LPX » Topics » CRITICAL ACCOUNTING POLICIES

This excerpt taken from the LPX 10-Q filed Nov 7, 2006.

CRITICAL ACCOUNTING POLICIES

LP’s significant accounting policies are discussed in Note 1 of Notes to financial statements included in LP’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2005. The discussion of each of the policies outlines the specific accounting treatment related to each of these accounting areas.  While all of these are important to understand when reading our financial statements, there are certain policies that we have adopted and implemented from among acceptable alternatives that could lead to different financial results had another policy been chosen:

Inventory valuation.  We use the LIFO (last-in, first-out) method for some of our log inventories with the remaining inventories valued at FIFO (first-in, first-out) or average cost. Our inventories would have been approximately $3.9 million higher if the LIFO inventories were valued at average cost as of September 30, 2006.

Property, plant and equipment.  We principally use the units of production method of depreciation for machinery and equipment. This method amortizes the cost of machinery and equipment over the estimated units that will be produced during its estimated useful life.

This excerpt taken from the LPX 10-Q filed Aug 4, 2006.

CRITICAL ACCOUNTING POLICIES

LP’s significant accounting policies are discussed in Note 1 of Notes to financial statements included in LP’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2005. The discussion of each of the policies outlines the specific accounting treatment related to each of these accounting areas.  While all of these are important to understand when reading our financial statements, there are certain policies that we have adopted and implemented from among acceptable alternatives that could lead to different financial results had another policy been chosen:

Inventory valuation.  We use the LIFO (last-in, first-out) method for some of our log inventories with the remaining inventories valued at FIFO (first-in, first-out) or average cost. Our inventories would have been approximately $3.9 million higher if the LIFO inventories were valued at average cost as of June 30, 2006.

Property, plant and equipment.  We principally use the units of production method of depreciation for machinery and equipment. This method amortizes the cost of machinery and equipment over the estimated units that will be produced during its estimated useful life.

This excerpt taken from the LPX 10-Q filed May 8, 2006.

CRITICAL ACCOUNTING POLICIES

 

LP’s significant accounting policies are discussed in Note 1 of Notes to financial statements included in LP’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2005. The discussion of each of the policies outlines the specific accounting treatment related to each of these accounting areas. While all of these are important to understand when reading our financial statements, there are several policies that we have adopted and implemented from among acceptable alternatives that could lead to different financial results had another policy been chosen:

 

Inventory valuation. We use the LIFO (last-in, first-out) method for some of our log inventories with the remaining inventories valued at FIFO (first-in, first-out) or average cost. Our inventories would have been approximately $3.9 million higher if the LIFO inventories were valued at average cost as of March 31, 2006.

 

Property, plant and equipment. We principally use the units of production method of depreciation for machinery and equipment. This method amortizes the cost of machinery and equipment over the estimated units that will be produced during its estimated useful life.

 

This excerpt taken from the LPX 10-K filed Mar 8, 2006.
CRITICAL ACCOUNTING POLICIES

Presented in Note 1 of the Notes to the financial statements in item 8 of this report is a discussion of our significant accounting policies. The discussion of each of the policies outlines the specific accounting treatment related to each of these accounting areas. While all of these are important to understand when reading our financial statements, there are several policies that we have adopted and implemented from among acceptable alternatives that could lead to different financial results had another policy been chosen:

Inventory valuation.   We use the LIFO (last-in, first-out) method for some of our log inventories with the remaining inventories valued at FIFO (first-in, first-out) or average cost. Our inventories would have been approximately $3.9 million higher if the LIFO inventories were valued at average cost as of December 31, 2005.

Property, plant and equipment.   We principally use the units of production method of depreciation for machinery and equipment. This method amortizes the cost of machinery and equipment over the estimated units that will be produced during its estimated useful life.

