Manhattan Associates 10-Q 2016
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
For the quarterly period ended March 31, 2016
For the transition period from ____________ to ____________
Commission File Number: 0-23999
MANHATTAN ASSOCIATES, INC.
(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Its Charter)
Registrant’s Telephone Number, Including Area Code: (770) 955-7070
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to file such reports) and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes x No o
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulations S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files). Yes T No o
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes o No T
The number of shares of the Registrant’s class of capital stock outstanding as of April 18, 2016, the latest practicable date, is as follows: 72,137,015 shares of common stock, $0.01 par value per share.
Quarter Ended March 31, 2016
TABLE OF CONTENTS
MANHATTAN ASSOCIATES, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
(in thousands, except share and per share data)
See accompanying Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.
MANHATTAN ASSOCIATES, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
(in thousands, except per share amounts)
See accompanying Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.
MANHATTAN ASSOCIATES, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
See accompanying Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.
MANHATTAN ASSOCIATES, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
See accompanying Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.
Basis of Presentation
The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements of Manhattan Associates, Inc. and its subsidiaries (the “Company”) have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States for interim financial information, with the instructions to Form 10-Q and with Rule 10-01 of Regulation S-X. Accordingly, they do not include all of the information and footnotes required for complete financial statements. In the opinion of management, these condensed consolidated financial statements contain all normal recurring adjustments considered necessary for a fair presentation of the Company’s financial position at March 31, 2016, the results of operations for the three months ended March 31, 2016 and 2015, and cash flows for the three months ended March 31, 2016 and 2015. The results for the three months ended March 31, 2016 are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected for the full year. These statements should be read in conjunction with the Company’s audited consolidated financial statements and management’s discussion and analysis included in the Company’s annual report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2015.
Principles of Consolidation
The accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements include the Company’s accounts and the accounts of its wholly-owned subsidiaries. All significant intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
Changes in Presentation of Comparative Financial Statements
In November 2015, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2015-17, Balance Sheet Classification of Deferred Taxes, to simplify the presentation of the deferred income taxes. The ASU requires that all deferred tax assets and liabilities, along with any related valuation allowance, be classified as noncurrent on the balance sheet. The guidance does not change the existing requirement that only permits offsetting within a tax-paying component of an entity. This guidance is effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2016, and interim periods within those annual periods, but may be adopted earlier, and may be applied either prospectively or retrospectively. We adopted this guidance in the first three months ended March 31, 2016 reporting on a retrospective basis. Accordingly, we reclassified the current deferred taxes to noncurrent on our December 31, 2015 condensed consolidated balance sheet, that increased noncurrent deferred tax assets $4.6 million and decreased noncurrent deferred tax liabilities $5.7 million to conform with the current presentation.
The Company’s revenue consists of fees from the licensing and hosting of software (collectively included in “Software license” revenue in the Condensed Consolidated Statements of Income), fees from implementation and training services (collectively, “professional services”) and customer support services and software enhancements (collectively with professional services revenue included in “Services” revenue in the Condensed Consolidated Statements of Income), and sales of hardware and other revenue, which consists of reimbursements of out-of-pocket expenses incurred in connection with our professional services (collectively included in “Hardware and other” revenue in the Condensed Consolidated Statements of Income). All revenue is recognized net of any related sales taxes.
The Company recognizes license revenue when the following criteria are met: (1) a signed contract is obtained covering all elements of the arrangement, (2) delivery of the product has occurred, (3) the license fee is fixed or determinable, and (4) collection is probable. Revenue recognition for software with multiple-element arrangements requires recognition of revenue using the “residual method” when (a) there is vendor-specific objective evidence (VSOE) of the fair values of all undelivered elements in a multiple-element arrangement that is not accounted for using long-term contract accounting, (b) VSOE of fair value does not exist for one or more of the delivered elements in the arrangement, and (c) all other applicable revenue-recognition criteria for software revenue recognition are satisfied. For those contracts that contain significant customization or modifications, license revenue is recognized using contract accounting.
