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MannKind 10-Q 2008

Documents found in this filing:

  1. 10-Q
  2. Ex-31.1
  3. Ex-31.2
  4. Ex-32
  5. Ex-32
e10vq
Table of Contents

 
 
UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
Form 10-Q
     
þ   QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the quarterly period ended June 30, 2008
or
     
o   TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from      to      .
Commission file number: 000-50865
MannKind Corporation
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
     
Delaware   13-3607736
(State or other jurisdiction of   (I.R.S. Employer
incorporation or organization)   Identification No.)
     
28903 North Avenue Paine    
Valencia, California   91355
(Address of principal executive offices)   (Zip Code)
(661) 775-5300
(
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes þ No o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
             
Large accelerated filer o   Accelerated filer þ   Non-accelerated filer o   Smaller reporting company o
        (Do not check if a smaller reporting company)    
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes o No þ
As of August 1, 2008, there were 101,598,408 shares of the registrant’s common stock, $.01 par value per share, outstanding.
 
 

 


 

MANNKIND CORPORATION
Form 10-Q
For the Quarterly Period Ended June 30, 2008
TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
EXHIBIT 31.1
EXHIBIT 31.2
EXHIBIT 32
 EXHIBIT 31.1
 EXHIBIT 31.2
 EXHIBIT 32

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PART 1: FINANCIAL INFORMATION
ITEM 1. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
MANNKIND CORPORATION
(A Development Stage Company)
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(Unaudited)
(In thousands except share data)
                 
    June 30, 2008     December 31, 2007  
ASSETS
               
Current assets:
               
Cash and cash equivalents
  $ 180,454     $ 368,285  
State research and development credit exchange
           831  
Prepaid expenses and other current assets
    7,253       9,596  
 
           
Total current assets
    187,707       378,712  
Property and equipment — net
    208,742       162,683  
State research and development credit exchange receivable — net of current portion
    2,250       1,500  
Other assets
     549        548  
 
           
Total
  $ 399,248     $ 543,443  
 
           
LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
               
Current liabilities:
               
Accounts payable
  $ 30,084     $ 35,463  
Accrued expenses and other current liabilities
    31,874       32,095  
 
           
Total current liabilities
    61,958       67,558  
Senior convertible notes
    112,004       111,761  
Other liabilities
          24  
 
           
Total liabilities
    173,962       179,343  
 
           
 
               
Commitments and contingencies
               
 
               
Stockholders’ equity:
               
Undesignated preferred stock, $0.01 par value —— 10,000,000 shares authorized; no shares issued or outstanding at June 30, 2008 and December 31, 2007
           
Common stock, $0.01 par value — 150,000,000 shares authorized; 101,594,745 and 101,380,823 shares issued and outstanding at June 30, 2008 and December 31, 2007, respectively
    1,016       1,014  
Additional paid-in capital
    1,456,556       1,444,125  
Deficit accumulated during the development stage
    (1,232,286 )     (1,081,039 )
 
           
Total stockholders’ equity
    225,286       364,100  
 
           
Total
  $ 399,248     $ 543,443  
 
           
See notes to condensed financial statements

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MANNKIND CORPORATION
(A Development Stage Company)
CONDENSED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS
(Unaudited)
(In thousands, except per share data)
                                         
                                    Cumulative period  
                                    from February 14,  
                                    1991 (date of  
    Three months ended     Six months ended     inception) to  
    June 30,     June 30,     June 30,  
    2008     2007     2008     2007     2008  
Revenue
  $     $     $ 20     $ 10     $ 2,988  
 
                             
Operating expenses:
                                       
Research and development
    67,574       61,480       126,019       125,268       873,059  
General and administrative
    13,290       13,913       28,930       27,463       219,429  
In-process research and development costs
                            19,726  
Goodwill impairment
                            151,428  
 
                             
Total operating expenses
    80,864       75,393       154,949       152,731       1,263,642  
 
                             
Loss from operations
    (80,864 )     (75,393 )     (154,929 )     (152,721 )     (1,260,654 )
Other income (expense)
    (60 )     44             96       (1,881 )
Interest expense on note payable to principal stockholder
                            (1,511 )
Interest expense on senior convertible notes
    (124 )     (901 )     (461 )     (2,046 )     (4,091 )
Interest income
    1,222       4,261       4,143       9,541       35,875  
 
                             
Loss before provision for income taxes
    (79,826 )     (71,989 )     (151,247 )     (145,130 )     (1,232,262 )
Income taxes
                            (24 )
 
                             
Net loss
    (79,826 )     (71,989 )     (151,247 )     (145,130 )     (1,232,286 )
Deemed dividend related to beneficial conversion feature of convertible preferred stock
                            (22,260 )
Accretion on redeemable preferred stock
                            (952 )
 
                             
Net loss applicable to common stockholders
  $ (79,826 )   $ (71,989 )   $ (151,247 )   $ (145,130 )   $ (1,255,498 )
 
                             
Net loss per share applicable to common stockholders — basic and diluted
  $ (0.79 )   $ (0.98 )   $ (1.49 )   $ (1.98 )        
 
                               
Shares used to compute basic and diluted net loss per share applicable to common stockholders
    101,427       73,421       101,418       73,405          
 
                               
See notes to condensed financial statements

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MANNKIND CORPORATION
(A Development Stage Company)
CONDENSED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
(Unaudited)
(In thousands)
                         
                    Cumulative  
                    Period from  
                    February 14,  
                    1991 (Date of  
    Six months ended     Inception) to  
    June 30,     June 30,  
    2008     2007     2008  
CASH FLOWS FROM OPERATING ACTIVITIES:
                       
Net loss
  $ (151,247 )   $ (145,130 )   $ (1,232,286 )
Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash used in operating activities:
                       
Depreciation and amortization
    3,804       4,165       51,931  
Stock-based compensation expense
    12,068       8,803       66,898  
Stock expense for shares issued pursuant to research agreement
                3,018  
Loss on sale and abandonment/disposal of property and equipment
     121             10,614  
Accrued interest on investments, net of amortization of premiums
                58  
In-process research and development
                19,726  
Discount on stockholder notes below market rate
                 241  
Non-cash compensation expense of officer resulting from stockholder contribution
                70  
Accrued interest expense on notes payable to stockholders
                1,538  
Non-cash interest expense
                3  
Accrued interest on notes receivable
                (747 )
Goodwill impairment
                151,428  
Loss on available-for-sale securities
                 229  
Changes in assets and liabilities:
                       
State research and development credit exchange receivable
    81       (750 )     (2,250 )
Prepaid expenses and other current assets
    2,343       (14 )     (5,653 )
Other assets
    (1 )     (184 )     (549 )
Accounts payable
    (5,982 )     (5,062 )     20,998  
Accrued expenses and other current liabilities
    (1,174 )     10,722       26,185  
Other liabilities
    (24 )           (2 )
 
                 
Net cash used in operating activities
    (140,011 )     (127,450 )     (888,550 )
 
                 
CASH FLOWS FROM INVESTING ACTIVITIES:
                       
Purchase of marketable securities
          (3,450 )     (726,950 )
Sales of marketable securities
          52,775       726,665  
Purchase of property and equipment
    (48,255 )     (26,120 )     (257,659 )
Proceeds from sale of property and equipment
    70             284  
 
                 
Net cash (used in) provided by investing activities
    (48,185 )     23,205       (257,660 )
 
                 
CASH FLOWS FROM FINANCING ACTIVITIES:
                       
Issuance of common stock and warrants
     424       1,178       1,140,070  
Collection of Series C convertible preferred stock subscriptions receivable
                50,000  
Issuance of Series B convertible preferred stock for cash
                15,000  
Cash received for common stock to be issued
                3,900  
Repurchase of common stock
                (1,028 )
Put shares sold to majority stockholder
                623  
Borrowings under lines of credit
                4,220  
Proceeds from notes receivable
                1,742  
Borrowings on notes payable from principal stockholder
                70,000  
Principal payments on notes payable to principal stockholder
                (70,000 )
Borrowings on notes payable
                3,460  
Principal payments on notes payable
                (1,667 )
Proceeds from senior convertible notes
                111,267  
Payment of employment taxes related to vested restricted stock units
    (59 )     (59 )     (923 )
 
                 
Net cash provided by financing activities
     365       1,119       1,326,664  
 
                 

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                    Cumulative  
                    Period from  
                    February 14,  
                    1991 (Date of  
    Six months ended     Inception) to  
    June 30,     June 30,  
    2008     2007     2008  
NET (DECREASE) INCREASE IN CASH AND CASH EQUIVALENTS
  $ (187,831 )   $ (103,126 )   $ 180,454  
CASH AND CASH EQUIVALENTS, BEGINNING OF PERIOD
    368,285       319,555        
 
                 
CASH AND CASH EQUIVALENTS, END OF PERIOD
  $ 180,454     $ 216,429     $ 180,454  
 
                 
SUPPLEMENTAL CASH FLOWS DISCLOSURES:
                       
 
Cash paid for income taxes
  $     $     $ 24  
Interest paid in cash
            2,192       6,043  
Accretion on redeemable convertible preferred stock
                (952 )
Issuance of common stock upon conversion of notes payable
                3,331  
Increase in additional paid-in capital resulting from merger
                171,154  
Issuance of common stock for notes receivable
                2,758  
Issuance of put option by stockholder
                (2,949 )
Put option redemption by stockholder
                1,921  
Issuance of Series C convertible preferred stock subscriptions
                50,000  
Issuance of Series A redeemable convertible preferred stock
                4,296  
Conversion of Series A redeemable convertible preferred stock
                (5,248 )
Noncash construction in progress
    14,775       7,792       14,775  
Noncash transfer from fixed assets to other current assets
                1,600  
In connection with the Company’s initial public offering, all shares of Series B and Series C convertible preferred stock, in the amount of $15.0 million and $50.0 million, respectively, automatically converted into common stock in August 2004.
See notes to condensed financial statements

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MANNKIND CORPORATION
(A Development Stage Company)
NOTES TO CONDENSED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(Unaudited)
1. Description of business and basis of presentation
The accompanying unaudited condensed financial statements of MannKind Corporation (the “Company”), have been prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States of America (“GAAP”) for interim financial information and with the instructions to Form 10-Q and Article 10 of Regulation S-X of the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”). Accordingly, they do not include all of the information and footnotes required by GAAP for complete financial statements. These statements should be read in conjunction with the financial statements and notes thereto included in the Company’s latest audited annual financial statements. The audited statements for the year ended December 31, 2007 are included in the Company’s annual report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2007 filed with the SEC on March 14, 2008 (the “Annual Report”).
In the opinion of management, all adjustments, consisting only of normal, recurring adjustments, considered necessary for a fair presentation of the results of these interim periods have been included. The results of operations for the six months ended June 30, 2008 may not be indicative of the results that may be expected for the full year.
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements, and the reported amounts of expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates or assumptions. The more significant estimates reflected in these condensed financial statements involve accrued expenses, the valuation of stock-based compensation and the determination of the provision for income taxes and corresponding deferred tax assets and liabilities and any valuation allowance recorded against net deferred tax assets.
Business — MannKind Corporation is a biopharmaceutical company focused on the discovery, development and commercialization of therapeutic products for diseases such as diabetes and cancer. The Company’s lead investigational product candidate, the Technosphere Insulin System, is currently in Phase 3 clinical trials in the United States, Europe and Latin America to study its safety and efficacy in the treatment of diabetes. The Technosphere Insulin System consists of the Company’s proprietary Technosphere particles onto which insulin molecules are loaded. These loaded particles are then aerosolized and inhaled deep into the lung using the Company’s MedTone inhaler.
Basis of Presentation — The Company is considered to be in the development stage as its primary activities since incorporation have been establishing its facilities, recruiting personnel, conducting research and development, business development, business and financial planning, and raising capital. Since its inception through June 30, 2008, the Company has reported accumulated net losses of $1.2 billion, which include a goodwill impairment charge of $151.4 million, and negative cash flow from operations of $888.6 million. It is costly to develop therapeutic products and conduct clinical trials for these products. Based upon the Company’s current expectations, management believes the Company’s existing capital resources, including the $350.0 million loan arrangement with our principal stockholder, will enable it to continue planned operations through the fourth quarter of 2009. However, the Company cannot provide assurances that its plans will not change or that changed circumstances will not result in the depletion of its capital resources more rapidly than it currently anticipates. Accordingly, the Company expects that it will need to raise additional capital, either through the sale of equity and/or debt securities, a strategic business collaboration with a pharmaceutical company or the establishment of other funding facilities, in order to continue the development and commercialization of its Technosphere Insulin System and other product candidates and to support its other ongoing activities.
Recently Issued Accounting Standards — In December 2007, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) ratified the Emerging Issues Task Force (“EITF”) consensus on EITF Issue No. 07-1, Accounting for Collaborative Arrangements, that discusses how parties to a collaborative arrangement (which does not establish a legal entity within such arrangement) should account for various activities. The consensus indicates that costs incurred and revenues generated from transactions with third parties (i.e. parties outside of the collaborative arrangement) should be reported by the collaborators on the respective line items in their income statements pursuant to EITF Issue No. 99-19, Reporting Revenue Gross as a Principal Versus Net as an Agent. Additionally, the consensus provides that income statement characterization of payments between the participants in a collaborative arrangement should be based upon existing authoritative pronouncements; analogy to such pronouncements if not within their scope; or a reasonable, rational, and consistently applied accounting policy election. EITF Issue No. 07-1 is effective beginning January 1, 2009 and is to be