Stock options.   We have chosen to report our stock based compensation using the intrinsic value method prescribed by Accounting Principles Board (APB) Opinion No. 25, “Accounting for Stock Issued to Employees” under which no compensation cost for stock options is recognized for stock options granted at or above fair market value. As permitted through 2005, we have applied only the disclosure provisions of Statement of Financial Accounting Standards (SFAS) No. 123, “Accounting for Stock-Based Compensation” which established a fair value approach to measuring compensation expense related to employee stock compensation plans. Had compensation expense for our stock-based compensation plans been determined based upon the fair value at the grant dates under those plans consistent with SFAS No. 123, our net income would have been lower. For 2005, had we recorded this compensation expense, our net income would have been lower by $1.9 million. In 2004, the FASB issued SFAS No. 123R, which will require us to use the fair value method beginning in 2006. The impact of the adoption of SFAS No.123R is discussed further in Note 1 of the Notes to the financial statements included in item 8 of this report.

This excerpt taken from the LPX 10-Q filed Aug 8, 2005.

CRITICAL ACCOUNTING POLICIES

 

LP’s significant accounting policies are discussed in Note 1 of Notes to financial statements included in LP’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2004. While it is important to review and understand all of these policies when reading our financial statements, there are several policies that we have adopted and implemented from among acceptable alternatives that could lead to different financial results had another policy been chosen:

 

Inventory valuation.  We use the LIFO (last-in, first-out) method for some of our log inventories with the remaining inventories valued at FIFO (first-in, first-out) or average cost. Our inventories would have been approximately $2.7 million higher if the LIFO inventories were valued at average cost as of June 30, 2005.

 

Property, plant and equipment.  We principally use the units of production method of depreciation for machinery and equipment. This method amortizes the cost of machinery and equipment over the estimated units that will be produced during its estimated useful life.

 

Stock options. We have chosen to report our stock based compensation using the intrinsic value method prescribed by Accounting Principles Board Opinion No. 25, “Accounting for Stock Issued to Employees” under which no compensation cost for stock options is recognized for stock options granted at or above fair market value. As permitted, we apply only the disclosure provisions of Statement of Financial Accounting Standards (SFAS) No. 123, “Accounting for Stock-Based Compensation” which establishes a fair value approach to measuring compensation expense related to employee stock compensation plans. Had compensation expense for our stock-based compensation plans been determined based upon the fair value at the grant dates under those plans consistent with SFAS No. 123, our net income would have been lower. For the six month period ended June 30, 2005, had we recorded this compensation expense, our net income would have been lower by $0.7 million. In the later portion of 2004, the FASB issued SFAS No. 123R, which will require us to use the fair value method beginning in 2006.

 

SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING ESTIMATES AND JUDGMENTS

 

Throughout the preparation of the financial statements, we employ significant judgments in the application of accounting principles and methods.  These judgments are primarily related to the assumptions used to arrive at

 

17



 

various estimates.  For 2005, these significant accounting estimates and judgments include:

 

Legal Contingencies.  Our estimates of our loss contingencies for legal proceedings are based on various judgments and assumptions regarding the potential resolution or disposition of the underlying claims and associated costs. In making judgments and assumptions regarding legal contingencies for ongoing class action settlements, we consider, among other things, discernible trends in the rate of claims asserted and related damage estimates, information obtained through consultation with statisticians and economists, including statistical analyses of potential outcomes based on experience to date and the experience of third parties who have been subject to product-related claims judged to be comparable. Due to the numerous variables associated with these judgments and assumptions, both the precision and reliability of the resulting estimates of the related loss contingencies are subject to substantial uncertainties. We regularly monitor our estimated exposure to these contingencies and, as additional information becomes known, may change our estimates significantly.

 

Environmental Contingencies.  Our estimates of our loss contingencies for environmental matters are also based on various judgments and assumptions. These estimates typically reflect judgments and assumptions relating to the probable nature, magnitude and timing of required investigation, remediation and/or monitoring activities and the probable cost of these activities, and in some cases reflect judgments and assumptions relating to the obligation or willingness and ability of third parties to bear a proportionate or allocated share of the cost of these activities, including third parties who purchased assets from us subject to environmental liabilities. We consider the ability of third parties to pay their apportioned cost when developing our estimates. In making these judgments and assumptions related to the development of our loss contingencies, we consider, among other things, the activity to date at particular sites, information obtained through consultation with applicable regulatory authorities and third-party consultants and contractors and our historical experience at other sites that are judged to be comparable.  Due to the numerous variables associated with these judgments and assumptions, and the effects of changes in governmental regulation and environmental technologies, both the precision and reliability of the resulting estimates of the related contingencies are subject to substantial uncertainties. We regularly monitor our estimated exposure to environmental loss contingencies and, as additional information becomes known, may change our estimates significantly. At June 30, 2005, we excluded from our estimates approximately $6 million of potential environmental liabilities that we estimate will be allocated to third parties pursuant to existing and anticipated future cost sharing arrangements.