The Company allocates revenue to customer support services and software enhancements and any other undelivered elements of the arrangement based on VSOE of fair value of each element, and such amounts are deferred until the applicable delivery criteria and other revenue recognition criteria have been met. The balance of the revenue, net of any discounts inherent in the arrangement, is recognized at the outset of the arrangement using the residual method as the product licenses are delivered. If the Company cannot objectively determine the fair value of each undelivered element based on the VSOE of fair value, the Company defers revenue recognition until all elements are delivered, all services have been performed, or until fair value can be objectively determined. The Company must apply judgment in determining all elements of the arrangement and in determining the VSOE of fair value for each element, considering the price charged for each product on a stand-alone basis or applicable renewal rates. For arrangements that
include future software functionality deliverables, the Company accounts for these deliverables as a separate element of the arrangement. Because the Company does not sell these deliverables on a standalone basis, the Company is not able to establish VSOE of fair value of these deliverables. As a result, the Company defers all revenue under the arrangement until the future functionality has been delivered to the customer.
Payment terms for the Company’s software licenses vary. Each contract is evaluated individually to determine whether the fees in the contract are fixed or determinable and whether collectability is probable. Judgment is required in assessing the probability of collection, which is generally based on evaluation of customer-specific information, historical collection experience, and economic market conditions. If market conditions decline, or if the financial conditions of customers deteriorate, the Company may be unable to determine that collectability is probable, and the Company could be required to defer the recognition of revenue until the Company receives customer payments. The Company has an established history of collecting under the terms of its software license contracts without providing refunds or concessions to its customers. Therefore, the Company has determined that the presence of payment terms that extend beyond contract execution in a particular contract do not preclude the conclusion that the fees in the contract are fixed or determinable. Although infrequent, when payment terms in a contract extend beyond twelve months, the Company has determined that such fees are not fixed or determinable and recognizes revenue as payments become due provided that all other conditions for revenue recognition have been met.
The Company’s services revenue consists of fees generated from professional services and customer support and software enhancements related to the Company’s software products. Professional services include system planning, design, configuration, testing, and other software implementation support, and are not typically essential to the functionality of the software. Fees from professional services performed by the Company are separately priced and are generally billed on an hourly basis, and revenue is recognized as the services are performed. In certain situations, professional services are rendered under agreements in which billings are limited to contractual maximums or based upon a fixed fee for portions of or all of the engagement. Revenue related to fixed-fee-based contracts is recognized on a proportional performance basis based on the hours incurred on discrete projects within an overall services arrangement. The Company has determined that output measures, or services delivered, approximate the input measures associated with fixed-fee services arrangements. Project losses are provided for in their entirety in the period in which they become known. Revenue related to customer support services and software enhancements is generally paid in advance and recognized ratably over the term of the agreement, typically twelve months.
Hardware and other revenue is generated from the resale of a variety of hardware products, developed and manufactured by third parties, that are integrated with and complementary to the Company’s software solutions. As part of a complete solution, the Company’s customers periodically purchase hardware from the Company for use with the software licenses purchased from the Company. These products include computer hardware, radio frequency terminal networks, radio frequency identification (RFID) chip readers, bar code printers and scanners, and other peripherals. Hardware revenue is recognized upon shipment to the customer when title passes. The Company generally purchases hardware from the Company’s vendors only after receiving an order from a customer. As a result, the Company generally does not maintain hardware inventory.
In accordance with the other presentation matters within the Revenue Recognition Topic of the FASB Accounting Standards Codification (ASC), the Company recognizes amounts associated with reimbursements from customers for out-of-pocket expenses as revenue. Such amounts have been included in “Hardware and other” revenue in the Condensed Consolidated Statements of Income. The total amount of expense reimbursement recorded to revenue was $4.2 million and $5.3 million for the three months ended March 31, 2016 and 2015, respectively.
