois by 5 former employees of Brach’s Confections, Inc. in Chicago, Illinois (Williams case). In June 2007, the Company and another flavor supplier were named defendants in a lawsuit filed in Hamilton County, Ohio Court of Common Pleas by 58 current and former employees of a Marion, Ohio facility and 18 spouses of such employees (Arnold case). In June 2007, the Company and 22 other companies were named defendants in a lawsuit in the Missouri Circuit Court, 32nd Judicial Circuit by 7 former employees of a McBride, Missouri facility (Geile case). In July 2007, the Company and another flavor manufacturer were named defendants in a lawsuit filed in Hamilton County, Ohio Court of Common Pleas by 128 current and former workers of two Ohio facilities and 52 spouses of such employees (Adamson case). In July 2007, the Company was joined as a defendant in a case filed in June 2005 against 7 companies and a trade association in the 8th Judicial District Court of Montana by the widow of the former owner/operator of a popcorn business in Montana (Yatsko case).
In October 2007, the Company and 23 other companies were named defendants in a lawsuit in the Missouri Circuit Court, 32nd Judicial Circuit by the widow and daughter of a former worker at a McBride, Missouri facility (Wibbenmeyer case).
The Company believes that all IFF and BBA flavors at issue in these matters meet the requirements of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and are safe for handling and use by workers in food manufacturing plants when used according to specified safety procedures. These procedures are detailed in instructions that IFF and BBA provided to all their customers for the safe handling and use of their flavors. It is the responsibility of IFF’s customers to ensure that these instructions, which include the use of appropriate engineering controls, such as adequate ventilation, prior handling procedures and respiratory protection for workers, are followed in the workplace.
At each balance sheet date, or more frequently as conditions warrant, we review the status of each pending claim, as well as our insurance coverage for such claims with due consideration given to potentially applicable deductibles, retentions and reservation of rights under its insurance policies with respect to all these matters. While the ultimate outcome of any litigation cannot be predicted, management believes that adequate provision has been made with respect to all known claims. Based on information presently available and in light of the merits of its defenses and the availability of insurance, we do not expect the outcome of the above cases, singly or in the aggregate, to have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operation or liquidity. There can be no assurance that future events will not require us to increase the amount we have accrued for any matter or accrue for a matter that has not been previously accrued. See Note 16 to the Consolidated Financial Statements.
Over the past 20 years, various federal and state authorities and private parties have claimed that we are a Potentially Responsible Party (‘‘PRP’’) as a generator of waste materials for alleged pollution at a number of waste sites operated by third parties located principally in New Jersey and have sought to recover costs incurred and to be incurred to clean up the sites.
We have been identified as a PRP at nine facilities operated by third parties at which investigation and/or remediation activities may be ongoing. We analyze our liability on a regular basis. We accrue for environmental liabilities when they are probable and estimable. At December 31, 2007, we estimated our share of the total future cost for these sites to be less than $5 million.
While joint and several liability is authorized under federal and state environmental laws, we believe the amounts we have paid and anticipate paying in the future for clean-up costs and damages at all sites are not and will not be material to our financial condition, results of operations or liquidity. This conclusion is based upon, among other things, the involvement of other PRPs at most sites, the status of proceedings, including various settlement agreements and consent decrees, the extended time period over which payments will likely be made and an agreement reached in July 1994 with three of our liability insurers pursuant to which defense costs and indemnity amounts payable by us in respect of the sites will be shared by the insurers up to an agreed amount.
SUBMISSION OF MATTERS TO A VOTE OF SECURITY HOLDERS.
The Cumulative Shareholder Return assumes that the value of an investment in our Common Stock and each index was $100 on December 31, 2002, and that all dividends were reinvested.
Due to the international scope and breadth of our business, we believe that a Peer Group comprised of international public companies, which are representative of the customer group to which we sell our products, with market capitalizations ranging from approximately $589 million to approximately $205 billion, is the most appropriate group against which to compare shareholder returns.
Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities.