 

Impairment of Long-Lived Assets.  We review the long-lived assets held and used by us (primarily property, plant and equipment and timber and timberlands) for impairment when events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of assets may not be recoverable. Identifying these events and changes in circumstances, and assessing their impact on the appropriate valuation of the affected assets under accounting principles generally accepted in the U.S., requires us to make judgments, assumptions and estimates.  In general, on assets held and used, impairments are recognized when the book values exceed our estimate of the undiscounted future net cash flows associated with the affected assets. The key assumptions in estimating these cash flows include future production volumes and pricing of commodity products and future estimates of expenses to be incurred. Our assumptions regarding pricing are based upon the average pricing over the commodity cycle (generally five years) due to the inherent volatility of commodity product pricing. These prices are estimated from information gathered from industry research firms, research reports published by investment analysts and other published forecasts. Our estimates of expenses are based upon our long-range internal planning models and our expectation that we will continue to reduce product costs that will offset inflationary impacts.

 

When impairment is indicated, the book values of the assets to be held and used are written down to their estimated fair value that is generally based upon discounted future cash flows. Assets to be disposed of are written down to their estimated fair value, less estimated sales costs. Consequently, a determination to dispose of particular assets can require us to estimate the net sales proceeds expected to be realized upon such disposition, which may be less than the estimated undiscounted future net cash flows associated with such assets prior to such determination, and thus require an impairment charge. In situations where we have experience in selling assets of a similar nature, we may estimate net sales proceeds on the basis of that experience.  In other situations, we hire independent appraisers to estimate net sales proceeds. Due to the numerous variables associated with our judgments and assumptions relating to the valuation of assets in these circumstances, and the effects of changes in circumstances affecting these valuations, both the precision and reliability of the resulting estimates of the related impairment charges are subject to substantial uncertainties and, as additional information becomes known, we may change our estimates significantly.

 

18



 

Income Taxes. The determination of the provision for income taxes, and the resulting current and deferred tax assets and liabilities, involves significant management judgment, and is based upon information and estimates available to management at the time of such determination. The final income tax liability to any taxing jurisdiction with respect to any calendar year will ultimately be determined long after our financial statements have been published for that year. We maintain reserves for known estimated tax exposures in federal, state and international jurisdictions; however, actual results may differ materially from our estimates.

 

Judgment is also applied in determining whether deferred tax assets will be realized in full or in part. When we consider it to be more likely than not that all or some portion of a deferred tax asset will not be realized, a valuation allowance is established for the amount of the deferred tax asset that is estimated not to be realizable. As of June 30, 2005, we had established valuation allowances against certain deferred tax assets, primarily related to state net operating loss and credit carryovers and foreign capital loss carryovers. We have not established valuation allowances against other deferred tax assets based upon expected future taxable income and/or tax strategies planned to mitigate the risk of impairment of these assets. Accordingly, changes in facts or circumstances affecting the likelihood of realizing a deferred tax asset could result in the need to record additional valuation allowances.

 

Goodwill. Goodwill and other intangible assets that are deemed to have an indefinite life are no longer amortized. However, these indefinite life assets are tested for impairment on an annual basis, and otherwise when indicators of impairment are determined to exist, by applying a fair value based test.  The process of evaluating the potential impairment of goodwill is highly subjective and requires significant judgments at many points during the analysis.  In testing for potential impairment, the estimated fair value of the reporting unit, as determined based upon cash flow forecasts, is compared to the book value of the reporting unit. The key assumptions in estimating these cash flows include future production volumes and pricing of commodity products and future estimates of expenses to be incurred. Our assumptions regarding pricing are based upon the average pricing over the commodity cycle (generally five years) due to the inherent volatility of commodity product pricing. These prices are estimated from information gathered from industry research firms, research reports published by investment analysts and other published forecasts. Our estimates of expenses are based upon our long-range internal planning models and our expectation that we will reduce product costs that will offset inflationary impacts.