The Company measures its investments based on a fair value hierarchy disclosure framework that prioritizes and ranks the level of market price observability used in measuring assets and liabilities at fair value. Market price observability is affected by a number of factors, including the type of asset or liability and its characteristics. This hierarchy prioritizes the inputs into three broad levels as follows:
The Company’s investments are categorized as available-for-sale securities and recorded at fair market value. Investments with maturities of 90 days or less from the date of purchase are classified as cash equivalents; investments with maturities of greater than 90 days from the date of purchase but less than one year are generally classified as short-term investments; and investments with maturities of one year or greater from the date of purchase are generally classified as long-term investments. Unrealized holding gains and losses are reflected as a net amount in a separate component of shareholders’ equity until realized. For the purposes of computing realized gains and losses, cost is determined on a specific identification basis.
At March 31, 2016, the Company’s cash, cash equivalents, and short-term investments balances were $66.4 million, $39.4 million, and $8.9 million, respectively. The Company currently has no long-term investments. Cash equivalents consist of highly liquid money market funds and certificates of deposit. Short-term investments consist of certificates of deposit. The Company uses quoted prices from active markets that are classified at Level 1 as a highest level observable input in the disclosure hierarchy framework for all available-for-sale securities. At March 31, 2016 and December 31, 2015, the Company had $30.3 million in money market funds, which are classified as Level 1 and are included in cash and cash equivalents on the Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets. The Company has no investments classified as Level 2 or Level 3.
The Company granted 328,572 and 338,391 restricted stock units (“RSUs”) during the three months ended March 31, 2016 and 2015, respectively. The Company recorded equity-based compensation expense related to restricted stock and RSUs of $4.7 million and $3.1 million during the three months ended March 31, 2016 and 2015, respectively.
A summary of changes in unvested shares/units for the three months ended March 31, 2016 is as follows:
No amounts were recorded for equity-based compensation expense related to stock options during the three months ended March 31, 2016 and 2015 as all stock options vested prior to 2014. The Company does not currently grant stock options.
A summary of changes in outstanding options for the three months ended March 31, 2016 is as follows:
The Company’s effective tax rate was 37% and 37.5% for the three months ended March 31, 2016 and 2015, respectively. The decrease in the effective tax rate for the three months ended March 31, 2016 is primarily due to the U.S. research and development credit claimed for the quarter ended March 31, 2016, as the credit became permanent in December 2015 and was not claimed during the quarter ended March 31, 2015.
The Company applies the provisions for income taxes related to, among other things, accounting for uncertain tax positions and disclosure requirements in accordance with the Income Taxes Topic of the FASB ASC 740. For the three months ended March 31, 2016, there were no material changes to the Company’s uncertain tax positions. There has been no change to the Company’s policy that recognizes potential interest and penalties related to uncertain tax positions within its global operations in income tax expense.
The Company currently plans to permanently reinvest all of its remaining undistributed foreign earnings. Accordingly, no provision for U.S. federal and state income taxes has been provided thereon. Upon repatriation of those earnings, in the form of dividends or otherwise, the Company would be subject to both U.S. income taxes (subject to adjustment for foreign tax credits) and withholding taxes payable to various foreign countries. It is impractical to calculate the tax impact until such repatriation occurs.
The Company conducts business globally and, as a result, files income tax returns in the U.S. federal jurisdiction and various state and foreign jurisdictions. In the normal course of business, the Company is subject to examination by taxing authorities throughout the world. The Company is no longer subject to U.S. federal income tax examinations, substantially all state and local income tax examinations and substantially all non-U.S. income tax examinations for years before 2012.
Basic net earnings per share is computed using net income divided by the weighted average number of shares of common stock outstanding (“Weighted Shares”) for each period presented. Diluted net earnings per share is computed using net income divided by the sum of Weighted Shares and common equivalent shares (“CESs”) outstanding for each period presented using the treasury stock method.
