Luxottica Group, S.p.A. 20-F 2012
Documents found in this filing:
Table of Contents
Commission file number 1-10421
Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act.
Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act.
Securities for which there is a reporting obligation pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Act.
Indicate the number of outstanding shares of each of the issuer's classes of capital or common stock as of the close of the period covered by the annual report.
Throughout this annual report on Form 20-F (this "Form 20-F"), management has made certain "forward-looking statements" within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 which are considered prospective. These statements are made based on management's current expectations and beliefs and are identified by the use of forward-looking words and phrases such as "plans," "estimates," "believes" or "belief," "expects" or other similar words or phrases.
Such statements involve risks, uncertainties and other factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those which are anticipated. Such risks and uncertainties include, but are not limited to, our ability to manage the effect of the uncertain current global economic conditions on our business, our ability to successfully acquire new businesses and integrate their operations, our ability to predict future economic conditions and changes in consumer preferences, our ability to successfully introduce and market new products, our ability to maintain an efficient distribution network, our ability to achieve and manage growth, our ability to negotiate and maintain favorable license arrangements, the availability of correction alternatives to prescription eyeglasses, fluctuations in exchange rates, changes in local conditions, our ability to protect our proprietary rights, our ability to maintain our relationships with host stores, any failure of our information technology, inventory and other asset risk, credit risk on our accounts, insurance risks, changes in tax laws, as well as other political, economic, legal and technological factors and other risks and uncertainties described in our filings with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (the "SEC"). These forward-looking statements are made as of the date hereof and we do not assume any obligation to update them.
Throughout this Form 20-F, when we use the terms "Luxottica," "Company," "Group," "we," "us" and "our," unless otherwise indicated or the context otherwise requires, we are referring to Luxottica Group S.p.A. and its consolidated subsidiaries. References to "Luxottica," "Company," "Group," "we," "us" and "our," for periods prior to our acquisition of Oakley, Inc. ("Oakley") on November 14, 2007, are to Luxottica Group S.p.A. and its consolidated subsidiaries, excluding Oakley and its subsidiaries, unless otherwise indicated or the context otherwise requires. References to "Oakley" for periods prior to the acquisition refer to Oakley and its consolidated subsidiaries, unless otherwise indicated or the context otherwise requires.
Our house brands and designer line prescription frames and sunglasses that are referred to in this Form 20-F, and certain of our other products, are sold under names that are subject to registered trademarks held by us or, in certain instances, our licensors. These trademarks may not be used by any person without our prior written consent or the consent of our licensors, as applicable.
ITEM 3. KEY INFORMATION
The following tables set forth selected consolidated financial data for the periods indicated and are qualified by reference to, and should be read in conjunction with, our Consolidated Financial Statements, the related notes thereto, and Item 5"Operating and Financial Review and Prospects"
contained elsewhere herein. We prepare our financial statements in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards ("IFRS") as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board ("IASB"). The selected consolidated income statement data for the years ended December 31, 2011, 2010 and 2009, and the selected consolidated balance sheet data as of December 31, 2011 and 2010, are derived from the audited Consolidated Financial Statements included in Item 18. The selected consolidated income statement data for the years ended December 31, 2008 and 2007, and the selected consolidated balance sheet data as of December 31, 2009, 2008 and 2007, are derived from audited consolidated financial statements which are not included in this Form 20-F.
[TABLES APPEAR ON THE FOLLOWING PAGE]
We are required to pay an annual dividend on our ordinary shares if such dividend has been approved by a majority of our stockholders at the ordinary meeting of stockholders. Before we may pay any dividends with respect to any fiscal year, we are required, as necessary, to set aside an amount equal to 5% of our statutory net income for such year in our legal reserve unless and until the reserve, including amounts remaining from prior years, is at least equal to one-fifth of the nominal value of our then issued share capital. Each year thereafter, such legal reserve requirement remains fulfilled so long as the reserve equals at least one-fifth of the nominal value of our issued share capital for each such year.
At our ordinary meeting of stockholders held on April 28, 2011, our stockholders approved the distribution of a cash dividend in the amount of Euro 0.44 per ordinary share and ADR. The total amount of the dividend paid to stockholders on May 26, 2011 was approximately Euro 202.5 million.
On February 28, 2012, the Board of Directors of the Company proposed to the ordinary meeting of stockholders convened on April 27, 2012 the distribution of a gross dividend of Euro 0.49 per entitled share and ADR.
Future determinations as to dividends will depend upon, among other things, our earnings, financial position and capital requirements, applicable legal restrictions and such other factors as the Board of Directors and our stockholders may determine.
The table below sets forth the cash dividends declared and paid on each ordinary share in each year indicated.
EXCHANGE RATE INFORMATION
The following tables set forth, for each of the periods from 2007 through 2009, certain information regarding the Noon Buying Rate in New York City for cable transfers in foreign currencies as certified for customs purposes by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, which we refer to as the Noon Buying Rate. For 2010 and 2011, the information reported in the below table is based upon the Euro foreign exchange reference rate published by the European Central Bank (the "BCE Rate"), which, starting from 2010, is used by the Company for translating amounts denominated in currencies other than Euro. The information is expressed in U.S. dollars per Euro 1.00:
On April 24, 2012, the BCE Rate was U.S. $1.3161 per Euro 1.00.
Unless otherwise indicated, all convenience translations included in this Form 20-F of amounts expressed in Euro into U.S. dollars have been made using the exchange rates, as indicated in the above table, in effect as of the end of the relevant period or date, as appropriate.
In this Form 20-F, unless otherwise stated or the context otherwise requires, references to "$," "U.S. $," "dollars," "USD" or "U.S. dollars" are to United States dollars, references to "Euro" or "€" are to the Common European Currency, the Euro, references to "GBP" are to the British Pound Sterling, references to "Rs" are to Indian rupees and references to "AUD" or "A$" are to Australian dollars.
Our future operating results and financial condition may be affected by various factors, including those set forth below.
Risks Relating to Our Industry and General Economic Conditions
If current economic conditions continue to deteriorate, demand for our products will be adversely impacted, access to credit will be reduced and our customers and others with which we do business will suffer financial hardship, all of which could reduce sales and in turn adversely impact our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
Our operations and performance depend significantly on worldwide economic conditions. Uncertainty about current global economic conditions poses a risk to our business because consumers and businesses may continue to postpone spending in response to tighter credit markets, unemployment, negative financial news and/or declines in income or asset values, which could have a material adverse effect on demand for our products and services. Discretionary spending is affected by many factors, including general business conditions, inflation, interest rates, consumer debt levels, unemployment rates, availability of consumer credit, conditions in the real estate and mortgage markets, currency exchange rates and other matters that influence consumer confidence. Many of these factors are outside our control. Purchases of discretionary items could decline during periods in which disposable income is lower or prices have increased in response to rising costs or in periods of actual or perceived unfavorable economic conditions. If this occurs or if unfavorable economic conditions continue to challenge the consumer environment, our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows could be materially adversely affected.
In the event of renewed financial turmoil affecting the banking system and financial markets, additional consolidation of the financial services industry or significant failure of financial services institutions, there could be a new or incremental tightening of the credit markets, decreased liquidity and extreme volatility in fixed income, credit, currency and equity markets. In addition, the credit crisis could continue to have material adverse effects on our business, including the inability of customers of our wholesale distribution business to obtain credit to finance purchases of our products, restructurings, bankruptcies, liquidations and other unfavorable events for our consumers, customers, vendors, suppliers, logistics providers, other service providers and the financial institutions that are counterparties to our credit facilities and other derivative transactions. The likelihood that such third parties will be unable to overcome such unfavorable financial difficulties may increase. If the third parties on which we rely for goods and services or our wholesale customers are unable to overcome financial difficulties resulting from the deterioration of worldwide economic conditions or if the counterparties to our credit facilities or our derivative transactions do not perform their obligations as intended, our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows could be materially adversely affected.
If our business suffers due to changing local conditions, our profitability and future growth may be affected.
We currently operate worldwide and have begun to expand our operations in many countries, including certain developing countries in Asia, South America and Africa. Therefore, we are subject to various risks inherent in conducting business internationally, including the following:
The likelihood of such occurrences and their potential effect on us vary from country to country and are unpredictable, but any such occurrence may result in the loss of sales or increased costs of doing business and may have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and prospects.
If vision correction alternatives to prescription eyeglasses become more widely available, or consumer preferences for such alternatives increase, our profitability could suffer through a reduction of sales of our prescription eyewear products, including lenses and accessories.
Our business could be negatively impacted by the availability and acceptance of vision correction alternatives to prescription eyeglasses, such as contact lenses and refractive optical surgery. According to industry estimates, over 39 million people wear contact lenses in the United States, and the disposable contact lens market is the fastest growing segment of the lens subsector. In addition, the use of refractive optical surgery has grown substantially in the United States since it was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in 1995.
Increased use of vision correction alternatives could result in decreased use of our prescription eyewear products, including a reduction of sales of lenses and accessories sold in our retail outlets, which could have a material adverse impact on our business, results of operations, financial condition and prospects.
Unforeseen or catastrophic losses not covered by insurance could materially adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.
For certain risks, we do not maintain insurance coverage because of cost and/or availability. Because we retain some portion of our insurable risks, and in some cases self-insure completely, unforeseen or catastrophic losses in excess of insured limits could materially adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.
Risks Relating to Our Business and Operations
If we are unable to successfully introduce new products and develop our brands, our future sales and operating performance may suffer.
The mid- and premium-price categories of the prescription frame and sunglasses markets in which we compete are particularly vulnerable to changes in fashion trends and consumer preferences. Our historical success is attributable, in part, to our introduction of innovative products which are perceived to represent an improvement over products otherwise available in the market and our ability to develop our brands, especially our Ray-Ban and Oakley house brands. Our future success will depend on our continued ability to develop and introduce such innovative products and continued success in building our brands. If we are unable to continue to do so, our future sales could decline, inventory levels could rise, leading to additional costs for storage and potential write-downs relating to the value of excess
inventory, and there could be a negative impact on production costs since fixed costs would represent a larger portion of total production costs due to the decline in quantities produced, which could materially adversely affect our results of operations.
If we are not successful in completing and integrating strategic acquisitions to expand or complement our business, our future profitability and growth could be at risk.
As part of our growth strategy, we have made, and may continue to make, strategic business acquisitions to expand or complement our business. Our acquisition activities, however, can be disrupted by overtures from competitors for the targeted candidates, governmental regulation and rapid developments in our industry. We may face additional risks and uncertainties following an acquisition, including (i) difficulty in integrating the newly-acquired business and operations in an efficient and effective manner, (ii) inability to achieve strategic objectives, cost savings and other benefits from the acquisition, (iii) the lack of success by the acquired business in its markets, (iv) the loss of key employees of the acquired business, (v) a decrease in the focus of senior management on our operations, (vi) difficulty integrating human resources systems, operating systems, inventory management systems and assortment planning systems of the acquired business with our systems, (vii) the cultural differences between our organization and that of the acquired business and (viii) liabilities that were not known at the time of acquisition or the need to address tax or accounting issues.
If we fail to timely recognize or address these matters or to devote adequate resources to them, we may fail to achieve our growth strategy or otherwise realize the intended benefits of any acquisition. Even if we are able to integrate our business operations successfully, the integration may not result in the realization of the full benefits of synergies, cost savings, innovation and operational efficiencies that may be possible from the integration or in the achievement of such benefits within the forecasted period of time.
If we are unable to achieve and manage growth, operating margins may be reduced as a result of decreased efficiency of distribution.
In order to achieve and manage our growth effectively, we are required to increase and streamline production and implement manufacturing efficiencies where possible, while maintaining strict quality control and the ability to deliver products to our customers in a timely and efficient manner. We must also continuously develop new product designs and features, expand our information systems and operations, and train and manage an increasing number of management level and other employees. If we are unable to manage these matters effectively, our distribution process could be adversely affected and we could lose market share in affected regions, which could materially adversely affect our business prospects.
If we do not correctly predict future economic conditions and changes in consumer preferences, our sales of premium products and profitability could suffer.
The fashion and consumer products industries in which we operate are cyclical. Downturns in general economic conditions or uncertainties regarding future economic prospects, which affect consumer disposable income, have historically adversely affected consumer spending habits in our principal markets and thus made the growth in sales and profitability of premium-priced product categories difficult during such downturns. Therefore, future economic downturns or uncertainties could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition, including sales of our designer and other premium brands.
The industry is also subject to rapidly changing consumer preferences and future sales may suffer if the fashion and consumer products industries do not continue to grow or if consumer preferences shift away from our products. Changes in fashion could also affect the popularity and, therefore, the value of
the fashion licenses granted to us by designers. Any event or circumstance resulting in reduced market acceptance of one or more of these designers could reduce our sales and the value of our models from that designer. Unanticipated shifts in consumer preferences may also result in excess inventory and underutilized manufacturing capacity. In addition, our success depends, in large part, on our ability to anticipate and react to changing fashion trends in a timely manner. Any sustained failure to identify and respond to such trends could materially adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition and may result in the write-down of excess inventory and idle manufacturing facilities.
If we do not continue to negotiate and maintain favorable license arrangements, our sales or cost of sales could suffer.
We have entered into license agreements that enable us to manufacture and distribute prescription frames and sunglasses under certain designer names, including Chanel, Prada, Miu Miu, Dolce & Gabbana, D&G, Bvlgari, Tiffany & Co., Versace, Burberry, Polo Ralph Lauren, Donna Karan, DKNY, Paul Smith Spectacles, Brooks Brothers, Anne Klein, Stella McCartney, Tory Burch and Coach. These license agreements typically have terms of between three and ten years and may contain options for renewal for additional periods and require us to make guaranteed and contingent royalty payments to the licensor. We believe that our ability to maintain and negotiate favorable license agreements with leading designers in the fashion and luxury goods industries is essential to the branding of our products and, therefore, material to the success of our business. For the years ended December 31, 2011 and 2010, the sales realized through the Prada and Miu Miu brand names together represented approximately 4.0% and 4.2% of total sales, respectively. For the years ended December 31, 2011 and 2010, the sales realized through the Dolce & Gabbana and D&G brand names together represented approximately 3.1% and 3.5% of total sales, respectively. Accordingly, if we are unable to negotiate and maintain satisfactory license arrangements with leading designers, our growth prospects and financial results could materially suffer from a reduction in sales or an increase in advertising costs and royalty payments to designers.
As we operate in a complex international environment, if new laws, regulations or policies of governmental organizations, or changes to existing ones, occur and cannot be managed efficiently, the results could have a negative impact on our operations, our ability to compete or our future financial results.
Compliance with U.S. and foreign laws and regulations that apply to our international operations increases our costs of doing business, including cost of compliance, in certain jurisdictions, and such costs may rise in the future as a result of changes in these laws and regulations or in their interpretation or enforcement. We have implemented policies and procedures designed to facilitate our compliance with these laws and regulations, but there can be no assurance that our employees, contractors or agents will not violate such laws and regulations or our policies. Any such violations could individually, or in the aggregate, materially adversely affect our financial condition or operating results.
Additionally, as a U.S. government contractor through our Oakley and Eye Safety Systems ("ESS") subsidiaries, we must comply with, and are affected by, U.S. laws and regulations related to our government business. These laws and regulations, including requirements to obtain applicable governmental approvals, clearances and certain export licenses, may impose additional costs and risks on our business. We also may become subject to audits, reviews and investigations of our compliance with these laws and regulations. See Item 4"Information on the CompanyRegulatory Matters" and Item 8"Financial InformationLegal Proceedings."
If we are unable to protect our proprietary rights, our sales might suffer, and we may incur significant costs to defend such rights.
We rely on trade secret, unfair competition, trade dress, trademark, patent and copyright laws to protect our rights to certain aspects of our products and services, including product designs, proprietary
manufacturing processes and technologies, product research and concepts and recognized trademarks, all of which we believe are important to the success of our products and services and our competitive position. However, pending trademark or patent applications may not in all instances result in the issuance of a registered trademark or patent, and trademarks or patents granted may not be effective in thwarting competition or be held valid if subsequently challenged. In addition, the actions we take to protect our proprietary rights may be inadequate to prevent imitation of our products and services. Our proprietary information could become known to competitors, and we may not be able to meaningfully protect our rights to proprietary information. Furthermore, other companies may independently develop substantially equivalent or better products or services that do not infringe on our intellectual property rights or could assert rights in, and ownership of, our proprietary rights. Moreover, the laws of certain countries do not protect proprietary rights to the same extent as the laws of the United States or of the member states of the European Union.
Consistent with our strategy of vigorously defending our intellectual property rights, we devote substantial resources to the enforcement of patents issued and trademarks granted to us, to the protection of our trade secrets or other intellectual property rights and to the determination of the scope or validity of the proprietary rights of others that might be asserted against us. However, if the level of potentially infringing activities by others were to increase substantially, we might have to significantly increase the resources we devote to protecting our rights. From time to time, third parties may assert patent, copyright, trademark or similar rights against intellectual property that is important to our business. The resolution or compromise of any litigation or other legal process to enforce such alleged third party rights, regardless of its merit or resolution, could be costly and divert the efforts and attention of our management. We may not prevail in any such litigation or other legal process or we may compromise or settle such claims because of the complex technical issues and inherent uncertainties in intellectual property disputes and the significant expense in defending such claims. An adverse determination in any dispute involving our proprietary rights could, among other things, (i) require us to grant licenses to, or obtain licenses from, third parties, (ii) prevent us from manufacturing or selling our products, (iii) require us to discontinue the use of a particular patent, trademark, copyright or trade secret or (iv) subject us to substantial liability. Any of these possibilities could have a material adverse effect on our business by reducing our future sales or causing us to incur significant costs to defend our rights.
If we are unable to maintain our current operating relationship with host stores of our Licensed Brands division, we could suffer a loss in sales and possible impairment of certain intangible assets.
Our sales depend in part on our relationships with the host stores that allow us to operate our Licensed Brands division, including Sears Optical and Target Optical. Our leases and licenses with Sears Optical are terminable upon short notice. If our relationship with Sears Optical or Target Optical were to end, we would suffer a loss of sales and the possible impairment of certain intangible assets. This could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and prospects.
If we fail to maintain an efficient distribution network in our highly competitive markets, our business, results of operations and financial condition could suffer.
The mid- and premium-price categories of the prescription frame and sunglasses markets in which we operate are highly competitive. We believe that, in addition to successfully introducing new products, responding to changes in the market environment and maintaining superior production capabilities, our ability to remain competitive is highly dependent on our success in maintaining an efficient distribution network. If we are unable to maintain an efficient distribution network, our sales may decline due to the inability to timely deliver products to customers and our profitability may decline due to an increase in our per unit distribution costs in the affected regions, which may have a material adverse impact on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
If we were to become subject to adverse judgments or determinations in legal proceedings to which we are, or may become, a party, our future profitability could suffer through a reduction of sales, increased costs or damage to our reputation due to our failure to adequately communicate the impact of any such proceeding or its outcome to the investor and business communities.
We are currently a party to certain legal proceedings as described in Item 8"Financial InformationLegal Proceedings." In addition, in the ordinary course of our business, we become involved in various other claims, lawsuits, investigations and governmental and administrative proceedings, some of which are or may be significant. Adverse judgments or determinations in one or more of these proceedings could require us to change the way we do business or use substantial resources in adhering to the settlements and could have a material adverse effect on our business, including, among other consequences, by significantly increasing the costs required to operate our business.
Ineffective communications, during or after these proceedings, could amplify the negative effects, if any, of these proceedings on our reputation and may result in a negative market impact on the price of our securities.
Changes in our tax rates or exposure to additional tax liabilities could affect our future results.
We are subject to taxes in Italy, the United States and numerous other foreign jurisdictions. Our future effective tax rates could be affected by changes in the mix of earnings in countries with differing statutory tax rates, changes in the valuation of deferred tax assets and liabilities, or changes in tax laws or their interpretation. Any of these changes could have a material adverse effect on our profitability. We also are regularly subject to the examination of our income tax returns by the U.S. Internal Revenue Service, the Italian tax authority as well as the governing tax authorities in other countries where we operate. We routinely assess the likelihood of adverse outcomes resulting from these examinations to determine the adequacy of our provision for taxes. Currently, some of our companies are under examination by the tax authorities in the United States, Italy and other jurisdictions. There can be no assurance that the outcomes of the current ongoing examinations and possible future examinations will not materially adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition and prospects.
If there is any material failure, inadequacy, interruption or security failure of our information technology systems, whether owned by us or outsourced or managed by third parties, this may result in remediation costs, reduced sales due to an inability to properly process information and increased costs of operating our business.
We rely on information technology systems both managed internally and outsourced to third parties across our operations, including for management of our supply chain, point-of-sale processing in our stores and various other processes and transactions. Our ability to effectively manage our business and coordinate the production, distribution and sale of our products depends on, among other things, the reliability and capacity of these systems. The failure of these systems to operate effectively, network disruptions, problems with transitioning to upgraded or replacement systems, or a breach in data security of these systems could cause delays in product supply and sales, reduced efficiency of our operations, unintentional disclosure of customer or other confidential information of the Company, or damage to our reputation, and potentially significant capital investments could be required to remediate the problem, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.
If we record a write-down for inventories or other assets that are obsolete or exceed anticipated demand or net realizable value, such charges could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.
We record a write-down for product and component inventories that have become obsolete or exceed anticipated demand or net realizable value. We review our long-lived assets for impairment
whenever events or changed circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable, and we determine whether valuation allowances are needed against other assets, including, but not limited to, accounts receivable. If we determine that impairments or other events have occurred that lead us to believe we will not fully realize these assets, we record a write-down or a valuation allowance equal to the amount by which the carrying value of the assets exceeds their fair market value. Although we believe our inventory and other asset-related provisions are currently adequate, no assurance can be made that, given the rapid and unpredictable pace of product obsolescence for fashion eyewear, we will not incur additional inventory or asset-related charges, which charges could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.