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applied retrospectively to all periods presented for collaborative arrangements existing as of the date of adoption. The Company is evaluating the impact, if any, the adoption of this consensus will have on its results of operations, financial position or cash flows.
In December 2007, the FASB issued Statement of Financial Accounting Standard (“SFAS”) No. 141(R), “Business Combinations” and SFAS No. 160, “Accounting and Reporting of Noncontrolling Interests to Consolidated Financial Statements —— an amendment of ARB No. 51” (“SFAS No. 160”). These standards will significantly change the accounting and reporting for business combination transactions and noncontrolling (minority) interests in consolidated financial statements, including capitalizing at the acquisition date the fair value of acquired in-process research and development, and remeasuring and writing down the assets, if necessary, in subsequent periods during their development. These new standards will be applied prospectively for business combinations that occur on or after January 1, 2009, except that presentation and disclosure requirements of SFAS No. 160 regarding noncontrolling interests shall be applied retrospectively.
In September 2006, the FASB issued SFAS No. 157, Fair Value Measurements (“SFAS No. 157”), which defines fair value, establishes a framework for consistently measuring fair value for accounting purposes, and expands disclosures about fair value measurements. SFAS No. 157 is effective for the Company beginning January 1, 2008, and the provisions of SFAS No. 157 will be applied prospectively as of that date. In February 2008, FASB Staff Position (“FSP”) 157-2 was issued, which delays the effective date of SFAS No. 157 to fiscal years beginning after November 15, 2008 and interim periods with those fiscal years for all nonfinancial assets and liabilities, except those that are recognized or disclosed at fair value in the financial statements on a recurring basis (at least annually). The Company has already adopted this Statement except as it applies to nonfinancial assets and liabilities as noted in FSP 157-2. The partial adoption of SFAS No. 157 did not have a material impact on the Company’s results of operations, financial position or cash flows. The Company is evaluating the impact, if any, that the adoption of SFAS No. 157, as it relates to nonfinancial assets and liabilities, will have on its results of operations, financial position or cash flows.
2. Accrued expenses and other current liabilities
Accrued expenses and other current liabilities are comprised of the following (in thousands):
                 
    June 30,     December 31,  
    2008     2007  
Salary and related expenses
  $ 9,392     $ 11,989  
Research and clinical trial costs
    12,613       11,657  
Accrued interest
    192       192  
Construction in progress
    3,926       4,736  
Other
    5,751       3,521  
 
           
Accrued expenses and other current liabilities
  $ 31,874     $ 32,095  
 
           
3. Accounting for stock-based compensation
Total stock-based compensation expense recognized in the accompanying condensed statements of operations for the three and six months ended June 30, 2008 and 2007 was as follows (in thousands):
                                 
    Three months ended     Six months ended  
    June 30,     June 30,  
    2008     2007     2008     2007  
Stock-based compensation
  $ 6,634     $ 4,254     $ 12,068     $ 8,803  
 
                       
As of June 30, 2008, there were $18.9 million and $20.8 million of unrecognized compensation costs related to options and restricted stock units, respectively, which are expected to be recognized over the remaining weighted average vesting period of 2.4 years.
On May 22, 2008, the Company’s stockholders approved an amendment to the 2004 Equity Incentive Plan to increase the number of shares of common stock available for issuance under the plan by 5,000,000 shares.
On February 6, 2008, the Compensation Committee approved a management proposal designed to encourage employee retention. The proposal involved the issuance of restricted stock units to the majority of employees and executive officers of the Company. A total of 1,678,674 restricted stock units were granted under the 2004 Equity Incentive Plan. These units will remain unvested until June 30, 2009, at which point they will fully vest. Stock compensation expense associated with these grants will be recorded on a straight line basis from February 6, 2008 through June 30, 2009 and is estimated to total approximately $11.0 million.

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4. Net loss per common share
Basic net loss per share excludes dilution for potentially dilutive securities and is computed by dividing loss applicable to common stockholders by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the period. Diluted net loss per share reflects the potential dilution that could occur if securities or other contracts to issue common stock were exercised or converted into common stock. Potentially dilutive securities are excluded from the computation of diluted net loss per share for all of the periods presented in the accompanying condensed statements of operations because the reported net loss in each of these periods results in their inclusion being antidilutive. Antidilutive securities, which consist of outstanding stock options, unvested restricted stock units, unexercised warrants, and shares that could be issued upon conversion of the senior convertible notes, that are not included in the diluted net loss per share calculation consisted of an aggregate of 17,985,754 shares and 15,242,217 shares as of June 30, 2008 and 2007, respectively.
5. State research and development credit exchange receivable
The State of Connecticut provides certain companies with the opportunity to exchange certain research and development income tax credit carryforwards for cash in exchange for forgoing the carryforward of the research and development income tax credits. The program provides for an exchange of research and development income tax credits for cash equal to 65% of the value of corporation tax credit available for exchange. Estimated amounts receivable under the program are recorded as a reduction of research and development expenses. At June 30, 2008, the estimated amount receivable under the program was $2.3 million.
6. Property and equipment — net
Property and equipment — net consist of the following (dollar amounts in thousands):
                         
    Estimated              
    Useful              
    Life     June 30,     December 31,  
    (Years)     2008     2007  
Land
        $ 5,273     $ 5,273  
Buildings
    39-40       9,566       9,566  
Building improvements
    5-40       64,048       52,438  
Machinery and equipment
    3-10       35,279       30,172  
Furniture, fixtures and office equipment
    5-10       3,668       3,657  
Computer equipment and software
    3       8,039       7,559  
Leasehold improvements
            184       205  
Construction in progress
            121,733       89,657  
Deposits on equipment
            4,946       4,882  
 
                   
 
            252,736       203,409  
Less accumulated depreciation and amortization
            (43,994 )     (40,726 )
 
                   
Property and equipment — net
          $ 208,742     $ 162,683  
 
                   
Leasehold improvements are amortized over the shorter of the term of the lease or the service lives of the improvements.
Depreciation expense related to property and equipment for the three and six months ended June 30, 2008 and 2007 was as follows (in thousands):
                                 
    Three months ended     Six months ended  
    June 30,     June 30,  
    2008     2007     2008     2007  
Depreciation expense
  $ 1,807     $ 1,878     $ 3,561     $ 3,909  
 
                       
Capitalized interest added to property and equipment during the three and six months ended June 30, 2008 and 2007 was as follows (in thousands):
                                 
    Three months ended     Six months ended  
    June 30,     June 30,  
    2008     2007     2008     2007  
Capitalized Interest
  $ 1,076     $ 294     $ 1,937     $ 368  
 
                       

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7. Warrants
In connection with the sale of common stock in the private placement which closed in August 2005, the Company concurrently issued warrants to purchase up to 3,426,000 shares of common stock at an exercise price of $12.228 per share. These warrants became exercisable in February 2006 and expire in August 2010. During the six months ended June 30, 2008, no warrants were exercised. As of June 30, 2008, warrants to purchase 2,882,873 shares of common stock remained outstanding.
8. Commitments and contingencies
Supply Commitments — As of June 30, 2008, the Company had a binding annual commitment for insulin purchases aggregating approximately $116.0 million. These purchases are expected to be delivered from 2009 through 2012.
Guarantees and Indemnifications — In the ordinary course of its business, the Company makes certain indemnities, commitments and guarantees under which it may be required to make payments in relation to certain transactions. The Company, as permitted under Delaware law and in accordance with its Bylaws, indemnifies its officers and directors for certain events or occurrences, subject to certain limits, while the officer or director is or was serving at the Company’s request in such capacity. The term of the indemnification period is for the officer’s or director’s lifetime. The maximum amount of potential future indemnification is unlimited; however, the Company has a director and officer insurance policy that may enable it to recover a portion of any future amounts paid. The Company believes the fair value of these indemnification agreements is minimal. The Company has not recorded any liability for these indemnities in the accompanying condensed balance sheets. However, the Company accrues for losses for any known contingent liability, including those that may arise from indemnification provisions, when future payment is probable and the amount can be reasonably estimated. No such losses have been recorded to date.
Litigation — The Company is involved in various legal proceedings and other matters. In accordance with SFAS No. 5, Accounting for Contingencies, the Company would record a provision for a liability when it is both probable that a liability has been incurred and the amount of the loss can be reasonably estimated.
9. Related-Party Loan Arrangement
On August 2, 2006, the Company entered into a $150.0 million loan arrangement with its principal stockholder, which was amended on August 1, 2007 and replaced with a new loan arrangement on October 2, 2007. Under the new arrangement, the Company can borrow up to a total of $350.0 million before January 1, 2010. From April 1, 2008 until September 30, 2008, the Company can borrow up to $150.0 million in one or more advances, and from March 1, 2009 until December 31, 2009, the Company can borrow the remaining $200.0 million plus any amount not previously borrowed in one or more advances. The Company may not borrow more than one advance in any 12-month period, and each advance must be not less than $50.0 million. Interest will accrue on each outstanding advance at a fixed rate equal to the one-year LIBOR rate as reported by the Wall Street Journal on the date of such advance plus 3% per annum and will be payable quarterly in arrears. Principal repayment is due on December 31, 2011. At any time after January 1, 2010, the principal stockholder can require the Company to prepay up to $200.0 million in advances that have been outstanding for at least 12 months. If the principal stockholder exercises this right, the Company will have until the earlier of 180 days after the principal stockholder provides written notice or December 31, 2011 to prepay such advances. In the event of a default, all unpaid principal and interest either becomes immediately due and payable or may be accelerated at the principal stockholder’s option, and the interest rate will increase to the one-year LIBOR rate calculated on the date of the initial advance or in effect on the date of default, whichever is greater, plus 5% per annum. Any borrowings under the loan arrangement will be unsecured. The loan arrangement contains no financial covenants. There are no warrants associated with the loan arrangement, nor are advances convertible into the Company’s common stock.
Under the previous loan arrangement, the Company borrowed $50.0 million on August 2, 2006 and $20.0 million on November 27, 2006. On December 12, 2006, the Company paid off the total borrowings of $70.0 million following the completion of concurrent offerings of convertible notes and common stock. As of June 30, 2008 and December 31, 2007, there was no balance outstanding or accrued interest related to the $350.0 million loan arrangement.
10. Senior convertible notes
On December 12, 2006, the Company completed an offering of $115.0 million aggregate principal amount of 3.75% Senior Convertible Notes due 2013 (the “Notes”), including $15.0 million aggregate principal amount of the Notes sold pursuant to the underwriters’ over-allotment option that was exercised in full. The Notes are governed by the terms of an indenture dated as of

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November 1, 2006 and a First Supplemental Indenture, dated as of December 12, 2006. The Notes bear interest at the rate of 3.75% per year on the principal amount of the Notes, payable in cash semi-annually in arrears on June 15 and December 15 of each year, beginning June 15, 2007. As of June 30, 2008 and December 31, 2007, the Company had accrued interest of $0.2 million and $0.2 million, respectively, related to the Notes. The Notes are general, unsecured, senior obligations of the Company and effectively rank junior in right of payment to all of the Company’s secured debt, to the extent of the value of the assets securing such debt, and to the debt and all other liabilities of the Company’s subsidiaries. The maturity date of the Notes is December 15, 2013 and payment is due in full on that date for unconverted securities. Holders may convert, at any time prior to the close of business on the business day immediately preceding the stated maturity date, any outstanding Notes into shares of the Company’s common stock at an initial conversion rate of 44.5002 shares per $1,000 principal amount of Notes, which is equal to a conversion price of approximately $22.47 per share, subject to adjustment. Except in certain circumstances, if the Company undergoes a fundamental change: (1) the Company will pay a make-whole premium on the Notes converted in connection with a fundamental change by increasing the conversion rate on such Notes, which amount, if any, will be based on the Company’s common stock price and the effective date of the fundamental change, and (2) each holder of the Notes will have the option to require the Company to repurchase all or any portion of such holder’s Notes at a repurchase price of 100% of the principal amount of the Notes to be repurchased plus accrued and unpaid interest, if any. The Company incurred approximately $3.7 million in issuance costs which are recorded as an offset to the Notes in the accompanying condensed consolidated balance sheets. These costs and are being amortized to interest expense using the effective interest method over the term of the Notes.
Amortization of debt issuance expense during the three and six months ended June 30, 2008 and 2007 was as follows (in thousands):
                                 
    Three months ended     Six months ended  
    June 30,     June 30,  
    2008     2007     2008     2007  
Amortization of debt issuance expense
  $ 122     $ 117     $ 243     $ 256  
 
                       
11. Income taxes
As discussed in Note 16 to the financial statements in the Company’s Annual Report, management of the Company has concluded, in accordance with applicable accounting standards, that it is more likely than not that the Company may not realize the benefit of its deferred tax assets. Accordingly, net deferred tax assets have been fully reserved.
In July 2006, the FASB issued FASB Interpretation No. 48, Accounting for Uncertainty in Income Taxes—an interpretation of FASB Statement No. 109 (“FIN 48”), which clarifies the accounting and disclosure for uncertainty in tax positions, as defined. FIN 48 seeks to reduce the diversity in practice associated with certain aspects of the recognition and measurement related to accounting for income taxes. The Company is subject to the provisions of FIN 48 as of January 1, 2007. The Company believes that its income tax filing positions and deductions will be sustained on audit and does not anticipate any adjustments that will result in a material change to its financial position. Therefore, no reserves for uncertain income tax positions have been recorded pursuant to FIN 48. The cumulative effect, if any, of applying FIN 48 is to be reported as an adjustment to the opening balance of retained earnings in the year of adoption. The Company did not record a cumulative effect adjustment related to the adoption of FIN 48. Tax years since 1992 remain subject to examination by the major tax jurisdictions in which the Company is subject to tax.
12. Subsequent event
On July 9, 2008, the Company announced an Offer to Exchange Outstanding Options to Purchase Common Stock (the “Offer”) under which the Company offered eligible employees the opportunity to exchange certain of their out-of-the money stock options, on a grant by grant basis, for a reduced number of restricted stock units. Eligible options consisted of outstanding stock options under the 2004 Equity Incentive Plan that had an exercise price equal to or greater than $7.00 per share. Eligible employees included all persons employed by the Company as of the Offer date and excluded members of the Board of Directors who were not Company employees. Options to purchase approximately 5.4 million shares of our common stock were eligible for exchange pursuant to the Offer.
The Offer permitted eligible options that were subject to time-based vesting to be exchanged for restricted stock units that vest according to the following vesting schedule: 50% on August 1, 2009, 25% on February 1, 2010, and 25% on August 1, 2010. The Offer permitted eligible options that were subject to performance-based vesting to be exchanged for restricted stock units that vest in three installments as follows: 20% upon the acceptance by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (“FDA”) of a filing of a New Drug Application (“NDA”) for Technosphere Insulin, 30% upon approval from the FDA to market Technosphere Insulin and 50% upon the first commercial sale of Technosphere Insulin.