During the first six months of 2007, under a share repurchase program of $300 million authorized in October 2006 (the ‘‘October 2006 Plan’’), we repurchased approximately 1.6 million shares at a cost of $81 million; at June 30, 2007, we had approximately $125 million remaining under the October 2006 Plan. In July 2007, the October 2006 Plan was terminated and superseded by a new program authorized by our Board of Directors (‘‘Board’’) to repurchase up to 15% or $750 million worth of our outstanding common stock, whichever is less (the ‘‘July 2007 Plan’’).
In September 2007, under the July 2007 Plan, we entered into two agreements to purchase shares of our common stock under a $450 million accelerated share repurchase (‘‘ASR’’) program. On September 28, 2007, we paid $450 million in exchange for an initial delivery of 7.6 million shares under the ASR, representing 90% of the shares that could have been purchased, based on the average trading price of IFF stock, on that date. The remaining 10%, or $45 million, not used in the initial settlement will be included in the determination of the cost of the shares purchased upon completion of the ASR and is reflected in the accompanying Consolidated Balance Sheet as a reduction to Capital in excess of par value.
As a result of the ASR, we did not purchase any of our equity securities in the quarter ended December 31, 2007.
Net Income in the 2007 second and fourth quarter includes the after-tax benefit of gains on sale of assets of ($3,686) and ($4,033), respectively; the third quarter includes the after-tax effects of a pension curtailment charge of $3,685. Net Income in the 2007 second quarter also includes a tax benefit of $9,718; see Note 9 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for further discussion. Net Income in the 2006 first, second, third and fourth quarter includes the after-tax effects of restructuring charges (credits) of $461, ($200), $210, and $1,405, respectively. The 2006 third and fourth quarters also include after-tax benefits of gains on sale of assets of ($5,325) and ($4,743), respectively; and the benefit of an insurance recovery of ($2,496) in the third quarter. Net income in the 2006 fourth quarter also includes a tax benefit of $3,511.
The sum of the 2007 and 2006 quarters’ net income per share does not equal the earnings per share for the full year due to changes in average shares outstanding.
Restructuring and other charges ($1,982 after tax) in 2006, ($15,857 after tax) in 2005, ($20,370 after tax) in 2004, and ($27,514 after tax) in 2003 were the result of various reorganization programs of the Company.
2006 and 2007 amounts include equity compensation expense in accordance with FAS123(R). See Note 11 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for additional details.
The 2006 amounts reflect adoption of FAS158. See Note 13 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for additional details.
The 2007 amounts reflect adoption of FIN 48. See Note 9 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for additional details.
Current ratio is equal to current assets divided by current liabilities.
MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS.
(UNLESS INDICATED OTHERWISE, DOLLARS IN MILLIONS EXCEPT PER SHARE AMOUNTS)
Organization of Information
Management’s Discussion and Analysis provides a narrative on our operating performance, financial condition and liquidity and should be read in conjunction with the accompanying financial statements. It includes the following sections:
Consolidated Operating Results
Goodwill and Intangible Assets
Restructuring and Other Charges
Critical Accounting Policies and Use of Estimates
New Accounting Standards
Non-GAAP Financial Measures
Cautionary Statement Under the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995
We are a leading creator and manufacturer of flavor and fragrance compounds used to impart or improve the flavor or fragrance in a wide variety of consumer products. The precise size of the global market for flavors and fragrances is difficult to determine because the industry is highly fragmented, both geographically and along product lines; there are a limited number of publicly traded companies in the industry; certain customers maintain in-house capabilities fulfilling a portion of their flavor or fragrance needs; and the quality and depth of market information in developing regions of the world is limited. Analysts generally estimate the global market to be $11 - $12 billion of which IFF represents 17-19%; the largest competitor in the industry has approximately a 25% market share. Currently, the largest companies in the industry combined represent approximately 65% of the global market.
Effective January 1, 2007, IFF reorganized into two units that reflect our flavor and fragrance businesses. Approximately 44% of our 2007 net sales were flavor compounds. Flavor compounds are sold to the food and beverage industries for use in consumer products such as prepared foods, beverages, dairy, food and confectionery products. The remaining 56% of sales, representing the fragrances business unit, were in three fragrance categories: functional fragrances, including fragrance compounds for personal care (e.g., soaps) and household products (e.g., detergents and cleaning agents); fine fragrance and beauty care, including perfumes, colognes and toiletries; and ingredients, consisting of synthetic ingredients that can be combined with other materials to create unique functional and fine fragrance compounds. Major fragrance customers include the cosmetics industry, including perfume and toiletries manufacturers, and the household products industry, including manufacturers of soaps, detergents, fabric care, household cleaners and air fresheners. Approximately 55% of our ingredient production is consumed internally; the balance is sold to third party customers.