The following is a reconciliation of the net income and share amounts used in the computation of basic and diluted net earnings per common share for the three months ended March 31, 2016 and 2015 (in thousands, except per share data):
The anti-dilutive CESs during 2016 and 2015 were immaterial.
From time to time, the Company may be involved in litigation relating to claims arising out of its ordinary course of business, and occasionally legal proceedings not in the ordinary course. Many of the Company’s installations involve products that are critical to the operations of its clients’ businesses. Any failure in a Company product could result in a claim for substantial damages against the Company, regardless of the Company’s responsibility for such failure. Although the Company attempts to limit contractually its liability for damages arising from product failures or negligent acts or omissions, there can be no assurance that the limitations of liability set forth in its contracts will be enforceable in all instances. The Company is not currently a party to any legal proceedings the result of which it believes is likely to have a material adverse impact upon its business, financial position, results of operations, or cash flows. The Company expenses legal costs associated with loss contingencies as such legal costs are incurred.
The Company manages its business by geographic segment. The Company has three geographic reportable segments: North America and Latin America (the “Americas”); Europe, Middle East and Africa (“EMEA”); and Asia Pacific (“APAC”). All segments derive revenue from the sale and implementation of the Company’s supply chain commerce solutions. The individual products sold by the segments are similar in nature and are all designed to help companies manage the effectiveness and efficiency of their supply commerce chain. The Company uses the same accounting policies for each reportable segment. The chief executive officer and chief financial officer evaluate performance based on revenue and operating results for each reportable segment.
The Americas segment charges royalty fees to the other segments based on software licenses sold by those reportable segments. The royalties, which totaled approximately $0.4 million and $1.0 million for the three months ended March 31, 2016 and 2015, respectively, are included in cost of revenue for each segment with a corresponding reduction in America’s cost of revenue. The revenues represented below are from external customers only. The geographical-based costs consist of costs of professional services personnel, direct sales and marketing expenses, cost of infrastructure to support the employees and customer base, billing and financial systems, management and general and administrative support. There are certain corporate expenses included in the Americas segment that are not charged to the other segments, including research and development, certain marketing and general and administrative costs that support the global organization, and the amortization of acquired developed technology. Included in the Americas’ costs are all research and development costs including the costs associated with the Company’s India operations.
The following table presents the revenues, expenses and operating income by reportable segment for the three months ended March 31, 2016 and 2015 (in thousands):
License revenues related to the Company’s warehouse and non-warehouse product groups for the three months ended March 31, 2016 and 2015 are as follows (in thousands):
The Company’s services revenues, which consist of fees generated from professional services and customer support and software enhancements related to its software products, for the three months ended March 31, 2016 and 2015 are as follows (in thousands):
In May 2014, the FASB issued guidance codified in ASC 606, Revenue Recognition – Revenue from Contracts with Customers, which will replace substantially all current revenue recognition guidance once it becomes effective. The new standard provides accounting guidance for all revenue arising from contracts with customers and affects all entities that enter into contracts to provide goods or services to their customers unless the contracts are in the scope of other standards. The new standard is less prescriptive and may require software entities to use more judgment and estimates in the revenue recognition process than are required under existing revenue guidance. This guidance is now effective for annual and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2017, using either of the following transition methods: (i) a full retrospective approach reflecting the application of the standard in each prior reporting
period with the option to elect certain practical expedients, or (ii) a modified retrospective approach with the cumulative effect of initially adopting the standard recognized at the date of adoption (which includes additional footnote disclosures). We are currently evaluating the impact the adoption of this standard will have on our Consolidated Financial Statements.