 

Due to the numerous variables associated with our judgments and assumptions relating to the valuation of assets in these circumstances, and the effects of changes in circumstances affecting these valuations, both the precision and reliability of the resulting estimates of the related impairment charges, if any, are subject to substantial uncertainties. Consequently, as additional information becomes known, we may change our estimates significantly.

 

Pension Plans.  Most of our U.S. employees and many of our Canadian employees participate in defined benefit pension plans sponsored by LP.  We account for the consequences of our sponsorship of these plans in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the U.S., which require us to make actuarial assumptions that are used to calculate the related assets, liabilities and expenses recorded in our financial statements.  While we believe we have a reasonable basis for these assumptions, which include assumptions regarding long-term rates of return on plan assets, life expectancies, rates of increase in salary levels, rates at which future values should be discounted to determine present values and other matters, the amounts of our pension related assets, liabilities and expenses recorded in our financial statements would differ if we used other assumptions. See further discussion related to pension plans below under the heading “Defined Benefit Pension Plans” and in Note 13 of the Notes to the financial statements included in Item 8 in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2004.

 

This excerpt taken from the LPX 10-Q filed May 10, 2005.

CRITICAL ACCOUNTING POLICIES

 

LP’s significant accounting policies are discussed in Note 1 of Notes to financial statements included in LP’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2004. While it is important to review and understand all of these policies when reading our financial statements, there are several policies that we have adopted and implemented from among acceptable alternatives that could lead to different financial results had another policy been chosen:

 

Inventory valuation.  We use the LIFO (last-in, first-out) method for some of our log inventories with the remaining inventories valued at FIFO (first-in, first-out) or average cost. Our inventories would have been approximately $2.7 million higher if the LIFO inventories were valued at average cost as of March 31, 2005.

 

Property, plant and equipment.  We principally use the units of production method of depreciation for machinery and equipment. This method amortizes the cost of machinery and equipment over the estimated units that will be produced during its estimated useful life.

 

Stock options. We have chosen to report our stock based compensation using the intrinsic value method prescribed by Accounting Principles Board Opinion No. 25, “Accounting for Stock Issued to Employees” under which no compensation cost for stock options is recognized for stock options granted at or above fair market value. As permitted, we apply only the disclosure provisions of Statement of Financial Accounting Standards (SFAS) No. 123, “Accounting for Stock-Based Compensation” which establishes a fair value approach to measuring compensation expense related to employee stock compensation plans. Had compensation expense for our stock-based compensation plans been determined based upon the fair value at the grant dates under those plans consistent with SFAS No. 123, our net income would have been lower. For the quarter ended March 31, 2005, had we recorded this compensation expense, our net income would have been lower by $0.4 million. In the later portion of 2004, the FASB issued SFAS No. 123R, which will require us to use the fair value method beginning in 2006.

 

SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING ESTIMATES AND JUDGMENTS

 

Throughout the preparation of the financial statements, we employ significant judgments in the application of accounting principles and methods.  These judgments are primarily related to the assumptions used to arrive at

 

17



 

various estimates.  For 2005, these significant accounting estimates and judgments include:

 

Legal Contingencies.  Our estimates of our loss contingencies for legal proceedings are based on various judgments and assumptions regarding the potential resolution or disposition of the underlying claims and associated costs. In making judgments and assumptions regarding legal contingencies for ongoing class action settlements, we consider, among other things, discernible trends in the rate of claims asserted and related damage estimates, information obtained through consultation with statisticians and economists, including statistical analyses of potential outcomes based on experience to date and the experience of third parties who have been subject to product-related claims judged to be comparable. Due to the numerous variables associated with these judgments and assumptions, both the precision and reliability of the resulting estimates of the related loss contingencies are subject to substantial uncertainties. We regularly monitor our estimated exposure to these contingencies and, as additional information becomes known, may change our estimates significantly.