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Under the Offer, the ratio of shares of our common stock underlying eligible options to be exchanged for restricted stock units was established at 2:1. This Offer expired on August 6, 2008. Pursuant to the Offer, the Company accepted for exchange options to purchase an aggregate of 4,493,509 shares of the Company’s common stock from 322 eligible participants, representing 83% of the shares subject to options that were eligible to be exchanged in the Offer. Upon the terms and subject to the conditions set forth in the Offer, the Company will issue restricted stock units covering an aggregate of 2,246,781 shares of the Company’s common stock in exchange for the options surrendered pursuant to the Offer.
For the newly issued restricted stock units, both the remaining unamortized stock compensation expense related to the exchanged options and the incremental stock compensation expense resulting from the exchange will be amortized over the vesting periods of the newly issued restricted stock units. The extent of incremental stock compensation expense will be dependent upon the fair values of the options exchanged as compared to the Company’s closing stock price of $4.23 on August 6, 2008.
ITEM 2. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
The following discussion contains forward-looking statements, which involve risks and uncertainties. Our actual results could differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of various factors, including those set forth below in Part II, Item 1A Risk Factors and elsewhere in this quarterly report on Form 10-Q (this “Quarterly Report”). These interim condensed financial statements and this Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations should be read in conjunction with the financial statements and notes for the year ended December 31, 2007 and the related Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, both of which are contained in the Annual Report. Readers are cautioned not to place undue reliance on forward-looking statements. The forward-looking statements speak only as of the date on which they are made, and we undertake no obligation to update such statements to reflect events that occur or circumstances that exist after the date on which they are made.
OVERVIEW
MannKind Corporation is a biopharmaceutical company focused on the discovery, development and commercialization of therapeutic products for diseases such as diabetes and cancer. Our lead investigational product candidate, the Technosphere Insulin System, is currently in Phase 3 clinical trials in the United States, Europe and Latin America to study its safety and efficacy in the treatment of diabetes. This dry powder therapy consists of our proprietary Technosphere particles onto which insulin molecules are loaded. These loaded particles are then aerosolized and inhaled into the deep lung using our proprietary MedTone inhaler. We believe that the performance characteristics, unique kinetics, convenience and ease of use of the Technosphere Insulin System may have the potential to change the way diabetes is treated. Currently, we are conducting clinical trials to evaluate the safety and efficacy of another Technosphere-based product for the treatment of diabetes and are developing additional formulations of active compounds loaded onto Technosphere particles. We are also developing therapies for the treatment of different types of cancer. Our other product candidates are at the research stage or in pre-clinical development.
We are a development stage enterprise and have incurred significant losses since our inception in 1991. As of June 30, 2008, we have incurred a cumulative net loss of $1.2 billion. To date, we have not generated any product revenues and have funded our operations primarily through the sale of equity securities.
We do not expect to record sales of any product prior to regulatory approval and commercialization of our Technosphere Insulin System. We currently do not have the required approvals to market any of our product candidates, and we may not receive such approvals. We may not be profitable even if we succeed in commercializing any of our product candidates. We expect to make substantial and increasing expenditures and to incur additional operating losses for at least the next several years as we:
    continue the clinical development of our Technosphere Insulin System for the treatment of diabetes;
 
    expand our manufacturing operations for our Technosphere Insulin System to meet our currently anticipated commercial production needs;
 
    expand our other research, discovery and development programs;

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    expand our proprietary Technosphere platform technology and develop additional applications for the pulmonary delivery of other drugs; and
 
    enter into sales and marketing collaborations with other companies, if available on commercially reasonable terms, or develop these capabilities ourselves.
Our business is subject to significant risks, including but not limited to the risks inherent in our ongoing clinical trials and the regulatory approval process, the results of our research and development efforts, competition from other products and technologies and uncertainties associated with obtaining and enforcing patent rights.
BUSINESS UPDATE
On July 14, 2008, we held a routine meeting with the FDA to discuss the status of pre-clinical programs, clinical trials, and manufacturing capability as well as the materials that will be submitted as part of the NDA for our Technosphere Insulin System. The FDA responded to our questions and provided guidance for our remaining development efforts. None of the guidance that we received from the FDA at this pre-NDA meeting departed significantly from our existing development plans, leading us to believe that we remain on schedule to submit an NDA for the Technosphere Insulin System by early 2009 or sooner.
RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT EXPENSES
Our research and development expenses consist mainly of costs associated with the clinical trials of our product candidates which have not yet received regulatory approval for marketing and for which no alternative future use has been identified. This includes the salaries, benefits and stock-based compensation of research and development personnel, laboratory supplies and materials, facility costs, costs for consultants and related contract research, licensing fees, and depreciation of laboratory equipment. We track research and development costs by the type of cost incurred. We partially offset research and development expenses with the recognition of estimated amounts receivable or accrued from the State of Connecticut pursuant to a program under which we can exchange qualified research and development income tax credits for cash. Otherwise, we expense research and development costs as we incur them.
Our research and development staff conducts our internal research and development activities, which include research, product development, clinical development, manufacturing and related activities. This staff is located in our facilities in Valencia, California; Paramus, New Jersey; and Danbury, Connecticut.
Clinical development timelines, likelihood of success and total costs vary widely. We are focused primarily on advancing the Technosphere Insulin System through Phase 3 clinical trials and regulatory filings. Based on the results of preclinical studies, we are developing additional applications of our Technosphere technology. Additionally, we anticipate that we will continue to determine which research and development projects to pursue, and how much funding to direct to each project, on an ongoing basis, in response to the scientific and clinical success of each product candidate. We cannot be certain when any revenues from the commercialization of our products will begin.
At this time, due to the risks inherent in the clinical trial process and given the early stage of development of our product candidates other than the Technosphere Insulin System, we are unable to estimate with any certainty the costs we will incur in the continued development of our product candidates for commercialization. The costs required to complete the development of our Technosphere Insulin System will be largely dependent on the scope of our clinical trials, the cost and efficiency of our manufacturing process and discussions with the FDA on its requirements.
GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE EXPENSES
Our general and administrative expenses consist primarily of salaries, benefits and stock-based compensation for administrative, finance, business development, human resources, legal and information systems support personnel. In addition, general and administrative expenses include professional service fees and business insurance costs.
CRITICAL ACCOUNTING POLICIES
There have been no material changes to our critical accounting policies as described in Item 7 of our Annual Report.
RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

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Three and six months ended June 30, 2008 and 2007
Revenues
During the six months ended June 30, 2008 and 2007, we recognized $20,000 and $10,000, respectively, in revenue under a license agreement. We did not recognize any revenue in the three months ended June 30, 2008 and 2007. We do not anticipate sales of any product prior to regulatory approval and commercialization of our Technosphere Insulin System.
Research and Development Expenses
The following table provides a comparison of the research and development expense categories for the three and six months ended June 30, 2008 and 2007 (in thousands):
                                 
    Three months ended              
    June 30,              
    2008     2007     $ Change     % Change  
Clinical
  $ 33,874     $ 32,027     $ 1,847       6 %
Manufacturing
    20,875       18,448       2,427       13 %
Research
    9,745       9,096       649       7 %
Research and development tax credit
    (611 )     (375 )     (236 )     63 %
Stock-based compensation expense
    3,691       2,284       1,407       62 %
 
                       
Research and development expenses
  $ 67,574     $ 61,480     $ 6,094       10 %
 
                       
                                 
    Six months ended              
    June 30,              
    2008     2007     $ Change     % Change  
Clinical
  $ 61,164     $ 64,028     $ (2,864 )     (4 )%
Manufacturing
    41,685       40,062       1,623       4 %
Research
    17,372       17,446       (74 )     0 %
Research and development tax credit
    (1,096 )     (750 )     (346 )     46 %
Stock-based compensation expense
    6,894       4,482       2,412       54 %
 
                       
Research and development expenses
  $ 126,019     $ 125,268     $ 751       1 %
 
                       
The increase in research and development expenses for the three months ended June 30, 2008 as compared to the same period in the prior year was primarily due to increases in manufacturing costs, clinical trial costs, and stock-based compensation expense.
The increase in research and development expenses for the six months ended June 30, 2008 as compared to the same period in the prior year was primarily due to increases in stock-based compensation expense and manufacturing costs, partially offset by lower clinical trial costs.
We anticipate that our research and development expenses will increase slightly in 2008 as we complete our pivotal Technosphere Insulin trials, continue preparation for commercial scale manufacturing of Technosphere Insulin, expand our Technosphere platform technology, and continue to pursue cancer therapies. Specifically, we anticipate increased expenses related to the expansion, qualification and validation of our commercial manufacturing processes and facilities.
General and Administrative Expenses
The following table provides a comparison of the general and administrative expense categories for the three and six months ended June 30, 2008 and 2007 (in thousands):

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    Three months ended              
    June 30,              
    2008     2007     $ Change     % Change  
Salaries, employee related and other general expenses
  $ 10,347     $ 11,943     $ (1,596 )     (13 )%
Stock-based compensation expense
    2,943       1,970        973       49 %
 
                       
General and administrative expenses
  $ 13,290     $ 13,913     $ (623 )     (4 )%
 
                       
                                 
    Six months ended              
    June 30,              
    2008     2007     $ Change     % Change  
Salaries, employee related and other general expenses
  $ 23,757     $ 23,142     $ 615       3 %
Stock-based compensation expense
    5,173       4,321        852       20 %
 
                       
General and administrative expenses
  $ 28,930     $ 27,463     $ 1,467       5 %
 
                       
The decrease in general and administrative expenses for the three months ended June 30, 2008 as compared to the same period in the prior year was primarily due to lower professional service fees, partially offset by increases in stock-based compensation expense and salary related expenses.
The increase in general and administrative expenses for the six months ended June 30, 2008 as compared to the same period in the prior year was primarily due to increases in salary related expenses and stock-based compensation expense, partially offset by lower professional service fees.
We expect general and administrative expenses to increase in 2008 as a result of increased salary and stock-based compensation related expenses and professional service fees.
Interest Income and Expense
Interest income for the three and six months ended June 30, 2008 decreased $3.0 million and $5.4 million, respectively, as compared to the same periods in the prior year primarily due to lower market interest rates and a lower investment balance.
Interest expense for the three and six months ended June 30, 2008 decreased $0.8 million and $1.6 million, respectively, as compared to the same periods in the prior year primarily due to an increase in capitalized interest related to the Danbury, Connecticut plant expansion.
LIQUIDITY AND CAPITAL RESOURCES
We have funded our operations primarily through the sale of equity securities, including convertible debt securities. In October 2007, we issued and sold a total of 27,014,686 shares of our common stock. Of this total, 15,940,489 shares were sold to our principal stockholder at a price per share of $9.41 and 11,074,197 shares were sold to other investors at a price per share of $9.03. The resulting aggregate net proceeds were approximately $249.8 million after expenses. In December 2006, we issued and sold 23,000,000 shares of our common stock at a price of $17.42 per share in an underwritten public offering. The resulting aggregate net proceeds to us from this common stock offering were approximately $384.7 million after expenses. In December 2006, we also sold $115.0 million aggregate principal amount of 3.75% Senior Convertible Notes due 2013. The resulting aggregate net proceeds to us from this note offering were approximately $111.3 million after expenses.
In August 2006, we entered into a $150.0 million loan arrangement with our principal stockholder, which was amended on August 1, 2007 and replaced with a new loan arrangement on October 2, 2007. Under the new loan arrangement, we can borrow up to a total of $350.0 million before January 1, 2010. From April 1, 2008 until September 30, 2008, we can borrow up to $150.0 million in one or more advances, and from March 1, 2009 until December 31, 2009, we can borrow the remaining $200.0 million plus any amount not previously borrowed in one or more advances. We may not borrow more than one advance in any 12-month period, and each advance must be not less than $50.0 million. Interest will accrue on each outstanding advance at a fixed rate equal to the one-year LIBOR rate as reported by the Wall Street Journal on the date of such advance plus 3% per annum and will be payable quarterly in arrears. Principal repayment is due on December 31, 2011. At any time after January 1, 2010, our principal stockholder can require us to prepay up to $200.0 million in advances that have been outstanding for at least 12 months. If our principal stockholder exercises this right, we will have until the earlier of 180 days after our principal stockholder provides written notice or December 31, 2011 to prepay such advances. In the event of a default, all unpaid principal and interest either becomes immediately due and payable or may be accelerated at our principal stockholder’s option, and the interest rate will increase to the one-year LIBOR rate calculated on the date of the initial advance or in effect on the date of default, whichever is greater, plus 5% per annum. Any borrowings under the loan

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arrangement will be unsecured. The loan arrangement contains no financial covenants. There are no warrants associated with the loan arrangement, nor are advances convertible into our common stock.
During the six months ended June 30, 2008, we used $140.0 million of cash for our operations compared to using $127.5 million for our operations in the six months ended June 30, 2007. We had a net loss of $151.2 million for the six months ended June 30, 2008, of which $15.9 million consisted of non-cash charges such as depreciation and amortization, and stock-based compensation. We expect our negative operating cash flow to continue at least until we obtain regulatory approval and achieve commercialization of our Technosphere Insulin System.
We spent $48.2 million of cash for investing activities during the six months ended June 30, 2008, compared to generating $23.2 million for the six months ended June 30, 2007. For the six months ended June 30, 2008, $48.3 million was used to purchase machinery and equipment to expand our manufacturing operations and our quality systems that support clinical trials for Technosphere Insulin System. We expect to make significant purchases of equipment in the foreseeable future.
Our financing activities provided $0.4 million of cash for the six months ended June 30, 2008 compared to generating $1.1 million for the same period in 2007. Cash from financing activities in the first six months of 2008 and 2007, respectively, was primarily from purchases under the Company’s 2004 Employee Stock Purchase Plan and the exercise of stock options, respectively.
As of June 30, 2008, we had $180.5 million in cash and cash equivalents. Although we believe our existing cash resources, including the $350.0 million loan arrangement with our principal stockholder, will be sufficient to fund our anticipated cash requirements through the fourth quarter of 2009, we will require significant additional financing in the future to fund our operations. Accordingly, we expect that we will need to raise additional capital, either through the sale of equity and/or debt securities, a strategic business collaboration with a pharmaceutical or biotechnology company or the establishment of other funding facilities, in order to continue the development and commercialization of our Technosphere Insulin System and other product candidates and to support our other ongoing activities.
We intend to use our capital resources to continue the development of our Technosphere Insulin System and to develop additional applications for our proprietary Technosphere platform technology. In addition, portions of our capital resources will be devoted to expanding our other product development programs for the treatment of different types of cancers. We are expending a portion of our capital to scale up our manufacturing capabilities in our Danbury facilities. We also intend to use our capital resources for general corporate purposes, which may include in-licensing or acquiring additional technologies.
We have held extensive discussions with a number of pharmaceutical companies concerning a potential strategic business collaboration for our Technosphere Insulin System. To date, we have not reached agreement with any of these companies on a collaboration. On April 10, 2008, we announced our decision to suspend partnership discussions as we believed that, given the existing market conditions, we would be unable to achieve an appropriate valuation for Technosphere Insulin until Phase 3 data are available that confirm our belief in the superior safety and efficacy profile of Technosphere Insulin. If and when we re-engage in such discussions, we believe that we will have to expend significant additional time and effort before we could reach agreement, and we cannot predict when, if ever, we could conclude such an agreement with a partner. There can be no assurance that any such collaboration will be available to us on a timely basis or on acceptable terms, if at all. If we are not able to enter into a collaboration on terms that are favorable to us, we may be unable to undertake and fund product development, clinical trials, manufacturing and marketing activities at our own expense. Accordingly, we may have to substantially reduce our development efforts, which would delay or otherwise impede the commercialization of our Technosphere Insulin System.
If we enter into a strategic business collaboration with a pharmaceutical or biotechnology company, we would expect, as part of the transaction, to receive additional capital. In addition, we expect to pursue the sale of equity and/or debt securities, or the establishment of other funding facilities. Issuances of debt or additional equity could impact the rights of our existing stockholders, dilute the ownership percentages of our existing stockholders and may impose restrictions on our operations. These restrictions could include limitations on additional borrowing, specific restrictions on the use of our assets as well as prohibitions on our ability to create liens, pay dividends, redeem our stock or make investments. We also may seek to raise additional capital by pursuing opportunities for the licensing, sale or divestiture of certain intellectual property and other assets, including our Technosphere technology platform. There can be no assurance, however, that any strategic collaboration, sale of securities or sale or license of assets will be available to us on a timely basis or on acceptable terms, if at all. If we are unable to raise additional capital, we may be required to enter into agreements with third parties to develop or commercialize products or technologies that we otherwise would have sought to develop independently, and any such agreements may not be on terms as commercially favorable to us.