In November 2015, the FASB issued ASU 2015-17, Balance Sheet Classification of Deferred Taxes, to simplify the presentation of the deferred income taxes. The ASU requires that all deferred tax assets and liabilities, along with any related valuation allowance, be classified as noncurrent on the balance sheet. The guidance does not change the existing requirement that only permits offsetting within a tax-paying component of an entity. This guidance is effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2016, and interim periods within those annual periods, but may be adopted earlier, and may be applied either prospectively or retrospectively. We adopted this guidance in the first three months ended March 31, 2016 reporting on a retrospective basis. Accordingly, we reclassified the current deferred taxes to noncurrent on our December 31, 2015 condensed consolidated balance sheet, that increased noncurrent deferred tax assets $4.6 million and decreased noncurrent deferred tax liabilities $5.7 million to conform with the current period presentation.
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-02, Leases, to increase transparency and comparability among organizations by recognizing lease assets and lease liabilities on the balance sheet and disclosing key information about leasing arrangements. Under the new guidance, a lessee will be required to recognize assets and liabilities for leases with lease terms of more than 12 months. Consistent with current U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”), the recognition, measurement, and presentation of expenses and cash flows arising from a lease by a lessee primarily will depend on its classification as a finance or operating lease. However, unlike current GAAP—which requires only capital leases to be recognized on the balance sheet—the new ASU will require both types of leases to be recognized on the balance sheet. The ASU also will require disclosures to help investors and other financial statement users better understand the amount, timing, and uncertainty of cash flows arising from leases. These disclosures include qualitative and quantitative requirements, providing additional information about the amounts recorded in the financial statements. The accounting by organizations that own the assets leased by the lessee—also known as lessor accounting—will remain largely unchanged from current GAAP. However, the ASU contains some targeted improvements that are intended to align, where necessary, lessor accounting with the lessee accounting model and with the updated revenue recognition guidance issued in 2014. For public companies, this guidance is effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2018, and interim periods within those annual periods, but may be adopted earlier. We are currently evaluating the impact the adoption of this standard will have on our Consolidated Financial Statements.
In March 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-09, Compensation – Stock Compensation: Improvements to Employee Share-Based Payment Accounting, to improve the accounting for employee share-based payments. Under the new guidance, companies will no longer record excess tax benefits and certain tax deficiencies in additional paid-in capital. Instead, all excess tax benefits and tax deficiencies should be recognized as income tax expense or benefit in the income statement, and additional paid-in capital pools will be eliminated. The guidance requires companies to present excess tax benefits as an operating activity on the statement of cash flows rather than as a financing activity. It also will allow an employer to repurchase more of an employee’s shares than it can today for tax withholding purposes without triggering liability accounting and to make a policy election to account for forfeitures as they occur. The new guidance will require an employer to classify the cash paid to a tax authority when shares are withheld to satisfy its statutory income tax withholding obligation as a financing activity on its statement of cash flows. Companies will have to elect whether to account for forfeitures of share-based payments by (1) recognizing forfeitures of awards as they occur (e.g., when an award does not vest because the employee leaves the company) or (2) estimating the number of awards expected to be forfeited and adjusting the estimate when it is likely to change, as is currently required. For public companies, this guidance is effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2016, and interim periods within those annual periods, but may be adopted earlier. We are currently evaluating the impact the adoption of this standard will have on our Consolidated Financial Statements.
The following discussion should be read in conjunction with the condensed consolidated financial statements for the three months ended March 31, 2016 and 2015, including the notes to those statements, included elsewhere in this quarterly report. We also recommend the following discussion be read in conjunction with management’s discussion and analysis and consolidated financial statements included in our annual report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2015. Statements in the following discussion that are not statements of historical fact are “forward-looking statements.” Actual results may differ materially from the results predicted in such forward-looking statements, for a variety of factors. See “Forward-Looking Statements” below.
References in this filing to the “Company,” “Manhattan,” “Manhattan Associates,” “we,” “our,” and “us” refer to Manhattan Associates, Inc., our predecessors, and our wholly-owned and consolidated subsidiaries.
We develop, sell, deploy, service and maintain software solutions designed to manage supply chains, inventory and omni-channel operations for retailers, wholesalers, manufacturers, logistics providers and other organizations. Our customers include many of the world’s premier and most profitable brands.