 

Environmental Contingencies.  Our estimates of our loss contingencies for environmental matters are also based on various judgments and assumptions. These estimates typically reflect judgments and assumptions relating to the probable nature, magnitude and timing of required investigation, remediation and/or monitoring activities and the probable cost of these activities, and in some cases reflect judgments and assumptions relating to the obligation or willingness and ability of third parties to bear a proportionate or allocated share of the cost of these activities, including third parties who purchased assets from us subject to environmental liabilities. We consider the ability of third parties to pay their apportioned cost when developing our estimates. In making these judgments and assumptions related to the development of our loss contingencies, we consider, among other things, the activity to date at particular sites, information obtained through consultation with applicable regulatory authorities and third-party consultants and contractors and our historical experience at other sites that are judged to be comparable.  Due to the numerous variables associated with these judgments and assumptions, and the effects of changes in governmental regulation and environmental technologies, both the precision and reliability of the resulting estimates of the related contingencies are subject to substantial uncertainties. We regularly monitor our estimated exposure to environmental loss contingencies and, as additional information becomes known, may change our estimates significantly. At March 31, 2005, we excluded from our estimates approximately $6 million of potential environmental liabilities that we estimate will be allocated to third parties pursuant to existing and anticipated future cost sharing arrangements.

 

Impairment of Long-Lived Assets.  We review the long-lived assets held and used by us (primarily property, plant and equipment and timber and timberlands) for impairment when events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of assets may not be recoverable. Identifying these events and changes in circumstances, and assessing their impact on the appropriate valuation of the affected assets under accounting principles generally accepted in the U.S., requires us to make judgments, assumptions and estimates.  In general, on assets held and used, impairments are recognized when the book values exceed our estimate of the undiscounted future net cash flows associated with the affected assets. The key assumptions in estimating these cash flows include future production volumes and pricing of commodity products and future estimates of expenses to be incurred. Our assumptions regarding pricing are based upon the average pricing over the commodity cycle (generally five years) due to the inherent volatility of commodity product pricing. These prices are estimated from information gathered from industry research firms, research reports published by investment analysts and other published forecasts. Our estimates of expenses are based upon our long-range internal planning models and our expectation that we will continue to reduce product costs that will offset inflationary impacts.

 

When impairment is indicated, the book values of the assets to be held and used are written down to their estimated fair value that is generally based upon discounted future cash flows. Assets to be disposed of are written down to their estimated fair value, less estimated sales costs. Consequently, a determination to dispose of particular assets can require us to estimate the net sales proceeds expected to be realized upon such disposition, which may be less than the estimated undiscounted future net cash flows associated with such assets prior to such determination, and thus require an impairment charge. In situations where we have experience in selling assets of a similar nature, we may estimate net sales proceeds on the basis of that experience.  In other situations, we hire independent appraisers to estimate net sales proceeds. Due to the numerous variables associated with our judgments and assumptions relating to the valuation of assets in these circumstances, and the effects of changes in circumstances affecting these valuations, both the precision and reliability of the resulting estimates of the related impairment charges are subject to substantial uncertainties and, as additional information becomes known, we may change our estimates significantly.

 

18



 

Income Taxes. The determination of the provision for income taxes, and the resulting current and deferred tax assets and liabilities, involves significant management judgment, and is based upon information and estimates available to management at the time of such determination. The final income tax liability to any taxing jurisdiction with respect to any calendar year will ultimately be determined long after our financial statements have been published for that year. We maintain reserves for known estimated tax exposures in federal, state and international jurisdictions; however, actual results may differ materially from our estimates.

 

Judgment is also applied in determining whether deferred tax assets will be realized in full or in part. When we consider it to be more likely than not that all or some portion of a deferred tax asset will not be realized, a valuation allowance is established for the amount of the deferred tax asset that is estimated not to be realizable. As of March 31, 2005, we had established valuation allowances against certain deferred tax assets, primarily related to state net operating loss and credit carryovers and foreign capital loss carryovers. We have not established valuation allowances against other deferred tax assets based upon expected future taxable income and/or tax strategies planned to mitigate the risk of impairment of these assets. Accordingly, changes in facts or circumstances affecting the likelihood of realizing a deferred tax asset could result in the need to record additional valuation allowances.