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However, we cannot provide assurances that our plans will not change or that changed circumstances will not result in the depletion of our capital resources more rapidly than we currently anticipate. If planned operating results are not achieved or we are not successful in raising additional equity financing or entering a business collaboration, we may be required to reduce expenses through the delay, reduction or curtailment of our projects, including our Technosphere Insulin System development activities, or further reduction of costs for facilities and administration.
Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements
The Company does not engage in any off-balance sheet arrangements and none existed as of June 30, 2008.
Contractual Obligations
There have been no material changes to our contractual obligations disclosed in Item 7 of our Annual Report.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
In December 2007, the FASB ratified the EITF consensus on EITF Issue No. 07-1, Accounting for Collaborative Arrangements, that discusses how parties to a collaborative arrangement (which does not establish a legal entity within such arrangement) should account for various activities. The consensus indicates that costs incurred and revenues generated from transactions with third parties (i.e. parties outside of the collaborative arrangement) should be reported by the collaborators on the respective line items in their income statements pursuant to EITF Issue No. 99-19, Reporting Revenue Gross as a Principal Versus Net as an Agent. Additionally, the consensus provides that income statement characterization of payments between the participants in a collaborative arrangement should be based upon existing authoritative pronouncements; analogy to such pronouncements if not within their scope; or a reasonable, rational, and consistently applied accounting policy election. EITF Issue No. 07-1 is effective beginning January 1, 2009 and is to be applied retrospectively to all periods presented for collaborative arrangements existing as of the date of adoption. We are evaluating the impact, if any, the adoption of this consensus will have on our results of operations, financial position or cash flows.
In December 2007, the FASB issued SFAS No. 141(R), “Business Combinations” and SFAS No. 160, “Accounting and Reporting of Noncontrolling Interests to Consolidated Financial Statements —— an amendment of ARB No. 51” (“SFAS No. 160”). These standards will significantly change the accounting and reporting for business combination transactions and noncontrolling (minority) interests in consolidated financial statements, including capitalizing at the acquisition date the fair value of acquired IPR&D, and remeasuring and writing down the assets, if necessary, in subsequent periods during their development. These new standards will be applied prospectively for business combinations that occur on or after January 1, 2009, except that presentation and disclosure requirements of SFAS No. 160 regarding noncontrolling interests shall be applied retrospectively.
In September 2006, the FASB issued SFAS No. 157, Fair Value Measurements (“SFAS No. 157”), which defines fair value, establishes a framework for consistently measuring fair value for accounting purposes, and expands disclosures about fair value measurements. SFAS No. 157 is effective for us beginning January 1, 2008, and the provisions of SFAS No. 157 will be applied prospectively as of that date. In February 2008, FASB Staff Position (“FSP”) 157-2 was issued, which delays the effective date of SFAS No. 157 to fiscal years beginning after November 15, 2008 and interim periods with those fiscal years for all nonfinancial assets and liabilities, except those that are recognized or disclosed at fair value in the financial statements on a recurring basis (at least annually). We have already adopted this Statement except as it applies to nonfinancial assets and liabilities as noted in FSP 157-2. The partial adoption of SFAS No. 157 did not have a material impact on its results of operations, financial position or cash flows. We are evaluating the impact, if any, that the adoption of SFAS No. 157, as it relates to nonfinancial assets and liabilities, will have on our results of operations, financial position or cash flows.
ITEM 3. QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK
We have not used derivative financial instruments in the past to hedge market risk. We are exposed to market risk related to changes in interest rates impacting our cash investment portfolio as well as the interest rate on our credit facility. The interest rate on our credit facility is a fixed rate equal to the one-year LIBOR rate as reported by the Wall Street Journal on the date of such advance plus 3% per annum. If we were to draw the available amount on our $350.0 million credit facility and interest rates were to increase from levels at June 30, 2008, we could experience a higher level of interest expense than assumed in our current operating plan.
Our current policy requires us to maintain a highly liquid short-term investment portfolio consisting mainly of U.S. money market funds and investment-grade corporate, government and municipal debt. None of these investments is entered into for trading purposes.

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Our cash is deposited in and invested through highly rated financial institutions in North America. Other than cash and cash equivalents, we do not have any short-term investments at June 30, 2008. If market interest rates were to increase immediately and uniformly by ten percent from levels at June 30, 2008, we estimate that the fair value of our investment portfolio would decline by an immaterial amount.
ITEM 4. CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES
Conclusion Regarding the Effectiveness of Disclosure Controls and Procedures
We maintain disclosure controls and procedures that are designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed in our reports filed under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Securities Exchange Act”), is recorded, processed, summarized and reported within the time periods specified in the SEC’s rules and forms and that such information is accumulated and communicated to our management, including our chief executive officer and chief financial officer, as appropriate, to allow for timely decisions regarding required disclosure. In designing and evaluating the disclosure controls and procedures, management recognizes that any controls and procedures, no matter how well designed and operated, can provide only reasonable assurance of achieving the desired control objectives, and management is required to apply its judgment in evaluating the cost-benefit relationship of possible controls and procedures.
Our chief executive officer and chief financial officer performed an evaluation under the supervision and with the participation of our management, of our disclosure controls and procedures (as defined in Rule 13a-15(b) of the Securities Exchange Act) as of June 30, 2008. Based on that evaluation, our chief executive officer and chief financial officer concluded that our disclosure controls and procedures were effective at the reasonable assurance level.
There has been no change in our internal control over financial reporting during the fiscal quarter ended June 30, 2008 that has materially affected, or is reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting.
PART II. OTHER INFORMATION
ITEM 1. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
None.
Item 1A. Risk Factors
You should consider carefully the following information about the risks described below, together with the other information contained in this Quarterly Report, before you decide to buy or maintain an investment in our common stock. We believe the risks described below are the risks that are material to us as of the date of this Quarterly Report. Additional risks and uncertainties that we are unaware of may also become important factors that affect us. The risk factors set forth below with an asterisk (*) next to the title contain changes to the description of the risk factors previously disclosed in Item 1A to the Annual Report. If any of the following risks actually occur, our business, financial condition, results of operations and future growth prospects would likely be materially and adversely affected. In these circumstances, the market price of our common stock could decline, and you may lose all or part of the money you paid to buy our common stock.
RISKS RELATED TO OUR BUSINESS
We have a history of operating losses, we expect to continue to incur losses and we may never become profitable.*
We are a development stage company with no commercial products. All of our product candidates are still being developed, and all but our Technosphere Insulin System are still in early stages of development. Our product candidates will require significant additional development, clinical trials, regulatory clearances and additional investment before they can be commercialized. We anticipate that our Technosphere Insulin System will not be commercially available for at least two years, if at all.
We have never been profitable and, as of June 30, 2008, we had an accumulated deficit of $1.2 billion. The accumulated deficit has resulted principally from costs incurred in our research and development programs, the write-off of goodwill and general operating expenses. We expect to make substantial expenditures and to incur increasing operating losses in the future in order to further develop and commercialize our product candidates, including costs and expenses to complete clinical trials, seek regulatory approvals and

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market our product candidates. This accumulated deficit may increase significantly as we expand development and clinical trial efforts.
Our losses have had, and are expected to continue to have, an adverse impact on our working capital, total assets and stockholders’ equity. Our ability to achieve and sustain profitability depends upon obtaining regulatory approvals for and successfully commercializing our Technosphere Insulin System, either alone or with third parties. We do not currently have the required approvals to market any of our product candidates, and we may not receive them. We may not be profitable even if we succeed in commercializing any of our product candidates. As a result, we cannot be sure when we will become profitable, if at all.
If we fail to raise additional capital, our financial condition and business would suffer.*
It is costly to develop therapeutic product candidates and conduct clinical trials for these product candidates. Although we are currently focusing on our Technosphere Insulin System as our lead product candidate, we have begun to conduct clinical trials for additional product candidates. Our existing capital resources will not be sufficient to support the expense of completing development of our Technosphere Insulin System or any of our other product candidates.
Based upon our current expectations, we believe that our existing capital resources, including the loan arrangement with our principal stockholder, will enable us to continue planned operations through the fourth quarter of 2009. However, we cannot assure you that our plans will not change or that changed circumstances will not result in the depletion of our capital resources more rapidly than we currently anticipate. Accordingly, we plan to raise additional capital, either through the sale of equity and/or debt securities, a strategic business collaboration or the establishment of other funding facilities, in order to continue the development and commercialization of our Technosphere Insulin System and other product candidates and to support our other ongoing activities. The amount of additional funds we need will depend on a number of factors, including:
    the rate of progress and costs of our clinical trials and research and development activities, including costs of procuring clinical materials and expanding our own manufacturing facilities;
 
    our success in establishing strategic business collaborations and the timing and amount of any payments we might receive from any collaboration we are able to establish;
 
    actions taken by the FDA and other regulatory authorities affecting our products and competitive products;
 
    our degree of success in commercializing our Technosphere Insulin System or our other product candidates;
 
    the emergence of competing technologies and products and other adverse market developments;
 
    the timing and amount of payments we might receive from potential licensees;
 
    the costs of preparing, filing, prosecuting, maintaining and enforcing patent claims and other intellectual property rights or defending against claims of infringement by others;
 
    the costs of discontinuing projects and technologies or decommissioning existing facilities, if we undertake those activities; and
 
    the costs of performing additional clinical studies to demonstrate safety and efficacy if our current studies do not deliver results sufficient for FDA approval and commercialization.
We have raised capital in the past primarily through the sale of equity securities and most currently through the sale of equity and debt securities. We may in the future pursue the sale of additional equity and/or debt securities, or the establishment of other funding facilities. Issuances of additional debt or equity securities or the conversion of any of our currently outstanding convertible debt securities into shares of our common stock could impact your rights as a holder of our common stock and may dilute your ownership percentage. Moreover, the establishment of other funding facilities may impose restrictions on our operations. These restrictions could include limitations on additional borrowing and specific restrictions on the use of our assets, as well as prohibitions on our ability to create liens, pay dividends, redeem our stock or make investments.

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We also may seek to raise additional capital by pursuing opportunities for the licensing or sale of certain intellectual property and other assets, including our Technosphere technology platform. We cannot offer assurances, however, that any strategic collaborations, sales of securities or sales or licenses of assets will be available to us on a timely basis or on acceptable terms, if at all. We may be required to enter into relationships with third parties to develop or commercialize products or technologies that we otherwise would have sought to develop independently, and any such relationships may not be on terms as commercially favorable to us as might otherwise be the case.
In the event that sufficient additional funds are not obtained through strategic collaboration opportunities, sales of securities, licensing arrangements and/or asset sales on a timely basis, we may be required to reduce expenses through the delay, reduction or curtailment of our projects, including our Technosphere Insulin System development activities, or further reduction of costs for facilities and administration.
We depend heavily on the successful development and commercialization of our lead product candidate, the Technosphere Insulin System, which is in clinical development, and our other product candidates, which are in early clinical or preclinical development.
To date, we have not completed the development of any product candidates through to commercialization. Our Technosphere Insulin System is currently undergoing clinical trials, while our other product candidates are generally in early clinical or preclinical development. We anticipate that in the near term, our ability to generate revenues will depend solely on the successful development and commercialization of our Technosphere Insulin System.
We have expended significant time, money and effort in the development of our lead product candidate, the Technosphere Insulin System, which has not yet received regulatory approval and which may never be commercialized. Before we can market and sell our Technosphere Insulin System, we will need to complete Phase 3 clinical trials and demonstrate in these trials that our Technosphere Insulin System is safe and effective. Our current development plans call for the completion of our pivotal Phase 3 clinical trials of our Technosphere Insulin System in the third quarter of 2008. We must also receive the necessary approvals from the FDA and similar foreign regulatory agencies before this product candidate can be marketed in the United States or elsewhere. Even if we were to receive regulatory approval, we ultimately may be unable to gain market acceptance of our Technosphere Insulin System for a variety of reasons, including the treatment and dosage regimen, potential adverse effects, the availability of alternative treatments and cost effectiveness. If we fail to commercialize our Technosphere Insulin System, our business, financial condition and results of operations will be materially and adversely affected.
We are seeking to develop and expand our portfolio of product candidates through our internal research programs and through licensing or otherwise acquiring the rights to therapeutics in the areas of cancer and other indications. All of these product candidates will require additional research and development and significant preclinical, clinical and other testing prior to seeking regulatory approval to market them. Accordingly, these product candidates will not be commercially available for a number of years, if at all.
A significant portion of the research that we are conducting involves new and unproven compounds and technologies, including our Technosphere Insulin System, Technosphere platform technology and immunotherapy product candidates. Research programs to identify new product candidates require substantial technical, financial and human resources. Even if our research programs identify candidates that initially show promise, these candidates may fail to progress to clinical development for any number of reasons, including discovery upon further research that these candidates have adverse effects or other characteristics that indicate they are unlikely to be effective. In addition, the clinical results we obtain at one stage are not necessarily indicative of future testing results. If we fail to successfully complete the development and commercialization of our Technosphere Insulin System or develop or expand our other product candidates, or are significantly delayed in doing so, our business and results of operations will be harmed and the value of our stock could decline.
If we do not achieve our projected development goals in the timeframes we announce and expect, our business would be harmed and the market price of our common stock could decline.
For planning purposes, we estimate the timing of the accomplishment of various scientific, clinical, regulatory and other product development goals, which we sometimes refer to as milestones. These milestones may include the commencement or completion of scientific studies and clinical trials and the submission of regulatory filings. From time to time, we publicly announce the expected timing of some of these milestones. All of these milestones are based on a variety of assumptions. The actual timing of the achievement of these milestones can vary dramatically compared to our estimates, in many cases for reasons beyond our control, depending on numerous factors, including:

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    the rate of progress, costs and results of our clinical trial and research and development activities, which will be impacted by the level of proficiency and experience of our clinical staff;
 
    our ability to identify and enroll patients who meet clinical trial eligibility criteria;
 
    our ability to access sufficient, reliable and affordable supplies of components used in the manufacture of our product candidates, including insulin and other materials for our Technosphere Insulin System;
 
    the costs of expanding and maintaining manufacturing operations, as necessary;
 
    the extent of scheduling conflicts with participating clinicians and clinical institutions;
 
    the receipt of approvals by our competitors and by us from the FDA and other regulatory agencies; and
 
    other actions by regulators.
In addition, if we do not obtain sufficient additional funds through sales of securities, strategic collaborations or the license or sale of certain of our assets on a timely basis, we may be required to reduce expenses by delaying, reducing or curtailing our Technosphere Insulin System or other product development activities, which would impact our ability to meet milestones. If we fail to commence or complete, or experience delays in or are forced to curtail, our proposed clinical programs or otherwise fail to adhere to our projected development goals in the timeframes we announce and expect, our business and results of operations will be harmed and the market price of our common stock may decline.
We face substantial competition in the development of our product candidates and may not be able to compete successfully, and our product candidates may be rendered obsolete by rapid technological change.*
We face intense competition in the development and commercialization of our Technosphere Insulin System. In January 2006, the FDA and the European Medicines Evaluation Agency approved Exubera®, developed by Pfizer, Inc. in collaboration with Nektar Therapeutics, for the treatment of adults with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Exubera® was slow to gain market acceptance and, in October 2007, Pfizer announced that it was returning rights to the product to Nektar. In April 2008, Pfizer issued a press release stating it updated the U.S. product labeling for Exubera® to include a warning with safety information about lung cancer. Subsequently, Nektar released a statement that it has stopped all spending and partnership talks for Exubera®.
In the first quarter of 2008, Novo Nordisk and Eli Lilly ceased development of their respective inhaled insulin programs. Lilly cited that their decision resulted from increasing uncertainties in the regulatory environment and after a thorough evaluation of the evolving commercial and clinical potential of its product compared to existing medical therapies. Novo Nordisk reached the conclusion that AERx®, their inhaled insulin candidate, did not have adequate commercial potential. Notwithstanding the termination of the AERx® program, Novo Nordisk stated that it intended to increase research and development activities targeted at inhalation systems for long-acting formulations of insulin and GLP-1.
A number of established pharmaceutical companies have or are developing technologies for the treatment of diabetes. We also face substantial competition for the development of our other product candidates.
Many of our existing or potential competitors have, or have access to, substantially greater financial, research and development, production, and sales and marketing resources than we do and have a greater depth and number of experienced managers. As a result, our competitors may be better equipped than we are to develop, manufacture, market and sell competing products. In addition, gaining favorable reimbursement is critical to the success of Technosphere Insulin. Many of our competitors have existing infrastructure and relationships with managed care organizations and reimbursement authorities which can be used to their advantage.
The rapid rate of scientific discoveries and technological changes could result in one or more of our product candidates becoming obsolete or noncompetitive. Our competitors may develop or introduce new products that render our technology and our Technosphere Insulin System less competitive, uneconomical or obsolete. Our future success will depend not only on our ability to develop our product candidates but to improve them and to keep pace with emerging industry developments. We cannot assure you that we will be able to do so.

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We also expect to face increasing competition from universities and other non-profit research organizations. These institutions carry out a significant amount of research and development in the areas of diabetes and cancer. These institutions are becoming increasingly aware of the commercial value of their findings and are more active in seeking patent and other proprietary rights as well as licensing revenues.
If we fail to enter into a strategic collaboration with respect to our Technosphere Insulin System, we may not be able to execute on our business model.*
We have held extensive discussions with a number of pharmaceutical companies concerning a potential strategic business collaboration for our Technosphere Insulin System. To date, we have not reached agreement with any of these companies on a collaboration. On April 10, 2008, we announced our decision to suspend partnership discussions as we believed that, given the existing market conditions, we would be unable to achieve an appropriate valuation for Technosphere Insulin until Phase 3 data are available that confirm our belief in the superior safety and efficacy profile of Technosphere Insulin. If and when we re-engage in such discussions, we believe that we will have to expend significant additional time and effort before we could reach agreement, and we cannot predict when, if ever, we could conclude such an agreement with a partner. There can be no assurance that any such collaboration will be available to us on a timely basis or on acceptable terms, if at all. If we are not able to enter into a collaboration on terms that are favorable to us, we may be unable to undertake and fund product development, clinical trials, manufacturing and marketing activities at our own expense. Accordingly, we may have to substantially reduce our development efforts, which would delay or otherwise impede the commercialization of our Technosphere Insulin System.
We will face similar challenges as we seek to develop our other product candidates. Our current strategy for developing, manufacturing and commercializing our other product candidates includes evaluating the potential for collaborating with pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies at some point in the drug development process and for these collaborators to undertake the advanced clinical development and commercialization of our product candidates. It may be difficult for us to find third parties that are willing to enter into collaborations on economic terms that are favorable to us, or at all. Failure to enter into a collaboration with respect to any other product candidate could substantially increase our requirements for capital and force us to substantially reduce our development effort.
If we enter into collaborative agreements with respect to our Technosphere Insulin System and if our third-party collaborators do not perform satisfactorily or if our collaborations fail, development or commercialization of our Technosphere Insulin System may be delayed and our business could be harmed.
We currently rely on clinical research organizations and hospitals to conduct, supervise or monitor some or all aspects of clinical trials involving our Technosphere Insulin System. Further, we may also enter into license agreements, partnerships or other collaborative arrangements to support the financing, development and marketing of our Technosphere Insulin System. We may also license technology from others to enhance or supplement our technologies. These various collaborators may enter into arrangements that would make them potential competitors. These various collaborators also may breach their agreements with us and delay our progress or fail to perform under their agreements, which could harm our business.
If we enter into collaborative arrangements, we will have less control over the timing, planning and other aspects of our clinical trials, and the sale and marketing of our Technosphere Insulin System and our other product candidates. We cannot offer assurances that we will be able to enter into satisfactory arrangements with third parties as contemplated or that any of our existing or future collaborations will be successful.
Testing of our Technosphere Insulin System or another product candidate may not yield successful results, and even if it does, we may still be unable to commercialize that product candidate.*
Our research and development programs are designed to test the safety and efficacy of our Technosphere Insulin System and our other product candidates through extensive nonclinical and clinical testing. We may experience numerous unforeseen events during, or as a result of, the testing process that could delay or prevent commercialization of our Technosphere Insulin System or any of our other product candidates, including the following:
    safety and efficacy results obtained in our nonclinical and initial clinical testing may be inconclusive or may not be predictive of results obtained in later-stage clinical trials or following long-term use, and we may as a result be forced to stop developing product candidates that we currently believe are important to our future;

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    the data collected from clinical trials of our product candidates may not be sufficient to support FDA or other regulatory approval;
 
    after reviewing test results, we or any potential collaborators may abandon projects that we previously believed were promising; and
 
    our product candidates may not produce the desired effects or may result in adverse health effects or other characteristics that preclude regulatory approval or limit their commercial use if approved.
We are nearing completion of a pivotal Phase 3 safety study of our Technosphere Insulin System to evaluate pulmonary function over a period of two years. Our Technosphere Insulin System is intended for multiple uses per day. Due to the size and timeframe over which existing and planned clinical trials are conducted, the results of clinical trials, including our existing Phase 3 trials, may not be indicative of the effects of the use of our Technosphere Insulin System over longer terms. If use of our Technosphere Insulin System results in adverse health effects or reduced efficacy or both, the FDA or other regulatory agencies may terminate our ability to market and sell our Technosphere Insulin System, may narrow the approved indications for use or otherwise require restrictive product labeling or marketing, or may require further clinical trials, which may be time-consuming and expensive and may not produce favorable results.
As a result of any of these events, we, any collaborator, the FDA, or any other regulatory authorities, may suspend or terminate clinical trials or marketing of our Technosphere Insulin System at any time. Any suspension or termination of our clinical trials or marketing activities may harm our business and results of operations and the market price of our common stock may decline.
If we are unable to transition successfully from an early-stage development company to a company that commercializes therapeutics, our operations would suffer.*
We are at a critical juncture in our development, having transitioned from an early-stage development company to one with multiple Phase 3 clinical trials. Phase 3 development of our Technosphere Insulin System is far more complex than the earlier phases. Moreover, as a company, we have no previous experience in the Phase 3-through-NDA stage of product development.
We require a well-structured plan to make this transition. We have a number of executive personnel, particularly in clinical development, regulatory and manufacturing production, including personnel with significant Phase 3-to-commercialization experience. We have aligned our management structure to accommodate the increasing complexity of our operations, and we have implemented the following measures, among others, to accommodate our transition, complete development of our Technosphere Insulin System and successfully implement our commercialization strategy for our Technosphere Insulin System:
    expand our manufacturing capabilities;
 
    develop comprehensive and detailed commercialization, clinical development and regulatory plans; and
 
    implement standard operating procedures, including those for protocol development.
If we are unable to accomplish these measures in a timely manner, we would be at considerable risk of failing to:
    develop manufacturing capabilities to be ready for FDA inspection and commercial operations; and
 
    develop the key clinical data needed to obtain regulatory approval and compete successfully in the marketplace.
If our suppliers fail to deliver materials and services needed for the production of our Technosphere Insulin System in a timely and sufficient manner, or they fail to comply with applicable regulations, our business and results of operations would be harmed and the market price of our common stock could decline.*
For our Technosphere Insulin System to be commercially viable, we need access to sufficient, reliable and affordable supplies of insulin, our MedTone inhaler, the related cartridges and other materials. In November 2007, we entered into a long-term supply agreement with N.V. Organon, which is currently our sole supplier for insulin. We are aware of several other suppliers of bulk insulin, but to date we have not entered into a commercial relationship with any of them. We have obtained our Technosphere pre-cursor raw material from Evonik Industries, a major chemical manufacturer with facilities in Europe and North America, and we are evaluating a second manufacturer to supply us with commercial quantities of this raw material. We also utilize our in-house chemical

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manufacturing plant as a back up facility. We believe both manufacturers have the capacity to supply our current clinical and future commercial requirements. We currently obtain our MedTone inhaler and cartridges from Vaupell, Inc., and have also qualified a second source for our cartridges. We must rely on our suppliers to comply with relevant regulatory and other legal requirements, including the production of insulin in accordance with cGMP and the production of MedTone inhaler and related cartridges in accordance with device QSR. The supply of all of these materials may be limited or the manufacturer may not meet relevant regulatory requirements, and if we are unable to obtain these materials in sufficient amounts, in a timely manner and at reasonable prices, or if we should encounter delays or difficulties in our relationships with manufacturers or suppliers, the development or manufacturing of our Technosphere Insulin System may be delayed. Any such events would delay the submission of our Technosphere Insulin System for regulatory approval or market introduction and subsequent sales and, if so, our business and results of operations will be harmed and the market price of our common stock may decline.
We have never manufactured our Technosphere Insulin System or any other product candidate in commercial quantities, and if we fail to develop an effective manufacturing capability for our product candidates or to engage third-party manufacturers with this capability, we may be unable to commercialize these products.*
We have obtained our Technosphere precursor raw material primarily from Evonik Industries and are evaluating a second manufacturer to supply us with commercial quantities. We use our Danbury, Connecticut facility to formulate Technosphere Insulin, fill plastic cartridges with Technosphere Insulin and blister package the cartridges for our clinical trials. We are presently increasing our formulation, fill and finishing capabilities at Danbury in order to accommodate our activities through initial commercialization. This expansion will involve a number of third-party suppliers of equipment and materials as well as engineering and construction services. Our suppliers may not deliver all of the required equipment, materials and services in a timely manner or at reasonable prices. If we encounter difficulties in our relationships with these suppliers, or if a supplier becomes unable to provide us with goods or services at the agreed-upon terms or schedule, our facilities expansion could be delayed or its costs increased.
We have never manufactured our Technosphere Insulin System or any other product candidate in commercial quantities. As our product candidates move through the regulatory process, we will need to either develop the capability of manufacturing on a commercial scale or engage third-party manufacturers with this capability, and we cannot offer assurances that we will be able to do either successfully. The manufacture of pharmaceutical products requires significant expertise and capital investment, including the development of advanced manufacturing techniques and process controls. Manufacturers of pharmaceutical products often encounter difficulties in production, especially in scaling up initial production. These problems include difficulties with production costs and yields, quality control and assurance and shortages of qualified personnel, as well as compliance with strictly enforced federal, state and foreign regulations. In addition, before we would be able to produce commercial quantities of Technosphere Insulin at our Danbury facility, it would have to undergo a pre-approval inspection by the FDA. The expansion process and preparation for the FDA’s pre-approval inspection for commercial production at the Danbury facility could take an additional six months or longer. If we use a third-party supplier to formulate Technosphere Insulin or produce raw material, the transition could also require significant start-up time to qualify and implement the manufacturing process. If we engage a third-party manufacturer, our third-party manufacturer may not perform as agreed or may terminate its agreement with us.
Additionally, if we manufacture commercial material at a different facility than the site of manufacture of clinical trial materials or if we manufacture commercial material on a significantly larger production scale than the production scale for clinical trial materials, we may be required by the FDA to establish that the results obtained from the clinical trials may reasonably be extrapolated to such commercial material.
Any of these factors could cause us to delay or suspend clinical trials, regulatory submissions, required approvals or commercialization of our product candidates, entail higher costs and result in our being unable to effectively commercialize our products. Furthermore, if we or a third-party manufacturer fail to deliver the required commercial quantities of any product on a timely basis, and at commercially reasonable prices and acceptable quality, and we were unable to promptly find one or more replacement manufacturers capable of production at a substantially equivalent cost, in substantially equivalent volume and quality on a timely basis, we would likely be unable to meet demand for such products and we would lose potential revenues.
We deal with hazardous materials and must comply with environmental laws and regulations, which can be expensive and restrict how we do business.
Our research and development work involves the controlled storage and use of hazardous materials, including chemical, radioactive and biological materials. In addition, our manufacturing operations involve the use of CBZ-lysine, which is stable and non-hazardous under normal storage conditions, but may form an explosive mixture under certain conditions. Our operations also produce hazardous

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waste products. We are subject to federal, state and local laws and regulations governing how we use, manufacture, store, handle and dispose of these materials. Moreover, the risk of accidental contamination or injury from hazardous materials cannot be completely eliminated, and in the event of an accident, we could be held liable for any damages that may result, and any liability could fall outside the coverage or exceed the limits of our insurance. Currently, our general liability policy provides coverage up to $1 million per occurrence and $2 million in the aggregate and is supplemented by an umbrella policy that provides a further $4 million of coverage; however, our insurance policy excludes pollution coverage and we do not carry a separate hazardous materials policy. In addition, we could be required to incur significant costs to comply with environmental laws and regulations in the future. Finally, current or future environmental laws and regulations may impair our research, development or production efforts.
When we purchased the facilities located in Danbury, Connecticut in 2001, there was a soil cleanup plan in process. As part of the purchase, we obtained an indemnification from the seller related to the remediation of the soil for all known environmental conditions that existed at the time the seller acquired the property. The seller is, in turn, indemnified for these known environmental conditions by the previous owner. We initiated the final stages of the soil cleanup plan which we estimate will cost approximately $1.5 million to complete by the end of the third quarter of 2008. We also received an indemnification from the seller for environmental conditions created during its ownership of the property and for environmental problems unknown at the time that the seller acquired the property. These additional indemnities are limited to the purchase price that we paid for the Danbury facilities. In the event that any cleanup costs are imposed on us and we are unable to collect the full amount of these costs and expenses from the seller or the party responsible for the contamination, we may be required to pay these costs and our business and results of operations may be harmed.
If we fail to enter into collaborations with third parties, we would be required to establish our own sales, marketing and distribution capabilities, which could impact the commercialization of our products and harm our business.*
A broad base of physicians, including primary care physicians and endocrinologists, treat patients with diabetes. A large sales force will be required in order to educate and support these physicians. Therefore, we plan to enter into collaborations with one or more pharmaceutical companies to market, distribute and sell our Technosphere Insulin System, if it is approved. If we fail to enter into collaborations, we would be required to establish our own direct sales, marketing and distribution capabilities. Establishing these capabilities can be time-consuming and expensive. Because we lack experience in selling pharmaceutical products to the diabetes market, we would be at a disadvantage compared to our potential competitors, all of whom have substantially more resources and experience than we do. For example, each of our competitors has an existing sales force in excess of 1,500 sales representatives. We, acting alone, would not initially be able to field a sales force as large as our competitors or provide the same degree of market research or marketing support. Also, we would not be able to match our competitor’s spending levels for pre-launch marketing preparation, including medical education.
In addition, our competitors would have a greater ability to devote research resources toward expansion of the indications for their products. We cannot assure you that we will succeed in entering into acceptable collaborations, that any such collaboration will be successful or, if not, that we will successfully develop our own sales, marketing and distribution capabilities.
If any product that we may develop does not become widely accepted by physicians, patients, third-party payers and the healthcare community, we may be unable to generate significant revenue, if any.
Technosphere Insulin System and our other product candidates are new and unproven. Even if any of our product candidates obtain regulatory approvals, it may not gain market acceptance among physicians, patients, third-party payers and the healthcare community. Failure to achieve market acceptance would limit our ability to generate revenue and would adversely affect our results of operations.
The degree of market acceptance of our Technosphere Insulin System and our other product candidates will depend on many factors, including the:
    claims for which FDA approval can be obtained, including superiority claims;
 
    perceived advantages and disadvantages of competitive products;
 
    willingness and ability of patients and the healthcare community to adopt new technologies;
 
    ability to manufacture the product in sufficient quantities with acceptable quality and at an acceptable cost;

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    perception of patients and the healthcare community, including third-party payers, regarding the safety, efficacy and benefits of the product compared to those of competing products or therapies;
 
    convenience and ease of administration of the product relative to existing treatment methods;
 
    pricing and reimbursement of the product relative to existing treatment therapeutics and methods; and
 
    marketing and distribution support for the product.
Physicians will not recommend a product until clinical data or other factors demonstrate the safety and efficacy of the product as compared to other treatments. Even if the clinical safety and efficacy of our product candidates is established, physicians may elect not to recommend these product candidates for a variety of factors, including the reimbursement policies of government and third-party payers and the effectiveness of our competitors in marketing their therapies. Because of these and other factors, any product that we may develop may not gain market acceptance, which would materially harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.
If third-party payers do not reimburse customers for our products, our products might not be used or purchased, which would adversely affect our revenues.
Our future revenues and potential for profitability may be affected by the continuing efforts of governments and third-party payers to contain or reduce the costs of healthcare through various means. For example, in certain foreign markets the pricing of prescription pharmaceuticals is subject to governmental control. In the United States, there has been, and we expect that there will continue to be, a number of federal and state proposals to implement similar governmental controls. We cannot be certain what legislative proposals will be adopted or what actions federal, state or private payers for healthcare goods and services may take in response to any healthcare reform proposals or legislation. Such reforms may make it difficult to complete the development and testing of our Technosphere Insulin System and our other product candidates, and therefore may limit our ability to generate revenues from sales of our product candidates and achieve profitability. Further, to the extent that such reforms have a material adverse effect on the business, financial condition and profitability of other companies that are prospective collaborators for some of our product candidates, our ability to commercialize our product candidates under development may be adversely affected.
In the United States and elsewhere, sales of prescription pharmaceuticals still depend in large part on the availability of reimbursement to the consumer from third-party payers, such as governmental and private insurance plans. Third-party payers are increasingly challenging the prices charged for medical products and services. In addition, because each third-party payer individually approves reimbursement, obtaining these approvals is a time-consuming and costly process. We would be required to provide scientific and clinical support for the use of any product to each third-party payer separately with no assurance that approval would be obtained. This process could delay the market acceptance of any product and could have a negative effect on our future revenues and operating results. Even if we succeed in bringing one or more products to market, we cannot be certain that any such products would be considered cost-effective or that reimbursement to the consumer would be available, in which case our business and results of operations would be harmed and the market price of our common stock could decline.
If product liability claims are brought against us, we may incur significant liabilities and suffer damage to our reputation.
The testing, manufacturing, marketing and sale of our Technosphere Insulin System and our other product candidates expose us to potential product liability claims. A product liability claim may result in substantial judgments as well as consume significant financial and management resources and result in adverse publicity, decreased demand for a product, injury to our reputation, withdrawal of clinical trial volunteers and loss of revenues. We currently carry worldwide liability insurance in the amount of $10 million. We believe these limits are reasonable to cover us from potential damages arising from current and previous clinical trials of our Technosphere Insulin System. In addition, we carry local policies per trial in each country in which we conduct clinical trials that require us to carry coverage based on local statutory requirements. We intend to obtain product liability coverage for commercial sales in the future if our Technosphere Insulin System is approved. However, we may not be able to obtain insurance coverage that will be adequate to satisfy any liability that may arise, and because insurance coverage in our industry can be very expensive and difficult to obtain, we cannot assure you that we will be able to obtain sufficient coverage at an acceptable cost, if at all. If losses from such claims exceed our liability insurance coverage, we may ourselves incur substantial liabilities. If we are required to pay a product liability claim, we may not have sufficient financial resources to complete development or commercialization of any of our product candidates and, if so, our business and results of operations would be harmed and the market price of our common stock may decline.

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If we lose any key employees or scientific advisors, our operations and our ability to execute our business strategy could be materially harmed.
In order to commercialize our product candidates successfully, we will be required to expand our work force, particularly in the areas of manufacturing, clinical trials management, regulatory affairs, business development, and sales and marketing. These activities will require the addition of new personnel, including management, and the development of additional expertise by existing personnel. We face intense competition for qualified employees among companies in the biotechnology and biopharmaceutical industries. Our success depends upon our ability to attract, retain and motivate highly skilled employees. We may be unable to attract and retain these individuals on acceptable terms, if at all.
The loss of the services of any principal member of our management and scientific staff could significantly delay or prevent the achievement of our scientific and business objectives. All of our employees are “at will” and we currently do not have employment agreements with any of the principal members of our management or scientific staff, and we do not have key person life insurance to cover the loss of any of these individuals. Replacing key employees may be difficult and time-consuming because of the limited number of individuals in our industry with the skills and experience required to develop, gain regulatory approval of and commercialize our product candidates successfully.
We have relationships with scientific advisors at academic and other institutions to conduct research or assist us in formulating our research, development or clinical strategy. These scientific advisors are not our employees and may have commitments to, and other obligations with, other entities that may limit their availability to us. We have limited control over the activities of these scientific advisors and can generally expect these individuals to devote only limited time to our activities. Failure of any of these persons to devote sufficient time and resources to our programs could harm our business. In addition, these advisors are not prohibited from, and may have arrangements with, other companies to assist those companies in developing technologies that may compete with our product candidates.
If our Chief Executive Officer is unable to devote sufficient time and attention to our business, our operations and our ability to execute our business strategy could be materially harmed.
Alfred Mann, our Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, is also serving as the Chairman of Advanced Bionics Corporation. Mr. Mann is involved in many other business and charitable activities. As a result, the time and attention Mr. Mann devotes to the operation of our business varies, and he may not expend the same time or focus on our activities as other, similarly situated chief executive officers. If Mr. Mann is unable to devote the time and attention necessary to running our business, we may not be able to execute our business strategy and our business could be materially harmed.
Our facilities that are located in Southern California may be affected by man-made or natural disasters.
Our headquarters and some of our research and development activities are located in Southern California, where they are subject to a risk of man-made disasters, terrorism, and an enhanced risk of natural and other disasters such as fires, power and telecommunications failures, mudslides, and earthquakes. An act of terrorism, fire, earthquake or other catastrophic loss that causes significant damage to our facilities or interruption of our business could harm our business. We do not carry insurance to cover losses caused by earthquakes, and the insurance coverage that we carry for fire damage and for business interruption may be insufficient to compensate us for any losses that we may incur.
If our internal controls over financial reporting are not considered effective, our business and stock price could be adversely affected.*
Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 requires us to evaluate the effectiveness of our internal controls over financial reporting as of the end of each fiscal year, and to include a management report assessing the effectiveness of our internal controls over financial reporting in our annual report on Form 10-K for that fiscal year. Section 404 also requires our independent registered public accounting firm to attest to, and report on, our internal controls over financial reporting.
Our management, including our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer, does not expect that our internal controls over financial reporting will prevent all errors and all fraud. A control system, no matter how well designed and operated, can provide only reasonable, not absolute, assurance that the control system’s objectives will be met. Further, the design of a control system must reflect the fact that there are resource constraints, and the benefits of controls must be considered relative to their costs. Because of the inherent limitations in all control systems, no evaluation of controls can provide absolute assurance that all control issues and

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instances of fraud involving a company have been, or will be, detected. The design of any system of controls is based in part on certain assumptions about the likelihood of future events, and we cannot assure you that any design will succeed in achieving its stated goals under all potential future conditions. Over time, controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions or deterioration in the degree of compliance with policies or procedures. Because of the inherent limitations in a cost-effective control system, misstatements due to error or fraud may occur and not be detected. We cannot assure you that we or our independent registered public accounting firm will not identify a material weakness in our internal controls in the future. A material weakness in our internal controls over financial reporting would require management and our independent registered public accounting firm to evaluate our internal controls as ineffective. If our internal controls over financial reporting are not considered effective, we may experience a loss of public confidence, which could have an adverse effect on our business and on the market price of our common stock.
RISKS RELATED TO REGULATORY APPROVALS
Our product candidates must undergo rigorous nonclinical and clinical testing and we must obtain regulatory approvals, which could be costly and time-consuming and subject us to unanticipated delays or prevent us from marketing any products.*
Our research and development activities, as well as the manufacturing and marketing of our product candidates, including our Technosphere Insulin System, are subject to regulation, including regulation for safety, efficacy and quality, by the FDA in the United States and comparable authorities in other countries. FDA regulations and the regulation of comparable foreign regulatory authorities are wide-ranging and govern, among other things:
    product design, development, manufacture and testing;
 
    product labeling;
 
    product storage and shipping;
 
    pre-market clearance or approval;
 
    advertising and promotion; and
 
    product sales and distribution.
Clinical testing can be costly and take many years, and the outcome is uncertain and susceptible to varying interpretations. Based on our discussions with the FDA at a recent pre-NDA meeting we expect that we will need to conduct a study prior to submitting our NDA that assesses the bioequivalency of the inhaler used in our clinical trials to date with the modified version of the same inhaler that we intend to use for commercial purposes. Although the FDA did not request any other trials prior to NDA submission, after receiving our data the agency could ask for additional studies. We cannot be certain when such studies might be requested, under what conditions such studies might be requested, or what the size or length of any such studies might be. The clinical trials of our product candidates may not be completed on schedule, the FDA or foreign regulatory agencies may order us to stop or modify our research, or these agencies may not ultimately approve any of our product candidates for commercial sale. The data collected from our clinical trials may not be sufficient to support regulatory approval of our various product candidates, including our Technosphere Insulin System. Two of our three pivotal trials (studies 009 and 030) are being conducted under Special Protocol Assessments and the third (study 102) is very similar to study 009. Nonetheless, even if we believe the data collected from our clinical trials are sufficient, the FDA has substantial discretion in the approval process and may disagree with our interpretation of the data. For example, even if we meet the statistical criteria for non-inferiority with respect to the primary endpoint in a pivotal clinical study (study 102) of our Technosphere Insulin System, the FDA may deem the results uninterpretable because of issues related to the open-label, non-inferiority design of the study. Our failure to adequately demonstrate the safety and efficacy of any of our product candidates would delay or prevent regulatory approval of our product candidates, which could prevent us from achieving profitability.
The requirements governing the conduct of clinical trials and manufacturing and marketing of our product candidates, including our Technosphere Insulin System, outside the United States vary widely from country to country. Foreign approvals may take longer to obtain than FDA approvals and can require, among other things, additional testing and different clinical trial designs. Foreign regulatory approval processes include all of the risks associated with the FDA approval processes. Some of those agencies also must approve prices of the products. Approval of a product by the FDA does not ensure approval of the same product by the health authorities of other countries. In addition, changes in regulatory policy in the United States or in foreign countries for product approval

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during the period of product development and regulatory agency review of each submitted new application may cause delays or rejections.
The process of obtaining FDA and other required regulatory approvals, including foreign approvals, is expensive, often takes many years and can vary substantially based upon the type, complexity and novelty of the products involved. We are not aware of any precedent for the successful commercialization of products based on our technology. On January 26, 2006, the FDA approved the first pulmonary insulin product, Exubera. This approval has had an impact on and, notwithstanding the voluntary withdrawal of the product from the market by its manufacturer, could still impact the development and registration of our Technosphere Insulin System in different ways, including: Exubera may be used as a reference for safety and efficacy evaluations of our Technosphere Insulin System, and the approval standards set for Exubera may be applied to other products that follow including our Technosphere Insulin System. The FDA has advised us that it will regulate our Technosphere Insulin System as a “combination product” because of the complex nature of the system that includes the combination of a new drug (Technosphere Insulin) and a new medical device (the MedTone inhaler used to administer the insulin). The FDA indicated that the review of a future drug marketing application for our Technosphere Insulin System will involve three separate review groups of the FDA: (1) the Metabolic and Endocrine Drug Products Division; (2) the Pulmonary Drug Products Division; and (3) the Center for Devices and Radiological Health within the FDA that reviews medical devices. We currently understand that the Metabolic and Endocrine Drug Products Division will be the lead group and will obtain consulting reviews from the other two FDA groups. The FDA has not made an official final decision in this regard, however, and we can make no assurances at this time about what impact FDA review by multiple groups will have on the review and approval of our product or whether we are correct in our understanding of how our Technosphere Insulin System will be reviewed and approved.
Also, questions that have been raised about the safety of marketed drugs generally, including pertaining to the lack of adequate labeling, may result in increased cautiousness by the FDA in reviewing new drugs based on safety, efficacy, or other regulatory considerations and may result in significant delays in obtaining regulatory approvals. Such regulatory considerations may also result in the imposition of more restrictive drug labeling or marketing requirements as conditions of approval, which may significantly affect the marketability of our drug products. FDA review of our Technosphere Insulin System as a combination product therapy may lengthen the product development and regulatory approval process, increase our development costs and delay or prevent the commercialization of our Technosphere Insulin System.
We are developing our Technosphere Insulin System as a new treatment for diabetes utilizing unique, proprietary components. As a combination product, any changes to either the MedTone inhaler, the Technosphere material or the insulin, including new suppliers, could possibly result in FDA requirements to repeat certain clinical studies. This means, for example, that switching to an alternate delivery system could require us to undertake additional clinical trials and other studies, which could significantly delay the development and commercialization of our Technosphere Insulin System. Our product candidates that are currently in development for the treatment of cancer also face similar obstacles and costs.
We currently expect that our inhaler will be reviewed for approval as part of the NDA for our Technosphere Insulin System. No assurances exist that we will not be required to obtain separate device clearances or approval for use of our inhaler with our Technosphere Insulin System. This may result in our being subject to medical device review user fees and to other device requirements to market our inhaler and may result in significant delays in commercialization. Even if the device component is approved as part of our NDA for our Technosphere Insulin System, numerous device regulatory requirements still apply to the device part of the drug-device combination.
We have only limited experience in filing and pursuing applications necessary to gain regulatory approvals, which may impede our ability to obtain timely approvals from the FDA or foreign regulatory agencies, if at all.
We will not be able to commercialize our Technosphere Insulin System or any other product candidates until we have obtained regulatory approval. We have no experience as a company in late-stage regulatory filings, such as preparing and submitting NDAs, which may place us at risk of delays, overspending and human resources inefficiencies. Any delay in obtaining, or inability to obtain, regulatory approval could harm our business.
If we do not comply with regulatory requirements at any stage, whether before or after marketing approval is obtained, we may be subject to criminal prosecution, fined or forced to remove a product from the market or experience other adverse consequences, including restrictions or delays in obtaining regulatory marketing approval.
Even if we comply with regulatory requirements, we may not be able to obtain the labeling claims necessary or desirable for product promotion. We may also be required to undertake post-marketing trials. In addition, if we or other parties identify adverse effects after

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any of our products are on the market, or if manufacturing problems occur, regulatory approval may be withdrawn and a reformulation of our products, additional clinical trials, changes in labeling of, or indications of use for, our products and/or additional marketing applications may be required. If we encounter any of the foregoing problems, our business and results of operations will be harmed and the market price of our common stock may decline.
Even if we obtain regulatory approval for our product candidates, such approval may be limited and we will be subject to stringent, ongoing government regulation.
Even if regulatory authorities approve any of our product candidates, they could approve less than the full scope of uses or labeling that we seek or otherwise require special warnings or other restrictions on use or marketing or could require potentially costly post-marketing follow-up clinical trials. Regulatory authorities may limit the segments of the diabetes population to which we or others may market our Technosphere Insulin System or limit the target population for our other product candidates. Based on currently available clinical studies, we believe that our Technosphere Insulin System may have certain advantages over currently approved insulin products including its approximation of the natural early insulin secretion normally seen in healthy individuals following the beginning of a meal. Nonetheless, there are no assurances that these and other advantages, if any, of our Technosphere Insulin System have clinical significance or can be confirmed in head-to-head clinical trials against appropriate approved comparator insulin drug products. Such comparative clinical trials are required to make these types of superiority claims in labeling or advertising. These aforementioned observations and others may therefore not be capable of substantiation in comparative clinical trials prior to our NDA submission, if at all, or otherwise may not be suitable for inclusion in product labeling or advertising and, as a result, our Technosphere Insulin System may not have competitive advantages when compared to other insulin products.
The manufacture, marketing and sale of these product candidates will be subject to stringent and ongoing government regulation. The FDA may also withdraw product approvals if problems concerning safety or efficacy of the product occur following approval. In response to questions that have been raised about the safety of certain approved prescription products, including the lack of adequate warnings, the FDA and United States Congress are currently considering new regulatory and legislative approaches to advertising, monitoring and assessing the safety of marketed drugs, including legislation providing the FDA with authority to mandate labeling changes for approved pharmaceutical products, particularly those related to safety. We also cannot be sure that the current FDA and United States Congressional initiatives pertaining to ensuring the safety of marketed drugs or other developments pertaining to the pharmaceutical industry will not adversely affect our operations.
We also are required to register our establishments and list our products with the FDA and certain state agencies. We and any third-party manufacturers or suppliers must continually adhere to federal regulations setting forth requirements, known as cGMP (for drugs) and QSR (for medical devices), and their foreign equivalents, which are enforced by the FDA and other national regulatory bodies through their facilities inspection programs. If our facilities, or the facilities of our manufacturers or suppliers, cannot pass a preapproval plant inspection, the FDA will not approve the marketing of our product candidates. In complying with cGMP and foreign regulatory requirements, we and any of our potential third-party manufacturers or suppliers will be obligated to expend time, money and effort in production, record-keeping and quality control to ensure that our products meet applicable specifications and other requirements. QSR requirements also impose extensive testing, control and documentation requirements. State regulatory agencies and the regulatory agencies of other countries have similar requirements. In addition, we will be required to comply with regulatory requirements of the FDA, state regulatory agencies and the regulatory agencies of other countries concerning the reporting of adverse events and device malfunctions, corrections and removals (e.g., recalls), promotion and advertising and general prohibitions against the manufacture and distribution of adulterated and misbranded devices. Failure to comply with these regulatory requirements could result in civil fines, product seizures, injunctions and/or criminal prosecution of responsible individuals and us. Any such actions would have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.
Our insulin supplier does not yet supply human recombinant insulin for an FDA-approved product and will likely be subject to an FDA preapproval inspection before the agency will approve a future marketing application for our Technosphere Insulin System.
Our insulin supplier sells its product outside of the United States. However, we can make no assurances that our insulin supplier will be acceptable to the FDA. If we were required to find a new or additional supplier of insulin, we would be required to evaluate the new supplier’s ability to provide insulin that meets our specifications and quality requirements, which would require significant time and expense and could delay the manufacturing and future commercialization of our Technosphere Insulin System. We also depend on suppliers for other materials that comprise our Technosphere Insulin System, including our MedTone inhaler and cartridges. All of our device suppliers must comply with relevant regulatory requirements including QSR. It also is likely that major suppliers will be subject to FDA preapproval inspections before the agency will approve a future marketing application for our Technosphere Insulin

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System. At the present time our insulin supplier is certified to the ISO9001:2000 Standard. There can be no assurance, however, that if the FDA were to conduct a preapproval inspection of our insulin supplier or other suppliers, that the agency would find that the supplier substantially comply with the QSR or cGMP requirements, where applicable. If we or any potential third-party manufacturer or supplier fails to comply with these requirements or comparable requirements in foreign countries, regulatory authorities may subject us to regulatory action, including criminal prosecutions, fines and suspension of the manufacture of our products.
Reports of side effects or safety concerns in related technology fields or in other companies’ clinical trials could delay or prevent us from obtaining regulatory approval or negatively impact public perception of our product candidates.
At present, there are a number of clinical trials being conducted by us and other pharmaceutical companies involving insulin delivery systems. If we discover that our lead product candidate is associated with a significantly increased frequency of adverse events, or if other pharmaceutical companies announce that they observed frequent adverse events in their trials involving the pulmonary delivery of insulin, we could encounter delays in the timing of our clinical trials or difficulties in obtaining the approval of our Technosphere Insulin System. As well, the public perception of our lead product candidates might be adversely affected, which could harm our business and results of operations and cause the market price of our common stock to decline, even if the concern relates to another company’s products or product candidates.
There are also a number of clinical trials being conducted by other pharmaceutical companies involving compounds similar to, or competitive with, our other product candidates. Adverse results reported by these other companies in their clinical trials could delay or prevent us from obtaining regulatory approval or negatively impact public perception of our product candidates, which could harm our business and results of operations and cause the market price of our common stock to decline.
RISKS RELATED TO INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY
If we are unable to protect our proprietary rights, we may not be able to compete effectively, or operate profitably.
Our commercial success depends, in large part, on our ability to obtain and maintain intellectual property protection for our technology. Our ability to do so will depend on, among other things, complex legal and factual questions, and it should be noted that the standards regarding intellectual property rights in our fields are still evolving. We attempt to protect our proprietary technology through a combination of patents, trade secrets and confidentiality agreements. We own a number of domestic and international patents, have a number of domestic and international patent applications pending and have licenses to additional patents. We cannot assure you that our patents and licenses will successfully preclude others from using our technologies, and we could incur substantial costs in seeking enforcement of our proprietary rights against infringement. Even if issued, the patents may not give us an advantage over competitors with similar alternative technologies.
Moreover, the issuance of a patent is not conclusive as to its validity or enforceability and it is uncertain how much protection, if any, will be afforded by our patents. A third party may challenge the validity or enforceability of a patent after its issuance by various proceedings such as oppositions in foreign jurisdictions or re-examinations in the United States. If we attempt to enforce our patents, they may be challenged in court where they could be held invalid, unenforceable, or have their breadth narrowed to an extent that would destroy their value.
We also rely on unpatented technology, trade secrets, know-how and confidentiality agreements. We require our officers, employees, consultants and advisors to execute proprietary information and invention and assignment agreements upon commencement of their relationships with us. We also execute confidentiality agreements with outside collaborators. There can be no assurance, however, that these agreements will provide meaningful protection for our inventions, trade secrets, know-how or other proprietary information in the event of unauthorized use or disclosure of such information. If any trade secret, know-how or other technology not protected by a patent were to be disclosed to or independently developed by a competitor, our business, results of operations and financial condition could be adversely affected.
If we become involved in lawsuits to protect or enforce our patents or the patents of our collaborators or licensors, we would be required to devote substantial time and resources to prosecute or defend such proceedings.
Competitors may infringe our patents or the patents of our collaborators or licensors. To counter infringement or unauthorized use, we may be required to file infringement claims, which can be expensive and time-consuming. In addition, in an infringement proceeding, a court may decide that a patent of ours is not valid or is unenforceable, or may refuse to stop the other party from using the technology at issue on the grounds that our patents do not cover its technology. A court may also decide to award us a royalty from an

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infringing party instead of issuing an injunction against the infringing activity. An adverse determination of any litigation or defense proceedings could put one or more of our patents at risk of being invalidated or interpreted narrowly and could put our patent applications at risk of not issuing.
Interference proceedings brought by the USPTO may be necessary to determine the priority of inventions with respect to our patent applications or those of our collaborators or licensors. Litigation or interference proceedings may fail and, even if successful, may result in substantial costs and be a distraction to our management. We may not be able, alone or with our collaborators and licensors, to prevent misappropriation of our proprietary rights, particularly in countries where the laws may not protect such rights as fully as in the United States. We may not prevail in any litigation or interference proceeding in which we are involved. Even if we do prevail, these proceedings can be very expensive and distract our management.
Furthermore, because of the substantial amount of discovery required in connection with intellectual property litigation, there is a risk that some of our confidential information could be compromised by disclosure during this type of litigation. In addition, during the course of this kind of litigation, there could be public announcements of the results of hearings, motions or other interim proceedings or developments. If securities analysts or investors perceive these results to be negative, the market price of our common stock may decline.
If our technologies conflict with the proprietary rights of others, we may incur substantial costs as a result of litigation or other proceedings and we could face substantial monetary damages and be precluded from commercializing our products, which would materially harm our business.*
Over the past three decades the number of patents issued to biotechnology companies has expanded dramatically. As a result it is not always clear to industry participants, including us, which patents cover the multitude of biotechnology product types. Ultimately, the courts must determine the scope of coverage afforded by a patent and the courts do not always arrive at uniform conclusions.
A patent owner may claim that we are making, using, selling or offering for sale an invention covered by the owner’s patents and may go to court to stop us from engaging in such activities. Such litigation is not uncommon in our industry.
Patent lawsuits can be expensive and would consume time and other resources. There is a risk that a court would decide that we are infringing a third party’s patents and would order us to stop the activities covered by the patents, including the commercialization of our products. In addition, there is a risk that we would have to pay the other party damages for having violated the other party’s patents (which damages may be increased, as well as attorneys’ fees ordered paid, if infringement is found to be willful), or that we will be required to obtain a license from the other party in order to continue to commercialize the affected products, or to design our products in a manner that does not infringe a valid patent. We may not prevail in any legal action, and a required license under the patent may not be available on acceptable terms or at all, requiring cessation of activities that were found to infringe a valid patent. We also may not be able to develop a non-infringing product design on commercially reasonable terms, or at all.
Although we own a number of domestic and foreign patents and patent applications relating to our Technosphere Insulin System and cancer vaccine products under development, we have identified certain third-party patents having claims relating to pulmonary insulin delivery that may trigger an allegation of infringement upon the commercial manufacture and sale of our Technosphere Insulin System. We have also identified third-party patents disclosing methods of use and compositions of matter related to DNA-based vaccines that also may trigger an allegation of infringement upon the commercial manufacture and sale of our cancer therapy. If a court were to determine that our insulin products or cancer therapies were infringing any of these patent rights, we would have to establish with the court that these patents were invalid or unenforceable in order to avoid legal liability for infringement of these patents. However, proving patent invalidity or unenforceability can be difficult because issued patents are presumed valid. Therefore, in the event that we are unable to prevail in an infringement or invalidity action we will have to either acquire the third-party patents outright or seek a royalty-bearing license. Royalty-bearing licenses effectively increase production costs and therefore may materially affect product profitability. Furthermore, should the patent holder refuse to either assign or license us the infringed patents, it may be necessary to cease manufacturing the product entirely and/or design around the patents, if possible. In either event, our business would be harmed and our profitability could be materially adversely impacted.
Furthermore, because of the substantial amount of discovery required in connection with intellectual property litigation, there is a risk that some of our confidential information could be compromised by disclosure during this type of litigation. In addition, during the course of this kind of litigation, there could be public announcements of the results of hearings, motions or other interim proceedings or developments. If securities analysts or investors perceive these results to be negative, the market price of our common stock may decline.