Our business model is singularly focused on the development and implementation of complex commerce enablement software solutions that are designed to optimize supply chains, and retail store operations including point of sale effectiveness and efficiency for our customers. We have three principal sources of revenue:
In the three months ended March 31, 2016, we generated $149.9 million in total revenue, with a revenue mix of: license revenue 14%; services revenue 77%; and hardware and other revenue 9%.
The Company has three geographic reportable segments: the Americas, Europe, the Middle East and Africa (EMEA), and Asia-Pacific (APAC). Geographic revenue is based on the location of the sale. Our international revenue was approximately $34.1 million for the three months ended March 31, 2016, which represents approximately 23% of our total revenue. International revenue includes all revenue derived from sales to customers outside the United States. At March 31, 2016, we employed approximately 3,020 employees worldwide, of which 1,440 employees are based in the Americas, 220 in EMEA, and 1,360 in APAC (including India). We have offices in Australia, China, France, India, Japan, the Netherlands, Singapore, and the United Kingdom, as well as representatives in Mexico and reseller partnerships in Latin America, Eastern Europe, the Middle East, South Africa, and Asia.
Global Economic Trends and Industry Factors
Global macro-economic trends, technology spending, and supply chain management market growth are important barometers for our business. In the three months ended March 31, 2016, approximately 77% of our total revenue was generated in the United States, 10% in EMEA, and the remaining balance in APAC, Canada, and Latin America. In addition, Gartner Inc., an information technology research and advisory company, estimates that nearly 80% of every supply chain software solutions dollar invested is spent in the United States (57%) and Western Europe (23%); consequently, the health of the U.S. and Western European economies has a meaningful impact on our financial results.
We sell technology-based solutions with total pricing, including software and services, in many cases exceeding $1.0 million. Our software often is a part of our customers’ and prospects’ much larger capital commitment associated with facilities expansion and business improvement. We believe that, given the lingering uncertainty in the global macro environment, the current sales cycles for large license deals of $1.0 million or greater in our target markets have been extended. The current business climate within the United States and geographic regions in which we operate continues to affect customers’ and prospects’ decisions regarding timing of strategic capital expenditures. Delays with respect to such decisions can have a material adverse impact on our business, and may further intensify competition in our already highly competitive markets.
In April 2016, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) provided a World Economic Outlook (WEO) update lowering its previous 2016 world economic growth forecast to about 3.2 percent. The WEO update noted that:
The recovery is projected to strengthen in 2017 and beyond, driven primarily by emerging market and developing economies, as conditions in stressed economies start gradually to normalize. But uncertainty has increased, and risks of weaker growth scenarios are becoming more tangible. The fragile conjuncture increases the urgency of a broad-based policy response to raise growth and manage vulnerabilities. The global recovery has weakened further amid increasing financial turbulence. Activity softened toward the end of 2015 in advanced economies, and stresses in several large emerging market economies showed no signs of abating.
The WEO update projected that advanced economies, which represent our primary revenue markets, would grow at about 1.9 percent in 2016 and 2.0 percent in 2017, while the emerging and developing economies would grow at about 4.1 percent in 2016 and 4.6 percent in 2017.
During 2015 and continuing into 2016, the overall trend has been steady for our large license deals, with recognized license revenue of $1.0 million or greater on twenty one new contracts during 2015 as well as three new contracts in the three months ended March 31, 2016. While we are encouraged by our results, we, along with many of our customers, still remain cautious regarding the pace of global economic recovery. With global GDP growth continuing to be below pre-2008 levels, we believe global economic volatility likely will continue to shape customers’ and prospects’ enterprise software buying decisions, making it challenging to forecast sales cycles for our products and the timing of large enterprise software license sales.
License revenue. License revenue, a leading indicator of our business, is primarily derived from software license fees customers pay for supply chain solutions. License revenue totaled $20.6 million, or 14% of total revenue, with gross margin of 84.7% for the three months ended March 31, 2016. For the three months ended March 31, 2016, the percentage mix of new to existing customers was approximately 50/50.