Leonardo Del Vecchio, our chairman and principal stockholder, controls 66.16% of our voting power and is in a position to affect our ongoing operations, corporate transactions and any matters submitted to a vote of our stockholders, including the election of directors and a change in corporate control.
As of April 15, 2012, Mr. Leonardo Del Vecchio, the Chairman of our Board of Directors, through the company Delfin S.à r.l., has voting rights over 310,133,339 Ordinary Shares, or 66.16% of the outstanding Ordinary Shares. See Item 7"Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions." As a result, Mr. Del Vecchio has the ability to exert significant influence over our corporate affairs and to control the outcome of virtually all matters submitted to a vote of our stockholders, including the election of our directors, the amendment of our Articles of Association or By-laws, and the approval of mergers, consolidations and other significant corporate transactions.
Mr. Del Vecchio's interests may conflict with or differ from the interests of our other stockholders. In situations involving a conflict of interest between Mr. Del Vecchio and our other stockholders, Mr. Del Vecchio may exercise his control in a manner that would benefit himself to the potential detriment of other stockholders. Mr. Del Vecchio's significant ownership interest could delay, prevent or cause a change in control of our company, any of which may be adverse to the interests of our other stockholders.
If our procedures designed to comply with Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 cause us to identify material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting, the trading price of our securities may be adversely impacted.
Our annual report on Form 20-F includes a report from our management relating to its evaluation of our internal control over financial reporting, as required under Section 404 of the U.S. Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, as amended. There are inherent limitations on the effectiveness of internal controls, including collusion, management override and failure of human judgment. In addition, control procedures are designed to reduce, rather than eliminate, business risks. As a consequence of the systems and procedures we have implemented to comply with these requirements, we may uncover circumstances that we determine, with the assistance of our independent auditors, to be material weaknesses, or that otherwise result in disclosable conditions. Any identified material weaknesses in our internal control structure may involve significant effort and expense to remediate, and any disclosure of such material weaknesses or other disclosable conditions may result in a negative market reaction to our securities.
If the Euro or the Chinese Yuan strengthens relative to certain other currencies or if the U.S. dollar weakens relative to the Euro, our profitability as a consolidated group could suffer.
Our principal manufacturing facilities are located in Italy. We also maintain manufacturing facilities in China, India and the United States as well as sales and distribution facilities throughout the world. As a
result, our results of operations could be materially adversely affected by foreign exchange rate fluctuations in two principal areas:
As our international operations grow, future changes in the exchange rate of the Euro against the U.S. dollar and other currencies may negatively impact our reported results, although we have in place policies designed to manage such risk.
See Item 11"Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk."
If economic conditions around the world continue to worsen, we may experience an increase in our exposure to credit risk on our accounts receivable which may result in increased costs due to additional reserves for doubtful accounts and a reduction in sales to customers experiencing credit-related issues.
A substantial majority of our outstanding trade receivables are not covered by collateral or credit insurance. While we have procedures to monitor and limit exposure to credit risk on our trade and non-trade receivables, there can be no assurance such procedures will effectively limit our credit risk and avoid losses, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.
ITEM 4. INFORMATION ON THE COMPANY
We are a market leader in premium, luxury and sport/performance eyewear, with net sales reaching Euro 6.2 billion in 2011, over 65,000 employees and a strong global presence. We operate in two industry segments: (i) manufacturing and wholesale distribution; and (ii) retail distribution. See Item 18"Financial Statements" for additional disclosures about our operating segments. Through our manufacturing and wholesale distribution segment, we are engaged in the design, manufacture, wholesale distribution and marketing of house and designer lines of mid- to premium-priced prescription frames and sunglasses, as well as performance optics products. We operate our retail segment principally through our retail brands, which include, among others, LensCrafters, Sunglass Hut (including those in host stores), Pearle Vision, ILORI, The Optical Shop of Aspen, OPSM, Laubman & Pank, Budget Eyewear, Bright Eyes, Oakley "O" Stores and Vaults, David Clulow and our Licensed Brands (Sears Optical and Target Optical).
Founded in 1961 by Leonardo Del Vecchio, we are a vertically integrated organization. Our manufacturing of prescription and sun frames and lenses is backed by wide-reaching wholesale and retail distribution networks comprising over 7,000 retail locations as of December 31, 2011, mostly in North America, Asia-Pacific, China and South America.
Product design, development and manufacturing takes place in six production facilities in Italy, two wholly owned factories in China and one sports sunglasses production facility in the United States. Luxottica also has a small plant in India serving the local market. In 2011, we produced approximately 64.5 million units. In 2012, Luxottica expects to benefit from the addition of a production facility in
Campinas, Brazil, in connection with the acquisition of Grupo Tecnol Ltda ("Tecnol") as described in "Recent Developments" below.
The design and quality of our products and our strong and well-balanced brand portfolio are known around the world. Our house brands include Ray-Ban, one of the world's best-known brands for eyewear, Oakley, Vogue, Persol, Oliver Peoples, Arnette and REVO, and our license brands include Bvlgari, Burberry, Chanel, Coach, Dolce & Gabbana, Donna Karan, Paul Smith, Polo Ralph Lauren, Prada, Stella McCartney, Tiffany, Tory Burch, Versace and, starting from 2013, Armani.
Our wholesale distribution network, covering more than 130 countries across five continents, has 12 logistics centers and 42 commercial subsidiaries providing direct operations in key markets. We have already started to penetrate emerging markets and have explored new channels of distribution, such as department stores, travel retail and e-commerce.
Our direct wholesale operations are complemented by an extensive retail network. We are a leader in the prescription business in North America with our LensCrafters and Pearle Vision brands, in Asia-Pacific with our OPSM, Laubman & Pank and Budget Eyewear brands, in China with our LensCrafters brand and in Latin America with our GMO brand. In our retail sun business, we operate over 2,760 retail locations in North America, Asia-Pacific, South Africa, Europe, Latin America and the Middle East, mainly through the Sunglass Hut brand. In addition, we maintain a global sun and luxury retail management group to support the Sunglass Hut, ILORI, The Optical Shop of Aspen and Bright Eyes brands and reinforce our global retail brands dedicated to sun and luxury eyewear.
In North America, we operate the points of sale for our Licensed Brands, with over 1,130 stores under the Sears Optical and Target Optical brands. In addition, we are one of the largest managed vision care operators in the United States, through EyeMed, and the second largest lens surfacer/finisher, having a network of five central laboratories and over 900 on-site labs at LensCrafters stores.
In 2011, 46.3% of our net sales related to prescription frames and 53.7% related to sunglasses. In 2011, we distributed prescription frames and sunglasses in approximately 1,400 different styles.
Our Oakley brand provides a powerful wholesale and retail ("O Stores") presence in both the performance optics and the sport channels. In our O Store locations, we offer a variety of Oakley-branded products in addition to our Oakley eyewear styles. Our Oakley-branded products include men's and women's apparel, footwear, backpacks and accessories designed for surf, snow, golf, outdoor, motor sport, mountain bike and other athletic lifestyles.
Our retail network also includes an e-commerce component, including the Oakley, Ray-Ban and Sunglass Hut websites, which complement Luxottica's other distribution channels. The websites allow consumers to purchase products more efficiently and without travel to a retail location, increase awareness of the brands, improve customer service and communicate the brands' values and essence. Oakley.com, the Group's most developed site, conducts e-commerce across multiple markets, including the United States, Canada, Australia, Japan and 16 countries in Europe. In 2009, Ray-Ban.com was launched in the United States and began selling to online consumers. The e-commerce strategy is to enter additional markets as the business matures. For example, in China, strategic partnerships have been formed to open Ray-Ban and Oakley virtual stores within TaoBao, the largest Chinese-language online mall. Over the last two years, SunglassHut.com has become a digital destination for consumers looking for the latest trends and products in premium sunwear.
Our capital expenditures for our continuing operations, excluding the acquisition of a building for Euro 25.2 million and capital leases of Euro 25.6 million, were Euro 307.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2011 and Euro 61.4 million, excluding capital leases of Euro 14.2 million, for the three-month period ended March 31, 2012. We expect 2012 aggregate capital expenditures to be approximately Euro 340.0 million, excluding any additional investments for business acquisitions. The most significant investments planned are the remodeling of existing stores for our North American retail
operations and a new IT infrastructure worldwide. We expect to fund this future capital expenditure with our current available borrowing capacity and available cash. For a description of capital expenditures for the previous three years, see Item 5"Operating and Financial Review and ProspectsLiquidity and Capital ResourcesCash FlowsInvesting Activities."
Our principal executive offices are located at Via C. Cantù 2, Milan 20123, Italy, and our telephone number at that address is (011) 39-02-863341. We are domiciled in Milan, Italy.
Luxottica Group was founded by Leonardo Del Vecchio in 1961, when he set up Luxottica di Del Vecchio e C. S.a.S., which subsequently became a joint-stock company organized under the laws of Italy under the name of Luxottica S.p.A. We started out as a small workshop and operated until the end of the 1960s as a contract producer of dyes, metal components and semi-finished goods for the optical industry. We gradually widened the range of processes that we offered until we had an integrated manufacturing structure capable of producing a finished pair of glasses. In 1971, our first collection of prescription eyewear was presented at Milan's MIDO (an international optics trade fair), marking our definitive transition from contract manufacturer to independent producer.
Expansion in Wholesale Distribution
In the early 1970s, we sold our frames exclusively through wholesalers. In 1974, after five years of sustained development of our manufacturing capacity, we started to pursue a strategy of vertical integration, with the goal of distributing frames directly to the market. Our first step was the acquisition of Scarrone S.p.A., which had marketed our products since 1971, and which brought with it vital knowledge of the Italian market.
Our international expansion began in the 1980s with the acquisition of independent distributors, the opening of branches and the forming of joint ventures in key international markets.
Our acquisition in 1981 of La Meccanoptica Leonardo, the owner of the Sferoflex brand and an important flexible hinge patent, enabled us to enhance the image and quality of our products and increase our market share.
From the late 1980s, eyeglasses, previously perceived as mere sight correcting instruments, began to evolve into "eyewear." Continual aesthetic focus on everyday objects and interest on the part of designers in the emerging accessories industry led us, in 1988, to embark on our first collaboration with the fashion industry by entering into a licensing agreement with Giorgio Armani. We followed up that initial collaboration (that Armani license was terminated in 2003) with numerous others, gradually building our current world-class brand portfolio with the launch of collections from names like Bvlgari (1997), Chanel (1999), Prada (2003), Versace (2003), Donna Karan (2005), Dolce & Gabbana (2006), Burberry (2006), Polo Ralph Lauren (2007), Tiffany & Co. (2008), Stella McCartney (2009), Tory Burch (2009) and Coach (2011).
As for our house brands, we expanded in the sun business by buying Vogue (1990), Persol (1995), Ray-Ban, REVO and Arnette (1999) and Oakley and Oliver Peoples (2007).
In 1990, we listed our American Depositary Shares ("ADSs") on the New York Stock Exchange. In 2000, our stock was listed on Borsa Italiana's electronic share market and it has been in Italy's Mercato Telematico Azionario ("MTA") since 2003.
In 1995, we acquired The United States Shoe Corporation, which owned LensCrafters, one of North America's largest optical retail chains. As a result, we became the world's first significant eyewear manufacturer to enter the retail market, thereby maximizing synergies with our production and wholesale distribution and increasing penetration of our products through LensCrafters stores.
In 1999, we acquired Ray-Ban, one of the world's best-known sunglass brands. Through this acquisition, we obtained crystal sunglass lens technology and the associated manufacturing capacity and enhanced our portfolio with brands like Arnette, REVO and Killer Loop.
Over A Decade of Growth
Since 2000, we have strengthened our retail business by acquiring a number of chains, including Sunglass Hut (2001), a leading retailer of premium sunglasses, OPSM Group (2003), a leading optical retailer in Australia and New Zealand, Cole National (2004), which brought with it another leading optical retail chain in North America, Pearle Vision, and an extensive Licensed Brands store business. In 2005, we began our retail expansion into China, where LensCrafters has since become a leading brand in China's high-end market. In 2006, we started to expand Sunglass Hut globally in high-potential markets like the Middle East, South Africa, Thailand, India and the Philippines. In 2011, we increased our ownership stake to 100% in Multiopticas Internacional S.L. ("MOI" or "Multiopticas Internacional"), a leading retailer in Latin America operating under the Opticas GMO and Sun Planet retail brands.
During this time, our wholesale segment has supported our new licensing agreements with an increasing commitment to research, innovation, product quality and manufacturing excellence, while continuing to focus our distribution expansion on customer differentiation and emerging sales channels, such as large department stores, travel retail and e-commerce.
In 2007, we acquired California based Oakley, a leading sports and performance brand known and appreciated worldwide, which owns the Oliver Peoples and Eye Safety System brands and a license to manufacture and distribute the Paul Smith brand, as well as its own retail network at that time of over 160 stores.
On January 20, 2012, Luxottica completed the acquisition of 80% of the share capital of Tecnol, a leading Brazilian eyewear company. Established in 1972, Tecnol has a portfolio comprised of both house brands, including Platini, Jean Monnier and Tecnol, and licensed brands for the Brazilian market. Products are designed and manufactured at its plant in Campinas, Brazil. Tecnol also operates a leading-edge central laboratory and a retail optical chain of 90 stores in the state of São Paulo under the brand Óticas Íris.
On March 19, 2012, we closed an offering in Europe to institutional investors of Euro 500 million of senior unsecured guaranteed notes due March 19, 2019. The notes are listed on the Luxembourg Stock Exchange under ISIN XS0758640279. Interest on the Notes accrues at 3.625% per annum. The Notes are guaranteed on a senior unsecured basis by Luxottica U.S. Holdings Corp. ("U.S. Holdings") and Luxottica S.r.l., both of which are wholly-owned subsidiaries. On March 19, 2012, the notes were assigned a BBB+ credit rating by Standard & Poor's.
On April 17, 2012, we and our subsidiary, U.S. Holdings, entered into a multicurrency (Euro/U.S. dollars) revolving credit facility with a group of banks providing for loans in the aggregate principal
amount of Euro 500 million (or the equivalent in U.S. dollars). Amounts borrowed may be repaid and re-borrowed with all outstanding balances maturing on April 10, 2017. We can select interest periods of one, three or six months with interest accruing (i) on Euro-denominated loans based on the corresponding EURIBOR rate and (ii) on U.S. dollar denominated loans based on the corresponding LIBOR rate and a premium of 0.35% per annum, both plus a margin between 1.30% and 2.25% based on the "Consolidated Net Debt to Consolidated EBITDA" ratio as defined in the agreement. As of April 24, 2012, the line was undrawn. In connection with the agreement, we cancelled Tranche C of our Euro 1,130,000,000 and $325,000,000 Facilities Agreement dated June 3, 2004, as amended, effective April 27, 2012. See Item 5"Operating and Financial Review and ProspectsLiquidity and Capital ResourcesOur IndebtednessOur Credit FacilitiesThe Amended Euro 1,130 Million and U.S. $325 Million Credit Facility and Related Interest Rate Swaps."
DESIGN AND PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT
An emphasis on product design and the continuous development of new styles is key to Luxottica's success. In 2011, we added approximately 5,600 new styles to our eyewear collections.
The design of the Group's products is the focal point where vision, technology and creativity converge.
Our in-house designers oversee the entire concept phase of the creative process, culminating in the creation of the model. At the initial phase, the prototype makers transform designs into one-off pieces, crafted by hand with precision.
Once the prototypes or style concepts are developed in the initial phase of design, they are passed on to the product department, which uses 3D software to analyze the steps necessary to bring the prototype to mass production.
Three main manufacturing technologies are involved: metal, acetate slabs and plastic (injection molding).
At this point in the cycle, the tooling shop puts together equipment needed to make the components for the new model. The first specimens obtained are assembled and undergo a series of tests required by internal quality control procedures.
The next steps are production and quality certification of sales samples of the new models. These samples are subjected to a sequence of tests to ascertain the quality of the engineering.
The final step is the production of an initial significant batch using definitive tooling certified by an external standards organization. These samples are produced in a pilot facility representing the plant chosen to mass produce the new model to meet the needs of production planning.
For our designer line products, our design team works with licensors to discuss the basic themes and fashion concepts for each product and then works closely with each licensor's designers to refine such themes. In addition, our design team works directly with our marketing and sales departments, which monitor demand for our current models as well as general style trends in eyewear. The information obtained from our marketing and sales departments is then used to refine existing product designs and market positioning in order to react to changing consumer preferences.
Our brand portfolio is one of the largest in the industry, with our major global brands backed by leading brands both at a regional level and in particular segments and niche markets. Our portfolio is balanced between house and licensed brands, combining the stability of the former with the prestige of the latter.
The presence of Ray-Ban, one of the world's best-selling brands of sun and prescription eyewear, and Oakley, a leader in the sport/performance category, gives the portfolio a strong base, complemented by Persol and Oliver Peoples in the high end of the market, Arnette and REVO in the sports market, and Vogue in the fashion market.
Alongside the house brands, which accounted for 69.5% of our 2011 total sales of frames, our portfolio has over 20 licensed designer brands, including some well-known and prestigious names in the global fashion and luxury industries. With our manufacturing know-how, capillary distribution and direct retail operations supported by targeted advertising and our experience in international markets, our goal is to be the ideal partner for fashion houses and stylists seeking to translate their style and values into successful premium quality eyewear collections. We differentiate each designer's offering as much as possible, segmenting it by type of customer and geographical market, to produce a broad range of models capable of satisfying diverse tastes and tendencies and to respond to the demands and characteristics of widely differing markets.
In 2010, we announced the signing of a license agreement with Coach, Inc. ("Coach") for the design, manufacturing and global distribution of sun and prescription eyewear under the Coach, Coach Poppy and Reed Krakoff brands. In January 2012, distribution of Coach eyewear collections commenced through Coach stores across the world, through select department stores primarily in North America, Japan, China and East Asia, as well as through select travel retail locations, independent optical locations and our retail chains.
In November 2011, we announced the signing of a letter of intent with Armani Group, a global leader in the fashion and luxury goods industries. The letter is preliminary to an exclusive ten-year license agreement for the design, manufacturing and global distribution of sun and prescription eyewear under the Giorgio Armani, Emporio Armani and A/X Armani Exchange brands, beginning January 2013. The letter of intent incorporates certain terms based on anticipated market conditions, and the definitive agreement is expected to be executed in the second quarter of 2012 and effective as of January 1, 2013. The first collection is expected to be presented during 2013.
The following table presents the respective percentages of our total sales in Euros comprised by our designer and house brands during the periods indicated:
The following table presents the respective percentages of our total sales in Euros comprised by our prescription frames and lenses and sunglasses for the periods indicated:
In 2011, we developed approximately 390 distinct new styles within our house brands, of which approximately 225 are prescription frames and the remainder are new sunglass styles. Each style is typically produced in two sizes and five colors.
Style, tradition and freedom of expression are the key values underpinning the philosophy of Ray-Ban, a leader in sun and prescription eyewear for generations. Debuting in 1937 with the Aviator model created for American Air Force pilots, Ray-Ban joined Luxottica's brand portfolio in 1999. Ray-Ban is recognized for the quality and authenticity of its eyewear and is worn by celebrities all over the world.
Acquired by Luxottica in 2007, Oakley is a leading sports eyewear brand, known for its blend of technology, design and art across all its products. In addition to its sun and prescription eyewear and ski goggles, it offers branded apparel, footwear and accessories in collections addressing specific consumer categories: Sport/Active, Lifestyle and Women. Oakley is also well-known for its lens technologies and especially its High Definition Optics® (HDO®).
Launched in California in 1992, Arnette was acquired by us in 1999, and combines the comfort and functionality demanded by extreme sports enthusiasts.
Persol, the iconic "Made in Italy" eyewear brand, made its debut in 1917 and was acquired by Luxottica in 1995. With its evocative name, meaning "for sun," it is the proud heir to a culture of excellence and craftsmanship, a perfect alchemy of aesthetics and technology. The irresistible appeal of timeless design and high quality make the brand a favorite among celebrities.
Created in 1985 and acquired by us in 1999, REVO is characterized by an innovative lens based on a technology that NASA developed for satellite portholes, offering maximum protection against ultraviolet and infrared light.
Launched in 1973 under the same name as the famous fashion magazine, the Vogue brand was acquired by us in 1990. Vogue models distinguish themselves through their fashionable designs, their variety of colors and frames and the detailing on the temples.
Acquired by Luxottica in 2007, Oliver Peoples began in 1987 with the introduction of a retro-inspired eyewear collection created by designer and optician Larry Leight. All eyewear is handcrafted from the finest quality materials, in colors that we only use for this brand. Frames are manufactured in limited quantities and with deliberate anti-logo labeling so that only people "in the know" will recognize them.
Created in 1989, Killer Loop joined our brand portfolio in 1999. It gradually evolved from a general sports style to embody a more "urban" spirit. In 2008 it took on a new name, K&L, and launched a project for collections specifically addressing the preferences of consumers in emerging markets while maintaining global distribution.
Launched in 1967, our original line best conveys the experience and tradition that are its essence.
Launched in 2005 and part of our brand portfolio since 2007, Mosley Tribes combines design and aesthetics with a vision of the urban lifestyle and sports performance worlds. The sleek and stylish frames use titanium and injected plastic for a lightweight design, ideal for active individuals. Most frames feature advanced lens technology.
Sferoflex, which joined our portfolio in 1981, takes its name from the patented flexible hinge enabling the temples to conform to the shape and size of the face, thus increasing the resilience of the frame itself and ensuring perfect fit.