Changing social habits resulting from such factors as changes in disposable income, leisure time, health concerns, urbanization and population growth stimulate demand for consumer products utilizing flavors and fragrances. These developments expand the market for products with finer fragrance quality, as well as the
market for colognes and toiletries. Such developments also stimulate demand for convenience foods, soft drinks and low-fat and organic food products that must conform to expected tastes. These developments necessitate the creation and development of flavors and fragrances and ingredients that are compatible with newly introduced materials and methods of application used in consumer products.
Flavors and fragrances are generally:
created for the exclusive use of a specific customer;
sold in solid, powder or liquid form, in amounts ranging from a few pounds to several tons depending on the nature of the end product in which they are used;
a small percentage of the volume and cost of the end product sold to the consumer; and
a major factor in consumer selection and acceptance of the product.
The flavor and fragrance industry is impacted by macroeconomic factors in all product categories and geographic regions. Such factors include the impact of currency on the price of raw materials and operating costs as well as on translation of reported results. In addition, pricing pressure placed on our customers by large and powerful retailers and distributors is inevitably passed along to us, and our competitors. Leadership in innovation and creativity mitigates the impact of pricing pressure. Success and growth in the industry is dependent upon creativity and innovation in meeting the many and varied needs of the customers’ products in a cost-efficient and effective manner, and with a consistently high level of timely service and delivery.
We produce more than 33,000 unique compounds, of which approximately 60% are flavors and 40% fragrances. We continually create new compounds to meet the changing characteristics and needs of our customers’ end products. No single compound represents more than 1.5% of net sales. Development of fragrances and flavors is a complex artistic and technical process calling upon the combined knowledge and talents of creative perfumers and flavorists, and application and research chemists. An important element of creation is the development of new ingredients. We bear essentially all costs incurred in connection with the creation and development of new flavors and fragrances and such formulae are generally protected under trade secrecy. We are not materially dependent on any patents, trademarks or licenses.
Our strategic direction is defined by the following:
Be a global leader in fragrances and flavors.
Provide our customers with differentiated solutions.
Our plan to achieve this strategy is to:
Execute on our business unit focus that will align management and resources with the needs of our strategic customers and provide greater accountability; this will drive improved results.
Focus our research and development efforts on projects considered most likely to drive future profitable growth. We anticipate much of this research will be conducted internally, but such efforts may be augmented by joint research undertakings and through acquisition of technology.
Provide quality, safe and suitable products, for inclusion in our customers’ end products; an essential element is the consistent assurance of the quality and safety of raw materials through a combination of steps including but not limited to vendor certification and quality assurance testing.
Continuously improving our operations and customer service, and related initiatives.
Build a culture that attracts, retains and develops the best talent in the world. Our customers, stakeholders and employees expect the best.
As implementation of the strategy progresses, setting strategic initiatives requires regular establishment and reassessment of priorities and necessitates choices in order to provide the best opportunity for continuous improvement in shareholder value.
A breakdown of sales by principal product category is depicted in the graph below.
2007 Sales by Category
Our five largest customers comprise 32% of consolidated sales and our top 30 customers 57%; these percentages have remained fairly constant for several years although sales to larger customers are trending higher. We have one customer that accounts for 11% of our sales. A key factor for commercial success is inclusion on the strategic customers’ core supplier lists, opening opportunities to win new business. We are on the core supplier lists of a majority of our strategic customers.
Net sales by business unit for 2007, 2006 and 2005 were as follows:
Total net sales
2007 Sales by Destination
We currently manage our operations by business unit but consider destination sales a supplemental performance measure. Although reported sales and earnings are affected by the weakening or strengthening of the U.S. dollar, this has not had a long-term effect on the underlying strength of our business.