 

Goodwill. Goodwill and other intangible assets that are deemed to have an indefinite life are no longer amortized. However, these indefinite life assets are tested for impairment on an annual basis, and otherwise when indicators of impairment are determined to exist, by applying a fair value based test.  The process of evaluating the potential impairment of goodwill is highly subjective and requires significant judgments at many points during the analysis.  In testing for potential impairment, the estimated fair value of the reporting unit, as determined based upon cash flow forecasts, is compared to the book value of the reporting unit. The key assumptions in estimating these cash flows include future production volumes and pricing of commodity products and future estimates of expenses to be incurred. Our assumptions regarding pricing are based upon the average pricing over the commodity cycle (generally five years) due to the inherent volatility of commodity product pricing. These prices are estimated from information gathered from industry research firms, research reports published by investment analysts and other published forecasts. Our estimates of expenses are based upon our long-range internal planning models and our expectation that we will reduce product costs that will offset inflationary impacts.

 

Due to the numerous variables associated with our judgments and assumptions relating to the valuation of assets in these circumstances, and the effects of changes in circumstances affecting these valuations, both the precision and reliability of the resulting estimates of the related impairment charges, if any, are subject to substantial uncertainties. Consequently, as additional information becomes known, we may change our estimates significantly.

 

Pension Plans.  Most of our U.S. employees and many of our Canadian employees participate in defined benefit pension plans sponsored by LP.  We account for the consequences of our sponsorship of these plans in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the U.S., which require us to make actuarial assumptions that are used to calculate the related assets, liabilities and expenses recorded in our financial statements.  While we believe we have a reasonable basis for these assumptions, which include assumptions regarding long-term rates of return on plan assets, life expectancies, rates of increase in salary levels, rates at which future values should be discounted to determine present values and other matters, the amounts of our pension related assets, liabilities and expenses recorded in our financial statements would differ if we used other assumptions. See further discussion related to pension plans below under the heading “Defined Benefit Pension Plans” and in Note 13 of the Notes to the financial statements included in Item 8 in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2004.

 

This excerpt taken from the LPX 10-K filed Mar 11, 2005.
CRITICAL ACCOUNTING POLICIES

Presented in Note 1 of the Notes to financial statements in item 8 of this report is a discussion of our significant accounting policies. The discussion of each of the policies outlines the specific accounting treatment related to each of these accounting areas. While all of these are important to understand when reading our financial statements, there are several policies that we have adopted and implemented from among acceptable alternatives that could lead to different financial results had another policy been chosen:

Inventory valuation.   We use the LIFO (last-in, first-out) method for some of  our log inventories with the remaining inventories valued at FIFO (first-in, first-out) or average cost. Our inventories would have been approximately $2.7 million higher if the LIFO inventories were valued at average cost as of December 31, 2004.

Property, plant and equipment.   We principally use the units of production method of depreciation for machinery and equipment that amortizes the cost of machinery and equipment over the estimated units that will be produced during its estimated useful life.

Stock options.   We have chosen to report our stock based compensation using the intrinsic value method prescribed by Accounting Principles Board Opinion No. 25, “Accounting for Stock Issued to Employees” under which no compensation cost for stock options is recognized for stock options granted at or above fair market value. As permitted, we apply only the disclosure provisions of Statement of Financial Accounting Standards (SFAS) No. 123, “Accounting for Stock-Based Compensation” which establishes a fair value approach to measuring compensation expense related to employee stock compensation plans. Had compensation expense for our stock-based compensation plans been determined based upon the fair value at the grant dates under those plans consistent with SFAS No. 123, our net income would have been lower or our net loss would have been greater. For 2004, had we recorded this compensation expense, our net income would have been lower by $1.6 million. During 2004, the FASB issued SFAS No. 123R, which will require us to use the fair value method beginning in mid-2005.

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