Eye Safety Systems ("ESS")
Acquired by us in 2007, ESS designs, develops and markets advanced eye protection systems for military, firefighting and law enforcement professionals worldwide and is a leading supplier of protective eyewear to the U.S. military and firefighting markets.
Our designer lines are produced and distributed through license agreements with major fashion houses. The license agreements are exclusive contracts and typically have terms of between three and ten years. See "License Agreements." Designer collections are developed through the collaborative efforts of our in-house design staff and the brand designers. Our designer lines presently feature approximately 740 different styles.
This product line targets successful professional women who place an emphasis on quality and image. The original license was entered into in 1996.
Characterized by lightweight materials and a slender line, the Brooks Brothers collections reflect the iconic features of the style of this American brand. This is an affordable product line with classic style that delivers functionality, lightness and high quality. We entered into the original license agreement in 1992.
Extending its vision of extraordinary beauty to everyday objects, Bvlgari, under license since 1997, applies the same uncompromising design and product standards to its men's and women's eyewear collection, recapturing fine handcrafting in ladies collections and technical innovation in gentlemen styles.
Since its founding in England in 1856, Burberry has been synonymous with quality, as defined by the endurance, classicism and functionality that characterized its history. Burberry has become a leading luxury brand with a global business. The eyewear collection, under license since 2006, is
inspired by the brand's innovative ready-to-wear and accessories collections and incorporates very recognizable iconic elements for both men and women.
In 1999, Luxottica was the first company licensed to produce Chanel eyewear products. The Chanel product line, targeting luxury-oriented consumers, reflects the essential characteristics of the brand: style, elegance and class.
Coach was founded in 1941 as a family-run workshop in a Manhattan loft and has grown to become a leading American marketer of fine accessories and gifts for women and men. Coach offers premium lifestyle products to a loyal and growing customer base and provides consumers with fresh, relevant and innovative products made with a broad range of high-quality leathers, fabrics and materials.
Dolce & Gabbana is a luxury brand that draws inspiration from the roots and the authentic values of its own DNA: Sicily, sensuality, sartorial ability. Dolce & Gabbana's essence lies in its contrasting yet complementary features. The eyewear collection, under license since 2006, is characterized by glamorous, unconventional shapes, prestigious materials and sumptuous detailing.
D&G is an eclectic and contemporary brand, the expression of the metropolitan culture. The eyewear collection has been under license since 2006 and emphasizes the spirit of the brand through innovative and cosmopolitan shapes and details.
Under license since 2005, this product line reflects the design sensibility and spirit of the Donna Karan collection. The collection, designed "for a woman by a woman," offers sophisticated styling, sensuality and comfort in a modern way with identifiable detailing and quality workmanship.
DKNY is easy-to-wear fashion with an urban mindset, the energy of New York City and its street-smart look. DKNY eyewear caters to modern, urban, fashion conscious women and men, addressing a broad range of lifestyle needs, from work to weekend, jeans to evening. The license was entered into in 2005.
Fox Eyewear collections are the result of a multi-year licensing agreement with Fox Head, Inc., a leading motocross and action sport brand based in California. Fox eyewear and ski goggles have been on the market for over five years and it is currently the only brand other than Oakley to use High Definition Optics® (HDO®) technology. Fox Eyewear joined Luxottica's brand portfolio at the end of 2007.
Under license since 2003, Miu Miu is Miuccia Prada's other soul: a brand with a very strong and autonomous identity, characterized by an avant-garde, sensual, sometimes provocative, style aimed at a trendsetting woman with a strong and independent personality.
The Paul Smith Spectacles brand, which launched in 1994, includes prescription and sun eyewear featuring the whimsical yet classic designs and attention to detail that are synonymous with one of Britain's leading fashion designers.
The Prada license agreement was signed in 2003. Prada represents the best of Italian culture and tradition. At the same time, Prada is one of the most innovative fashion brands with a keen attention to detail and new trends: the Prada Eyewear Collection reflects this approach with unmistakable style, sophisticated elegance and uncompromising quality.
Ralph Lauren Group
Under license since 2007, the Ralph Lauren Group comprises the following collections:
Ralph Lauren Purple Label
The Ralph Lauren Purple Label eyewear collection is the ultimate expression of modern elegance, reflecting an impeccable sense of high quality, precious materials and style. Dedicated to the highest level of quality and elegance, it is the ultimate expression of luxury for the modern gentleman.
Polo Ralph Lauren
Authentic and iconic, the Polo Ralph Lauren eyewear collection is the original symbol of the modern preppy lifestyle. Polo's signature aesthetic is recognized worldwide as a mark of contemporary heritage excellence.
Timeless and sophisticated, the Ralph Lauren eyewear collection reflects Ralph Lauren's definitive design philosophy in its groundbreaking juxtaposition of feminine glamour and impeccable execution, a mix of American glamour with an air of refined luxury.
This women's line is an expression of the Ralph Lauren spirit at an accessible price point. It features the latest looks and trends, as well as some more classic looks, and vibrant colors for a feminine, youthful, flirty and fun look.
Chaps translates the classic heritage and timeless aesthetic of Ralph Lauren into an accessible line for men and women. Chaps creates interchangeable classics that are both enduring and affordable.
Stella McCartney, under license since 2009, is a design lifestyle brand, synonymous with modern cool. The sunglasses collection appeals to women who are naturally sexy and confident, combining everyday quality with sophistication and masculinity with feminine allure and allowing its wearers to create their own distinctive look.
Founded in 1837 in New York City, Tiffany has a rich heritage filled with celebrated events, artists and milestones that live on today in legendary style. The Eyewear Collection, signed for the first time with Luxottica Group, takes inspiration from the most iconic jewelry collection, celebrating stunning originality and enduring beauty.
Under license since 2009, Tory Burch is an attainable luxury lifestyle brand defined by classic American sportswear with an eclectic sensibility, which embodies the personal style and spirit of its co-founder and creative director, Tory Burch.
Versace is a prestigious fashion and lifestyle brand, symbol of Italian luxury world-wide. The collection is intended for men and women looking for a contemporary style that is strong in personality, sexy and sophisticated. The eyewear collection, under license since 2003, perfectly combines glamour and modern elegance, bearing the distinctive details taken from the graphic direction of the fashion house.
Plants and Facilities
Our primary manufacturing facilities are located in Italy, China and the United States. In 2011, 2010 and 2009, our manufacturing facilities produced a combined total of approximately 64.5 million, 56.6 million and 48.7 million prescription frames and sunglasses, respectively.
We have six manufacturing facilities in Italy: five in northeastern Italy, the area in which most of the country's optical industry is based, and one near Turin. All of these facilities are highly automated, which has made it possible for us to maintain a high level of production without significant capital outlay.
Over the years, we have consolidated our manufacturing processes by concentrating a specific production technology in each of the Italian facilities. This consolidation has enabled us to improve both the productivity and quality of our manufacturing operations. We make plastic frames in the Agordo, Sedico, Pederobba and Lauriano facilities, while we produce metal frames in Agordo and Rovereto. We produce certain metal frame parts in the Cencenighe plant. The Lauriano facility also makes crystal and polycarbonate lenses for sunglasses.
In 2006, we modernized our operations in Italy by building a new, approximately 32,000 square meter manufacturing facility to produce acetate frames and sunglasses. In 2007, we further expanded our manufacturing facilities in Italy by approximately 28,000 square-meters in order to rationalize the product production flow.
From 1998 to 2001, we operated a facility in China to manufacture prescription frames, through our 50%-owned joint venture (Tristar Optical Company Ltd.) with a Japanese partner. In 2001, we acquired the remaining 50% interest in this Chinese manufacturer. In 2006, we increased our manufacturing capacity in China through the construction of a new, approximately 26,000 square-meter manufacturing facility to produce both metal and plastic frames. After the construction of this new facility, our annual average daily production in China increased by approximately 80% in 2006 compared to 2005. In 2007, we further expanded our manufacturing capacity in China by approximately 74,000 square-meters. The percentage of private label products produced at our facilities in China has decreased in favor of increased production of certain of our core, fashion and North American brands.
In 2010, Tristar also began to produce plastic sun lenses, which are paired with frames manufactured by the same Chinese plant. Production started in September, reaching a total output of approximately 400,000 pairs of lenses by the end of the year.
Our Dongguan plants, in China's Guangdong province, make both plastic and metal frames. A newly developed state-of-the-art decoration department is also now operational, incorporating manufacturing processes adopted from different industries.
Our Foothill Ranch facility in California manufactures high-performance sunglasses and prescription frames and lenses and assembles most of Oakley's eyewear products. We also operate a small plant in India serving the local market.
In 2011, approximately 42% of all frames manufactured by us were metal based, and the remainder were plastic.
The manufacturing process for both metal and plastic frames begins with the fabrication of precision tooling and molds based on prototypes developed by in-house designers and engineers. We seek to use our manufacturing capacity to reduce the lead time for product development and thereby adapt quickly to market trends and to contain production costs, as well as maintain smaller and more efficient production runs so that we can better respond to the varying needs of different markets.
The manufacturing process for metal frames has approximately 70 phases, beginning with the production of basic components such as rims, temples and bridges, which are produced through a molding process. These components are then welded together to form frames over numerous stages of detailed assembly work. Once assembled, the metal frames are treated with various coatings to improve their resistance and finish, and then prepared for lens fitting and packaging.
We manufacture plastic frames using either a milling process or injection molding. In the milling process, a computer controlled machine carves frames from colored plastic sheets. This process produces rims, temples and bridges that are then assembled, finished and packaged. In the injection molding process, plastic resins are liquefied and injected into molds. The plastic parts are then assembled, coated, finished and packaged.
We engage in research and development activities relating to our manufacturing processes on an on-going basis. As a result of such activities, we have invested and will continue to invest in automation and in innovative technologies, thus increasing efficiency while improving quality. Costs associated with research and development activities are expensed when incurred and are not significant.
We utilize third-party manufacturers to produce Oakley apparel, footwear, watches and certain goggles.
The principal raw materials and parts purchased for the manufacturing process include plastic resins, metal alloys, crystal and plastic lenses and frame parts.
We purchase a substantial majority of raw materials in Europe and Asia and, to a lesser extent, in the United States. In addition, we use certain external suppliers for frames, lenses, eyeglass/frame cases, packaging materials and machinery and equipment, and for some logistic services. We also rely on outside suppliers for the production of apparel, footwear, accessories and watches.
Although, historically, prices of the principal raw materials used in our manufacturing process have been stable, in 2011 we utilized a process to hedge the risk of price changes for gold and palladium, in order to control costs. Regarding other raw materials used in our manufacturing process, we negotiate prices directly with our suppliers.
We have built strong relationships with our major suppliers. In 2011, we continued to deploy risk management initiatives in our purchasing function to identify material risks (impact and probability) and put in place mitigation actions if not already in place. With most suppliers, we maintain agreements that prohibit disclosure of our proprietary information or technology to third parties. Although our Oakley subsidiary relies on outside suppliers for most of the specific molded components of its glasses and goggles, it generally retains ownership of the molds used in the production of the components. We believe that most of the components can be obtained from one or more alternative sources within a relatively short period of time, if necessary or desired. In addition, to further mitigate risk, we have developed an in-house injection molding capability for sunglass lenses.
Essilor International ("Essilor") is one of the largest suppliers of our retail operations, accounting for 25% of total North America retail lens merchandise purchases and related processing costs in 2011 and 26% in 2010. Although we do not have formal, long-term contracts with Essilor or any of our other suppliers, we have not experienced any significant interruptions in our supplies. We believe that the loss of Essilor or any of our other suppliers would not have a significant long-term impact on our operations.
In May 2011, Luxottica Retail North America Inc. ("Luxottica Retail N.A.") entered into a long-term financing arrangement with Essilor to produce anti-reflective equipment that will be installed at selected LensCrafters in-store labs.
Luxottica and Essilor have formed a long term joint venture for the Australian and New Zealand markets. This alliance (which is majority controlled by Essilor) manages Eyebiz Laboratories Pty Ltd, which provides lens manufacturing, finished lenses, and fitting services for Australia and New Zealand. During 2011, the joint venture invested in a new, state-of-the-art facility in Thailand capable of providing 24-hour production seven days a week.
The "Made in Italy" feature of many Luxottica products represents the "culture of quality" that has been central to our organization.
Most of the manufacturing equipment that we use is specially designed and adapted for our manufacturing processes. This helps us to respond quickly to customer demand and adhere to strict quality control standards.
Quality and process control teams regularly inspect semi-finished products during the various phases of production, verifying the feasibility of prototypes in the design phase, controlling standards across the spectrum of products in the production phase, and subsequently checking for resistance to wear and tear and reviewing optical properties in relation to type of use. The manufacturing processes and materials used by primary suppliers are also controlled and certified. Through ongoing verification of precision and expertise in all phases of production, we seek to manufacture products of the highest quality.
We design products to meet or exceed relevant industry standards for safety, performance and durability. Throughout the development process, our optics products undergo extensive testing against standards established specifically for eyewear by ANSI (Z.80.3), ASTM, Standards Australia Limited (AS 1067) and EU (EN 1836 and ISO EN 12870). These standards relate to product safety and performance and provide quantitative measures of optical quality, UV protection, light transmission and impact resistance.
Due to the efficiency of our quality controls, the return rate for defective merchandise manufactured by us is approximately 1%.
Our Principal Markets
The following table presents our net sales by geographic market and segment for the periods indicated:
Our distribution system is globally integrated and supplied by a centralized manufacturing programming platform. The network linking the logistics and sales centers to the production facilities in Italy and China also provides daily monitoring of global sales performance and inventory levels so that manufacturing resources can be programmed and warehouse stocks re-allocated to meet local market demand. This integrated system serves both the retail and wholesale businesses and is one of the most efficient and advanced logistics systems in the industry, with 18 distribution centers worldwide, of which eight are in the Americas, seven are in the Asia-Pacific region and three are in the rest of the world.
We have three main distribution centers (hubs) in strategic locations serving our major markets: Sedico in Europe, Atlanta, Georgia in the Americas and Dongguan in the Asia-Pacific region. They operate as centralized facilities, offering customers a highly automated order management system that reduces delivery times and keeps stock levels low.
The Sedico hub was opened in 2001 and updated with a new automated system in 2006. In 2011, it managed over 14,000 orders per day, including eyeglasses and spare parts. Sedico ships over 175,000 units daily to customers in Europe, the Middle East and Africa and to our distribution centers in the rest of the world, from which they are then shipped to local customers.
The Sedico hub enabled us to close the local warehouses throughout Europe that characterized the previous distribution system, improving the speed and efficiency of our distribution, as well as eliminating unnecessary overhead expenses. During 2009, the information system SAP (Systems, Applications and Products in Data Processing) was implemented in the Sedico distribution center. The SAP system has allowed us to efficiently control and allocate our customers' orders.
The Atlanta facility, opened in 1996, consolidated several North America based facilities into a single state-of-the-art distribution center located close to one of the major airport hubs of the United States. This facility has a highly advanced cross-belt sorting system that can move up to 140,000 units per day at a conveyor belt speed of 1.5 meters a second. In late 2009, the facility, which was originally a retail-only distribution center, started serving both our retail and wholesale businesses in the North American market.
The Dongguan hub was opened in 2006 and employs approximately 270 people who manage an average of 150,000 units of finished and semi-finished frames per day.
The SAP system was implemented in 2010, resulting in increased efficiencies in the Dongguan hub and in Asia from greater network control over orders and inventories. With the continuing growth in the region, the Dongguan hub has become an integral and strategic part of our distribution network. We continue to invest in services and volume capacity to become even more efficient in the region.
The SAP system implementation started in 2011 will continue in our North American Distribution Centers to enhance inventory control, network optimization and the order management process.
Our wholesale distribution structure covers more than 130 countries, with 42 directly controlled or majority owned operations in the major markets and approximately 100 independent distributors in other markets. Each wholesale subsidiary operates its own network of sales representatives who are normally retained on a commission basis. Relationships with large international, national and regional accounts are generally managed and serviced by employees.
Customers of our wholesale business are mostly retailers of mid- to premium-priced eyewear, such as independent opticians, optical retail chains, specialty sun retailers, department stores and duty-free shops. In North America and other areas, the main customers also include independent optometrists and ophthalmologists and premium department stores.
We also distribute certain brands, including Oakley, to sporting goods stores and specialty sports stores, including bike, surf, snow, skate, golf and motor sports stores.
We seek to provide our wholesale customers with pre- and post-sale services to enhance their business. These services are designed to provide customers with the best product, and in a time frame and manner that best serve our customers' needs.
We maintain close contact with our distributors in order to monitor sales and control the quality of the points of sale that display our products. We typically enter into distribution agreements with importers and distributors that establish minimum annual purchases and impose territorial limitations. In addition, to the extent permitted by law, we allow distribution only through specifically authorized retail channels and qualified sales agents. No single customer or group of related customers accounted for more than 5% of our consolidated net sales in any of the past three years. We do not believe that the loss of any single customer would have a material adverse effect on our financial condition or results of operations.
Nearly a decade ago, Luxottica introduced STARS (Superior Turn Automatic Replenishment System). This business unit, which is a part of the Wholesale division, provides third party customers with an enhanced partnership service. Developed in 2002, originally under the name "Retail Service," STARS provides management directly by Luxottica of product selection activities, production and assortment planning and automatic replenishment of products in the storeall of these activities previously managed directly by the third party customer.
STARS provides the stores with a higher level of service, exploiting the knowledge of local markets and brands in order to present a fresh and high-turnover product, and utilizing systems, tools and state-of-the-art planning techniques to ensure an optimal inventory level at the point of sale.
When the project started in 2002, STARS managed four stores, growing to 100 by 2004 and maintaining a progressive growth reaching 1,000 points of sale by the end of 2009. By the end of 2011, STARS served a total of approximately 1,700 stores in the major European markets, Latin America and Emerging Markets.
With a strong portfolio of retail brands, we are well positioned to reach different segments of the market. The retail portfolio offers a variety of differentiation points for consumers, including the latest in designer and high-performance sun frames, advanced lens options, advanced eye care, everyday value, and high-quality vision care health benefits.
As of March 31, 2012, our retail business consisted of 6,486 corporate stores and 534 franchised or licensed locations as follows:
Our retail stores sell not only prescription frames and sunglasses that we manufacture but also a wide range of prescription frames, lenses and other ophthalmic products manufactured by other companies. In 2011, net sales comprising our own brand names and our licensed brands represented approximately 86.1% of the total net sales of frames by the retail division (86.9% in 2010).
Our optical retail operations are anchored by leading brands such as LensCrafters and Pearle Vision in North America, OPSM and Laubman & Pank, which are active throughout Australia and New Zealand, and GMO in South America. We also have a major retail presence in China, where we operate in the premium eyewear market with LensCrafters. Due to the fragmented nature of the European retail market, we do not operate optical retail stores in Europe outside of the United Kingdom, where in 2008 we increased our stake in the David Clulow chain, which sells both prescription and sun products. In
2010, we completed the acquisition of the David Clulow chain, bringing our ownership in the subsidiary to 100%. As of March 31, 2012, our optical retail business consisted of approximately 4,080 retail locations globally.
As of December 31, 2011, we operated a retail network of 1,189 LensCrafters stores, of which 975 are in North America and 214 are in China and Hong Kong. LensCrafters is currently the largest optical retailer in North America in terms of sales. LensCrafters stores offer a wide selection of prescription frames and sunglasses, mostly made by Luxottica, in addition to a wide range of lenses and optical products made by other suppliers. LensCrafters' products include innovative lenses, such as LensCrafters Signature HD (edge-to-edge clarity), Ray-Ban Rox (Authentic Ray-Ban lenses), FeatherWates® (lightweight, thin and impact-resistant lenses), DURALENS® (super scratch-resistant lenses), Advanced View Progressive (free-form, digitally surfaced progressive lenses), Invisibles® (anti-reflective lenses) and MVP Maximum View Progressives® (multi-focal lenses without visible lines). To ensure the most accurate fit, LensCrafters installed the Accufit measurement system in 2011. Points of sale are normally in high-traffic commercial malls and shopping centers and have an on-site optometrist (sometimes a Luxottica employee) so that customers can have more immediate eye examinations. Most LensCrafters stores in North America also include a lens surfacing/finishing laboratory, which improves customer service levels. Over the last couple of years, we have developed several programs that elevate the LensCrafters brand experience, including our Accufit measurement system, anti-reflective capability at in-store labs and brand equity-building marketing campaigns.
In 2006, we began to expand the LensCrafters brand in China by rebranding most of our stores there, which were acquired through the acquisition of three retail chains. As of March 31, 2012, we operated 214 stores in China and Hong Kong. Hong Kong is one of China's most significant luxury markets, and launching LensCrafters as a premium brand in Hong Kong was important for increasing awareness and consumer demand for Luxottica products and services in the region.
Pearle Vision is one of the largest optical retail chains in North America. Although LensCrafters and Pearle Vision target the mid- to high-end customer bracket, their positioning is complementary. Pearle Vision focuses on the factors that made the brand a success: customers' trust in the doctor's experience and the quality of service they receive. Many Pearle Vision stores are located in strip malls instead of the conventional malls where most LensCrafters and Sunglass Hut stores are located. Pearle Vision is growing through the expansion of franchising and is one of the largest franchise systems in optical retailing.
As of March 31, 2012, Pearle Vision operated 295 corporate stores and had 354 franchise locations throughout North America.
We also operate a network of retail locations in North America operating as Sears Optical and Target Optical, our Licensed Brands, which use the brand names of their respective host American department store. These points of sale offer consumers the convenience of taking care of their optical needs while shopping at these department stores. Both brands have a precise market positioning that we have reinforced by improving service levels while strengthening their fashion reputation by offering brands such as Ray-Ban and Vogue. As of March 31, 2012, we operated 786 Sears Optical and 330 Target Optical locations throughout North America.