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In addition, patent litigation may divert the attention of key personnel and we may not have sufficient resources to bring these actions to a successful conclusion. At the same time, some of our competitors may be able to sustain the costs of complex patent litigation more effectively than we can because they have substantially greater resources. An adverse determination in a judicial or administrative proceeding or failure to obtain necessary licenses could prevent us from manufacturing and selling our products or result in substantial monetary damages, which would adversely affect our business and results of operations and cause the market price of our common stock to decline.
We may not obtain trademark registrations for our potential trade names.
We have not selected trade names for some of our products and product candidates; therefore, we have not filed trademark registrations for our potential trade names for our products in all jurisdictions, nor can we assure that we will be granted registration of those potential trade names for which we have filed. Although we intend to defend any opposition to our trademark registrations, no assurance can be given that any of our trademarks will be registered in the United States or elsewhere or that the use of any of our trademarks will confer a competitive advantage in the marketplace. Furthermore, even if we are successful in our trademark registrations, the FDA has its own process for drug nomenclature and its own views concerning appropriate proprietary names. It also has the power, even after granting market approval, to request a company to reconsider the name for a product because of evidence of confusion in the marketplace. We cannot assure you that the FDA or any other regulatory authority will approve of any of our trademarks or will not request reconsideration of one of our trademarks at some time in the future.
RISKS RELATED TO OUR COMMON STOCK
Our stock price is volatile.
The stock market, particularly in recent years, has experienced significant volatility particularly with respect to pharmaceutical and biotechnology stocks, and this trend may continue. The volatility of pharmaceutical and biotechnology stocks often does not relate to the operating performance of the companies represented by the stock. Our business and the market price of our common stock may be influenced by a large variety of factors, including:
    the progress and results of our clinical trials;
 
    announcements by us or our competitors concerning clinical trial results, acquisitions, strategic alliances, technological innovations, newly approved commercial products, product discontinuations, or other developments;
 
    the availability of critical materials used in developing and manufacturing our Technosphere Insulin System or other product candidates;
 
    developments or disputes concerning our patents or proprietary rights;
 
    the expense and time associated with, and the extent of our ultimate success in, securing regulatory approvals;
 
    announcements by us concerning our financial condition or operating performance;
 
    changes in securities analysts’ estimates of our financial condition or operating performance;
 
    general market conditions and fluctuations for emerging growth and pharmaceutical market sectors;
 
    sales of large blocks of our common stock, including sales by our executive officers, directors and significant stockholders;
 
    discussion of our Technosphere Insulin System, our other product candidates, competitors’ products, or our stock price by the financial and scientific press, the healthcare community and online investor communities such as chat rooms; and
 
    general economic, political or stock market conditions.
Any of these risks, as well as other factors, could cause the market price of our common stock to decline.

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If other biotechnology and biopharmaceutical companies or the securities markets in general encounter problems, the market price of our common stock could be adversely affected.*
Public companies in general and companies included on the Nasdaq Stock Market in particular have experienced extreme price and volume fluctuations that have often been unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of those companies. There has been particular volatility in the market prices of securities of biotechnology and other life sciences companies, and the market prices of these companies have often fluctuated because of problems or successes in a given market segment or because investor interest has shifted to other segments. These broad market and industry factors may cause the market price of our common stock to decline, regardless of our operating performance. We have no control over this volatility and can only focus our efforts on our own operations, and even these may be affected due to the state of the capital markets.
In the past, following periods of large price declines in the public market price of a company’s securities, securities class action litigation has often been initiated against that company. Litigation of this type could result in substantial costs and diversion of management’s attention and resources, which would hurt our business. Any adverse determination in litigation could also subject us to significant liabilities.
Our Chief Executive Officer and principal stockholder can individually control our direction and policies, and his interests may be adverse to the interests of our other stockholders. After his death, his stock will be left to his funding foundations for distribution to various charities, and we cannot assure you of the manner in which those entities will manage their holdings.*
At August 7, 2008, Mr. Mann beneficially owned approximately 48% of our outstanding shares of capital stock. We believe members of Mr. Mann’s family beneficially owned at least an additional 1% of our outstanding shares of common stock, although Mr. Mann does not have voting or investment power with respect to these shares. By virtue of his holdings, Mr. Mann can and will continue to be able to effectively control the election of the members of our board of directors, our management and our affairs and prevent corporate transactions such as mergers, consolidations or the sale of all or substantially all of our assets that may be favorable from our standpoint or that of our other stockholders or cause a transaction that we or our other stockholders may view as unfavorable.
Subject to compliance with United States federal and state securities laws, Mr. Mann is free to sell the shares of our stock he holds at any time. Upon his death, we have been advised by Mr. Mann that his shares of our capital stock will be left to the Alfred E. Mann Medical Research Organization, or AEMMRO, and AEM Foundation for Biomedical Engineering, or AEMFBE, not-for-profit medical research foundations that serve as funding organizations for Mr. Mann’s various charities, including the Alfred Mann Foundation, or AMF, and the Alfred Mann Institute at the University of Southern California, the Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, and at Purdue University, and that may serve as funding organizations for any other charities that he may establish. The AEMMRO is a membership foundation consisting of six members, including Mr. Mann, his wife, three of his children and Dr. Joseph Schulman, the chief scientist of the AEMFBE. The AEMFBE is a membership foundation consisting of five members, including Mr. Mann, his wife, and the same three of his children. Although we understand that the members of AEMMRO and AEMFBE have been advised of Mr. Mann’s objectives for these foundations, once Mr. Mann’s shares of our capital stock become the property of the foundations, we cannot assure you as to how those shares will be distributed or how they will be voted.
The future sale of our common stock or the conversion of our senior convertible notes into common stock could negatively affect our stock price.
Substantially all of the outstanding shares of our common stock are available for public sale, subject in some cases to volume and other limitations or delivery of a prospectus. If our common stockholders sell substantial amounts of common stock in the public market, or the market perceives that such sales may occur, the market price of our common stock may decline. Likewise the issuance of additional shares of our common stock upon the conversion of some or all of our senior convertible notes could adversely affect the trading price of our common stock. In addition, the existence of these notes may encourage short selling of our common stock by market participants. Furthermore, if we were to include in a company-initiated registration statement shares held by our stockholders pursuant to the exercise of their registrations rights, the sale of those shares could impair our ability to raise needed capital by depressing the price at which we could sell our common stock.
In addition, we will need to raise substantial additional capital in the future to fund our operations. If we raise additional funds by issuing equity securities or additional convertible debt, the market price of our common stock may decline and our existing stockholders may experience significant dilution.

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Anti-takeover provisions in our charter documents and under Delaware law could make an acquisition of us, which may be beneficial to our stockholders, more difficult and may prevent attempts by our stockholders to replace or remove our current management.
We are incorporated in Delaware. Certain anti-takeover provisions under Delaware law and in our certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws, as currently in effect, may make a change of control of our company more difficult, even if a change in control would be beneficial to our stockholders. Our anti-takeover provisions include provisions such as a prohibition on stockholder actions by written consent, the authority of our board of directors to issue preferred stock without stockholder approval, and supermajority voting requirements for specified actions. In addition, we are governed by the provisions of Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law, which generally prohibits stockholders owning 15% or more of our outstanding voting stock from merging or combining with us in certain circumstances. These provisions may delay or prevent an acquisition of us, even if the acquisition may be considered beneficial by some of our stockholders. In addition, they may frustrate or prevent any attempts by our stockholders to replace or remove our current management by making it more difficult for stockholders to replace members of our board of directors, which is responsible for appointing the members of our management.
Because we do not expect to pay dividends in the foreseeable future, you must rely on stock appreciation for any return on your investment.
We have paid no cash dividends on any of our capital stock to date, and we currently intend to retain our future earnings, if any, to fund the development and growth of our business. As a result, we do not expect to pay any cash dividends in the foreseeable future, and payment of cash dividends, if any, will also depend on our financial condition, results of operations, capital requirements and other factors and will be at the discretion of our board of directors. Furthermore, we may in the future become subject to contractual restrictions on, or prohibitions against, the payment of dividends. Accordingly, the success of your investment in our common stock will likely depend entirely upon any future appreciation. There is no guarantee that our common stock will appreciate in value after the offering or even maintain the price at which you purchased your shares, and you may not realize a return on your investment in our common stock.
ITEM 2. UNREGISTERED SALES OF EQUITY SECURITIES AND USE OF PROCEEDS
There were no sales of equity securities by us that were not registered under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, during the second quarter of 2008.
ITEM 3. DEFAULTS UPON SENIOR SECURITIES
None.
ITEM 4. SUBMISSION OF MATTERS TO A VOTE OF SECURITY HOLDERS
Our 2008 Annual Meeting of Stockholders was held on May 22, 2008.
The following matters were voted on at our 2008 Annual Meeting of Stockholders:
     1. The election of nine nominees to serve on our board of directors until the 2009 Annual Meeting of Stockholders. The following nine individuals were elected to our board of directors by the votes indicated:
                 
    Affirmative   Votes
    Votes   Withheld
Alfred E. Mann
    95,940,357       480,730  
Hakan S. Edstrom
    96,085,949       335,138  
Barry E. Cohen
    95,991,344       429,743  
Ronald J. Consiglio
    96,041,637       379,450  
Michael Friedman, M.D.
    95,895,052       526,035  
Heather May Murren
    96,092,042       329,045  
Kent Kresa
    95,996,639       424,448  
David H. MacCallum
    96,095,664       325,423  
Henry L. Nordhoff
    95,999,862       421,225  

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     2. To approve an increase in the maximum number of shares of common stock that may be issued under MannKind’s 2004 Equity Incentive Plan from 9,000,000 shares to 14,000,000 shares. The increase in the maximum number of shares of common stock under MannKind’s 2004 Equity Incentive Plan was approved by the following vote: 51,414,578 votes for and 29,321,515 votes against, with 27,622 votes abstaining and 15,657,372 broker non-votes.
     3. The ratification of Deloitte & Touche LLP as independent auditor for the fiscal year ending December 31, 2008 was approved by the following vote: 96,129,610 votes for and 195,556 votes against, with 92,921 votes abstaining and 3,000 broker non-votes.
ITEM 5. OTHER INFORMATION
None.
ITEM 6. EXHIBITS
     
Exhibit    
Number   Description of Document
3.1(1)
  Restated Certificate of Incorporation.
 
   
3.2(2)
  Certificate of Amendment of Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation.
 
   
3.3(3)
  Amended and Restated Bylaws.
 
   
4.1(1)
  Form of common stock certificate.
 
   
4.2(1)
  Registration Rights Agreement, dated October 15, 1998 by and among CTL ImmunoTherapies Corp., Medical Research Group, LLC, McLean Watson Advisory Inc. and Alfred E. Mann, as amended.
 
   
10.1(4)*
  Executive Severance Agreement dated April 21, 2008 between MannKind and Matthew J. Pfeffer
 
   
10.2(4)*
  Change of Control Agreement dated April 21, 2008 between MannKind and Matthew J. Pfeffer.
 
   
31.1
  Certification of the Chief Executive Officer Pursuant to Rules 13a-14(a) or 15d-14(a) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.
 
   
31.2
  Certification of the Chief Financial Officer Pursuant to Rules 13a-14(a) or 15d-14(a) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.
 
   
32
  Certifications of the Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer Pursuant to Rules 13a-14(b) or 15d-14(b) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended and Section 1350 of Chapter 63 of Title 18 of the United States Code (18 U.S.C. § 1350).
 
*
  Indicates management contract or compensatory plan.
 
   
(1)
  Incorporated by reference to MannKind’s registration statement on Form S-1 (File No. 333-115020), filed with the SEC on April 30, 2004, as amended.
 
   
(2)
  Incorporated by reference to MannKind’s quarterly report on Form 10-Q, filed with the SEC on August 9, 2007.
 
   
(3)
  Incorporated by reference to MannKind’s current report on Form 8-K, filed with the SEC on November 19, 2007.
 
   
(4)
  Incorporated by reference to MannKind’s current report on Form 8-K, as amended, filed with the SEC on October 16, 2007.

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SIGNATURE
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, the registrant has duly caused this report to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned thereunto duly authorized.
             
Dated: August 11, 2008   MANNKIND CORPORATION    
 
           
 
  By:   /s/ Matthew J. Pfeffer    
 
           
 
      Matthew J. Pfeffer    
 
      Corporate Vice President and Chief Financial Officer    
 
      (Principal Financial and Accounting Officer)    

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