License revenue growth is influenced by the strength of general economic and business conditions and the competitive position of our software products. Our license revenue generally has long sales cycles. In addition, the timing of the closing of a few large license transactions can have a material impact on our license revenues, operating profit, operating margins and earnings per share. For example, $1.2 million of license revenue in the first quarter of 2016 equates to approximately one cent of diluted earnings per share impact.
Our software solutions are focused on core supply chain commerce operations (Warehouse Management, Transportation Management, Labor Management), Inventory optimization and Omni-channel operations (e-commerce, retail store operations and point of sale), which are intensely competitive markets characterized by rapid technological change. We are a market leader in the supply chain management software solutions market as defined by industry analysts such as ARC Advisory Group and Gartner. Our goal is to extend our position as a leading global supply chain solutions provider by growing our license revenues faster than our competitors through investment in innovation. We expect to continue to face increased competition from Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) and Supply Chain Management applications vendors and business application software vendors that may broaden their solution offerings by internally developing, or by acquiring or partnering with independent developers of supply chain planning and execution software. Increased competition could result in price reductions, fewer customer orders, reduced gross margins, and loss of market share.
Services revenue. Our services business consists of professional services (consulting and customer training) and customer support services and software enhancements (CSSE). Services revenue totaled $116.3 million, or 77% of total revenue, with gross margins of 55.4% for the three months ended March 31, 2016. Professional services totaled $84.5 million accounted for approximately 73% of total services revenue in the three months ended March 31, 2016. Our consolidated operating margin profile may be lower than those of various other technology companies due to our large services revenue mix as a percentage of total revenue. While we believe our services margins are very strong, they do lower our overall operating margin profile as services margins are inherently lower than license revenue margins.
At March 31, 2016, our professional services organization totaled approximately 1,400 employees, accounting for 47% of our total employees worldwide. Our professional services organization provides our customers with expertise and assistance in planning and implementing our solutions. To ensure a successful product implementation, consultants assist customers with the initial installation of a system, the conversion and transfer of the customer’s historical data onto our system, and ongoing training, education, and system upgrades. We believe our professional services enable customers to implement our software rapidly, ensure the customer’s success with our solution, strengthen our customer relationships, and add to our industry-specific knowledge base for use in future implementations and product innovations.
Although our professional services are optional, the majority of our customers use at least some portion of these services for their planning, implementation, or related needs. Professional services are typically rendered under time and materials-based contracts with services typically billed on an hourly basis. Professional services are sometimes rendered under fixed-fee based contracts with payments due on specific dates or milestones.
Services revenue growth is contingent upon license revenue and customer upgrade cycles, which are influenced by the strength of general economic and business conditions and the competitive position of our software products. In addition, our professional services business has competitive exposure to offshore providers and other consulting companies. All of these factors potentially create the risk of pricing pressure, fewer customer orders, reduced gross margins, and loss of market share.
For CSSE, we offer a comprehensive 24 hours per day, 365 days per year program that provides our customers with software upgrades, when and if available, which include additional or improved functionality and technological advances incorporating emerging supply chain and industry initiatives. Our CSSE revenues totaled $31.8 million for the three months ended March 31, 2016, representing approximately 27% of services revenue and approximately 21% of total revenue. The growth of CSSE revenues is influenced by: (1) new license revenue growth; (2) annual renewal of support contracts; (3) increase in customers; and (4) fluctuations in currency rates. Substantially all of our customers renew their annual support contracts. Over the last three years, our annual revenue renewal rate of customers subscribing to comprehensive support and enhancements has been greater than 90%. CSSE revenue is generally paid in advance and recognized ratably over the term of the agreement, typically twelve months. CSSE renewal revenue is not recognized unless payment is received from the customer.