OPSM, the largest of the three optical chains we operate in Australia and New Zealand, is a leading eyewear retail brand for luxury and fashion-minded customers. In 2011, OPSM continued its
commitment to providing the highest level of quality eyecare service to its customers by undertaking a significant investment in optometric technology, rolling out digital retinal scanners to all OPSM stores. OPSM also continued the Loves Eyes marketing campaign throughout 2011 and saw the flagship OPSM Eye Hub store become one of the largest in the network and the recipient of numerous regional and international design awards. As of March 31, 2012, we owned 318 corporate stores throughout Australia. OPSM also has 44 corporate-owned stores in New Zealand, mainly in large urban areas.
Laubman & Pank
Laubman & Pank targets the independent optical shopper looking for quality eyecare and service. As of March 31, 2012, we owned 58 corporate stores throughout Australia.
Following the reorganization of the Retail business in Australia, approved by the Board of Directors on January 24, 2012, the Group decided to stop selling under the Budget Eyewear name and recorded an impairment loss in its 2011 financial statements of Euro 8.9 million (AUD 12 million) related to this trademark. The majority of the existing stores are expected to be rebranded to other Luxottica brands or closed by the end of 2012.
Just Spectacles Acquisition
On November 26, 2010, we acquired the Optifashion Australia Pty Limited group from HAL Optical Investments B.V. The acquisition included 47 corporate stores (40 optical and seven sun) and nine franchises, trading under brands including Just Spectacles. We have since rebranded these stores under Luxottica trade names.
In 2011, we acquired the remaining 60% interest in Multiopticas Internacional, a company operating in South America under the GMO, Econoptics and SunPlanet retail brands with more than 470 stores of which 224 are in Chile, 145 are in Peru, 44 are in Ecuador and 70 are in Colombia.
EyeMed Vision Care
EyeMed Vision Care is one of the largest managed vision care operators in the United States, serving over 32.9 million members in large and medium size companies and government entities and through insurance companies. EyeMed has a network of over 24,000 locations, including opticians, ophthalmologists, optometrists and chains operated by Luxottica.
EyeMed Vision Care seeks to offer quality, choice, value and service excellenceall priority concerns for employers shopping for vision care programs, especially for large groups. Customers using such services benefit from the quality of the products and the wide reach of the distribution network, enjoying a broad range of choices among the numerous stores in the Group's chains and independent optical retailers.
Online Retail for Contact Lenses
In December 2009, we entered into a strategic multi-year e-commerce alliance to expand online access to contact lenses in the North American market with Drugstore.com, Inc. ("Drugstore.com"), a leading online retailer of health, beauty, vision and pharmacy products. In June 2011, Drugstore.com was acquired by Walgreen Co., a leading retailer of prescription and non-prescription drugs and general merchandise which operates over 7,800 locations in North America.
Under this exclusive agreement, Vision Direct, Inc., a leading online contact lens retailer and a wholly-owned subsidiary of Drugstore.com, has collaborated with us to develop branded contact lens e-commerce sites for our North American retail business and provide customer care and fulfillment services. The alliance has enabled us, starting with our retail brands, to offer a comprehensive platform for consumers to conveniently purchase contact lenses in person, by telephone or online. In addition, the two companies are leveraging synergies, such as purchasing contact lenses on behalf of the alliance, cross-marketing initiatives and cooperating in a number of other related areas.
Together with LensCrafters' over 940 in-store labs, we operate five central lens surfacing/finishing labs in North America. Combining a broad presence in the market with the capacity for handling lens surfacing/finishing reduces the time and cost of lens surfacing/finishing work and improves quality of service. All the labs use highly advanced technologies to meet growing demand. The five central laboratories serve all the Pearle Vision stores, the Licensed Brands stores, LensCrafters and a number of franchises. The labs in LensCrafters stores have been upgraded to help Sears Optical and Pearle Vision stores (including those under franchise) to handle peak demand.
In addition, we operate Oakley optical lens laboratories in the United States, Ireland and Japan. These labs provide Oakley prescription lenses to the North and South American, European and Asian markets, respectively, enabling us to achieve expeditious delivery, better quality control and higher optical standards.
Since the acquisition of Sunglass Hut in 2001, we have become a world leader in the specialty sunglass retail business. As of March 31, 2012, Sunglass Hut had 2,558 stores worldwide, of which 2,484 are corporate stores and 74 are franchise locations. The former are in North America, Asia-Pacific, Europe and South Africa, whereas the latter are in the Middle East, India, the Philippines and Thailand.
Founded in the United States in 1971 to operate in department stores, Sunglass Hut gradually expanded its base of stores and kiosks in shopping malls to new retail locations on city shopping streets and in airports. Over the years, Sunglass Hut focused increasingly on selling premium sunglasses. In 2007, we developed an exclusive new store concept, which is now being extended to all prime Sunglass Hut locations around the world. This repositioning was made possible by substantial changes to the product mix allowing the chain to focus more on fashion and luxury brands, especially for women, while maintaining a varied selection of lifestyle, sport and performance sunglasses.
The chain has recently reinforced its presence in the department store channel through long-term strategic agreements with Myers in Australia (with approximately 66 locations), Edgards in South Africa (with approximately 60 locations) and Macy's Inc. in the United States (with approximately 700 locations).
ILORI is Luxottica's high-end fashion sunwear retail brand, with 22 stores in North America as of March 31, 2012, including flagship stores in the SoHo neighborhood of New York City and in Beverly Hills, California. ILORI caters to a different, more exclusive clientele than Sunglass Hut, offering a richer purchasing experience in prestige locations, featuring sophisticated luxury collections, exclusive niche brands and highly personalized service.
Founded in the 1970s, The Optical Shop of Aspen is known in the optical industry for its luxury brands for both prescription frames and sunglasses and its first-class customer service. As of March 31, 2012, we operated 21 stores in some of the most upscale and exclusive locations throughout the United States.
We operate seven luxury retail stores under the Oliver Peoples brand. The Oliver Peoples brand retail stores only offer Oliver Peoples, Mosley Tribes and Paul Smith branded optical products. Two additional Oliver Peoples retail locations are operated under license in Tokyo and Los Angeles.
In Europe, we operate David Clulow, a premium optical retailer operating in the United Kingdom and Ireland, predominantly in London and the Southeast of the United Kingdom. The brand emphasizes service, quality and fashion and our marketing is targeted to reinforce these brand values and build long-term relationships with our customers. In addition to operating optical stores, David Clulow operates a number of sunglass concessions in up-market department stores, further reinforcing our position as a premium brand in the United Kingdom. As of March 31, 2012, David Clulow operated 39 corporate owned locations (including nine joint ventures), four franchise locations and 41 sun stores/concessions.
First established in 1985, Bright Eyes is one of Australia's largest and fastest growing sunglass chains, with over 90 sunglass stores across the continent. As of March 31, 2012, Bright Eyes operated 33 corporate store locations and 57 franchise locations, mostly in tourist resorts and high-traffic areas.
As of March 31, 2012, we operated 185 Oakley "O" Stores and Vaults worldwide, offering a full range of Oakley products including sunglasses, apparel, footwear and accessories. These stores are designed and merchandised to immerse consumers in the Oakley brand through innovative use of product presentation, graphics and original audio and visual elements. In the United States, Oakley "O" Stores are in major shopping centers. Oakley's retail operations also are located in Mexico, Europe and the Asia-Pacific region.
Another important sales channel is e-commerce, including the Oakley and the Ray-Ban websites (www.oakley.com, www.Ray-Ban.com), which are complementary to the retail operations and international distribution. The websites allow consumers to purchase Oakley and Ray-Ban products as efficiently as possible, increasing awareness of both brands, improving customer service and communicating the brands' values and essence.
Our marketing and advertising activities are designed primarily to enhance our image and our brand portfolio and to drive traffic into our retail locations.
Advertising expenses amounted to approximately 7% of our net sales in 2011.
Marketing Strategy for Our Wholesale Business
Our marketing strategy for the wholesale business is focused on promoting our extensive brand portfolio, our corporate image and the value of our products. Advertising is extremely important in supporting our marketing strategy, and therefore we engage in extensive advertising activities, both through various media (print, radio and television, as well as billboard advertising and digital media) directed at the end consumer of our products and at the point of sale (displays, counter cards, catalogs, posters and product literature).
In addition, we advertise in publications targeted to independent practitioners and other market specific magazines and participate in major industry trade fairs, where we promote some of our new collections.
We also benefit from brand-name advertising carried out by licensors of our designer brands intended to promote the image of the eyewear collections. Our advertising and promotional efforts in respect of our licensed brands are developed in coordination with our licensors. We contribute to the designer a specified percentage of our sales of the designer line to be devoted to its advertising and promotion.
For our Oakley brand, we also use less conventional marketing methods, including sports marketing, involvement in grass-roots sporting events and targeted product allocations. The exposure generated by athletes wearing Oakley products during competition and in other media appearances serves as a more powerful endorsement of product performance and style than traditional commercial endorsements and results in strong brand recognition and authenticity on a global level.
Marketing Strategy for Our Retail Business
We engage in promotional and advertising activities through our retail business with the objectives of attracting customers to the stores, promoting sales, building our image and the visibility of our retail brands throughout the world and encouraging customer loyalty and repeat purchases.
The "O" Stores and Vaults are designed and merchandised to immerse the consumer in the Oakley brand through innovative use of product presentation, graphics and original audio and visual elements.
A considerable amount of our retail marketing budget is dedicated to direct marketing activities, such as communications with customers through mailings and catalogs. Our direct marketing activities benefit from our large database of customer information and investment in customer relationships, marketing technologies and skills in the United States and in Australia. Another significant portion of the marketing budget is allocated to broadcast and print media, such as television, radio and magazines, designed to reach the broad markets in which we operate with image building messages about our retail business.
Intellectual property is one of our most important assets. We protect it through the registration and enforcement of our trademarks and patents around the world. Our commitment is demonstrated through the on-going results of our anti-counterfeiting activities and increased leveraging of our global organization. Trademarks and products from market leaders are increasingly copied and the implementation of a strong global anti-counterfeiting program allows us to send a strong message both to infringers and to our authorized distribution network. This program allows us, on one hand, to exercise our rights against retailers of counterfeit eyewear and wholesalers and manufacturers that supply them and, on the other hand, to send a message to our authorized distributors that we value our intellectual property and will work diligently to protect it.
Through our strong investigative network, especially in China, we have been able to identify key sources of counterfeit goods, organize raids on their premises in cooperation with local law enforcement and file legal actions against the counterfeiters.
We continue to consolidate and strengthen our cooperation with customs organizations around the world, which have helped us to stop, seize and destroy hundreds of thousands of counterfeit goods each year.
We dedicate considerable efforts to monitoring the trafficking of counterfeit goods through the Internet, and work actively to remove counterfeit eyewear from certain popular on-line auction platforms and shut down the websites that violate our intellectual property rights through the sale of counterfeit products or the unauthorized use of our trademarks.
Additionally, we invest in increasing consumer awareness of the potential health risks of using eyewear that is not compliant with applicable laws and regulations.
TRADEMARKS, TRADE NAMES AND PATENTS
Our principal trademarks or trade names include Luxottica, Ray-Ban, Oliver Peoples, Oakley, Persol, Vogue, Arnette, Revo, LensCrafters, Sunglass Hut, ILORI, Pearle Vision, OPSM, Laubman & Pank, and the Oakley ellipsoid "O" and square "O" logos. Our principal trademarks are registered worldwide. Other than Luxottica, Ray-Ban, Oakley, LensCrafters, Sunglass Hut, Pearle Vision, OPSM and the Oakley ellipsoid "O" and square "O" logos, we do not believe that any single trademark or trade name is material to our business or results of operations. The collection of Oakley and Ray-Ban products accounted for approximately 10.8% and 21.7%, respectively, of our net sales in 2011. We believe that our trademarks have significant value for the marketing of our products and that having distinctive marks that are readily identifiable is important for creating and maintaining a market for our products, identifying our brands and distinguishing our products from those of our competitors. Therefore, we utilize a combination of trademarked logos, names and other attributes on nearly all of our products.
We utilize patented and proprietary technologies and precision manufacturing processes in the production of our products. As of March 31, 2012, we held a portfolio of over 680 (mostly Oakley-related) patents worldwide that protect our designs and innovations.
The design patents protect the distinctive designs of Oakley's innovative products, including its sunglasses, goggles, prescription eyewear, watches and footwear. Some of the most important utility patents relate to the following categories: innovations in lens technology and the associated optical advances; electronically enabled eyewear; innovations in frame design and functionality; biased, articulating and dimensionally stable eyewear; and interchangeable lenses.
See Item 3"Key InformationRisk FactorsIf we are unable to protect our proprietary rights, our sales might suffer, and we may incur significant costs to defend such rights."
We have entered into license agreements to manufacture and distribute prescription frames and sunglasses with numerous designers. These license agreements typically have terms ranging from three to ten years, but may be terminated early by either party for a variety of reasons, including non-payment of royalties, failure to meet minimum sales thresholds, product alteration and, under certain agreements, a change in control of Luxottica Group S.p.A.
Under these license agreements, we are required to pay a royalty which generally ranges from 5% to 14% of the net sales of the relevant collection, which may be offset by any guaranteed minimum royalty payments. The license agreements also provide for a mandatory marketing contribution that generally amounts to between 5% and 10% of net sales.
We believe that early termination of one or a small number of the current license agreements would not have a material adverse effect on our results of operations or financial condition. Upon any early termination of any existing license agreement, we expect that we would seek to enter into alternative arrangements with other designers to reduce any negative impact of such a termination.
The table below summarizes the principal terms of our most significant license agreements.
Our products are subject to governmental health and safety regulations in most of the countries where they are sold, including the United States. We regularly inspect our production techniques and
standards to ensure compliance with applicable requirements. Historically, compliance with such requirements has not had a material effect on our operations.
In addition, governments throughout the world impose import duties and tariffs on products being imported into their countries. Although in the past we have not experienced situations in which the duties or tariffs imposed materially impacted our operations, we can provide no assurances that this will be true in the future.
Our past and present operations, including owned and leased real property, are subject to extensive and changing environmental laws and regulations pertaining to the discharge of materials into the environment, the handling and disposition of waste or otherwise relating to the protection of the environment. We believe that we are in substantial compliance with applicable environmental laws and regulations. However, we cannot predict with any certainty that we will not in the future incur liability under environmental statutes and regulations with respect to contamination of sites formerly or currently owned or operated by us (including contamination caused by prior owners and operators of such sites) and the off-site disposal of hazardous substances.
Our retail operations are also subject to various legal requirements in many countries in which we operate our business that regulate the permitted relationships between licensed optometrists or ophthalmologists, who primarily perform eye examinations and prescribe corrective lenses, and opticians, who fill such prescriptions and sell eyeglass frames.
We produce and sell to the U.S. government, including the U.S. military, and to international governments, certain Oakley and ESS protective eyewear products. As a result, our operations are subject to various regulatory requirements, including the necessity of obtaining government approvals for certain products, country-of-origin restrictions on materials in certain products, U.S.-imposed restrictions on sales to specific countries, foreign import controls, and various decrees, laws, taxes, regulations, interpretations and court judgments that are not always fully developed and that may be retroactively or arbitrarily applied. Additionally, we could be subject to periodic audits by U.S. government personnel for contract and other regulatory compliance.
We believe that our integrated business model, innovative technology and design, integrated sunglass manufacturing capabilities, effective brand and product marketing efforts and vigorous protection of our intellectual property rights are important aspects of competition and are among our primary competitive advantages.
The prescription frame and sunglasses industry is highly competitive and fragmented. As we market our products throughout the world, we compete with many prescription frame and sunglass companies in various local markets. The major competitive factors include fashion trends, brand recognition, marketing strategies, distribution channels and the number and range of products offered. We believe that some of our largest competitors in the design, manufacturing and wholesale distribution of prescription frames and sunglasses are De Rigo S.p.A., Marchon Eyewear, Inc., Marcolin S.p.A., Safilo Group S.p.A., Silhouette International Schmied AG and Maui Jim, Inc.
Several of our most significant competitors in the manufacture and distribution of eyewear are significant vendors to our retail division. Our success in these markets will depend on, among other things, our ability to manage an efficient distribution network and to market our products effectively as well as the popularity and market acceptance of our brands. See Item 3"Key InformationRisk FactorsIf we are unable to successfully introduce new products and develop our brands, our future sales and operating performance may suffer" and "If we fail to maintain an efficient distribution network in our highly competitive markets, our business, results of operations and financial condition could suffer."
The highly competitive optical retail market in North America includes a large number of small independent competitors and several national and regional chains of optical superstores. In recent years, a number of factors, including consolidation among retail chains and the emergence of optical departments in discount retailers, have resulted in significant competition within the optical retailing industry. We compete against several large optical retailers in North America, including Wal-Mart and Eye Care Centers of America, and, in the sunglasses area, department stores and numerous sunglass retail chains and outlet centers. Our optical retail operations emphasize product quality, selection, customer service and convenience. We do not compete primarily on the basis of price.
We believe that Oakley and our other sports brands are leaders in non-prescription sports eyewear, where they mostly compete with smaller sunglass and goggle companies in various niches and a number of large eyewear and sports products companies that market eyewear.
The managed vision care market in North America is highly competitive. EyeMed has a number of competitors, including Vision Service Plan ("VSP"), Davis Vision and Spectera. While VSP was founded almost 56 years ago and is the current market leader, EyeMed's consistent year-over-year growth has enabled us to become the second largest market competitor in terms of funded lives. EyeMed competes based on its ability to offer a network and plan design with the goal of delivering overall value based on the price, accessibility and administrative services provided to clients and their members.
We have also historically experienced sales volume fluctuations by quarter due to seasonality associated with the sale of sunglasses, which represented 53.7% and 49.8% of our sales in 2011 and 2010, respectively. As a result, our net sales are typically higher in the second quarter, which includes increased sales to wholesale customers and increased sales in our Sunglass Hut stores, and lower in the first quarter, as sunglass sales are lower in the cooler climates of North America, Europe and Northern Asia. These seasonal variations could affect the comparability of our results from period to period. Our retail fiscal year is either a 53-week year or a 52-week year, which also can affect the comparability of our results from period to period. When a 53-week year occurs, we generally add the extra week to the fourth quarter. In 2008, the fiscal year for the Retail Division in North America and the United Kingdom included 53 weeks; in 2009, the fiscal year for the Retail Division in Asia-Pacific, Greater China (mainland China and Hong Kong) and South Africa included 53 weeks. A 53-week year occurs in five- to six-year intervals and will occur again in fiscal 2014 in North America and the United Kingdom and in fiscal 2015 in Asia-Pacific, Greater China and South Africa.
We are a holding company, and the majority of our operations are conducted through our wholly-owned subsidiaries. We operate in two industry segments: (i) manufacturing and wholesale distribution, and (ii) retail distribution. In the retail segment, we primarily conduct our operations through LensCrafters, Sunglass Hut, Pearle Vision, Licensed Brands and OPSM. In the manufacturing and wholesale distribution segment, we operate through 10 manufacturing plants and 42 geographically oriented wholesale distribution subsidiaries. See "Distribution" for a breakdown of the geographic regions.
The significant subsidiaries controlled by Luxottica Group S.p.A., including holding companies, are:
PROPERTY, PLANT AND EQUIPMENT
Our corporate headquarters is located at Via C. Cantù 2, Milan 20123, Italy. Information regarding the location, use and approximate size of our principal offices and facilities as of March 31, 2012 is set forth below:
A substantial number of our retail stores are leased. See "DistributionRetail Distribution" above for more information about our retail locations and a breakdown of geographic regions. All of our retail store leases expire between 2012 and 2025 and have terms that we believe are generally reasonable and reflective of market conditions.
We believe that our current facilities (including our manufacturing facilities) are adequate to meet our present and reasonably foreseeable needs. There are no encumbrances on any of our principal owned properties.
ITEM 5. OPERATING AND FINANCIAL REVIEW AND PROSPECTS
We operate in two industry segments: (i) manufacturing and wholesale distribution and (ii) retail distribution. Through our manufacturing and wholesale distribution segment, we are engaged in the design, manufacture, wholesale distribution and marketing of house brand and designer lines of mid- to premium-priced prescription frames and sunglasses and, through Oakley, of performance optics products. We operate in our retail segment principally through our retail brands, which include, among others, LensCrafters, Sunglass Hut (including those in host stores), Pearle Vision, ILORI, The Optical Shop of Aspen, OPSM, Laubman & Pank, Budget Eyewear, Bright Eyes, Oakley "O" Stores and Vaults, David Clulow and our Licensed Brands (Sears Optical and Target Optical). As of December 31, 2011, the
retail segment consisted of 6,511 corporate-owned retail locations and 531 franchised or licensed locations as follows:
LensCrafters, ILORI, Pearle Vision, our Licensed Brands (Sears Optical and Target Optical), Oakley (Oakley "O" Stores and Vaults), Sunglass Icon, The Optical Shop of Aspen and Oliver Peoples have retail distribution operations located throughout the United States, Canada and Puerto Rico, while OPSM, Laubman & Pank and Bright Eyes operate retail outlets located in Australia and New Zealand. Sunglass Hut is a leading retailer of sunglasses worldwide based on sales. In 2006, we began operating retail locations in mainland China and currently we have rebranded the acquired stores to our premium LensCrafters brand in mainland China and Hong Kong. In 2008, we acquired David Clulow, a premium optical retailer operating in the United Kingdom and Ireland. In 2011, we completed our acquisition of Multiopticas Internacional. Our net sales consist of direct sales of finished products manufactured with our own brand names or our licensed brands to opticians and other independent retailers through our wholesale distribution channel and sales directly to consumers through our retail division.
Demand for our products, particularly our higher-end designer lines, is largely dependent on the discretionary spending power of the consumers in the markets in which we operate. See Item 3"Key InformationRisk FactorsIf we do not correctly predict future economic conditions and changes in
consumer preferences, our sales of premium products and profitability could suffer." We have also historically experienced sales volume fluctuations by quarter due to seasonality associated with the sale of sunglasses. As a result, our net sales are typically higher in the second quarter and lower in the first quarter.
As a result of our numerous acquisitions and the subsequent expansion of our business activities in the United States through these acquisitions, our results of operations, which are reported in Euro, are susceptible to currency rate fluctuations between the Euro and the U.S. dollar. The Euro/U.S. dollar exchange rate has fluctuated from an average exchange rate of Euro 1.00 = U.S. $1.3946 in 2009 to Euro 1.00 = U.S. $1.3207 in 2010 to Euro 1.00 = U.S. $1.4000 in 2011. Additionally, with the acquisition of OPSM and Bright Eyes (acquired through Oakley), our results of operations have been rendered susceptible to currency fluctuations between the Euro and the Australian dollar. Although we engage in certain foreign currency hedging activities to mitigate the impact of these fluctuations, they have impacted our reported revenues and expenses during the periods discussed herein. See Item 11"Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market RiskForeign Exchange Sensitivity" and Item 3"Key InformationRisk FactorsIf the Euro or the Chinese Yuan strengthens relative to certain other currencies or if the U.S. dollar weakens relative to the Euro, our profitability as a consolidated group could suffer."
Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates
Beginning with the fiscal year ended December 31, 2010, we have changed the basis of our accounting from accounting principles generally accepted in the United States to IFRS as issued by the IASB.
We prepare our Consolidated Financial Statements in accordance with IFRS, which require management to make estimates, judgments and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the Consolidated Financial Statements and the accompanying notes. We believe that our most critical accounting policies and estimates relate to the following:
Revenues include sales of merchandise (both wholesale and retail), insurance and administrative fees associated with the Company's managed vision care business, eye exams and related professional services and sales of merchandise to franchisees, along with other revenues from franchisees such as royalties based on sales and initial franchise fee revenues.
Revenue is recognized when (a) the significant risks and rewards of the ownership of goods are transferred, (b) neither continuing managerial involvement to a degree usually associated with ownership nor effective control over the goods sold is retained by the Company, (c) the amount of revenue can be measured reliably, (d) it is probable that the economic benefits associated with the transaction will flow to the Company and (e) the costs incurred or to be incurred in respect of the transaction can be measured reliably.
In some countries, the wholesale and retail divisions offer the customer the right to return products for a limited period of time after the sale. However, such right of return does not impact the timing of revenue recognition as all conditions of International Accounting Standards ("IAS") 18, Revenue, are satisfied at the date of sale. We have estimated and accrued for the amounts to be returned in the
subsequent period. This estimate is based on our right of return policies and practices along with historical data, sales trends and the timing of returns from the original transaction date when applicable. Changes to these policies and practices or a change in the trend of returns could lead to actual returns being different from the amounts estimated and accrued.
Also included in retail division revenues are managed vision care revenues consisting of (i) insurance revenues which are recognized when earned over the terms of the respective contractual relationships and (ii) administrative services revenues which are recognized when services are provided during the contract period. Accruals are established for amounts due under these relationships based on an estimate of uncollectible amounts. Our insurance contracts require us to estimate the potential costs and exposures over the life of the agreement such that the amount charged to the customers will cover these costs. To mitigate the exposure risk, these contracts are usually short-term in nature. However, if we do not accurately estimate the future exposure and risks associated with these contracts, we may suffer losses as we would not be able to cover our costs incurred with revenues from the customer.
Income taxes are recorded in accordance with IAS 12, Income Taxes, which requires recognition of deferred tax assets and liabilities for the expected future tax consequences of events that have been included in our Consolidated Financial Statements or tax returns. Under this method, deferred tax liabilities and assets are determined based on the difference between the consolidated financial statement and tax basis of assets and liabilities using the tax rates that are expected to apply to the period when the asset is realized or the liability is settled, based on tax rates that have been enacted or substantially enacted by the end of the reporting period. These estimated tax rates and the deferred tax assets and liabilities recorded are based on information available at the time of calculation. This information is subject to change due to subsequent tax audits performed by different taxing jurisdictions and changes in corporate structure not contemplated at the time of calculation, as well as various other factors.
Our manufactured inventories were approximately 54.9% and 58.2% of total frame inventory for each of 2011 and 2010, respectively. All inventories at December 31, 2011 were valued using the lower of cost, as determined under an average annual cost by product line method, or market. Inventories are recorded net of allowances for possible losses. These reserves are calculated using various factors including sales volume, historical shrink results, changes in market conditions and current trends. In addition, production schedules are made on similar factors which, if not estimated correctly, could lead to the production of potentially obsolete inventory. As such, actual results could differ significantly from the estimated amounts.
In connection with various acquisitions, we have recorded as intangible assets certain goodwill, trade names and certain other identifiable intangibles. At December 31, 2011, the aggregate carrying value of intangibles, including goodwill, was approximately Euro 4.4 billion or approximately 51.4% of total assets.
As acquisitions are an important element of our growth strategy, valuations of the assets acquired and liabilities assumed on the acquisition dates could have a significant impact on our future results of operations. Fair values of those assets and liabilities on the date of the acquisition could be based on estimates of future cash flows and operating conditions for which the actual results may vary significantly. This may lead to, among other items, impairment charges and payment of liabilities
different than amounts originally recorded, which could have a material impact on future operations. In addition, IFRS 3 Revised, Business Combinations, applicable for Luxottica starting from January 1, 2010, requires us to expense acquisition-related expenses as incurred and not include them in the purchase price allocation, and to separate contingent liabilities into two categories, contractual and non-contractual, and account for them based on which category the contingency falls into. Since we participate in business combinations, we believe this statement could have a significant effect on future results of operations.
Goodwill and intangible assets deemed to have an indefinite life are no longer amortized, but rather are tested for impairment annually and, under certain circumstances, between annual periods. An impairment charge will be recorded if the fair value of goodwill and other intangible assets is less than the carrying value. The calculation of fair value may be based on, among other items, estimated future cash flows if quoted market prices in active markets are not available. We test our goodwill for impairment annually as of December 31 of each year and any other time a condition arises that may cause us to believe that an impairment has occurred. Since impairment tests use estimates of the impact of future events, actual results may differ and we may be required to record an impairment in future years. We recorded an impairment loss of Euro 0.0 million, Euro 20.4 million and Euro 0.0 million in 2011, 2010 and 2009, respectively. For further details, see Note 11 to our Consolidated Financial Statements included in Item 18 of this Form 20-F.
Intangibles subject to amortization based on a finite useful life continue to be amortized on a straight-line basis over their useful lives. Our long-lived assets, other than goodwill, are tested for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the net carrying amount may not be recoverable. When such events occur, we measure impairment by comparing the carrying value of the long-lived asset to its recoverable amount, which is equal to its value in use. The value-in-use calculation involves discounting the expected cash flows to be generated by the asset to its present value. If the sum of the expected discounted future cash flows is less than the carrying amount of the assets, we would recognize an impairment loss, if determined to be necessary. Actual results may differ from our current estimates. Following the reorganization of the Retail business in Australia, approved by the Board of Directors on January 24, 2012, the Group decided to stop selling under the Budget Eyewear name and recorded an impairment loss in our 2011 Consolidated Financial Statements of Euro 8.9 million (AUD 12 million) related to this trademark.
RECENT ACCOUNTING PRONOUNCEMENTS
See Note 2 to our Consolidated Financial Statements included in Item 18 of this Form 20-F for a discussion of the impact of recent accounting pronouncements on our financial condition and results of operations, including the expected dates of adoption and estimated effects on our financial position, statement of cash flows and results of operations.
OVERVIEW OF 2011 RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
In fiscal year 2011, we achieved strong growth of net sales and a more than proportionate increase in profitability relative to sales growth, as well as a significant improvement in financial leverage. Both divisions made a major contribution to our results.
Because of our worldwide operations, our results of operations are affected by foreign exchange rate fluctuations. In 2011, the weakening of certain currencies in which we conduct business, in particular of the U.S. dollar against the Euro, which is our reporting currency, decreased net sales by Euro 151.0 million, primarily in the retail distribution segment.
This discussion should be read in conjunction with Item 3"Key InformationRisk Factors" and the Consolidated Financial Statements and the related notes included in Item 18.
RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
The following table sets forth, for the periods indicated, the percentage of net sales represented by certain items included in our statements of consolidated income:
For additional financial information by operating segment and geographic region, see Note 5 to our Consolidated Financial Statements included in Item 18 of this Form 20-F.
Throughout the following comparison of the fiscal year ended December 31, 2011 to the fiscal year ended December 31, 2010, and of fiscal year ended December 31, 2010 to the fiscal year ended December 31, 2009 we use certain performance measures that are not in accordance with IFRS. Such non-IFRS measures are not meant to be considered in isolation or as a substitute for items appearing in our financial statements prepared in accordance with IFRS. Rather, these non-IFRS measures should be used as a supplement to IFRS results to assist the reader in better understanding our operational performance. For further information regarding the use of and limitations relating to such non-IFRS measures, please refer to the "Non-IFRS Measures: Adjusted Measures" discussion following the year-over-year comparison.
COMPARISON OF THE FISCAL YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2011 TO THE FISCAL YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2010
Net Sales. Net sales increased by Euro 424.5 million, or 7.3%, to Euro 6,222.5 million in 2011 from Euro 5,798.0 million in 2010. Euro 219.9 million of such increase was attributable to the increased sales in the manufacturing and wholesale distribution segment in 2011 as compared to 2010 and to increased sales in the retail distribution segment of Euro 204.5 million for the same period.
Net sales for the retail distribution segment increased by Euro 204.5 million, or 5.7%, to Euro 3,766.1 million in 2011, from Euro 3,561.6 million in 2010. The increase in net sales for the period was partially attributable to a 5.5% improvement in comparable store sales. In particular, we saw a 5.4% increase in comparable store sales for the North American retail operations, and a 4.0% increase in comparable store sales for the Australian/New Zealand retail operations. The effects from currency fluctuations between the Euro, which is our reporting currency, and other currencies in which we conduct business, in particular the weaknesses of the U.S. dollar, despite the strengthening of the Australian dollar compared to the Euro, decreased net sales in the retail distribution segment by Euro 120.7 million.
Net sales to third parties in the manufacturing and wholesale distribution segment increased by Euro 219.9 million, or 9.8%, to Euro 2,456.3 million in 2011 from Euro 2,236.4 million in 2010. This increase was mainly attributable to increased sales of most of our house brands, in particular Ray-Ban, Oakley and Persol, and of some designer brands such as Tiffany, Ralph Lauren and Burberry. These sales volume increases occurred in most of the geographic markets in which the Group operates. These positive effects were partially offset by currency fluctuations, in particular the weakness of the U.S. dollar, which, despite a strengthening of the Australian dollar and other currencies, including but not limited to the Brazilian Real and the Japanese Yen decreased net sales to third parties in the manufacturing and wholesale distribution segment by Euro 30.4 million.
In 2011, net sales in the retail distribution segment accounted for approximately 60.5% of total net sales, as compared to approximately 61.4% of total net sales in 2010.
In 2011 and 2010, net sales in our retail distribution segment in the United States and Canada comprised 79.9% of our total net sales in this segment. In U.S. dollars, retail net sales in the United States and Canada increased by 7.4% to U.S. $4,188.4 million in 2011, from U.S. $3,900.3 million in 2010, due to sales volume increases. During 2011, net sales in the retail distribution segment in the rest of the world (excluding the United States and Canada) comprised 20.1% of our total net sales in the retail distribution segment and increased by 22.2% to Euro 757.2 million in 2011, from Euro 619.6 million, or 17.4% of our total net sales in the retail distribution segment in 2010, mainly due to an increase in consumer demand.
In 2011, net sales to third parties in our manufacturing and wholesale distribution segment in Europe were Euro 1,128.9 million, comprising 46.0% of our total net sales in this segment, compared to Euro 1,059.9 million, or 47.4% of total net sales in the segment in 2010. The increase in net sales in Europe of Euro 69.0 million in 2011 as compared to 2010 constituted a 6.5% increase in net sales to third parties, due to a general increase in consumer demand. Net sales to third parties in our manufacturing and wholesale distribution segment in the United States and Canada were U.S. $830.1 million and comprised 24.3% of our total net sales in this segment in 2011, compared to U.S. $715.8 million, or 24.1% of total net sales in the segment in 2010. The increase in net sales in the United States and Canada in 2011 compared to 2010 was primarily due to a general increase in consumer demand. In 2011, net sales to third parties in our manufacturing and wholesale distribution segment in the rest of the world were Euro 731.1 million, comprising 29.8% of our total net sales in this segment, compared to Euro 636.5 million, or 28.5% of our net sales in this segment in 2010. The increase of Euro 94.5 million, or 14.8%, in 2011 as compared to 2010, was due to an increase in consumer demand.
Cost of Sales. Cost of sales increased by Euro 177.9 million, or 8.9%, to Euro 2,168.1 million in 2011 from Euro 1,990.2 million in 2010, increasingly slightly compared to the increase of net sales in the period. As a percentage of net sales, cost of sales was at 34.8% and 34.3% in 2011 and 2010, respectively. In 2011, the average number of frames produced daily in our facilities increased to approximately 263,300 as compared to approximately 235,000 in 2010, which was attributable to increased production in all manufacturing facilities in response to an overall increase in demand.
Gross Profit. Our gross profit increased by Euro 246.6 million, or 6.5%, to Euro 4,054.4 million in 2011 from Euro 3,807.8 million in 2010. As a percentage of net sales, gross profit was at 65.2% and 65.7% in 2011 and 2010, respectively, due to the factors noted above.
Operating Expenses. Total operating expenses increased by Euro 151.6 million, or 4.9%, to Euro 3,247.3 million in 2011 from Euro 3,095.7 million in 2010, in line with the increase of net sales in the period. As a percentage of net sales, operating expenses were 52.2% in 2011 compared to 53.4% in 2010. Total adjusted operating expenses increased by Euro 158.3 million, or 5.1%, to Euro 3,233.6 million in 2011 from Euro 3,075.2 million in 2010, increasing slightly compared to the increase of net sales in the period. As a percentage of net sales, adjusted operating expenses decreased to 52.0% in 2011 from 53.0% in 2010.
A reconciliation of adjusted operating expenses, a non-IFRS measure, to operating expenses, the most directly comparable IFRS measure, is presented in the table below. For a further discussion of such non-IFRS measures, please refer to the "Non-IFRS Measures: Adjusted Measures" discussion following the year-over-year comparisons.
Selling and advertising expenses (including royalty expenses) increased by Euro 141.8 million, or 6.0%, to Euro 2,509.8 million in 2011 from Euro 2,368.0 million in 2010. Selling expenses increased by Euro 98.5 million, or 5.2%. Advertising expenses increased by Euro 36.6 million, or 9.9%. Royalties increased by Euro 6.7 million, or 6.7%. As a percentage of net sales, selling and advertising expenses decreased to 40.3% in 2011, compared to 40.8% in 2010, mainly due to the increase in net sales in relation to the fixed portion of selling expenses, such as occupancy costs.
Adjusted selling and advertising expenses (including royalty expenses) increased by Euro 133.2 million, or 5.6%, to Euro 2,501.2 million in 2011, as compared to Euro 2,368.0 million in 2010. Adjusted selling expenses increased by Euro 95.6 million, or 5.0%. Adjusted advertising expenses increased by Euro 30.9 million, or 8.3%. As a percentage of net sales, adjusted selling and advertising expenses decreased to 40.2% in 2011, compared to 40.8% in 2010.
A reconciliation of adjusted selling and advertising expenses, a non-IFRS measure, to selling and advertising expenses, the most directly comparable IFRS measure, is presented in the table below. For a further discussion of such non-IFRS measures, please refer to the "Non-IFRS Measures: Adjusted Measures" discussion following the year-over-year comparisons.
General and administrative expenses, including intangible asset amortization, increased by Euro 9.8 million, or 1.3%, to Euro 737.5 million in 2011, as compared to Euro 727.7 million in 2010. As a percentage of net sales, general and administrative expenses decreased to 11.9% in 2011, compared to 12.6% in 2010.
Adjusted general and administrative expenses, including intangible asset amortization, increased by Euro 25.1 million, or 3.5%, to Euro 732.3 million in 2011 as compared to Euro 707.3 million in 2010. As a percentage of net sales, adjusted general and administrative expenses decreased to 11.8% in 2011, compared to 12.2% in 2010.
A reconciliation of adjusted general and administrative expenses, a non-IFRS measure, to general and administrative expenses, the most directly comparable IFRS measure, is presented in the table below. For a further discussion of such non-IFRS measures, please refer to the "Non-IFRS Measures: Adjusted Measures" discussion following the year-over-year comparisons.
Income from Operations. For the reasons described above, income from operations increased by Euro 95.0 million, or 13.3%, to Euro 807.1 million in 2011 from Euro 712.2 million in 2010. As a percentage of net sales, income from operations increased to 13.0% in 2011 from 12.3% in 2010. Adjusted income from operations increased by Euro 88.3 million, or 12.0%, to Euro 820.9 million in 2011 from Euro 732.6 million in 2010. As a percentage of net sales, adjusted income from operations increased to 13.2% in 2011 from 12.6% in 2010.
A reconciliation of adjusted income from operations, a non-IFRS measure, to income from operations, the most directly comparable IFRS measure, is presented in the table below. For a further discussion of such non-IFRS measures, please refer to the "Non-IFRS Measures: Adjusted Measures" discussion following the year-over-year comparisons.
Other Income (Expense)Net. Other income (expense)net was Euro (111.9) million in 2011 as compared to Euro (106.6) million in 2010. Net interest expense was Euro 108.6 million in 2011 as compared to Euro 98.5 million in 2010.
Net Income. Income before taxes increased by Euro 89.7 million, or 14.8%, to Euro 695.3 million in 2011, from Euro 605.5 million in 2011, for the reasons described above. As a percentage of net sales, income before taxes increased to 11.2% in 2011, from 10.4% in the same period of 2010. Net income attributable to non-controlling interests increased to Euro 6.0 million in 2011 as compared to Euro 5.1 million in 2010. Discontinued operations were Euro 19.9 million in 2010 and related to certain contingent liabilities originally recorded as part of the sale of our Things Remembered retail business in 2006, which expired. Our effective tax rate was 34.1% and 36.0% in 2011 and 2010, respectively. Adjusted income before taxes increased by Euro 83.0 million, or 13.3%, to Euro 709.0 million in 2011,
from Euro 626.0 million in 2010, for the reasons described above. As a percentage of net sales, adjusted income before taxes increased to 11.4% in 2011, from 10.8% in the same period of 2010.
A reconciliation of adjusted net income before taxes, a non-IFRS measure, to net income before taxes, the most directly comparable IFRS measure, is presented in the table below. For a further discussion of such non-IFRS measures, please refer to the "Non-IFRS Measures: Adjusted Measures" discussion following the year-over-year comparisons.
Net income attributable to Luxottica Group stockholders increased by Euro 50.2 million, or 12.5%, to Euro 452.3 million in 2011, from Euro 402.2 million in 2010. Net income attributable to Luxottica Group stockholders as a percentage of net sales increased to 7.3% in 2011, from 6.9% in 2010. Adjusted net income attributable to Luxottica Group stockholders increased by Euro 52.9 million, or 13.1%, to Euro 455.6 million in 2011, from Euro 402.7 million in 2010. Adjusted net income attributable to Luxottica Group stockholders as a percentage of net sales increased to 7.3% in 2011, from 6.9% in 2010.
A reconciliation of adjusted net income attributable to Luxottica Group stockholders, a non-IFRS measure, to net income attributable to Luxottica Group stockholders, the most directly comparable IFRS measure, is presented in the table below. For a further discussion of such non-IFRS measures, please refer to the "Non-IFRS Measures: Adjusted Measures" discussion following the year-over-year comparisons.
Basic earnings per share from continuing operations were Euro 0.98 in 2011 as compared to Euro 0.83 in 2010. Basic earnings per share were Euro 0.98 in 2011 as compared to Euro 0.88 in 2010. Diluted earnings per share from continuing operations were Euro 0.98 in 2011 as compared to Euro 0.83 in 2010. Diluted earnings per share were Euro 0.98 in 2011 as compared to Euro 0.87 in 2010.
COMPARISON OF THE FISCAL YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2010 TO THE FISCAL YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2009
Net sales increased by Euro 703.7 million, or 13.8%, to Euro 5,798.0 million in 2010 from Euro 5,094.3 million in 2009. Euro 281.1 million of such increase was attributable to the increased sales in the manufacturing and wholesale distribution segment in 2010 as compared to 2009 and to increased sales in the retail distribution segment of Euro 422.6 million for the same period.
Net sales for the retail distribution segment increased by Euro 422.6 million, or 13.5%, to Euro 3,561.6 million in 2010 from Euro 3,139.0 million in 2009. The increase in net sales for the period was partially attributable to a 4.4% improvement in comparable store sales, which reflects the change in sales from one period to another that, for comparison purposes, includes in the calculation only stores open in the more recent period that also were open during the comparable prior period in the same geographic area, and applies to both periods the average exchange rate for the prior period. In particular, we saw a 6.7% increase in comparable store sales for the North American retail operations, which was partially offset by a 10.6% decrease in comparable store sales for the Australian/New Zealand retail operations. The positive effects from currency fluctuations between the Euro, which is our reporting currency, and other currencies in which we conduct business, in particular the strengthening of the U.S. dollar and the Australian dollar compared to the Euro, increased net sales in the retail distribution segment by Euro 237.2 million.
Net sales to third parties in the manufacturing and wholesale distribution segment increased by Euro 281.1 million, or 14.4%, to Euro 2,236.4 million in 2010 from Euro 1,955.3 million in 2009. This increase was mainly attributable to increased sales of most of our house brands, in particular Ray-Ban and Oakley, and of some designer brands such as Chanel, Ralph Lauren and Bvlgari. These sales volume increases occurred in most of the geographic markets in which the Group operates. These positive effects were further increased by positive currency fluctuations, in particular a strengthening of the U.S. dollar and Australian dollar and other minor currencies, including but not limited to the Brazilian Real, the Canadian dollar and the Japanese Yen, which increased net sales to third parties in the manufacturing and wholesale distribution segment by Euro 104.1 million.
In 2010, net sales in the retail distribution segment accounted for approximately 61.4% of total net sales, as compared to approximately 61.6% of total net sales in 2009.
In 2010 and 2009, net sales in our retail distribution segment in the United States and Canada comprised 82.6% of our total net sales in this segment. In U.S. dollars, retail net sales in the United States and Canada increased by 7.9% to U.S. $3,900.3 million in 2010 from U.S. $3,614.5 million in 2009, due to sales volume increases. During 2010, net sales in the retail distribution segment in the rest of the world (excluding the United States and Canada) comprised 17.4% of our total net sales in the retail distribution segment and increased by 13.2% to Euro 619.6 million in 2010 from Euro 547.3 million, or 17.4% of our total net sales in the retail distribution segment, in 2009, mainly due to positive currency fluctuation effects.
In 2010, net sales to third parties in our manufacturing and wholesale distribution segment in Europe were Euro 1,059.9 million, comprising 47.4% of our total net sales in this segment, compared to Euro 977.9 million, or 50.0% of total net sales in the segment, in 2009. The increase in net sales in Europe of Euro 82.0 million in 2010 as compared to 2009 constituted an 8.4% increase in net sales to third parties, due to a general increase in consumer demand. Net sales to third parties in our manufacturing and wholesale distribution segment in the United States and Canada were U.S. $715.8 million and comprised 24.1% of our total net sales in this segment in 2010, compared to U.S. $664.9 million, or 24.4% of total net sales in the segment in 2009. The increase in net sales in the United States and Canada of U.S. $50.9 million, or 7.7%, in 2010 compared to 2009, was primarily due to a general increase in consumer demand. In 2010, net sales to third parties in our manufacturing and wholesale distribution segment in the rest of the world were Euro 636.5 million, comprising 28.5% of our total net
sales in this segment, compared to Euro 500.7 million, or 25.6% of our net sales in this segment, in 2009. The increase of Euro 135.9 million, or 27.1%, in 2010 as compared to 2009, was due to the positive effect of currency fluctuations as well as an increase in consumer demand.
Cost of Sales. Cost of sales increased by Euro 227.6 million, or 12.9%, to Euro 1,990.2 million in 2010 from Euro 1,762.6 million in 2009, essentially in line with the increase of net sales in the period. As a percentage of net sales, cost of sales was at 34.3% and 34.6% in 2010 and 2009, respectively. In 2010, the average number of frames produced daily in our facilities increased to approximately 235,000 as compared to approximately 208,000 in 2009, which was attributable to increased production in all manufacturing facilities in response to an overall increase in demand.
Gross Profit. Our gross profit increased by Euro 476.1 million, or 14.3%, to Euro 3,807.8 million in 2010 from Euro 3,331.7 million in 2009. As a percentage of net sales, gross profit was at 65.7% and 65.4% in 2010 and 2009, respectively, due to the factors noted above.
Operating Expenses. Total operating expenses increased by Euro 335.0 million, or 12.1%, to Euro 3,095.7 million in 2010 from Euro 2,760.6 million in 2009, in line with the increase of net sales in the period. As a percentage of net sales, operating expenses decreased to 53.4% in 2010 from 54.2% in 2009.
Selling and advertising expenses (including royalty expenses) increased by Euro 263.6 million, or 12.5%, to Euro 2,368.0 million in 2010 from Euro 2,104.4 million in 2009. Selling expenses increased by Euro 204.7 million, or 12.1%. Advertising expenses increased by Euro 59.9 million, or 19.2%. Royalties decreased by Euro 1.0 million, or 1.0%. As a percentage of net sales, selling and advertising expenses decreased to 40.8% in 2010, compared to 41.3% in 2009, mainly due to the increase in net sales in relation to the fixed portion of selling expenses, such as occupancy costs and fixed employee selling costs.
General and administrative expenses, including intangible asset amortization, increased by Euro 71.4 million, or 10.9%, to Euro 727.7 million in 2010 as compared to Euro 656.3 million in 2009, mainly due to currency fluctuation effects and to the impairment charge totaling approximately Euro 20 million on the goodwill allocated to the Asia/Pacific retail segment.
Income from Operations. For the reasons described above, income from operations increased by Euro 141.1 million, or 24.7%, to Euro 712.2 million in 2010 from Euro 571.1 million in 2009. As a percentage of net sales, income from operations increased to 12.3% in 2010 from 11.2% in 2009. Adjusted income from operations increased by Euro 161.5 million, or 28.3%, to Euro 732.6 million in 2010 from Euro 571.1 million in 2009. As a percentage of net sales, adjusted income from operations increased to 12.6% in 2010 from 11.2% in 2009. A reconciliation of adjusted income from operations, a non-IFRS measure, to income from operations, the most directly comparable IFRS measure, is presented in the table below. For a further discussion of such non-IFRS measures, please refer to the "Non-IFRS Measures: Adjusted Measures" discussion following this year-over-year comparison.
Other Income (Expense)Net. Other income (expense)net was Euro (106.6) million in 2010 as compared to Euro (106.3) million in 2009. Interest expense was Euro 107.0 million in 2010 as compared to Euro 109.1 million in 2009. Net interest expense was Euro 98.5 million in 2010 as compared to Euro 102.2 million in 2009.
Net Income. Income before taxes increased by Euro 140.8 million, or 30.3%, to Euro 605.5 million in 2010 from Euro 464.8 million in 2009, for the reasons described above. As a percentage of net sales, income before taxes increased to 10.4% in 2010 from 9.1% in the same period of 2009. Net income attributable to non-controlling interests decreased to Euro 5.1 million in 2010 as compared to Euro 5.8 million in 2009. Discontinued operations were Euro 19.9 million and related to certain contingent liabilities originally recorded as part of the sale of our Things Remembered retail business in 2006, which either settled or expired.
Our effective tax rate was 36.0% and 34.4% in 2010 and 2009, respectively. Adjusted income before taxes increased by Euro 161.2 million, or 34.7%, to Euro 626.0 million in 2010 from Euro 464.8 million in 2009, for the reasons described above. As a consequence, the adjusted effective tax rate was 34.9% in 2010 as compared to 34.4% in 2009. A reconciliation of adjusted income before taxes, a non-IFRS measure, to income before taxes, the most directly comparable IFRS measure, is presented in the table below. For a further discussion of such non-IFRS measures, please refer to the "Non-IFRS Measures: Adjusted Measures" discussion following this year-over-year comparison.
Net income attributable to Luxottica Group stockholders increased by Euro 103.1 million, or 34.5%, to Euro 402.2 million in 2010 from Euro 299.1 million in 2009. Net income attributable to Luxottica Group stockholders as a percentage of net sales increased to 6.9% in 2010 from 5.9% in 2009. Adjusted net income attributable to Luxottica Group stockholders increased by Euro 103.6 million, or 34.6%, to Euro 402.7 million in 2010 from Euro 299.1 million in 2009. Adjusted net income attributable to Luxottica Group stockholders as a percentage of net sales increased to 6.9% in 2010 from 5.9% in 2009. A reconciliation of adjusted net income attributable to Luxottica Group stockholders, a non-IFRS measure, to net income attributable to Luxottica Group stockholders, the most directly comparable IFRS measure, is presented in the table below. For a further discussion of such non-IFRS measures, please refer to the "Non-IFRS Measures: Adjusted Measures" discussion following this year-over-year comparison.
Basic earnings per share from continuing operations were Euro 0.83 in 2010 as compared to Euro 0.65 in 2009. Basic earnings per share were Euro 0.88 in 2010 as compared to Euro 0.65 in 2009. Diluted earnings per share from continuing operations were Euro 0.83 in 2010 as compared to Euro 0.65 in 2009. Diluted earnings per share were Euro 0.87 in 2010 as compared to Euro 0.65 in 2009. Adjusted basic earnings per share were Euro 0.88 in 2010 as compared to Euro 0.65 in 2009. Adjusted diluted earnings per share were Euro 0.87 in 2010 as compared to Euro 0.65 in 2009. A reconciliation of adjusted basic earnings per share and adjusted diluted earnings per share, both non-IFRS measures, to basic earnings per share and diluted earnings per share, their most directly comparable IFRS measures, respectively, is presented in the table below. For a further discussion of such non-IFRS measures, please
refer to the "Non-IFRS Measures: Adjusted Measures" discussion following this year-over-year comparison.
Non-IFRS Measures: Adjusted Measures
In order to provide a supplemental comparison of current period results of operations to prior periods, we have adjusted for certain non-recurring transactions or events.
In order to provide a supplemental comparison of current period results of operations to prior periods, certain measures, such as operating expenses, selling and advertising expenses, general and administrative expenses, income from operations, income before taxes and net income attributable to Luxottica Group stockholders have been adjusted by excluding, if applicable, the following items related to non-recurring transactions:
The Company believes that these adjusted measures are useful to both management and investors in evaluating the Company's operating performance compared with that of other companies in its industry because they exclude the impact of non-recurring items that are not relevant to the Company's operating performance.
The adjusted measures referenced above are not measures of performance in accordance with IFRS. We include these adjusted comparisons in this presentation in order to provide a supplemental
view of operations that excludes items that are unusual, infrequent or unrelated to our ongoing core operations.
These adjusted measures are not meant to be considered in isolation or as a substitute for items appearing in our financial statements prepared in accordance with IFRS. Rather, these non-IFRS measures should be used as a supplement to IFRS results to assist the reader in better understanding the operational performance of the Company. The Company cautions that these adjusted measures are not defined terms under IFRS and their definitions should be carefully reviewed and understood by investors. Investors should be aware that Luxottica Group's method of calculating these adjusted measures may differ from methods used by other companies.
The Company recognizes that there are limitations in the usefulness of adjusted comparisons due to the subjective nature of items excluded by management in calculating adjusted comparisons. We compensate for the foregoing limitation by using these adjusted measures as a comparative tool, together with IFRS measurements, to assist in the evaluation of our operating performance.
See the tables on the foregoing pages for a reconciliation of the adjusted measures discussed above to their most directly comparable IFRS financial measures.
Our effective tax rates for the fiscal years ended December 31, 2011, 2010 and 2009, were approximately 34.1%, 36.0% and 34.4%, respectively.
LIQUIDITY AND CAPITAL RESOURCES
Our cash and cash equivalents at December 31, 2011 totaled Euro 905.1 million, compared to Euro 679.9 million at December 31, 2010. The increase in cash from December 31, 2010 to December 31, 2011 was principally attributable to cash flows provided by operating activities including an increase in net income. Our non-Italian operations are substantially self-sufficient for their working capital needs. As of December 31, 2011, Euro 732.2 million of the Group's total cash balance of Euro 905.1 million was held outside of Italy. There are no significant repatriation restrictions other than local or Italian taxes associated with repatriation. While we currently do not foresee a need to repatriate funds, should we require more capital in Italy than is generated by our operations locally, we could elect to repatriate funds held in foreign jurisdictions or raise capital in Italy or the rest of Europe through debt or equity issuances. These alternatives could result in higher effective tax rates or increased interest expense.
Operating Activities. The Company's net cash provided by operating activities in 2011, 2010 and 2009 was Euro 820.9 million, Euro 831.6 million and Euro 903.5 million, respectively. The Euro 71.9 million decrease in 2010 as compared to 2009 is mainly due to (i) the divestiture of the Group investment portfolio which resulted in an increase in cash provided by operating activities of approximately Euro 23.5 million in 2009 and (ii) the stronger performance of certain components of working capital in 2009 as compared to 2010, as indicated below.
Depreciation and amortization were Euro 323.9 million in 2011 as compared to Euro 322.1 million in 2010 and Euro 285.4 million in 2009. The increase in depreciation and amortization in 2010 as compared to 2009 is primarily attributable to a non-recurring impairment charge totaling approximately Euro 20 million.
Non-cash stock-based compensation expense was Euro 44.5 million in 2011 as compared to Euro 32.9 million in 2010 and Euro 24.9 million in 2009. The increase in 2011 as compared to 2010 is mainly due to (i) expenses related to the new stock option plan granted in 2011 for approximately
Euro 5.4 million and (ii) the gift of free treasury shares to certain employees of the Group, as part of the celebration related to the Group's 50th anniversary, which resulted in a non-recurring cost of approximately Euro 6.3 million (for further details please refer to Note 24 to our Consolidated Financial Statements included in Item 18 of this Form 20-F). The increase in 2010 as compared to 2009 is mainly due to expense related to the new stock option plan granted in 2010 for approximately Euro 5.1 million.
The change in accounts receivable was Euro (36.0) million in 2011 as compared to (1.6) million in 2010 and Euro 25.7 million in 2009. This change in 2011 as compared to 2010 was primarily due to an increase in sales volume in 2011 as compared to 2010 and 2009 and to the growth of certain businesses in the North America Retail Division in 2011. The inventory change was Euro (30.5) million in 2011 as compared to Euro (36.5) million in 2010 and Euro 46.7 million in 2009. The change in 2011 as compared to 2010 and 2009 was mainly due to increased production in our manufacturing facilities. The change in prepaid/accrued expenses and other was Euro 17.8 million in 2011 as compared to Euro (21.1) million in 2010 and Euro 180.0 million in 2009. The change in 2011 as compared to 2010 was mainly due to the liabilities related to the growth of certain businesses in the North America Retail Division and to the increase of the liabilities to employees for salaries and bonuses to be paid in 2012. The change in 2010 as compared to 2009 was mainly due to the timing of payments to tax authorities by certain U.S. subsidiaries of the Company which were utilized during the first half of 2011. The change in accounts payable was Euro 51.1 million in 2011 as compared to Euro 86.7 million in 2010 and Euro 27.5 million in 2009. The change in 2011 as compared to 2010 and 2009 was mainly due to better payment terms with the vendors in 2009, which continued to show their positive effects in 2011 as well. The change in income tax payable was Euro (20.0) million in 2011 as compared to Euro 32.5 million in 2010 and Euro (16.7) million in 2009. The change in 2011 as compared to 2010 was primarily attributable to the timing of our tax payments in different tax jurisdictions. The change in 2010 as compared to 2009 was primarily attributable to higher taxable income in 2010 which resulted in an increase in the income tax payable as compared to the same period of 2009.
Investing Activities. The Company's net cash used in investing activities was Euro 459.9 million, Euro 367.3 million and Euro 229.3 million in 2011, 2010 and 2009, respectively. The increase in 2011 is mainly related to (i) the acquisition of tangible assets for Euro 228.6 million in 2011; (ii) the acquisition of 60% of Multiopticas Internacional for Euro 89.8 million; (iii) the acquisition of two retail chains in Mexico for Euro 19.0 million; (iv) the acquisition of a retail chain in Australia for Euro 6.5 million; (v) other minor acquisitions for Euro 8.3 million in 2011; and (vi) the acquisition of intangible assets for the improvement of the Group IT structure for Euro 107.6 million. The main investment activities in 2010 were related to (i) the purchase of the remaining non-controlling interests in Luxottica Turkey for Euro 61.8 million; (ii) the purchase of the remaining non-controlling interests in Sunglass Hut UK for Euro 32.4 million; and (iii) other minor acquisitions for Euro 13.1 million. The increase in 2010 as compared to 2009 is mainly related to business acquisitions that occurred in 2010 and accounted for a cash outflow of approximately Euro 121.8 million.
Our capital expenditures, excluding acquisitions and the purchase of a building from related parties for Euro 25.2 million and capital leases of Euro 25.6 million, were Euro 307.5 million in 2011 as compared to Euro 230.4 million in 2010 and Euro 200.4 million in 2009 primarily related to the investment in IT infrastructure in 2011, 2010 and 2009 and in each year to investment in manufacturing facilities for the manufacturing and wholesale segment and the opening, remodeling and relocation of stores in the retail division. Capital expenditures, excluding capital leases of Euro 14.2 million, were Euro 61.4 million in the three-month period ending March 31, 2012. It is our expectation that 2012 net capital expenditures will be approximately Euro 340.0 million, not including investments for acquisitions. The Company will pay for these future capital expenditures with its currently available borrowing capacity and available cash.
Net cash provided by disposals of property, plant and equipment was insignificant in 2011, 2010 and 2009. Investments in equity investees resulted in cash used of Euro 0.0 million in 2011,
Euro 20.7 million in 2010 and Euro 21.3 million in 2009 and related to the acquisition of a 40% participation in Multiopticas Internacional.
Financing Activities. The Company's net cash used in financing activities was Euro (175.0) million, Euro (167.7) million and Euro (373.5) million in 2011, 2010 and 2009, respectively. Cash used in financing activities in 2011 mainly related to the maturing of long-term loans for Euro 250.6 million, repayment of maturing outstanding debt for Euro (230.4) million and aggregate dividend payments to stockholders of Euro (206.6) million. Cash used in financing activities in 2010 mainly related to the repayment of maturing outstanding debt and aggregate dividend payments to stockholders of Euro (169.8) million. In 2009, cash used in financing activities mainly related to the repayment of maturing outstanding debt and aggregate dividend payments to stockholders of Euro (103.5) million.
We have relied primarily upon internally generated funds, trade credit, committed bank facilities and debt capital markets to finance our operations and expansion. We do not typically raise capital through the issuance of stock; rather, we use debt financing to lower our overall cost of capital and increase our return on stockholders' equity. We have access to capital markets at favorable market conditions and continue to monitor the debt capital markets in order to take appropriate actions to raise financing.
We manage our financing requirements by maintaining an adequate level of liquidity and committed and uncommitted financing facilities. To this end, we take a series of actions to ensure compliance with these financing requirements. In particular:
Our debt agreements contain certain covenants, including covenants that restrict our ability to incur additional indebtedness. We do not currently expect to require any additional financing that would require us to obtain consents or waivers of any existing restrictions on additional indebtedness set forth in our debt agreements.
Our long-term credit facilities contain certain financial covenants including ratios of Net Financial Position (as defined in the agreements) to EBITDA (earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization as defined in the agreements) and EBITDA to net financial charges (as defined in the agreements). As of December 31, 2011 and December 31, 2010, we were in compliance with these financial covenants and we expect to continue to be in compliance in the foreseeable future periods. We believe that after giving effect to any additional financing that we may incur, such restrictions would not materially affect our compliance with these covenants, our ability to incur the additional debt or our future business operations.
The financial and operating covenants included in the above long-term debt are as follows (such terms are defined in our applicable debt agreements):
Our total indebtedness was Euro 2,031.6 million as of December 31, 2011. Available additional borrowings under credit facilities as of such date were Euro 1,440.0 million of which Euro 692.2 million were committed credit lines.
For additional information, see Note 20 to our Consolidated Financial Statements included in Item 18 of this Form 20-F.
Bank overdrafts represent negative cash balances held in banks and amounts borrowed under various unsecured short-term lines of credit obtained by the Company and certain of its subsidiaries through local financial institutions. These facilities are usually short-term in nature or contain evergreen clauses with a cancellation notice period. Certain of these subsidiaries' agreements require a guaranty from Luxottica Group S.p.A. Interest rates on these lines vary based on the country of borrowing, among other factors. The Company uses these short-term lines of credit to satisfy its short-term cash needs.
Our Credit Facilities
The Amended Euro 1,130 Million and U.S. $325 Million Credit Facility and Related Interest Rate Swaps
On June 3, 2004, we and our subsidiary U.S. Holdings entered into a credit facility with a group of banks providing for loans in the aggregate principal amount of Euro 740 million and U.S. $325 million. The facility consists of three tranches (Tranche A, Tranche B and Tranche C). On March 10, 2006, this agreement was amended to increase the available Tranche C borrowings to Euro 725 million, decrease the interest margin and define a new maturity date of five years from the date of the amendment for Tranche B and Tranche C. In February 2008, we exercised an option included in the amendment to the term and revolving facility to extend the maturity date of Tranches B and C to March 2013. Tranche A was a Euro 405 million amortizing term loan requiring repayment of nine equal quarterly installments of principal of Euro 45 million beginning in June 2007, which was to be used for general corporate purposes, including the refinancing of our existing debt as it matured. Tranche A expired on June 3, 2009 and was repaid in full. Tranche B is a term loan of U.S. $325 million which was drawn upon on October 1, 2004 by U.S. Holdings to finance the purchase price for the acquisition of Cole National. Amounts borrowed under Tranche B will mature in March 2013. Tranche C is a revolving credit facility of Euro 725 million-equivalent multi-currency (Euro/U.S. dollar). Amounts borrowed under Tranche C may be repaid and re-borrowed with all outstanding balances maturing in March 2013. As of December 31, 2011, the line under Tranche C was undrawn by Luxottica Group S.p.A. We can select interest periods of one, two, three or six months with interest accruing on Euro-denominated loans based on the corresponding EURIBOR rate and accruing on U.S. dollar-denominated loans based on the corresponding LIBOR rate, both plus a margin between 0.20% and 0.40% based on the "Net Debt/EBITDA" ratio, as defined in the agreement. The interest rate on December 31, 2011 was 0.790% for Tranche B. As of December 31, 2011, Euro 226.6 million was borrowed under this credit facility. For additional information, see Note 20 to our Consolidated Financial Statements included in Item 18 of this Form 20-F. We cancelled Tranche C effective April 27, 2012.
During the third quarter of 2007, we entered into thirteen interest rate swap transactions with an aggregate initial notional amount of U.S. $325 million with various banks ("Tranche B Swaps"). These swaps expired on March 10, 2012. The Tranche B Swaps were entered into as a cash flow hedge on Tranche B of the credit facility discussed above. The Tranche B Swaps exchanged the floating rate of LIBOR for an average fixed rate of 4.63% per annum.
The U.S. $1,500 Million Credit Facility, U.S. $500 Million Bridge Loan and Related Interest Rate Swaps
To finance the acquisition of Oakley, on October 12, 2007, we and our subsidiary U.S. Holdings entered into two credit facilities with a group of banks providing for certain term loans and a short-term bridge loan for an aggregate principal amount of U.S. $2.0 billion. The term loan facility is a term loan of
U.S. $1.5 billion, with a five-year term, with options to extend the maturity on two occasions for one year each time. We exercised the first option to extend the final maturity of this facility by one year to October 12, 2013. The term loan facility is divided into two facilities, Facility D and Facility E. Facility D consists of an amortizing term loan in an aggregate amount of U.S. $1 billion, made available to U.S. Holdings, and Facility E consists of a bullet term loan in an aggregate amount of U.S. $500 million. We borrowed U.S. $500 million under Facility E. Each facility has a five-year term, with options to extend the maturity on two occasions for one year each time.
The term loan has a spread of between 20 and 40 basis points over LIBOR, depending on the Group's ratio of debt to EBITDA. Interest accrues on the term loan at LIBOR (as defined in the agreement) plus 0.30% (0.644% for Facility D and 0.794% for Facility E on December 31, 2011). The final maturity of the credit facility is October 12, 2013.
During the third quarter of 2007, we entered into ten interest rate swap transactions with an aggregate initial notional amount of U.S. $500 million with various banks ("Tranche E Swaps"). These swaps will expire on October 12, 2012. The Tranche E Swaps were entered into as a cash flow hedge on Facility E of the credit facility discussed above. The Tranche E Swaps exchange the floating rate of LIBOR for an average fixed rate of 4.26% per annum.
During the fourth quarter of 2008 and January 2009, we entered into 14 interest rate swap transactions with an aggregate initial notional amount of U.S. $700 million with various banks which decreased by U.S. $50 million every three months commencing on April 12, 2011 ("Tranche D Swaps"), which matches the scheduled maturity of the hedged debt. These swaps will expire on October 12, 2012. The Tranche D Swaps were entered into as a cash flow hedge on Facility D of the credit facility discussed above. The Tranche D Swaps exchange the floating rate of LIBOR for an average fixed rate of 2.672% per annum.
The short-term bridge loan facility is for an aggregate principal amount of U.S. $500 million and is guaranteed by us and our subsidiary Luxottica S.r.l. The final maturity of the credit facility was eight months from the first utilization date. On April 29, 2008, we and our subsidiary U.S. Holdings entered into an amendment and transfer agreement to this facility. The terms of such amendment and transfer agreement, among other things, reduced the total facility amount from U.S. $500 million to U.S. $150 million, effective July 1, 2008, and provided for a final maturity date that was 18 months from the effective date of the agreement. On November 27, 2009, we and U.S. Holdings amended this facility to, among other things, reduce the total facility amount from U.S. $150 million to U.S. $75 million effective November 30, 2009 and provide for a final maturity date of November 30, 2011. The new terms also provide for the repayment of U.S. $25 million on November 30, 2010 and the remaining principal at the final maturity date. From November 30, 2009, interest accrued at LIBOR (as defined in the facility agreement) plus 1.90%. U.S. Holdings prepaid U.S. $25 million on September 8, 2010 and the remaining U.S. $50 million on October 12, 2010. As of December 31, 2011, this credit facility had been repaid in full.
In April 2008, we entered into a new Euro 150.0 million unsecured credit facility with Banca Nazionale del Lavoro. This facility was an 18-month revolving credit facility that provided borrowing availability of up to Euro 150.0 million. The final maturity of this credit facility was July 13, 2011. The amounts borrowed under the revolving facility could be borrowed and repaid until final maturity. Interest accrued at EURIBOR (as defined in the agreement) plus 0.375%. We could select interest periods of one, three or six months. In June 2009, we renegotiated this credit facility. The new facility consists of a two-year unsecured credit facility that is a revolving loan providing borrowing availability of up to Euro 150 million. Interest accrues on this facility at EURIBOR plus 1.90%. We can select interest periods of one, three or six months. On January 20, 2011, the Company terminated this credit line.
The Euro 250 Million Revolving Credit Facility and Related Interest Rate Swaps
On May 29, 2008, we entered into a Euro 250 million revolving credit facility agreement, guaranteed by our subsidiary, U.S. Holdings, with Intesa Sanpaolo S.p.A. as agent and Intesa Sanpaolo S.p.A., Banca Popolare di Vicenza S.c.p.A. and Banca Antonveneta S.p.A. as lenders. The final maturity of the credit facility is May 29, 2013. The credit facility requires repayment of equal quarterly installments of principal of Euro 30 million, which started August 29, 2011, and a last repayment of Euro 40 million on the final maturity date. Interest accrues at EURIBOR (as defined in the agreement) plus a margin between 0.40% and 0.60% based on the "Net Debt/EBITDA" ratio, as defined in the agreement (1.925% as of December 31, 2011). As of December 31, 2011, Euro 190 million was borrowed under this credit facility.
In June and July 2009, we entered into eight interest rate swap transactions with an aggregate initial notional amount of Euro 250 million with various banks ("Intesa Swaps"). The Intesa Swaps will decrease their notional amount on a quarterly basis, following the amortization schedule of the underlying facility, which started on August 29, 2011. The Intesa Swaps will expire on May 29, 2013. The Intesa Swaps were entered into as a cash flow hedge on the Intesa Sanpaolo S.p.A. credit facility discussed above. The Intesa Swaps exchange the floating rate of EURIBOR (as defined in the agreement) for an average fixed rate of 2.25% per annum.
The Euro 300 Million Club Deal
On November 11, 2009, we entered into a Euro 300 million Term Facility Agreement, guaranteed by our subsidiaries U.S. Holdings and Luxottica S.r.l., with MediobancaBanca di Credito Finanziario S.p.A., as agent, and MediobancaBanca di Credito Finanziario S.p.A., Deutsche Bank S.p.A., Calyon S.A. Milan Branch and Unicredit Corporate Banking S.p.A., as lenders. The final maturity of the Term Facility was November 30, 2012. Interest accrued at EURIBOR (as defined in the agreement) plus a margin between 1.75% and 3.00% based on the "Net Debt/EBITDA" ratio, as defined in the agreement. In November 2010, we renegotiated this facility, extending the maturity for a further two years. The new expiration date is November 30, 2014. Interest currently accrues at EURIBOR plus a margin between 1.00% and 2.75%, as defined in the amendment (2.520% as of December 31, 2011). As of December 31, 2011, Euro 300 million was borrowed under this credit facility.
Our Other Debt Financings
The U.S. $275 Million Senior Unsecured Guaranteed Notes of U.S. Holdings
On July 1, 2008, U.S. Holdings closed a private placement of U.S. $275 million of senior unsecured guaranteed notes, issued in three series ("Series A," "Series B" and "Series C"). The aggregate principal amounts of the Series A, Series B and Series C Notes are U.S. $20 million, U.S. $127 million and U.S. $128 million, respectively. The Series A Notes mature on July 1, 2013, the Series B Notes mature on July 1, 2015 and the Series C Notes mature on July 1, 2018. Interest on the Series A Notes accrues at 5.96% per annum, interest on the Series B Notes accrues at 6.42% per annum and interest on the Series C Notes accrues at 6.77% per annum. The proceeds from the Notes were used to repay a portion of the bridge loan facility that expired on July 1, 2008.
The U.S. $175 Million Senior Unsecured Guaranteed Notes of U.S. Holdings
On January 29, 2010, U.S. Holdings closed a private placement of U.S. $175 million of senior unsecured guaranteed notes, issued in three series ("Series D," "Series E" and "Series F"). The aggregate principal amount of each of the Series D and Series E Notes is U.S. $50 million and the aggregate principal amount of the Series F Notes is U.S. $75 million. The Series D Notes mature on January 29, 2017, the Series E Notes mature on January 29, 2020 and the Series F Notes mature on January 29, 2019. Interest on the Series D Notes accrues at 5.19% per annum, interest on the Series E
Notes accrues at 5.75% per annum and interest on the Series F Notes accrues at 5.39% per annum. The proceeds from the Notes were used for general corporate purposes.
The Euro 100 Million Senior Unsecured Guaranteed Notes
On September 30, 2010, we closed a private placement of Euro 100 million senior unsecured guaranteed notes, issued in two series ("Series G" and "Series H"). The aggregate principal amounts of the Series G and Series H Notes are Euro 50 million and Euro 50 million, respectively. The Series G Notes mature on September 15, 2017 and the Series H Notes mature on September 15, 2020. Interest on the Series G Notes accrues at 3.75% per annum and interest on the Series H Notes accrues at 4.25% per annum. The Notes contain certain financial and operating covenants. We were in compliance with those covenants as of December 31, 2010. The proceeds from the Notes, received on September 30, 2010, were used for general corporate purposes.
The Euro 500 Million Senior Unsecured Guaranteed Notes (Due 2015)
On November 10, 2010, we closed an offering in Europe to institutional investors of Euro 500 million of senior unsecured guaranteed notes due November 10, 2015. The notes are listed on the Luxembourg Stock Exchange under ISIN XS0557635777. Interest on the Notes accrues at 4.00% per annum. The Notes are guaranteed on a senior unsecured basis by U.S. Holdings and Luxottica S.r.l. The Notes can be prepaid at our option under certain circumstances. The proceeds from the Notes are being used for general corporate purposes.
The U.S. $350 Million Senior Unsecured Guaranteed Notes
On December 15, 2011, U.S. Holdings closed a private placement of U.S. $350 million senior unsecured guaranteed notes ("Series I"). The Series I Notes mature on December 15, 2021. Interest on the Series I Notes accrues at 4.35% per annum. The Notes contain certain financial and operating covenants. We were in compliance with those covenants as of December 31, 2011. The proceeds from the Notes, received on December 15, 2011, are being used for general corporate purposes and to refinance existing term debt.
Our 2012 Debt Financings
The Euro 500 Million Senior Unsecured Guaranteed Notes (Due 2019)
On March 19, 2012, we closed an offering in Europe to institutional investors of Euro 500 million of senior unsecured guaranteed notes due March 19, 2019. The Notes are listed on the Luxembourg Stock Exchange under ISIN XS0758640279. Interest on the Notes accrues at 3.625% per annum. The Notes are guaranteed on a senior unsecured basis by U.S. Holdings and Luxottica S.r.l. On March 19, 2012, the Notes were assigned a BBB+ credit rating by Standard & Poor's.
The Euro 500 Million Multicurrency Revolving Credit Facility
On April 17, 2012, we and our subsidiary, U.S. Holdings, entered into a multicurrency (Euro/U.S. dollars) revolving credit facility with a group of banks providing for loans in the aggregate principal amount of Euro 500 million (or the equivalent in U.S. dollars). Amounts borrowed may be repaid and re-borrowed with all outstanding balances maturing on April 10, 2017. We can select interest periods of one, three or six months with interest accruing (i) on Euro-denominated loans based on the corresponding EURIBOR rate and (ii) on U.S. dollar-denominated loans based on the corresponding LIBOR rate and a premium of 0.35% per annum, both plus a margin between 1.30% and 2.25% based on the "Consolidated Net Debt to Consolidated EBITDA" ratio as defined in the agreement. As of April 24, 2012, the line was undrawn.
Outstanding Standby Letters of Credit
Certain U.S. subsidiaries have obtained various standby and trade letters of credit from banks that aggregated Euro 63.4 million and Euro 34.0 million as of December 31, 2011 and 2010, respectively. Most of these letters of credit are used for security in risk management contracts, purchases from foreign vendors or as security on store leases. Most standby letters of credit contain evergreen clauses under which the letter is automatically renewed unless the bank is notified not to renew. Trade letters of credit are for purchases from foreign vendors and are generally outstanding for a period that is less than six months. Substantially all the fees associated with maintaining the letters of credit fall within the range of 40 to 60 basis points annually.
Concentration of Credit Risk
Financial instruments which potentially expose us to concentration of credit risk consist primarily of cash, investments and accounts receivable. We attempt to limit our credit risk associated with cash equivalents by placing our cash balances and investments with highly-rated banks and financial institutions. However, at any time, amounts invested at these banks may be in excess of the amount of insurance provided on such deposits. With respect to accounts receivable, we limit our credit risk by performing ongoing credit evaluations, and certain customers may be required to post security in the form of letters of credit. As of December 31, 2011 and 2010, no single customer's balance comprised 10% or more of the overall accounts receivable balance. However, included in accounts receivable as of December 31, 2011 and 2010, was approximately Euro 30.6 million and Euro 22.6 million, respectively, due from the host stores of our Licensed Brands retail division. These receivables represent cash proceeds from sales deposited into the host stores' bank accounts, which are subsequently forwarded to us on a weekly or monthly basis depending on our contract with the particular host store and are based on short-term contract arrangements.
Our Working Capital
Set forth below is certain information regarding our working capital (total current assets minus total current liabilities):
The decrease in working capital in 2011 as compared to 2010 is mainly attributable to the increase in the current portion of long-term debt scheduled to mature in 2012. The increases in working capital in 2010 and 2009 are primarily attributable to stronger performance by the Group on certain components of working capital beginning in 2009 and continuing in 2010.
We believe that the financial resources available to us will be sufficient to meet our currently anticipated working capital and capital expenditure requirements for the next 24 months.
We do not believe that the relatively moderate rates of inflation which have been experienced in the geographic markets where we compete have had a significant effect on our net sales or profitability. In the past, we have been able to offset cost increases by increasing prices, although we can give no assurance that we will be able to do so in the future.
Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements
We have no material off-balance sheet arrangements that have or are reasonably likely to have a current or future effect on our financial condition, changes in financial condition, revenue or expenses, results of operations, liquidity, capital expenditures or capital resources.
We use, from time to time, derivative financial instruments, principally interest rate and currency swap agreements, as part of our risk management policy to reduce our exposure to market risks from changes in foreign exchange rates and interest rates (see Note 31 to our Consolidated Financial Statements included in Item 18 of this Form 20-F). Although we have not done so in the past, we may enter into other derivative financial instruments when we assess that the risk can be hedged effectively.
Contractual Obligations and Commercial Commitments
We are party to numerous contractual arrangements consisting of, among other things, royalty agreements with designers, leases for retail store, plant, warehouse and office facilities, as well as certain data processing and automotive equipment, and outstanding borrowings under credit agreements and facilities with financial institutions to finance our operations. These contractual arrangements may contain minimum annual commitments. A more complete discussion of the obligations and commitments is included in Notes 19 and 27 to our Consolidated Financial Statements included in Item 18 of this Form 20-F.
The following table summarizes the scheduled maturities of our long-term debt, minimum lease commitments under non-cancelable operating leases, minimum payments under non-cancelable royalty arrangements, purchase commitments (including long-term) and endorsement contracts as of December 31, 2011. The table does not include pension liabilities or liabilities for uncertain tax payments. We cannot make a reasonable and reliable estimate of when or if the uncertain tax payments will be made. Our pension plans are discussed in Note 23 to our Consolidated Financial Statements included in Item 18 of this Form 20-F.
the interest rate as of December 31, 2011 and assume that we make all scheduled principal payments as they mature.
At December 31, 2011, we had available funds of approximately Euro 747.9 million under our unused short-term lines of credit. Substantially all of these lines have terms of less than one year, but they have been renewed annually in prior years. For additional information, see Note 27 to our Consolidated Financial Statements included in Item 18 of this Form 20-F.
ITEM 6. DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND EMPLOYEES
DIRECTORS AND SENIOR MANAGEMENT
The Board of Directors of Luxottica Group S.p.A. currently consists of 15 members, each of whom was appointed at the Stockholders' Meeting held on April 29, 2009.
The current term of the Board of Directors expires at the time of the approval of the statutory financial statements as of and for the year ending December 31, 2011. The information included in Item 6 relates to the Board of Directors whose term expires upon the approval of the statutory financial statements as of and for the year ended December 31, 2011.
Set forth below is certain information regarding the directors and senior management of Luxottica Group S.p.A.:
affiliation with Luxottica Group S.p.A. or any of its predecessors and affiliates and the latter is the year of appointment as a director.
All information disclosed below about compensation, shareholdings and incentive plans of senior managers also include two senior managers, each of whom held office for part of 2011.
Executive officers serve at the discretion of the Board of Directors. Messrs. Cattaneo, Chemello, Mion, Abravanel, Costamagna, Claudio Del Vecchio, Erede, Mangiagalli, Reboa, Lo Bello and Ms. Grossi are all non-executive directors. In addition, Messrs. Cattaneo, Mion, Abravanel, Costamagna, Mangiagalli, Reboa and Lo Bello are also independent directors under Italian law.
Pursuant to Italian law and our By-laws, a list for the appointment of the Board of Directors can be presented only by stockholders who hold the minimum percentage of the share capital established annually by Consob. For 2009, this was equal to 1% of the share capital of the Company. All directors except Mr. Lo Bello were appointed by Delfin S.à r.l., our controlling stockholder. Mr. Lo Bello was appointed by minority stockholders.
Pursuant to Italian law, we maintain a Board of Statutory Auditors, elected at the Stockholders' Meeting, composed of three experts in accounting matters who are required to have no other affiliation with Luxottica Group S.p.A. and who must satisfy certain professional and other standards. The Board of Statutory Auditors is required to verify that we (i) comply with applicable law and our bylaws, (ii) respect the principles of correct administration, (iii) maintain adequate organizational structure, internal controls and administrative and accounting systems, (iv) ensure that our accounting system represents the facts in a fair and true manner, (v) comply with the Code of Corporate Governance issued by Borsa Italiana S.p.A. and (vi) give adequate instructions to our subsidiaries. It also supervises our financial reporting process, the effectiveness of our internal auditing system and risk assessment, the audit work and the independence of our auditing firm. Although members of the Board of Statutory Auditors are required to attend the meetings of the Board of Directors and of the stockholders, they are not deemed to be members of the Board of Directors and do not vote on matters submitted to such meetings. Effective as of April 29, 2009, the members of the Board of Statutory Auditors are Francesco Vella, who is Chairman, Enrico Cervellera and Alberto Giussani. As of April 29, 2009, there were also two alternate members of the Board of Statutory Auditors, Mario Magenes and Alfredo Macchiati. On May 29, 2009, Mr. Magenes died. Giorgio Silva was appointed to succeed Mr. Magenes at the Stockholders' Meeting held on October 29, 2009. The alternate members will replace current members who leave their position during the current term. Francesco Vella and Alfredo Macchiati were selected from a list submitted by the minority stockholders referred to above. Enrico Cervellera and Alberto Giussani were selected from a list submitted by Delfin S.à r.l. Giorgio Silva was appointed by the majority of our stockholders. The current term of the Board of Statutory Auditors expires at the time of the approval of the statutory financial statements as of and for the year ending December 31, 2011.
See Item 16G"Corporate GovernanceSummary of the Significant Differences Between Our Corporate Governance Practices and the Corporate Governance Standards of the New York Stock Exchange" for more information regarding the designation of the Board of Statutory Auditors to act as our "Audit Committee" as defined in the U.S. Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002.
Pursuant to the Italian Code of Corporate Governance, issued by Borsa Italiana, we also maintain a Human Resources Committee, elected from the members of the Board of Directors. The Human Resources Committee has verification, advisory and proposal making functions, including, among others, (i) recommending to the Board of Directors the remuneration payable to the Company's Directors with additional responsibilities, determining the remuneration criteria for senior management of the Company and of the entire Group and making proposals to the Board of Directors regarding the remuneration of senior management based on such criteria and (ii) reviewing the Luxottica Group
employees' incentive plans and making proposals to the Board of Directors regarding the beneficiaries of the plans. Effective as of April 29, 2009, the members of the Human Resources Committee are non-executive directors Gianni Mion, Roger Abravanel, Claudio Costamagna, who acts as Chairman, and Sabina Grossi, three of whom are independent. The term of the Human Resources Committee is co-extensive with the term of our Board of Directors since its members are also members of our Board of Directors.
We also maintain an Internal Control Committee elected from the members of the Board of Directors. The Internal Control Committee is responsible for performing investigations, providing advice and submitting proposals to the Board of Directors. In particular, the Internal Control Committee (i) assists the Board of Directors in the execution of its internal control tasks and mandates, (ii) evaluates the planned initiatives and projects of the Internal Control Officer ("ICO"), (iii) reviews and assesses the regular reports issued by the ICO, (iv) assesses, together with the manager responsible for the preparation of the Company's accounting records and the managers and the auditors, the proper use and application of accounting principles, (v) assesses the results of the activities performed by the Internal Auditing function, (vi) monitors the effectiveness of the auditing process and (vii) expresses opinions concerning the identification of corporate risks as well as the planning, implementation and management of the internal control system.
See Item 16G"Corporate GovernanceSummary of the Significant Differences Between Our Corporate Governance Practices and the Corporate Governance Standards of the New York Stock Exchange" for more information regarding the designation of the Human Resources Committee to act as our compensation committee.
A short biography of each of our Directors and executive officers is set forth below:
Leonardo Del Vecchio is the founder of our operations and has been Chairman of the Board since the Group was formed in 1961. In 1986, the President of the Republic of Italy conferred on Mr. Del Vecchio the honor of Cavaliere dell'Ordine al "Merito del Lavoro" (Knight of the Order for Labor Merit). In May 1995, he received an honorary degree in Business Administration from the Venice Ca' Foscari University. In 1999, he received a Master "honoris causa" in International Business from MIB- Management School in Trieste, and in 2002, he received an honorary degree in Managerial Engineering from the University of Udine. In March 2006, Mr. Del Vecchio received another honorary degree in Materials Engineering from Politecnico of Milan. Mr. Del Vecchio is also a director of Beni Stabili S.p.A. SIIQ and GiVi Holding S.p.A., Vice Chairman of Fonciere des Regions and a director of Delfin S.à r.l., Aterno S.a.r.l. and Kairos Partners SGR S.p.A.
Luigi Francavilla joined the Group in 1968, has been Director since 1985, Deputy Chairman since 1991, and was, until June 2010, the Chief Quality Officer of the Group. From 1977 until May 2009, he was Group Product and Design Director. From 1972 to 1977, Mr. Francavilla was General Manager of Luxottica S.r.l. and, from 1969 to 1971, he served as Technical General Manager of Luxottica S.r.l. In addition, he is Chairman of Luxottica S.r.l., our principal operating subsidiary. Mr. Francavilla is also a Director in the Venice branch of the Bank of Italy and is the Honorary Chairman of Confindustria Belluno. In April 2000, he received an honorary degree in Business Administration from Constantinian University in Cranston, Rhode Island, U.S.A. In 2011, he was appointed Grande Ufficiale of the Italian Republic.
Andrea Guerra was appointed a Director and Chief Executive Officer of the Company on July 27, 2004. Prior to joining the Company, Mr. Guerra was with Merloni Elettrodomestici since 1994, where, from 2000, he was its Chief Executive Officer. Prior to being at Merloni, Mr. Guerra worked for Marriott Italia where he became Director of Marketing. He received a degree in Business Administration from the "La Sapienza" University of Rome in 1989. Mr. Guerra is Director of Luxottica S.r.l., Chairman of OPSM Group PTY Limited, member of the Board of Directors of Luxottica U.S. Holdings Corp., Luxottica Retail North America Inc. and of Oakley, Inc., all of which belong to Luxottica Group. He is also member of the Board of Directors of Amplifon S.p.A.
Roger Abravanel has been a Director since 2006. He worked at McKinsey & Company from 1972 until June 2006. Mr. Abravanel is also involved in international consulting projects, advising on strategic, organizational and operational development issues. He graduated with a degree in Engineering from the Politecnico di Milano and received a Masters in Business Administration from INSEAD in Fontainebleau (with High Distinctions). He is the author of several studies and articles on business organization. He is a member of the Board of Directors of Teva Pharmaceutical Industries LTD, Banca Nazionale del Lavoro S.p.A., COFIDE S.p.A., Admiral Group Plc., Pianoforte Holding S.r.l. and Coesia S.p.A.
Mario Cattaneo has been a Director since 2003. He is emeritus professor of Corporate Finance at the Catholic University of Milan. He was a director of Eni S.p.A. from 1998 until 2005 and of Unicredito from 1999 until 2005 and Statutory Auditor of the Bank of Italy from 1991 until 1999. He is a member of the Board of Directors of Bracco S.p.A. He is an auditor of Michelin Italiana Sami S.p.A. and a member of the Supervisory Board of UBI Banca S.C.p.A. He is also Chairman of the Board of Auditors of Fondazione Teatro alla Scala.
Enrico Cavatorta has been General ManagerCentral Corporate Functions since March 2011. He has been a Director of the Group since 2003. He has been Chief Financial Officer since he joined the Group in 1999 and is a director of the principal subsidiaries of the Company, including Luxottica U.S. Holdings Corp., Luxottica S.r.l., OPSM Group Pty Ltd., Luxottica Retail North America Inc. and Oakley, Inc. Prior to joining Luxottica, Mr. Cavatorta was with Piaggio S.p.A., most recently as Group Controller, responsible for planning and control. From 1993 to 1996, Mr. Cavatorta was a consultant with McKinsey & Co., having joined the firm from Procter & Gamble Italy, where he worked from 1985 to 1993, most recently as Controller. Mr. Cavatorta graduated with the highest honors from the LUISS University in Rome with a bachelor's degree in Business Administration.
Roberto Chemello has been a Director since 1985. He holds a degree in Corporate Finance from the Cà Foscari University in Venice. He joined the Group in 1979. Until 1985 he was Chief Financial Officer of the Company. Between 1985 and 2004 he was Chief Executive Officer of Luxottica. He then took over the position of Chief Operations Officer, which he held until July 2008, when he left all operational positions held in Luxottica. In 2007, he acquired control of Woodn S.r.l., a company that specializes in the manufacturing and marketing of wood-based composites, where he holds the position of Chairman of the Board of Directors. In 2008, he was appointed Chairman of the Board of Directors of the Chinese company, Sunbow Environmental Decoration Material Co Ltd, fully owned by Woodn S.r.l., which manufactures wooden composites for distribution both in China and internationally. In 2008, he was appointed member of the Board of Directors of the Entrepreneurs' Association of the Belluno Province. He is a director of Stefanel S.p.A.
Claudio Costamagna has been a Director since 2006. Mr. Costamagna holds a business administration degree and has held important offices in Citigroup, Montedison and Goldman Sachs where he served for many years as Chairman of the Investment Banking division for Europe, the Middle East and Africa. He is currently Chairman of "CC e Soci," a financial advisory boutique he founded. Mr. Costamagna is a member of the Board of Directors of AAA S.A., DEA Capital S.p.A., Il Sole24Ore S.p.A. and Virgin Group Holding Limited BVI. He is also Chairman of Virtual B Sim S.p.A. and a member of the International Advisory Board of the Bocconi University and Virgin Group.
Claudio Del Vecchio, a son of Leonardo Del Vecchio, joined the Group in 1978 and has been a Director since 1986. From 1979 to 1982, he managed our Italian and German distribution operations. From 1982 until 1997, he was responsible for all business operations of the Group in North America. He also serves as a Director of U.S. Holdings, a key subsidiary in North America. Claudio Del Vecchio is Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of Brooks Brothers Group, Inc.
Sergio Erede has been a Director since 2004. Mr. Erede graduated magna cum laude from the University of Milan in 1962 with a degree in jurisprudence and obtained an LL.M. from Harvard Law School in 1964. From 1965 to 1969, he was head of the legal department of IBM Italia S.p.A. Prior to such
time, Mr. Erede was an attorney at the law firm of Sullivan & Cromwell from 1964 to 1965, and the law firm of Hale & Dorr from 1963 to 1964. In 1999, he founded the law firm of Bonelli, Erede & Pappalardo (which is the successor by merger to the firm of Erede e Associati), a leading firm in Italian financial transactions. Additionally, he is a member of the Board of Directors of Fonciere des Regions, Interpump Group S.p.A., Gruppo Editoriale L'Espresso S.p.A., Manuli Rubber Industries S.p.A., Gruppo IPG Holding S.r.l. (Gruppo Interpump), Bolton Group International S.A., Brioni S.p.A. and Sintonia S.A. Additionally, Mr. Erede is Chairman of AON Italia S.p.A. and vice chairman of the Board of Directors of Banca Nazionale del Lavoro S.p.A.
Sabina Grossi has been a Director since 2003. She joined Luxottica Group S.p.A. in 1996 and was Head of Investor Relations, a position which she held from 1996 until 2004. Prior to joining Luxottica Group S.p.A., she was a financial analyst with Caboto Sim S.p.A. from 1994 until 1996. From 1991 to 1993, Ms. Grossi was an associate professor in the school of engineering of La Sapienza University in Rome, where she taught undergraduate courses as well as published papers on mathematics and statistics. Ms. Grossi, who is a C.P.A. in Italy, graduated with the highest honors from the LUISS University in Rome with a bachelor's degree in Business Administration. Ms. Grossi is currently a member of the Board of Directors of Molmed S.p.A.
Ivanhoe Lo Bello became a Director on April 29, 2009. He is Chairman of Unicredit Leasing S.p.A. He was Chairman of the Board of Directors of Banco di Sicilia S.p.A.Gruppo Unicredit from April 2008 until October 2010. From January 2008 to April 2008, he was Vice President of Banco di Sicilia S.p.A.Gruppo Unicredit. From 1998 to 2001 and again since January 2008, he has been a member of the Board of Directors of Banco di Sicilia S.p.A. From 2004 to 2008, he was Director of the Syracuse branch of the Bank of Italy. He is President of Confindustria Sicilia and the Chamber of Commerce of Syracuse. Mr. Lo Bello graduated magna cum laude from the University of Catania in 1989 with a degree in jurisprudence.
Marco Mangiagalli became a Director on April 29, 2009. Mr. Mangiagalli received a degree in Political Economy from the "Luigi Bocconi" University in 1973. Most of his career has been with Eni Group; he also has had working experience with Barclays Group in Italy and the Nuovo Banco Ambrosiano Group. He has served as a member of the Board of Directors for Agip S.p.A., Polimeri Europa S.p.A., Nuovo Pignone S.p.A., Snamprogetti S.p.A., Saipem S.p.A., Eni International Holding B.V., Albacom S.p.A., Emittenti Titoli S.p.A. and Oil Investment Corp. He also has been Chairman of Eni Coordination Center S.A., Eni Bank Ltd/Banque Eni S.A. and of Enifin S.p.A. From August 2008 to May 2011, he was Chairman of the Board of Directors for Saipem S.p.A. He is a member of the Supervisory Board of Intesa San Paolo S.p.A. and a member of the Board of Directors of Autogril S.p.A. He is also a member of the Senior Advisory Board of Global Infrastructure Partners.
Gianni Mion has been a Director since 2004. He is Chief Executive Officer of Edizione S.r.l., a position he has held since 1986. Prior to joining Edizione S.r.l., Mr. Mion was the Chief Financial Officer of Marzotto S.p.A. from 1985 to 1986, Managing Director of Fintermica S.p.A. from 1983 to 1985, Vice President of Gepi S.p.A. from 1974 to 1982, controller of McQuay Europa S.p.A. from 1972 to 1974 and an auditor at the accounting firm of KPMG from 1967 to 1972. Mr. Mion is Chief Executive Officer of Edizione S.r.l. and also sits on the Board of Directors of Benetton Group S.p.A., Autogrill S.p.A., Atlantia S.p.A., Sintonia, S.A., Aeroporti di Roma S.p.A. and Burgo Group S.p.A. Mr. Mion graduated from the Venice University Ca' Foscari with a degree in Business Administration and is a Certified Public Accountant.
Marco Reboa became a Director on April 29, 2009. Mr. Reboa received a degree in Business Economics from Universita Commerciale L. Bocconi in Milan, Italy in 1978. He has been registered in the Register of Chartered Accountants of Milan since 1982 and he is an auditor pursuant to Ministerial Decree since 1995. He is currently a professor at the Faculty of Law at the Libero Istituto Universitario Carlo Cattaneo in Castellanza, Italy and works in private practice in Milan, specializing in extraordinary
financial transactions. Mr. Reboa has published books and articles on financial statements, economic appraisals and corporate governance. He is editor-in-chief of the Magazine of Chartered Accountants. Mr. Reboa was the Chairman of the Luxottica Group S.p.A. Board of Statutory Auditors from June 14, 2006 until April 29, 2009. He is a member of the Board of Directors of Interpump Group S.p.A., Parmalat S.p.A., Carraro S.p.A., Fondiaria-SAI S.p.A. and Made in Italy S.p.A., and Chairman of the Board of Auditors of Indesit Company S.p.A.
Paolo Alberti joined Luxottica Group in May 2009 as Executive Vice President, Wholesale. Prior to joining Luxottica, he was Executive VP at Bvlgari Parfums where he was responsible for the development, marketing, logistics and commercialization of Bvlgari Perfumes and Cosmetics. He was also responsible for the Bvlgari eyewear license with Luxottica. Prior to being at Bvlgari, he was General Manager at L'Oréal, Consumer Division, Director at Johnson & Johnson and Advertising Brand Manager at Procter & Gamble. Mr. Alberti holds a B.S. in Civil Management Engineering from the University of the Pacific (California, USA) and a Master in Business Administration from Bocconi University.
Colin Baden became Chief Executive Officer of Oakley in July 2009. He joined Oakley in February 1996 as Director of Design and served as Vice President of Design from February 1997 to February 1999. In February 1999, Mr. Baden was named President. Prior to joining Oakley, Mr. Baden was a partner at Lewis Architects of Seattle, Washington for six years and began advising Oakley on company image and design issues in 1993.
Chris Beer became Chief Operating Officer of Luxottica Optical Retail Australasia and Greater China in June 2009. Previously, he held the position of Chief Operating Officer of Asia-Pacific and China retail operations of Luxottica Group, from 2003, having had 22 years of experience with the OPSM Group (later acquired by Luxottica). He held senior executive positions in sales and operations before being appointed International HR Manager for the OPSM Group in 1999 and General Manager Retail for OPSM Australia in 2001. Mr. Beer oversees group operations, marketing, merchandise, distribution and manufacturing for the Australia/NZ Region.
Michael A. Boxer became Executive Vice President and Group General Counsel in April 2011, in charge of all legal and international corporate affairs for the Group and its subsidiaries worldwide. Previously, he held the position Senior Vice President, General CounselNorth America from September 2005 to April 2011 and was responsible for overseeing all legal matters for the Company's North American retail and wholesale operations. Mr. Boxer has held various other executive roles since joining the Company in 1993. Prior to joining Luxottica in 1993, Mr. Boxer served as a corporate attorney with the law firm of Winston & Strawn in New York. He received his undergraduate degree from Columbia University and his law degree from the New York University School of Law.
Fabio d'Angelantonio was appointed to lead the Retail Luxury and Sun Business at the beginning of 2009, while maintaining the role of Chief Marketing Officer that he has held since 2005. After experience with the European Union and in the Olivetti Marketing Department in Brussels and Madrid, Mr. D'Angelantonio led the international department from 1995 to 2000 for the Belgian publishing house Editions Hemma (part of the Havas-Vivendi group). At the beginning of 2000, Mr. D'Angelantonio joined Ciaoweb (Fiat-Ifil group) where he held the position of Channel Manager, eventually moving to Merloni Elettrodomestici, today Indesit Company, where he held increasingly senior positions ending in Brand & Advertising Manager, responsible for the management of the entire brand portfolio for the group. After receiving a degree in Business Administration in 1994 from the LUISS University in Rome, he completed an MBA in International Management at the UBI in Brussels in 1999.
Elizabeth DiGiandomenico was named president of Luxottica Vision Care in 2011, with responsibility for leading EyeMed, OneSight and Optical Partnerships, which includes optical industry relations and products. She joined LensCrafters in 1992 as a member of the financial group. In 2002, Ms. DiGiandomenico joined EyeMed Vision Care and was named president in 2006. Prior to joining Luxottica, Ms. DiGiandomenico held various positions among the top accounting firms in the United
States, including Arthur Andersen and PricewaterhouseCoopers. She is a graduate of The Ohio State University Business School.
Ivan Dompé joined Luxottica Group in 2008 as Group Corporate Communications Director. From 2005 to 2008, he was Media Relations and Internet Communications Director at Edison, an Italian utility company. From 2000 to 2005, he served various roles in the Pirelli Group (in its business, tires, cables and real estate divisions), leaving the company as Head of the media relations department. Previously, he spent over three years in PR consultancy firms Ketchum and Burson Marsteller and began his career as a journalist in 1995. Mr. Dompé received a degree in Economics from Bocconi University in Milan.
Valerio Giacobbi became Chief Risk Management and Compliance Officer in May 2010. From February 2009 to April 2010, he was Group Business Development EVP. Previously, he was Executive Vice President North America from 2001 until March 2009. Prior to 2001, he was General Affairs Manager of Luxottica Group S.p.A. since 1991. Mr. Giacobbi holds a bachelor's degree in Business Administration from the Ca' Foscari University in Venice.
John Haugh joined Luxottica in August 2011 as Executive V.P. and General Manager, Sunglass Hut North America. Prior to joining Luxottica, he was President Bear at Build-a-Bear Workshop, Inc. Before that, he served as President for the Mars Retail Group, Chief Marketing Officer & SVP Business Development for Payless Shoesource and Executive VP Marketing & Sales at Universal Studios. Mr. Haugh holds an MBA degree from the International Institute of Management Development in Lausanne, Switzerland, and received his Bachelor of Science from the University of Wisconsin.
Seth McLaughin has been Executive V.P., Pearle Vision, Licensed Brands and Canada Optical since January 2011. Mr. McLaughin was Senior Vice President and General Manager Pearle Vision, Luxottica Retail North America from March 2008 to January 2011. From October 2004 to March 2008, he served as Senior Vice President, Consumer Marketing of Luxottica Retail North America. From July 1998 to October 2004, he served as Vice President, Consumer Marketing. Prior to joining the Luxottica Group he worked at Boston Consulting Group, from 1990 to 1994, and in strategic consulting for Procter & Gamble, from 1984 to 1990. Mr. McLaughin has a Bachelor of Science degree from Iowa State University.
Antonio Miyakawa is currently the Executive Vice President of Marketing, Style & Product for Luxottica Group S.p.A. From 2003 until May 2009, he was Executive Vice President of Wholesale and Marketing for Luxottica Group S.p.A. Previously, he was also head of our Asian wholesale operations, a position he held since 1999. Prior to this he served as Executive Vice President of Luxottica's Japanese operations. Prior to joining Luxottica Group S.p.A., Mr. Miyakawa was a junior consultant for Compact S.r.l. (an Italian consulting firm) working on various Luxottica matters.
Mario Pacifico became Group Shared Services Director in May 2009 and, starting from December 2010, he also serves as Corporate Reporting Director. He joined the Group as Head of Internal Auditing in 2003. Prior to joining Luxottica, he was VP of Internal Auditing of Prada Group. From 1990 to 2000, Mr. Pacifico was Controller of Eni's Italy Division, Chief Financial Officer of Agip Trading B.V. and Audit Manager for Agip S.p.A. Mr. Pacifico graduated from Bocconi University in Milan with a degree in Business Administration.
Nicola Pelà has been Group Human Resources Director since 2005. Before joining Luxottica, he held a number of HR positions in Olivetti, Fiat, Barilla and SmithKline Beecham. He has lived and worked in Italy, the United States and Belgium. Mr. Pelà has a bachelor's degree in Law with honors and a master's degree in Business Administration from CUOA (Centro Universitario di Organizzazione Aziendale).
Paolo Pezzutto joined Luxottica in 2000 as Trade Marketing Manager, and since 2010 he has been the Group Commercial Service Strategy & Planning Director. After two years of experience in Sana Progetti as an interior designer for hotels and yachts, from 1989 until 2000 he worked for Campari Group
as a manager in different sales and merchandising areas. Mr. Pezzuto is a graduate of the PSM SDA Bocconi and holds a technical diploma from ITG Quarenghi in Bergamo.
Carlo Privitera became COO Retail Business Services and Distribution North America in November 2010. He joined Luxottica in 2005 as Group Industrial Supply Chain Director. From January 2008 to November 2010, he was the Chief Information Technology Officer. From December 2001 to February 2005, Mr. Privitera served in various capacities, including Planning Manager and Production Control & Logistic Director of Fiat Group and its subsidiaries. From 1996 to 2001, he served as Senior Manager in Efeso Consulenze. Mr. Privitera has a bachelor's degree in Engineering from the Politecnico in Milan. He also holds a master's degree from Osaka University.
Alessandra Senici has served as the Group Investor Relations Director at Luxottica Group since May 2007. Ms. Senici joined the Group in February 2000. She was previously an Equity Analyst with Rasfin Sim and Cariplo S.p.a., where she also worked on primary and secondary offerings together with the corporate finance and equity capital markets teams. She has also worked in currency trading. Ms. Senici holds a bachelor's degree in Business Administration from the University of Brescia and is a member of A.I.R., the Italian Association of Investor Relations Officers.
Gianluca Tagliabue joined Luxottica in June 2010 and was appointed Group Business Development Director in November 2010. Prior to joining the Company, Mr. Tagliabue worked at Value Partners Italy from June 2001 to October 2005, then moved to Value Partners' Brazilian offices for a three-year assignment during which he became a partner of the firm. Mr. Tagliabue started his professional career in corporate finance working in M&A and financial restructuring projects, and then spent 12 years in management consulting companies, including Gemini Consulting. Mr. Tagliabue holds a degree in Business Administration from Bocconi University in Milan.
Massimo Vian became Group Chief Operations Director in July 2010. From January 2007 until 2010, he was Asia Operations Director. Prior to 2007, he was responsible for the Group's manufacturing and engineering. Prior to joining Luxottica, he held various assignments at Momo S.r.l. Mr. Vian holds a degree in Management Engineering from the University of Padova.
Mark Weikel became President and General Manager, LensCrafters in January 2011. Mr. Weikel joined Luxottica in February 2010 as Senior Vice President and General Manager of Sunglass Hut North America. Prior to joining Luxottica, he held a variety of leadership roles at Victoria's Secret, culminating in his appointment as Chairman. Before that, he was also Chief Financial Officer for Foley's Department Stores and Chief Operating Officer for Lord & Taylor. Mr. Weikel is a graduate of the University of Michigan Executive Program and received his Bachelor of Science in Accounting from Indiana State University.
Set forth below is information regarding total compensation paid to the members of our Board of Directors and our Board of Statutory Auditors for services rendered to Luxottica Group S.p.A. and our subsidiaries during 2011 (amounts in Euro).
Compensation paid to directors, general managers, auditors and senior managers in Euros