Hardware and other revenue. Our hardware and other revenue totaled $13.0 million, representing 9% of total revenue with gross margin of 24.9% for the three months ended March 31, 2016. In conjunction with the licensing of our software, and as a convenience for our customers, we resell a variety of hardware products developed and manufactured by third parties. These products include computer hardware, radio frequency terminal networks, RFID chip readers, bar code printers and scanners, and other peripherals. We resell all third-party hardware products and related maintenance pursuant to agreements with manufacturers or through distributor-authorized reseller agreements pursuant to which we are entitled to purchase hardware products and services at discounted prices. We generally purchase hardware from our vendors only after receiving an order from a customer. As a result, we generally do not maintain hardware inventory.
Other revenue represents amounts associated with reimbursements from customers for out-of-pocket expenses. The total amount of expense reimbursement recorded to hardware and other revenue was $4.2 million for the three months ended March 31, 2016.
We continue to invest significantly in research and development (R&D) to provide leading solutions that help global retailers, manufacturers, wholesalers, distributors, and logistics providers successfully manage accelerating and fluctuating demands as well as the increasing complexity and volatility of their local and global supply chains, retail store operations and point of sale. Our research and development expenses were $14.7 million for the three months ended March 31, 2016. At March 31, 2016, our R&D organization totaled approximately 670 employees, located in the U.S. and India.
We expect to continue to focus our R&D resources on the development and enhancement of our core supply chain, inventory optimization, omni-channel and point of sale software solutions. We offer what we believe to be the broadest solution portfolio in the supply chain solutions marketplace, to address all aspects of inventory optimization, transportation management, distribution management, planning, and omni-channel operations including order management, store inventory & fulfillment, call center and point of sale.
We also plan to continue to enhance our existing solutions and to introduce new solutions to address evolving industry standards and market needs. We identify opportunities to further enhance our solutions and to develop and provide new solutions through our customer support organization, as well as through ongoing customer consulting engagements and implementations, interactions with our user groups, association with leading industry analysts and market research firms, and participation on industry standards and research committees. Our solutions address the needs of customers in various vertical markets, including retail, consumer goods, food and grocery logistics service providers, industrial and wholesale, high technology and electronics, life sciences, and government.
Cash Flow and Financial Condition
For the three months ended March 31, 2016, we generated cash flow from operating activities of $40.4 million. Our cash, cash equivalents, and investments at March 31, 2016 totaled $114.7 million, with no debt on our balance sheet. We currently have no credit
facilities. Our primary uses of cash continue to be funding investment in R&D and operations to drive earnings growth and repurchases of our common stock.
We repurchased 892,283 shares of Manhattan Associates’ outstanding common stock under our repurchase program during the three months ended March 31, 2016. In April 2016, our Board of Directors approved raising the Company's remaining share repurchase authority to $50.0 million of Manhattan Associates’ outstanding common stock.
For the remainder of 2016, we anticipate that our priorities for the use of cash will be in hiring and developing sales and services resources and continued investment in product development and marketing to extend our market leadership and awareness. We expect to continue to evaluate acquisition opportunities that are complementary to our product footprint and technology direction. We also expect to continue to weigh our share repurchase options against cash for acquisitions and investing in the business. We do not anticipate any borrowing requirements in the remainder of 2016 for general corporate purposes.
Results of Operations
The following table summarizes our consolidated results for the three months ended March 31, 2016 and 2015.
The Company has three geographic reportable segments: the Americas, EMEA, and APAC. Geographic revenue information is based on the location of sale. The revenues represented below are from external customers only. The geographical-based expenses include costs of personnel, direct sales, and marketing expenses, and general and administrative costs to support the business. There are certain corporate expenses included in the Americas segment that are not charged to the other segments, including research and development, certain marketing and general and administrative costs that support the global organization, and the amortization of acquired developed technology. Included in the Americas costs are all research and development costs, including the costs associated with the Company’s India operations. During the three months ended March 31, 2016 and 2015, we derived the majority of our revenues from sales to customers within our Americas segment. The following table summarizes revenue and operating profit by segment: