Marriott International 10-K 2011
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
For the Fiscal Year Ended December 31, 2010
For the transition period from to
Commission File No. 1-13881
MARRIOTT INTERNATIONAL, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Registrants Telephone Number, Including Area Code (301) 380-3000
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: NONE
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes x No ¨
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes ¨ No x
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes x No ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate website, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files). Yes x No ¨
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of the registrants knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K. ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a small reporting company. See definitions of large accelerated filer, accelerated filer and smaller reporting company in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes ¨ No x
The aggregate market value of shares of common stock held by non-affiliates at June 18, 2010, was $9,920,558,833
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the Proxy Statement prepared for the 2011 Annual Meeting of Shareholders are incorporated by reference into
Part III of this report.
FORM 10-K TABLE OF CONTENTS
FISCAL YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2010
Throughout this report, we refer to Marriott International, Inc., together with its subsidiaries, as we, us, or the Company. Unless otherwise specified, each reference to a particular year means the fiscal year ended on the date shown in the table below, rather than the corresponding calendar year:
In addition, in order to make this report easier to read, we refer throughout to (i) our Consolidated Financial Statements as our Financial Statements, (ii) our Consolidated Statements of Income as our Income Statements, our Consolidated Balance Sheets as our Balance Sheets, (iii) our properties, brands or markets in the continental United States and Canada as North America or North American, (iv) our properties, brands or markets outside of the continental United States and Canada as international, and (v) Accounting Standards Update No. 2009-16, Transfers and Servicing (Topic 860): Accounting for Transfers of Financial Assets (ASU No. 2009-16) and Accounting Standards Update No. 2009-17, Consolidations (Topic 810): Improvements to Financial Reporting by Enterprises Involved with Variable Interest Entities (ASU No. 2009-17) both of which we adopted on the first day of 2010 as the new Transfers of Financial Assets and Consolidation standards. Please see Footnote No. 1, Summary of Significant Accounting Policies, of the Notes to our Financial Statements for further information on some of these items.
We are a worldwide operator and franchisor of hotels and related lodging facilities. We were organized as a corporation in Delaware in 1997 and became a public company in 1998 when we were spun off as a separate entity by the company formerly named Marriott International, Inc. Our operations are grouped into the following five business segments:
We develop, operate, and franchise hotels and corporate housing properties under numerous separate brand names, and we develop, operate, and market timeshare, fractional ownership, and residential properties under four separate brand names. We also provide services to home/condominium owner associations for projects associated with several of our brands.
Financial information by segment and geographic area for 2010, 2009, and 2008 appears in Footnote No. 17, Business Segments, of the Notes to our Financial Statements included in this annual report.
We operate or franchise 3,545 lodging properties worldwide, with 618,104 rooms as of year-end 2010 inclusive of 36 home and condominium products (3,737 units) for which we manage the related owners associations. In addition, we provided 2,043 furnished corporate housing rental units, which are not included in the totals. We believe that our portfolio of lodging brands is the broadest of any company in the world and that we are the leader in the quality tier of the vacation timesharing business. Consistent with our focus on management and franchising, we own very few of our lodging properties. We manage and franchise lodging properties employing the following brands:
The North American Full-Service segment and the North American Limited-Service segment include properties located in the continental United States and Canada. The Luxury segment includes worldwide properties. The International segment includes full-service and limited-service properties located outside the continental United States and Canada. Unless otherwise indicated, our references to Marriott Hotels & Resorts throughout this report include Marriott Conference Centers and JW Marriott, references to Renaissance Hotels include Renaissance ClubSport, and references to Fairfield Inn & Suites include Fairfield Inn®.
Company-Operated Lodging Properties
At year-end 2010, we operated 1,104 properties (284,868 rooms) under long-term management agreements with property owners, 45 properties (10,957 rooms) under long-term lease agreements with property owners (management and lease agreements together, the Operating Agreements), and five properties (986 rooms) as owned. The figures noted for properties operated under long-term management agreements include 36 home and condominium products (3,737 units) for which we manage the related owners associations.
Terms of our management agreements vary, but typically, we earn a management fee, which comprises a base management fee, which is a percentage of the revenues of the hotel, and an incentive management fee, which is based on the profits of the hotel. Our management agreements also typically include reimbursement of costs of operations (both direct and indirect). Such agreements are generally for initial periods of 20 to 30 years, with options for us to renew for up to 50 or more additional years. Our lease agreements also vary, but may include fixed annual rentals plus additional rentals based on a percentage of annual revenues in excess of a fixed amount. Many of the Operating Agreements are subordinated to mortgages or other liens securing indebtedness of the owners. Additionally, many of our Operating Agreements permit the owners to terminate the agreement if certain performance metrics are not met and financial returns fail to meet defined levels for a period of time and we have not cured such deficiencies.
For lodging facilities that we operate, we generally are responsible for hiring, training, and supervising the managers and employees required to operate the facilities and for purchasing supplies, both for which we generally are reimbursed by the owners. We provide centralized reservation services and national advertising, marketing and promotional services, as well as various accounting and data processing services. We are generally reimbursed by owners for the cost of providing these services.
Franchised Lodging Properties
We have franchising programs that permit the use of many of our lodging brand names and systems by other hotel owners and operators. Under these programs, we generally receive an initial application fee and continuing royalty fees, which typically range from four percent to six percent of room revenues for all brands, plus two percent to three percent of food and beverage revenues for certain full-service hotels. In addition, franchisees contribute to our national marketing and advertising programs and pay fees for use of our centralized reservation systems.
At year-end 2010, we had 2,391 franchised properties (321,293 rooms).
Timeshare and Residential
We develop, operate, market, and sell timeshare interval, fractional ownership, and residential properties under four brand names and generate revenues from three primary sources: (1) selling fee simple and other forms of timeshare intervals and personal residences; (2) financing consumer purchases; and (3) operating the resorts. During 2010 we broadened our timeshare interval product offering to include the sale of the points-based Marriott Vacation Club DestinationsTM program in North America and the Caribbean. The Marriott Vacation Club Destinations program offers greater flexibility, further personalization, and more experience opportunities for Owners. See the Marriott Vacation Club Destinations Timeshare Program caption later in this Form 10-K for additional information. Many resorts are located adjacent to company-operated hotels, such as Marriott Hotels & Resorts and The Ritz-Carlton, and owners have access to certain hotel facilities during their vacation. Owners can trade their annual interval for intervals at other Marriott timesharing resorts or for intervals at certain timesharing resorts not otherwise sponsored by Marriott through a third-party exchange company. Owners can also trade their unused interval for points in our frequent guest programs, enabling them to stay at over 3,500 company-operated or franchised properties worldwide.
We also sell residential real estate in conjunction with luxury hotel development (Ritz-Carlton-Residential) and Timeshare segment projects (Ritz-Carlton Residences and Grand Residences by Marriott-Residential) and receive branding fees for sales of such branded residential real estate by others. Residences developed in conjunction with hotels are typically constructed and sold by hotel owners with limited amounts, if any, of our capital at risk. We typically open our Timeshare segment residential projects over time with limited inventory available at any one time. While the worldwide residential market is very large, the luxurious nature of our residential properties, the quality and exclusivity associated with our brands, and the hospitality services that we provide, all serve to make our residential properties distinctive.
In general, business at company-operated and franchised properties is relatively stable and includes only moderate seasonal fluctuations. Business at some resort properties may be seasonal depending on location.
Relationship with Major Customer
We operate a number of properties under long-term management agreements that are owned or leased by Host Hotels & Resorts, Inc. (Host). In addition, Host is a partner in several partnerships that own properties operated by us under long-term management agreements. See Footnote No. 23, Relationship with Major Customer, of the Notes to our Financial Statements included in this annual report for more information.
We operate in a highly competitive industry and our brand names, trademarks, service marks, trade names, and logos are very important to the sales and marketing of our properties and services. We believe that our brand names and other intellectual property have come to represent the highest standards of quality, caring, service, and value to our customers and the traveling public. Accordingly, we register and protect our intellectual property where we deem appropriate and otherwise protect against its unauthorized use.
Summary of Properties by Brand
At year-end 2010, we operated or franchised the following properties by brand (excluding 2,043 corporate housing rental units):
The following table provides additional detail, by brand, as of year-end 2010, for our Timeshare properties:
Summary of Properties by Country
At year-end 2010, we operated or franchised properties in the following 70 countries and territories:
Descriptions of Our Brands
North American Full-Service Segment, North American Limited-Service Segment,
and International Segment Lodging Products
Marriott Hotels & Resorts is our global flagship brand, primarily serving business and leisure upper-upscale travelers and meeting groups. Marriott Hotels & Resorts properties are located in downtown, urban, and suburban areas, near airports, and at resort locations. Marriott Hotels & Resorts is a performance-inspired brand that caters to the achievement-oriented guest.
Typically, properties contain 300 to 700 well-appointed rooms, the Revive® bedding package, in-room high-speed Internet access, swimming pools, convention and banquet facilities, destination-driven restaurant and lounges, room service, concierge lounges, wireless Internet access in public places, and parking facilities. Twenty-one properties have over 1,000 rooms. Many resort properties have additional recreational facilities, such as tennis courts, golf courses, additional restaurants and lounges, and spa facilities. New and renovated properties typically reflect the M.I. greatroomSM, a reinvented lobby featuring functional seating, state-of-the-art technology, and innovative food and beverage concepts in a stylish setting, as well as the new Marriott guest room, which features contemporary residential design, warm colors, rich woods and architectural detail, flat-screen high-definition televisions, plug n play technology, and bathrooms reflecting spa-like luxury. At year-end 2010, there were 494 Marriott Hotels & Resorts properties (178,734 rooms), excluding JW Marriott and Marriott Conference Centers.
At year-end 2010, there were 11 Marriott Conference Centers (3,298 rooms) throughout the United States. Some of the centers are used exclusively by employees of sponsoring organizations, while others are marketed to outside meeting groups and individuals. In addition to the features found in a typical Marriott full-service property, the centers typically include expanded meeting room space, banquet and dining facilities, and recreational facilities.
JW Marriott is a global luxury brand made up of a collection of beautiful properties and resorts that cater to accomplished, discerning travelers seeking an elegant environment with discreet personal service. At year-end 2010, there were 49 properties (21,987 rooms) primarily located in gateway cities and upscale locations throughout the world. JW Marriott offers anticipatory service and exceptional amenities, many with world-class golf and spa facilities. In addition to the features found in a typical Marriott full-service property, the facilities and amenities at JW Marriott properties normally include larger guest rooms, higher end décor and furnishings, upgraded in-room amenities, upgraded executive lounges, business centers and fitness centers, and 24-hour room service.
Renaissance Hotels is a distinctive, global, full-service lifestyle brand that targets business and leisure travelers seeking to expand their horizons and live life to the fullest.
Renaissance Hotels properties are generally located in downtown locations of major cities, in suburban office parks, near major gateway airports, and in destination resorts. Renaissance hotels echo and embrace their localesfrom exquisite historic castles, to meticulously modern skyscrapers. Most properties contain from 300 to 500 rooms, featuring indigenous and intriguing design elements, distinctive restaurants and lounges, unique in-room dining options, state-of-the-art technology, and inspiring meeting and banquet facilities. At year-end 2010, there were 146 Renaissance Hotels properties (51,008 rooms), including two Renaissance ClubSport properties (349 rooms).
Autograph Collection. The Autograph Collection, a new brand within our global portfolio, is comprised of upper-upscale and luxury, independent hotels located in major cites and desired destinations.
The Autograph Collection takes the innovative approach of grouping iconic hotels according to the unique experience that guests are seeking whether it is a resort, historic hotel, boutique arts, or urban edge hotel in a dynamic gateway city. Each hotel is unique and distinct with its own identity, appealing to a growing segment of our customers who are looking for an experience that only an independent hotel can deliver.
At year-end 2010, there were 13 Autograph Collection properties (3,828 rooms) operating in the United States.
Courtyard is our select-service hotel product for the upper-moderate price tier. Focused primarily on transient business travel, Courtyard hotels are designed to offer a refreshing environment to help guests stay connected, productive, and balanced, while accommodating their need for choice and control when traveling. The hotels typically contain 90 to 150 rooms in suburban locales and 140 to 340 rooms in downtown domestic and international locales. Well-landscaped grounds typically include a courtyard with a pool and outdoor social areas. Hotels feature functionally designed guest rooms and meeting rooms, free in-room high-speed Internet access, free wireless high-speed Internet access (Wi-Fi) in the lobby (in North America), a swimming pool, an exercise room, and The Market (a self-serve food store open 24 hours a day). While many hotels currently offer a breakfast buffet, the brand is transitioning to a new state-of-the-art lobby design and food and beverage concept. The multifunctional space enables guests to work, relax, eat, drink, and socialize at their own pace, taking advantage of enhanced technology and The Bistros breakfast and dinner offerings. The new, sophisticated lobby design is intended to keep Courtyard well positioned against its competition by providing better value through superior facilities, technology, and service to generate stronger connections with our guests. At year-end 2010, there were 892 Courtyards (131,069 rooms) operating in 34 countries and territories.
Fairfield Inn & Suites (which includes Fairfield Inn) competes in the moderate-price tier and is targeted primarily at value-conscious business travelers. A typical Fairfield Inn & Suites or Fairfield Inn property has 60 to 140 rooms in suburban locations and up to 200 rooms in urban destinations. Fairfield Inn & Suites offers a wide range of amenities, including free in-room high-speed Internet access and free Wi-Fi access in the lobby, on-site business services (copying, faxing, and printing), a business center/lobby computer with Internet access and print capability, complimentary continental breakfast buffet, The Market (a self-serve food store open 24 hours a day, at most locations), exercise facilities (at most locations), and a swimming pool. Additionally, suite rooms (approximately 25 percent of the rooms at a typical Fairfield Inn & Suites) provide guests with separate areas for sleeping, working, and relaxing as well as in-room amenities including a microwave and refrigerator. At year-end 2010, there were 390 Fairfield Inn & Suites properties and 268 Fairfield Inn properties (59,745 properties total), operating in the United States, Canada, and Mexico.
SpringHill Suites is our all-suite brand in the upper-moderate-price tier primarily targeting business travelers. SpringHill Suites properties typically have 90 to 165 suites that have approximately 25 percent more space than a traditional hotel guest room with separate areas for sleeping, working, and relaxing. The brand offers a broad range of amenities, including free in-room high-speed Internet access and free Wi-Fi access in the lobby, The Market (a self-serve food store open 24 hours a day), complimentary hot breakfast buffet, lobby computer and on-site business services (copying, faxing, and printing), exercise facilities, and a swimming pool. At year-end 2010, there were 273 properties (31,961 rooms) located in the United States and 1 property (124 rooms) in Canada.
Residence Inn is North Americas leading upscale extended-stay hotel brand designed for business and leisure travelers staying five or more nights. Residence Inn provides upscale design and style with spacious suites that feature separate living, sleeping, working, and kitchen areas. Guests can maintain their own pace and routines through free in-room high-speed Internet access and free Wi-Fi access in the lobby, on-site exercise options, and comfortable places to work or relax. Additional amenities include free hot breakfast and evening social events, free grocery shopping services, 24-hour friendly and knowledgeable staffing, and laundry facilities. At year-end 2010, there were 613 Residence Inn properties (74,130 rooms) located in the United States, Canada, and Costa Rica.
TownePlace Suites is a moderately priced extended-stay hotel brand that is designed to appeal to business and leisure travelers who stay for five nights or more. Designed for the self-sufficient, value-conscious traveler, each suite generally provides functional spaces for living and working, including a full kitchen and a home office. TownePlace Suites associates are trained to provide insightful local knowledge, and each hotel specializes in delivering service that helps guests settle in, maintain their day-to-day routine, and connect to the local area. Additional amenities include housekeeping services, breakfast, on-site exercise facilities, a pool, 24-hour staffing, free in-room high-speed Internet access and free Wi-Fi access in the lobby, and laundry facilities. At year-end 2010, 193 TownePlace Suites properties (19,425 rooms) were located in 41 states.
Marriott ExecuStay provides furnished corporate apartments primarily for long-term stays nationwide. ExecuStay owns no residential real estate and provides units primarily through short-term lease agreements with apartment owners and managers and franchise agreements. At year-end 2010, Marriott leased approximately 2,100 apartments and our 10 franchisees leased approximately 2,300 apartments. Apartments are located in 41 different markets in the United States, of which 33 are franchised.
Marriott Executive Apartments. We provide temporary housing (Serviced Apartments) for business executives and others who need quality accommodations outside their home country, usually for 30 or more days. Some Serviced Apartments operate under the Marriott Executive Apartments brand, which is designed specifically for the long-term international traveler. At year-end 2010, 20 Marriott Executive Apartments and three other Serviced Apartments properties (3,775 rooms total) were located in 14 countries and territories. All Marriott Executive Apartments are located outside the United States.
Luxury Segment Lodging Products
The Ritz-Carlton is a leading global luxury lifestyle brand, comprised of hotels and resorts renowned for their exceptional levels of personalized service. Most of The Ritz-Carlton hotels have 250 to 400 guest rooms and typically include meeting and banquet facilities, a variety of restaurants and lounges, a club level, gift shops, high-speed Internet access, flat-screen televisions, swimming pools, and parking facilities. Established in 1983, The Ritz-Carlton has enjoyed 27 years as a highly reputable, award-winning organization. We have developed brand extensions and programs that include elegant spa and wellness facilities; restaurants headed by celebrity chefs; championship golf courses; The Ritz-Carlton Rewards program; retail sales both in hotel boutiques and online; and a new brand extension The Ritz-Carlton Reserve.
Bulgari Hotels & Resorts. Through a joint venture with jeweler and luxury goods designer Bulgari SpA, we operate distinctive luxury hotel properties in prime locations under the name Bulgari Hotels & Resorts. We currently operate the Bulgari Milano Hotel (58 rooms), in Milan, Italy, and the Bulgari Bali Resort, which features 59 private villas, two restaurants, and comprehensive spa facilities. We also operate two restaurants in Tokyo, Japan, which are co-located with two Bulgari retail stores. Other projects are currently in various stages of development in Europe, Asia, and North America.
EDITION. In 2007, we entered into an agreement with hotel innovator Ian Schrager to create next-generation lifestyle boutique hotels to be designed by Schrager and operated by Marriott. The EDITION brand offers a personal, intimate, individualized, and unique lodging experience on a global scale. We opened our first EDITION hotel (353 rooms) in September 2010 in Waikiki, Hawaii, and our second EDITION hotel opened in February 2011 in Istanbul, Turkey.
Timeshare Segment Lodging Products
The Marriott Vacation Club (MVC) brand offers full-service villas featuring living and dining areas, one-, two-, and three-bedroom options, a full kitchen, and washer/dryer units. Customers may purchase points-based beneficial interests in a domestic land trust that can be redeemed at numerous destinations or a one-week interval or more at each resort. In 53 locations worldwide, this brand draws customers from around the world who vacation regularly with a focus on family, relaxation, and recreational activities. In the United States, in addition to other areas, MVC is located in beach and/or golf communities in Arizona, California, South Carolina, Florida, and Hawaii, in ski resorts in California, Colorado, and Utah, and in Las Vegas, Nevada. Internationally, MVC has resorts in Aruba, France, Spain, St. Thomas (U.S. Virgin Islands), the West Indies, and Thailand.
The Ritz-Carlton Destination Club is a luxury vacation ownership program. Members have an equity interest in real estate at luxurious Ritz-Carlton Club destinations throughout North America along with access to Ritz-Carlton hotels worldwide and a growing list of exchange and vacation travel options through The Lion & Crown Travel Company, an affiliated entity. Current Ritz-Carlton Club locations include Aspen Highlands, Vail and Bachelor Gulch, Colorado; St. Thomas (U.S Virgin Islands); Jupiter, Florida; San Francisco and North Lake Tahoe, California; Kapalua Bay in Maui and Kauai Lagoons, Hawaii; and Abace, Bahamas.
The Ritz-Carlton Residences are luxury residential condominiums, located at many Ritz-Carlton hotels and resorts. Real estate choices range from one-bedroom apartments to spacious penthouses, and golf communities with private homes where residents can avail themselves of the services and facilities offered by the hotel. Certain other residential projects are stand-alone and not associated with a Ritz-Carlton hotel. In each case, Ritz-Carlton manages the related owners associations. Residential features include marble foyers, walk-in closets, custom kitchen cabinetry and the services of The Ritz-Carlton, including twice-daily maid service, valet, 24-hour room service, and access to extensive fitness facilities.
Grand Residences by Marriott is an upper-quality-tier fractional ownership and personal residence brand for corporate and leisure customers. This brand is currently offering ownership in projects located in Lake Tahoe, California, Panama City, Florida, Kauai, Hawaii, and London, England. Customers typically purchase 3-to-13-week intervals.
The Timeshare segments owner base continues to expand, with approximately 403,000 owners at year-end 2010, compared to approximately 398,000 at year-end 2009.
New Lodging Products
AC Hotels by Marriott. In the fourth quarter of 2010, we signed a definitive agreement to enter into a joint venture with AC Hotels of Spain to create the AC Hotels by Marriott co-brand. We expect that nearly all of the 92 existing AC Hotels in Spain, Italy, and Portugal will transition to the new co-brand sometime during 2011 following the expected first quarter closing on the joint venture. The joint venture will rebrand those hotels to AC Hotels by Marriott once systems integration targeted for mid-2011 is complete, which will allow the hotels to be sold through Marriott channels. AC Hotels by Marriott will focus on the upper moderate price tier and offer stylish, sleek designs with limited food and beverage. AC Hotels typically contain 50 150 rooms and are located in destination, downtown, and suburban markets. Each hotel has it own unique style and character, but feature the signature AC Bed with four large pillows and built-in reading light. Other hotel amenities include a mini-bar, 24-hour room service, laundry service, exclusive bathroom amenities, writing desk, and Wi-Fi. AC Hotels also feature AC Fitness centers with state-of-the-art exercise equipment and the AC Lounge where guests can relax and unwind. Small meeting rooms can be found in most hotels to enable guests to have private board meetings or intimate social gatherings. We expect that the joint venture will increase the number of AC Hotels by Marriott across Europe and in Latin and South America.
Marriott Golf manages 43 golf course facilities as part of our management of hotels and for other golf course owners.
We operate 14 system-wide hotel reservation centers, eight in the United States and Canada and six in other countries and territories, which handle reservation requests for our lodging brands worldwide, including franchised properties. We own one of the U.S. facilities and lease the others.
We focus on increasing value for the consumer and selling the way the customer wants to buy. Our Look No Further® Best Rate Guarantee gives customers access to the same rates whether they book through our telephone reservation system, our website, or any other Marriott reservation channel. Also key to our success is our strong Marriott Rewards program, our Ritz-Carlton Rewards program, and our information-rich and easy-to-use www.Marriott.com website. Our reservation system manages and controls inventory availability and pricing set by our hotels and allows us to utilize online and offline agents where cost effective. With over 3,500 properties in our system, economies of scale enable us to minimize costs per occupied room, drive profits for our owners, and enhance our fee revenue.
With 75 percent of our guests saying they use our website when planning or booking their stays and with over $6 billion in annual property-level gross revenues, www.Marriott.com is one of the largest online retail sites in the world based on sales. In 2010, we introduced a number of new enhancements to the www.Marriott.com booking, mobile, and search engine experience that are designed to generate more revenue and further reduce booking costs.
Marriotts Sales Transformation is a sales deployment strategy that aligns sales efforts around customer needs, reduces duplication of sales efforts, and enables coverage for a larger number of accounts. We consider our sales transformation strategy to be a key competitive advantage for Marriott. The rollout of Sales Transformation, which began in late 2007, is scheduled for completion by mid-2011.
Building on more than 20 years of energy conservation experience, we are committed to protecting the environment. Our Spirit to Preserve® environmental strategy calls for: greening our $10 billion supply chain; further reducing fuel and water consumption; expanding our portfolio of green hotels and buildings; educating and inspiring employees and guests to support the environment; and investing in innovative, large-scale conservation projects worldwide.
We are the first in the hospitality industry to launch a green hotel prototype that has been pre-approved by U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC) as part of its Leadership in Energy and Environment Design (LEED) Volume program, meaning that any hotel that follows these plans will earn basic LEED certification, or possibly higher, upon final USGBC approval. The U.S. Travel Association confirms that travelers place the importance of supporting environmentally responsible travel service suppliers as a necessity, even in an economic downturn.
Our Architecture and Construction (A&C) division provides design, development, construction, refurbishment, and procurement services to owners and franchisees of lodging properties on a voluntary basis outside the scope of and separate from our management or franchise contracts. Similar to third-party contractors, A&C provides these services for owners and franchisees of Marriott-branded properties on a fee basis.
We encounter strong competition both as a lodging operator and as a franchisor. We believe that by operating a number of hotels among our brands, we stay in direct touch with customers and react to changes in the marketplace more quickly than chains that rely exclusively on franchising. There are approximately 870 lodging management companies in the United States, including several that operate more than 100 properties. These operators are primarily private management firms, but also include several large national chains that own and operate their own hotels and also franchise their brands. Our management contracts are typically long-term in nature, but most allow the hotel owner to replace the management firm if certain financial or performance criteria are not met.
During the recent recession we experienced significant reductions in demand for hotel rooms and timeshare products, particularly in 2009, and we took steps to reduce operating costs and improve efficiency. Due to the competitive nature of our industry, we focused these efforts on areas that had limited or no impact on the guest experience. While demand trends globally improved in 2010, additional cost reductions could become necessary to preserve operating margins if demand trends reverse, but we would expect to implement any such efforts in a manner designed to maintain customer loyalty, owner preference, and associate satisfaction, to help maintain or increase our market share.
Affiliation with a national or regional brand is prevalent in the U.S. lodging industry. In 2010, approximately 69 percent of U.S. hotel rooms were brand-affiliated. Most of the branded properties are franchises, under which the operator pays the franchisor a fee for use of its hotel name and reservation system. The franchising business is concentrated, with the six largest franchisors operating multiple brands accounting for a significant proportion of all U.S. rooms.
Outside the United States, branding is much less prevalent and most markets are served primarily by independent operators, although branding is more common for new hotel development. We believe that chain affiliation will increase in overseas markets as local economies grow, trade barriers are reduced, international travel accelerates and hotel owners seek the economies of centralized reservation systems and marketing programs.
Based on lodging industry data, we have approximately a ten percent share of the U.S. hotel market (based on number of rooms) and we estimate less than a one percent share of the lodging market outside the United States. We believe that our hotel brands are attractive to hotel owners seeking a management company or franchise affiliation because our hotels typically generate higher occupancies and Revenue per Available Room (RevPAR) than our direct competitors in most market areas. We attribute this performance premium to our success in achieving and maintaining strong customer preference. We believe that the location and quality of our lodging facilities, our marketing programs, our reservation systems and our emphasis on guest service and guest and associate satisfaction are contributing factors across all of our brands.
Properties that we operate or franchise are regularly upgraded to maintain their competitiveness. Most of our management agreements provide for the allocation of funds, generally a fixed percentage of revenue, for periodic renovation of buildings and replacement of furnishings. These ongoing refurbishment programs, along with periodic brand initiatives, are generally adequate to preserve or enhance the competitive position and earning power of the hotels and timeshare properties. Competitor hotels converting to one of Marriotts brands typically complete renovations as needed in conjunction with the conversion.
The vacation ownership industry is comprised of a number of highly competitive companies including several branded hotel companies. Since entering the timeshare industry in 1984, we have become a recognized leader in vacation ownership worldwide. Competition in the timeshare interval, fractional, and residential business is based primarily on the quality and location of timeshare resorts, trust in the brand, the pricing of product offerings, and the availability of program benefits, such as exchange programs. We believe that our focus on offering distinct vacation experiences, combined with our financial strength, diverse market presence, strong brands, and well-maintained properties, will enable us to remain competitive. Approximately 74 percent of our timeshare ownership resort sales came from additional purchases by or referrals from existing owners in 2010, as compared to 65 percent in 2009. The increase in 2010 reflected our customer service, marketing, and sales efforts which initially focused on the existing owner base after the launch of Marriott Vacation Club Destinations timeshare program in June.
Marriott Rewards and The Ritz-Carlton Rewards are our frequent guest programs with over 34 million members and 12 participating brands. The rewards programs yield repeat guest business by rewarding frequent stays with points toward free hotel stays and other rewards, or airline miles with any of 30 participating airline programs. We believe that our rewards programs generate substantial repeat business that might otherwise go to competing hotels. In 2010, approximately 50 percent of our room nights were purchased by rewards program members. In addition, the ability of timeshare owners to convert unused intervals into rewards points enhances the competitive position of our timeshare brands. We continue to enhance our rewards program offerings and specifically and strategically market to this large and growing customer base. Our loyal rewards member base provides a low cost and high impact vehicle for our revenue generation efforts.
Prior to 2008, we operated four coal-based synthetic fuel production facilities (the Facilities). Because tax credits under Section 45K of the U.S. Internal Revenue Code (IRC) were not available for coal-based synthetic fuel produced or sold after calendar year-end 2007, we shut down the Facilities and permanently ceased production of synthetic fuel in late 2007. Accordingly, we now report this business segment as a discontinued operation. See Footnote No. 3, Discontinued Operations Synthetic Fuel, of the Notes to our Financial Statements for additional information.
At year-end 2010, we had approximately 129,000 employees, approximately 7,700 of whom were represented by labor unions. We believe relations with our employees are positive.
The properties we operate or develop are subject to national, state and local laws and regulations that govern the discharge of materials into the environment or otherwise relate to protecting the environment. Those environmental provisions include requirements that address health and safety; the use, management and disposal of hazardous substances and wastes; and emission or discharge of wastes or other materials. We believe that our operation of properties and our development of properties comply, in all material respects, with environmental laws and regulations. Our compliance with such provisions also has not had a material impact on our capital expenditures, earnings or competitive position, nor do we anticipate that such compliance will have a material impact in the future.
Internet Address and Company SEC Filings
Our Internet address is www.Marriott.com. On the investor relations portion of our website, www.Marriott.com/investor, we provide a link to our electronic SEC filings, including our annual report on Form 10-K, our quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, our current reports on Form 8-K and any amendments to these reports. All such filings are available free of charge and are available as soon as reasonably practicable after filing. The information found on our website is not part of this or any other report we file with or furnish to the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (the SEC).
We make forward-looking statements in Managements Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations and elsewhere in this report based on the beliefs and assumptions of our management and on information currently available to us. Forward-looking statements include information about our possible or assumed future results of operations, which follow under the headings Business and Overview, Liquidity and Capital Resources, and other statements throughout this report preceded by, followed by or that include the words believes, expects, anticipates, intends, plans, estimates or similar expressions.
Forward-looking statements are subject to a number of risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from those expressed in these forward-looking statements, including the risks and uncertainties described below and other factors we describe from time to time in our periodic filings with the SEC. We therefore caution you not to rely unduly on any forward-looking statements. The forward-looking statements in this report speak only as of the date of this report, and we undertake no obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statement, whether as a result of new information, future developments or otherwise.
Risks and Uncertainties
We are subject to various risks that could have a negative effect on the Company and its financial condition. You should understand that these risks could cause results to differ materially from those expressed in forward-looking statements contained in this report and in other Company communications. Because there is no way to determine in advance whether, or to what extent, any present uncertainty will ultimately impact our business, you should give equal weight to each of the following:
Lodging and Timeshare Industry Risks
Our industries are highly competitive, which may impact our ability to compete successfully with other hotel and timeshare properties for customers. We generally operate in markets that contain numerous competitors. Each of our hotel and timeshare brands competes with major hotel chains in national and international venues and with independent companies in regional markets. Our ability to remain competitive and to attract and retain business and leisure travelers depends on our success in distinguishing the quality, value, and efficiency of our lodging products and services from those offered by others. If we are unable to compete successfully in these areas, this could limit our operating margins, diminish our market share, and reduce our earnings.
We are subject to the range of operating risks common to the hotel, timeshare, and corporate apartment industries. The profitability of the hotels, vacation timeshare resorts, and corporate apartments that we operate or franchise may be adversely affected by a number of factors, including:
Any one or more of these factors could limit or reduce the demand or the prices our hotels are able to obtain for hotel rooms, timeshare units, residential units, and corporate apartments or could increase our costs and therefore reduce the profit of our lodging businesses. Reduced demand for hotels could also give rise to losses under loans, guarantees, and noncontrolling equity investments that we have made in connection with hotels that we manage. Even where such factors do not reduce demand, property-level profit margins may suffer if we are unable to fully recover increased operating costs from our guests. Similarly, our fee revenue could be impacted by weak property-level revenue or profitability.
Our hotel management and franchise agreements may also be subject to premature termination in certain circumstances, such as the bankruptcy of a hotel owner or franchisee, or a failure under some agreements to meet specified financial or performance criteria that are subject to the risks described in this section, which the Company fails or elects not to cure. A significant loss of agreements due to premature terminations could hurt our financial performance or our ability to grow our business.
General economic uncertainty and weak demand in the lodging and timeshare industries could continue to impact our financial results and growth. Weak economic conditions in the United States, Europe and much of the rest of the world and the uncertainty over the duration of these conditions could continue to have a negative impact on the lodging and timeshare industries. As a result of current economic conditions, we continue to experience weakened demand for our hotel rooms and timeshare products. Recent improvements in demand trends globally may not continue, and our future financial results and growth could be further harmed or constrained if the recovery was to stall or conditions were to worsen.
Proposed Spin-off Risk
The proposed spin-off of our Timeshare division may not occur as or when planned or at all, or could result in issues we do not yet anticipate. Unanticipated developments could delay, prevent the completion of, or otherwise adversely affect the proposed spin-off of our Timeshare division, including any problems or delays in obtaining financing for the new timeshare company, regulatory approvals, third-party consents, a favorable letter ruling from the Internal Revenue Service, or disruptions either in general market conditions or in the lodging or timeshare business. The transaction is also subject to final approval by our board of directors. Completion of the proposed spin-off may require significant time, effort, and expense, and may divert managements attention from other aspects of our business operations, which could adversely affect those operations. Any delays in completion of the proposed spin-off may increase the amount of time, effort, and expense that we devote to the transaction. Moreover, we may not be able to complete the spin-off on the terms currently anticipated as a result of financing issues or accommodations we may have to make to obtain the consent of regulators or other third parties.
In addition, if we complete the proposed spin-off, the actual results may differ materially from the results we anticipate. Specifically, the proposed transaction could adversely affect our relationships with our customers or employees (including those of the Timeshare division) or disrupt our operations. The separated businesses could also face unanticipated problems in operating independently, and thus may not achieve the anticipated benefits of the separation.
Our lodging operations are subject to global, regional and national conditions. Because we conduct our business on a global platform, our activities are susceptible to changes in the performance of both global and regional
economies. In recent years, our business has been hurt by decreases in travel resulting from weak economic conditions and the heightened travel security measures that have resulted from the threat of further terrorism. Our future economic performance could be similarly affected by the economic environment in each of the regions in which we operate, the resulting unknown pace of business travel, and the occurrence of any future incidents in those regions.
The growing significance of our operations outside of the United States also makes us increasingly susceptible to the risks of doing business internationally, which could lower our revenues, increase our costs, reduce our profits or disrupt our business. We currently operate or franchise hotels and resorts in 70 countries, and our operations outside the United States represented approximately 16 percent of our revenues in 2010. We expect that the international share of our total revenues will increase in future years. As a result, we are increasingly exposed to a number of challenges and risks associated with doing business outside the United States, including the following, any of which could reduce our revenues or profits, increase our costs, or disrupt our business: (1) compliance with complex and changing laws, regulations and policies of governments that may impact our operations, including foreign ownership restrictions, import and export controls, and trade restrictions; (2) compliance with U.S. laws that affect the activities of U.S. companies abroad; (3) limitations on our ability to repatriate non-U.S. earnings in a tax effective manner; (4) the difficulties involved in managing an organization doing business in many different countries; (5) uncertainties as to the enforceability of contract and intellectual property rights under local laws; and (6) rapid changes in government policy, political or civil unrest, acts of terrorism or the threat of international boycotts or U.S. anti-boycott legislation.
Our new programs and new branded products may not be successful. We cannot assure that our recently launched EDITION and Autograph Collection brands and Marriott Vacation Club Destination points-based timeshare program, the expected launch of AC Hotels by Marriott, or any new programs or products we may launch in the future will be accepted by hotel owners, potential franchisees, or the traveling public or other customers. We also cannot be certain that we will recover the costs we incurred in developing the brands or any new programs or products, or that the brands or any new programs or products will be successful. In addition, some of our new brands involve or may involve cooperation and/or consultation with one or more third parties, including some shared control over product design and development, sales and marketing, and brand standards. Disagreements with these third parties could slow the development of these new brands and/or impair our ability to take actions we believe to be advisable for the success and profitability of such brands.
Risks relating to natural or man-made disasters, contagious disease, terrorist activity, and war could reduce the demand for lodging, which may adversely affect our revenues. So called Acts of God, such as hurricanes, earthquakes, and other natural disasters, man-made disasters such as the recent oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, and the spread of contagious diseases, such as H1N1 Flu, Avian Flu, and SARS, in locations where we own, manage or franchise significant properties, and areas of the world from which we draw a large number of customers could cause a decline in the level of business and leisure travel and reduce the demand for lodging. Actual or threatened war, terrorist activity, political unrest, civil strife, and other geopolitical uncertainty could have a similar effect. Any one or more of these events may reduce the overall demand for hotel rooms, timeshare units, and corporate apartments or limit the prices that we are able to obtain for them, both of which could adversely affect our profits.
Disagreements with the owners of the hotels that we manage or franchise may result in litigation or may delay implementation of product or service initiatives. Consistent with our focus on management and franchising, we own very few of our lodging properties. The nature of our responsibilities under our management agreements to manage each hotel and enforce the standards required for our brands under both management and franchise agreements may be subject to interpretation and will from time to time give rise to disagreements, which may include disagreements over the need for or payment for new product or service initiatives. Such disagreements may be more likely while hotel returns are weaker as a result of the 2008 2009 economic slow down. We seek to resolve any disagreements in order to develop and maintain positive relations with current and potential hotel owners and joint venture partners but are not always able to do so. Failure to resolve such disagreements has resulted in litigation, and could do so in the future. If any such litigation results in a significant adverse judgment, settlement or court order, we could suffer significant losses, our profits could be reduced, or our future ability to operate our business could be constrained.
Damage to, or other potential losses involving, properties that we own, manage or franchise may not be covered by insurance. We have comprehensive property and liability insurance policies with coverage features and insured limits that we believe are customary. Market forces beyond our control may nonetheless limit the scope of the insurance coverage we can obtain or our ability to obtain coverage at reasonable rates. Certain types of losses, generally of a catastrophic nature, such as earthquakes, hurricanes and floods, or terrorist acts, may be uninsurable or too expensive to justify obtaining insurance. As a result, we may not be successful in obtaining insurance without increases in cost or decreases in coverage levels. In addition, in the event of a substantial loss, the insurance coverage we carry may not be sufficient to pay the full market value or replacement cost of our lost investment or
that of hotel owners or in some cases could result in certain losses being totally uninsured. As a result, we could lose some or all of the capital we have invested in a property, as well as the anticipated future revenue from the property, and we could remain obligated for guarantees, debt, or other financial obligations related to the property.
Development and Financing Risks
While we are predominantly a manager and franchisor of hotel properties, we depend on capital to buy, develop, and improve hotels and to develop timeshare properties, and we or our hotel owners may be unable to access capital when necessary. In order to fund new hotel investments, as well as refurbish and improve existing hotels, both the Company and current and potential hotel owners must periodically spend money. The availability of funds for new investments and improvement of existing hotels by our current and potential hotel owners depends in large measure on capital markets and liquidity factors, over which we can exert little control. Instability in the financial markets following the 2008 worldwide financial crisis and the contraction of available liquidity and leverage continue to constrain the capital markets for hotel and real estate investments. In addition, owners of existing hotels that we franchise or manage may have difficulty meeting required debt service payments or refinancing loans at maturity. While lenders have shown a willingness to work with borrowers to extend relief in the short- to medium- term, some current and prospective hotel owners are still finding new hotel financing on commercially viable terms to be challenging.
Our growth strategy depends upon third-party owners/operators, and future arrangements with these third parties may be less favorable. Our present growth strategy for development of additional lodging facilities entails entering into and maintaining various arrangements with property owners. The terms of our management agreements, franchise agreements, and leases for each of our lodging facilities are influenced by contract terms offered by our competitors, among other things. We cannot assure you that any of our current arrangements will continue or that we will be able to enter into future collaborations, renew agreements, or enter into new agreements in the future on terms that are as favorable to us as those that exist today.
Our ability to grow our management and franchise systems is subject to the range of risks associated with real estate investments. Our ability to sustain continued growth through management or franchise agreements for new hotels and the conversion of existing facilities to managed or franchised Marriott brands is affected, and may potentially be limited, by a variety of factors influencing real estate development generally. These include site availability, financing, planning, zoning and other local approvals, and other limitations that may be imposed by market and submarket factors, such as projected room occupancy, changes in growth in demand compared to projected supply, territorial restrictions in our management and franchise agreements, costs of construction, and anticipated room rate structure.
Our development activities expose us to project cost, completion, and resale risks. We develop new hotel, timeshare interval, fractional ownership, and residential properties, both directly and through partnerships, joint ventures, and other business structures with third parties. As demonstrated by the 2009 impairment charges associated with our Timeshare business, our ongoing involvement in the development of properties presents a number of risks, including that: (1) continued weakness in the capital markets may limit our ability, or that of third parties with whom we do business, to raise capital for completion of projects that have commenced or for development of future properties; (2) properties that we develop could become less attractive due to further decreases in demand for residential, fractional or interval ownership, increases in mortgage rates and/or decreases in mortgage availability, market absorption or oversupply, with the result that we may not be able to sell such properties for a profit or at the prices or selling pace we anticipate, potentially requiring additional changes in our pricing strategy that could result in further charges; (3) construction delays, cost overruns, lender financial defaults, or so called Acts of God such as earthquakes, hurricanes, floods or fires may increase overall project costs or result in project cancellations; and (4) we may be unable to recover development costs we incur for these projects that are not pursued to completion.
Development activities that involve our co-investment with third parties may result in disputes that could increase project costs, impair project operations, or increase project completion risks. Partnerships, joint ventures, and other business structures involving our co-investment with third parties generally include some form of shared control over the operations of the business and create additional risks, including the possibility that other investors in such ventures could become bankrupt or otherwise lack the financial resources to meet their obligations, or could have or develop business interests, policies or objectives that are inconsistent with ours. Although we actively seek to minimize such risks before investing in partnerships, joint ventures or similar structures, actions by another investor may present additional risks of project delay, increased project costs, or operational difficulties following project completion. Such disputes may also be more likely in the current difficult business environment.
Other Risks Associated with Timeshare and Residential Properties
Disruption in the credit markets could impair our ability to securitize the loans that our Timeshare business generates. Our Timeshare business provides financing to purchasers of our timeshare and fractional properties, and we periodically securitize interests in those loans in the capital markets. Disruption in the credit markets in the second half of 2008 and much of 2009 impaired the timing and volume of the timeshare loans that we securitized, as well as the financial terms of such securitizations. Improved market conditions in 2010 allowed us to successfully complete a securitization in the fourth quarter of 2010 on substantially more favorable terms. Nonetheless, any future deterioration in the financial markets could preclude, delay or increase the cost to us of future note securitizations, which could in turn cause us to reduce spending in order to maintain our leverage and return targets.
Risks associated with development and sale of residential properties that are associated with our lodging and timeshare properties or brands may reduce our profits. In certain hotel and timeshare projects we participate, through noncontrolling interests and/or licensing fees, in the development and sale of residential properties associated with our brands, including luxury residences and condominiums under our Ritz-Carlton and Marriott brands. Such projects pose additional risks beyond those generally associated with our lodging and timeshare businesses, which may reduce our profits or compromise our brand equity, including the following:
Purchaser defaults on the loans our Timeshare business generates could reduce our Timeshare revenues and profits. We are also subject to the risk of default on the financing we provide to purchasers of our timeshare and fractional properties. Purchaser defaults could force us to foreclose on the loan and reclaim ownership of the financed property, both for loans that we have not securitized and in our role as servicer for the loans we have securitized. If we cannot resell foreclosed properties in a timely manner or at a price sufficient to repay the loans and our costs, we could incur losses or impairment charges on loans we have yet to securitize or loss of future income from our residual interest in loans that we have securitized.
Technology, Information Protection, and Privacy Risks
A failure to keep pace with developments in technology could impair our operations or competitive position. The lodging and timeshare industries continue to demand the use of sophisticated technology and systems, including those used for our reservation, revenue management and property management systems, our Marriott Rewards and The Ritz-Carlton Rewards programs, and technologies we make available to our guests. These technologies and systems must be refined, updated, and/or replaced with more advanced systems on a regular basis. If we are unable to do so as quickly as our competitors or within budgeted costs and time frames, our business could suffer. We also may not achieve the benefits that we anticipate from any new technology or system, and a failure to do so could result in higher than anticipated costs or could impair our operating results.
An increase in the use of third-party Internet services to book online hotel reservations could adversely impact our business. Some of our hotel rooms are booked through Internet travel intermediaries such as Expedia.com®, Travelocity.com®, and Orbitz.com®, as well as lesser-known online travel service providers. These intermediaries initially focused on leisure travel, but now also provide offerings for corporate travel and group meetings. Although Marriotts Look No Further® Best Rate Guarantee has greatly reduced the ability of intermediaries to undercut the published rates at our hotels, intermediaries continue to use a variety of aggressive online marketing methods to attract customers, including the purchase, by certain companies, of trademarked online keywords such as Marriott from Internet search engines such as Google®, Bing® and Yahoo® to steer customers toward their websites (a practice currently being challenged by various trademark owners in federal court). Although Marriott has successfully limited these practices through contracts with key online intermediaries, the number of intermediaries and related companies that drive traffic to intermediaries websites is too large to permit us to eliminate this risk entirely. Our business and profitability could be harmed if online intermediaries succeed in significantly shifting loyalties from our lodging brands to their travel services, diverting bookings away from www.Marriott.com, or through their fees increasing the overall cost of Internet bookings for our hotels.
Failure to maintain the integrity of internal or customer data could result in faulty business decisions, operational inefficiencies, damage of reputation and/or subject us to costs, fines, or lawsuits. Our businesses require collection and retention of large volumes of internal and customer data, including credit card numbers and other personally identifiable information of our customers in various information systems and those of our service providers. We also maintain personally identifiable information about our employees. The integrity and protection of that customer, employee, and company data is critical to us. If that data is inaccurate or incomplete, we could make faulty decisions. Our customers and employees also have a high expectation that we and our service providers will adequately protect their personal information. The regulatory environment surrounding information, security and privacy is also increasingly demanding, in both the United States and other jurisdictions in which we operate. Our systems may be unable to satisfy changing regulatory requirements and employee and customer expectations, or may require significant additional investments or time in order to do so. Our information systems and records, including those we maintain with our service providers, may be subject to security breaches, system failures, viruses, operator error or inadvertent releases of data. A significant theft, loss, or fraudulent use of customer, employee, or company data maintained by us or by a service provider could adversely impact our reputation and could result in remedial and other expenses, fines, or litigation. A breach in the security of our information systems or those of our service providers could lead to an interruption in the operation of our systems, resulting in operational inefficiencies and a loss of profits.
Changes in privacy law could adversely affect our ability to market our products effectively. We rely on a variety of direct marketing techniques, including telemarketing, email marketing, and postal mailings. Any further restrictions in laws such as the Telemarketing Sales Rule, CANSPAM Act, and various U.S. state laws, or new federal laws, regarding marketing and solicitation or international data protection laws that govern these activities could adversely affect the continuing effectiveness of telemarketing, email, and postal mailing techniques and could force further changes in our marketing strategy. If this occurs, we may not be able to develop adequate alternative marketing strategies, which could impact the amount and timing of our sales of timeshare units and other products. We also obtain access to potential customers from travel service providers or other companies with whom we have substantial relationships and market to some individuals on these lists directly or by including our marketing message in the other companys marketing materials. If access to these lists was prohibited or otherwise restricted, our ability to develop new customers and introduce them to our products could be impaired.
Changes in tax and other laws and regulations could reduce our profits or increase our costs. Our businesses are subject to regulation under a wide variety of laws, regulations and policies in jurisdictions around the world. In response to the recent economic crisis and the recent recession, we anticipate that many of the jurisdictions in which we do business will review tax and other revenue raising laws, regulations and policies, and any resulting changes could impose new restrictions, costs or prohibitions on our current practices and reduce our profits. In particular, governments may revise tax laws, regulations or official interpretations in ways that could have a significant impact on us, including modifications that could reduce the profits that we can effectively realize from our non-U.S. operations, or that could require costly changes to those operations, or the way in which they are structured. For example, most U.S. company effective tax rates reflect the fact that income earned and reinvested outside the United States is generally taxed at local rates, which are often much lower than U.S. tax rates. If changes in tax laws, regulations or interpretations were to significantly increase the tax rates on non-U.S. income, our effective tax rate could increase, our profits could be reduced, and if such increases were a result of our status as a U.S. company, could place us at a disadvantage to our non-U.S. competitors if those competitors remain subject to lower local tax rates.
If we cannot attract and retain talented associates, our business could suffer. We compete with other companies both within and outside of our industry for talented personnel. If we are not able to recruit, train, develop, and retain sufficient numbers of talented associates, we could experience increased associate turnover, decreased guest satisfaction, low morale, inefficiency, or internal control failures. Insufficient numbers of talented associates could also limit our ability to grow and expand our businesses.
Delaware law and our governing corporate documents contain, and our Board of Directors could implement, anti-takeover provisions that could deter takeover attempts. Under the Delaware business combination statute, a stockholder holding 15 percent or more of our outstanding voting stock could not acquire us without Board of Director consent for at least three years after the date the stockholder first held 15 percent or more of the voting stock. Our governing corporate documents also, among other things, require supermajority votes in connection with mergers and similar transactions. In addition, our Board of Directors could, without stockholder approval, implement other anti-takeover defenses, such as a stockholders rights plan to replace the stockholders rights plan that expired in March 2008.
Company-operated properties are described in Part I, Item 1. Business, earlier in this report. We believe our properties are in generally good physical condition with the need for only routine repairs and maintenance and periodic capital improvements. Most of our regional offices and reservation centers, both domestically and internationally, are located in leased facilities. We also lease space in a number of buildings with combined space of approximately 1.3 million square feet in Maryland and Florida where our corporate, Ritz-Carlton, and Marriott Vacation Club International headquarters are located.
From time to time, we are subject to certain legal proceedings and claims in the ordinary course of business, including adjustments proposed during governmental examinations of the various tax returns we file. While management presently believes that the ultimate outcome of these proceedings, individually and in the aggregate, will not materially harm our financial position, cash flows, or overall trends in results of operations, legal proceedings are subject to inherent uncertainties, and unfavorable rulings could occur that could have individually or in aggregate, a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, or operating results.
Executive Officers of the Registrant
See Part III, Item 10 of this report for information about our executive officers.
Market Information and Dividends
The range of prices of our common stock and cash dividends declared per share for each quarterly period within the last two years are as follows:
Weak economic conditions in much of the world, instability in the financial markets, and weak consumer confidence all contributed to a difficult business environment in 2009. We responded aggressively to the economic climate by reducing costs and lowering investment spending throughout the company, and taking decisive measures to enhance our liquidity and manage our balance sheet. Accordingly, our Board of Directors (the Board) declared stock dividends, rather than cash dividends, in each of the 2009 second, third and fourth quarters. While the Board again declared a cash dividend in response to the improving business environment, of $0.04 per share in the 2010 first, second and third quarters and a cash dividend of $0.0875 per share in the 2010 fourth quarter, each quarter the Board considers whether and in what form to declare a dividend.
At January 28, 2011, there were 367,937,640 shares of Class A Common Stock outstanding held by 43,415 shareholders of record. Our Class A Common Stock is traded on the New York Stock Exchange and the Chicago Stock Exchange. The fiscal year-end closing price for our stock was $41.54 on December 31, 2010, and $27.25 on December 31, 2009. All prices are reported on the consolidated transaction reporting system.
Fourth Quarter 2010 Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
(in millions, except per share amounts)
The following table presents a summary of selected historical financial data for the Company derived from our financial statements as of and for our last ten fiscal years.
Since the information in this table is only a summary and does not provide all of the information contained in our financial statements, including the related notes, you should read Managements Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations and our Financial Statements in our Form 10-K for each respective year for more detailed information including, among other items, restructuring costs and other charges incurred in 2001, 2008, and 2009, and timeshare strategy - impairment charges incurred in 2009.
BUSINESS AND OVERVIEW
We are a worldwide operator and franchisor of 3,545 properties (618,104 rooms) and related facilities. The figures in the preceding sentence are as of year-end 2010 and include 34 home and condominium products (3,391 units) for which we manage the related owners associations. In addition, we provided 2,043 furnished corporate housing rental units, which are not included in the totals.
Our operations are grouped into five business segments: North American Full-Service Lodging, North American Limited-Service Lodging, International Lodging, Luxury Lodging, and Timeshare. We operate, develop, and franchise under numerous separate brand names in 70 countries and territories.
We earn base, incentive, and franchise fees based upon the terms of our management and franchise agreements. We earn revenues from the limited number of hotels we own or lease. We also generate revenues from the following sources associated with our Timeshare segment: (1) selling timeshare interval, fractional ownership, and residential properties; (2) operating the resorts and residential properties; (3) financing customer purchases of timesharing intervals; and (4) rentals. Finally, we earn fees in association with affinity card endorsements and the sale of branded residential real estate.
During 2010 we broadened our timeshare interval product offering to include the sale of the points-based Marriott Vacation Club Destinations timeshare program in North America and the Caribbean. The Marriott Vacation Club Destinations timeshare program offers greater flexibility, further personalization and more experience opportunities for participating timeshare owners. See the Marriott Vacation Club Destinations Timeshare Program caption later in this Form 10-K for additional information.
We sell residential real estate either in conjunction with luxury hotel development or on a stand-alone basis under The Ritz-Carlton brand (The Ritz-Carlton Residences) and in conjunction with Timeshare segment projects (The Ritz-Carlton Destination Club and Grand Residences by Marriott-Residential). Our Timeshare segment residential projects are typically opened over time. Other residences are typically constructed and sold by third-party developers with limited amounts, if any, of our capital at risk. While the worldwide residential market is very large, the luxurious nature of our residential properties, the quality and exclusivity associated with our brands, and the hospitality services that we provide, all serve to make our residential properties distinctive.
Business conditions for our lodging business improved in 2010. While the recent recession significantly impacted lodging demand and hotel pricing, occupancies began to improve late in 2009 and that improvement continued throughout 2010. Room rates began to stabilize and improve in some markets in the 2010 second quarter, and that improvement continued, strengthened and expanded to other markets throughout the rest of 2010. In 2010, worldwide average daily rates on a constant dollar basis stayed the same as 2009 for company-operated properties. Worldwide RevPAR for company-operated properties increased 6.3 percent on a constant dollar basis for 2010, as compared to 2009, and occupancy increased 4.1 percentage points to 68.7 percent.
While worldwide RevPAR for 2010 remained well below 2008 levels, we continued to see strengthening in properties in Asia, Europe, the Caribbean, Latin America, and in our luxury properties around the world. Our hotels in Asia are particularly benefitting from strong economic growth in that region. Additionally, hotels in North America experienced stronger demand from corporate transient and association group customers in 2010 as compared to 2009, and that demand continued to strengthen progressively during the 2010 period. However, property-level banquet and catering spending continues to be weak primarily reflecting tight budgets and fewer group functions; although we did experience some improvement late in 2010. During the 2010 first quarter, group meeting cancellations declined to typical levels, and expected revenue from group meetings continued to improve throughout 2010. While our booking windows for both group business and transient business remain very short, our pace of bookings for group business for future periods continued to improve throughout 2010.
We monitor market conditions continuously and carefully price our rooms daily to meet individual hotel demand levels. We modify the mix of our business to increase revenue as demand changes. Demand for higher rated rooms improved in 2010, which allowed us to reduce discounting and special offers for transient business. This mix improvement benefited average daily rates at many hotels.
Negotiated corporate business (special corporate business) represented 14 percent of our full-service hotel room nights for 2010 in North America. By late 2010, demand trends had further strengthened, and we had negotiated rates with more
than two-thirds of our 2011 special corporate rate clients. Those rates were meaningfully higher than those we negotiated in 2009 and early 2010. We typically negotiate and fix room rates associated with special corporate business in advance of the year to which they apply, which limits our ability to raise these rates quickly. We expect to complete negotiations with our remaining special corporate business clients in the 2011 first quarter. In negotiating pricing for this segment of business, we do not focus strictly on volume, but instead carefully evaluate the relationship with our customers, including for example, stay patterns (day of week and season), locations of stays, non-room spend, and aggregate spend.
Group business pricing is also inflexible in the near term, as some group business may be booked several years in advance of guest arrival. However, as a result of the recent recession, shorter group booking windows became more common for 2010 than they were in prior years. Accordingly, with strengthening demand, group business booked in 2010 showed stronger price improvement than business booked in 2009, and in-the-year-for-the-year bookings also increased in 2010.
Properties in our system are maintaining very tight cost controls, as we continue to focus on enhancing property-level house profit margins. Where appropriate for market conditions, we have maintained many of our 2009 property-level cost saving initiatives such as adjusting menus and restaurant hours, modifying room amenities, cross-training personnel, utilizing personnel at multiple properties where feasible, and not filling some vacant positions. We also reduced above-property costs, which are allocated to hotels, by scaling back systems, processing, and support areas. In addition, we have not filled certain above-property vacant positions, and have required where legally permitted and elsewhere encouraged employees to use their vacation time accrued during 2010.
Our lodging business model involves managing and franchising hotels, rather than owning them. At year-end 2010, we operated 45 percent of the hotel rooms in our system under management agreements, our franchisees operated 53 percent under franchise agreements, and we owned or leased 2 percent. Our emphasis on long-term management contracts and franchising tends to provide more stable earnings in periods of economic softness, while the addition of new hotels to our system generates growth. This strategy has allowed substantial growth while reducing financial leverage and risk in a cyclical industry. In addition, we increase our financial flexibility by reducing our capital investments and adopting a strategy of recycling the investments that we make.
We consider RevPAR, which we calculate by dividing room sales for comparable properties by room nights available to guests for the period, to be a meaningful indicator of our performance because it measures the period-over-period change in room revenues for comparable properties. RevPAR may not be comparable to similarly titled measures, such as revenues. References to RevPAR throughout this report are in constant dollars, unless otherwise noted.
Company-operated house profit margin is the ratio of property-level gross operating profit (also known as house profit) to total property-level revenue. We consider house profit margin to be a meaningful indicator of our performance because this ratio measures our overall ability as the operator to produce property-level profits by generating sales and controlling the operating expenses over which we have the most direct control. House profit includes room, food and beverage, and other revenue and the related expenses including payroll and benefits expenses, as well as repairs and maintenance, utility, general and administrative, and sales and marketing expenses. House profit does not include the impact of management fees, furniture, fixtures and equipment replacement reserves, insurance, taxes, or other fixed expenses.
For our North American comparable properties, systemwide RevPAR (which includes data from our franchised, managed, owned, and leased properties) increased by 4.9 percent in 2010, compared to 2009, reflecting improved occupancy levels in most markets, partially offset by a modest decline in average daily rates. For our properties outside North America, systemwide RevPAR for 2010 increased 9.2 percent versus 2009, reflecting improved occupancy levels, partially offset by a modest decline in average daily rates.
We launched the points-based Marriott Vacation Club Destinations timeshare program (MVCD Program) in North America and the Caribbean in June 2010, and we are initially focusing our marketing efforts on existing customers. As a result, in 2010, contract sales to existing owners increased 31 percent while sales to new customers declined. We expect accelerated sales to new customers in 2011. See the Marriott Vacation Club Destinations Timeshare Program caption later in this Form 10-K for additional information.
Contract sales for our timeshare, fractional, and residential products increased modestly in 2010, compared to 2009, largely due to a decline in contract sales cancellation allowances. We adjust our contract sales for cancellation allowances that we record in anticipation that a portion of contract revenue previously recorded for certain residential and fractional projects would not be realized due to pre-closing contract cancellations. At the same time, contract sales were constrained by difficult comparisons driven by sales promotions begun in 2009. By the end of 2010, timeshare pricing improved because we had largely discontinued or reduced the purchase incentives and targeted marketing efforts instituted in 2009.
Rental revenues increased in 2010 with stronger leisure demand for our Marriott Vacation Club product and greater available rental inventory. Demand for fractional and residential units remains weak. Sales and marketing costs as a percentage of contract sales continue to improve. As with Lodging, our Timeshare properties continue to maintain very tight cost controls, and we have not filled certain vacant positions, and have required where legally permitted and elsewhere encouraged employees to use their vacation time accrued during 2010.
Since the sale of timeshare and fractional intervals and condominiums follows the percentage-of-completion accounting method, current demand may not always be reflected in our Timeshare segment results until later accounting periods.
On January 2, 2010, the first day of our 2010 fiscal year, we adopted the new Transfers of Financial Assets and Consolidation standards. As a result of adopting these standards in the 2010 first quarter, we consolidated 13 existing qualifying special purpose entities associated with past securitization transactions, and we recorded a one-time non-cash after-tax reduction to shareholders equity of $146 million ($238 million pretax) in the 2010 first quarter, representing the cumulative effect of a change in accounting principle.
See Footnote No. 1, Summary of Significant Accounting Policies, of the Notes to our Financial Statements for more detailed information on our adoption of these new accounting topics, including the impact to our Balance Sheet and Statement of Income.
The following discussion presents an analysis of results of our operations for 2010, 2009, and 2008.
2010 Compared to 2009
Revenues increased by $783 million (7 percent) to $11,691 million in 2010 from $10,908 million in 2009, as a result of higher: cost reimbursements revenue ($557 million); Timeshare sales and services revenue ($98 million); base management and franchise fees ($73 million); incentive management fees ($28 million (comprised of a $12 million increase for North America and a $16 million increase outside of North America)); and owned, leased, corporate housing, and other revenue ($27 million).
The increase in Timeshare sales and services revenue to $1,221 million in 2010, from $1,123 million in 2009, primarily reflected higher financing revenue due to higher interest income and to a lesser extent higher services revenue reflecting increased rental occupancy levels and rates. These favorable impacts were partially offset by lower development revenue reflecting lower sales volumes primarily associated with tough comparisons driven by sales promotions begun in 2009, a $20 million increase in reserves (we now reserve for 100 percent of notes that are in default in addition to the reserve we record on notes not in default), and lower sales to new customers in our initial launch of the MVCD Program. See BUSINESS SEGMENTS: Timeshare later in this report for additional information on our Timeshare segment.
The increases in base management fees, to $562 million in 2010 from $530 million in 2009, and in franchise fees, to $441 million in 2010 from $400 million in 2009, primarily reflected stronger RevPAR and the impact of unit growth across the system. The increase in incentive management fees, to $182 million in 2010 from $154 million in 2009, primarily reflected higher property-level revenue and continued tight property-level cost controls that improved 2010 margins compared to 2009 and, to a lesser extent, new unit growth.
The increase in owned, leased, corporate housing, and other revenue, to $1,046 million in 2010, from $1,019 million in 2009, largely reflected $14 million of higher hotel agreement termination fees associated with six properties that exited our system, $8 million of higher branding fees, $6 million of higher revenue for owned and leased properties, and $5 million of higher other revenue. Partially offsetting these favorable variances was a one-time $6 million transaction cancellation fee received in 2009. The increase in owned and leased revenue primarily reflected increased RevPAR and occupancy levels. Combined branding fees associated with affinity card endorsements and the sale of branded residential real estate totaled $78 million and $70 million in 2010 and 2009, respectively.
Cost reimbursements revenue represents reimbursements of costs incurred on behalf of managed and franchised properties and relates, predominantly, to payroll costs at managed properties where we are the employer. As we record cost reimbursements based upon costs incurred with no added markup, this revenue and related expense has no impact on either our operating income or net income attributable to us. The increase in cost reimbursements revenue, to $8,239 million in 2010 from $7,682 million in 2009, reflected the impact of growth across the system, partially offset by lower property-level
costs in response to cost controls. Net of hotels exiting the system, we added 4,287 managed rooms and 17,024 franchised rooms to our system in 2010.
2009 Compared to 2008
Revenues decreased by $1,971 million (15 percent) to $10,908 million in 2009 from $12,879 million in 2008, as a result of lower: cost reimbursements revenue ($1,152 million); Timeshare sales and services revenue ($300 million); owned, leased, corporate housing, and other revenue ($206 million); incentive management fees ($157 million (comprised of $108 million for North America and $49 million outside of North America)); base management fees ($105 million (comprised of $79 million for North America and $26 million outside of North America)); and franchise fees ($51 million).
The decrease in cost reimbursements revenue, to $7,682 million in 2009 from $8,834 million in 2008, reflected lower property-level costs, in response to lower occupancy and cost controls, partially offset by the impact of growth across the system. We added 35 managed properties (8,574 rooms) and 200 franchised properties (25,136 rooms) to our system in 2009, net of properties exiting the system.
The decrease in Timeshare sales and services revenue of $300 million (21 percent), to $1,123 million in 2009, from $1,423 million in 2008, primarily reflected lower demand for timeshare intervals and to a lesser extent, residential products and the Asia Pacific points program, as well as lower revenue from projects with limited available inventory in 2009, and lower reacquired and resales revenue and services revenue. The decrease was partially offset by higher revenue from projects that became reportable subsequent to 2008 and higher financing revenue. See BUSINESS SEGMENTS: Timeshare, later in this report for additional information on our Timeshare segment.
The decrease in owned, leased, corporate housing, and other revenue, to $1,019 million in 2009, from $1,225 million in 2008, largely reflected $183 million of lower revenue for owned and leased properties, $19 million of lower revenue associated with our corporate housing business, $14 million of lower hotel agreement termination fees, and $5 million of lower branding fees associated with the sale of residential real estate, partially offset by $11 million of increased branding fees associated with our affinity credit card and a $3 million favorable impact related to a property that was being renovated during 2008, and as a result was not operating at full capacity. Combined branding fees associated with affinity card endorsements and the sale of branded residential real estate totaled $70 million and $64 million in 2009 and 2008, respectively. The decrease in owned and leased revenue primarily reflected RevPAR declines associated with weak lodging demand.
The decrease in incentive management fees, to $154 million in 2009 from $311 million in 2008, reflected lower property-level revenue, associated with weak demand, lower RevPAR, and the associated lower property-level operating income and margins in 2009 compared to 2008. Most incentive management fees are earned only after each hotel earns a minimum return for the hotels owner. With particularly weak demand and low property-level operating income in 2009, most managed hotels did not have sufficient operating income to allow us to earn an incentive fee. In 2009, only 25 percent of managed hotels paid incentive fees to us, as compared to 56 percent in 2008. The decreases in base management fees, to $530 million in 2009 from $635 million in 2008, and franchise fees, to $400 million in 2009 from $451 million in 2008, both reflected RevPAR declines driven by weaker demand, partially offset by the favorable impact of unit growth across the system.
Timeshare Strategy-Impairment Charges
In 2009 we recorded pretax charges totaling $752 million in our Income Statement ($502 million after-tax), including $614 million of pretax charges that impacted operating income under the Timeshare strategy-impairment charges caption, and $138 million of pretax charges that impacted non-operating income under the Timeshare strategy-impairment charges (non-operating) caption. The $752 million of pretax impairment charges were non-cash, other than $27 million of charges associated with ongoing mezzanine loan fundings and $21 million of charges for purchase commitments.
See Footnote No. 18, Timeshare Strategy-Impairment Charges, of the Notes to our Financial Statements for additional information, including a table showing the composition of the charges.
Restructuring Costs and Other Charges
As a result of the restructuring actions we began in the fourth quarter of 2008, we incurred $55 million in restructuring costs in the fourth quarter of 2008. As part of these actions we initiated further cost savings measures in 2009 associated with our Timeshare segment, hotel development, above-property level management, and corporate overhead. These further measures resulted in additional restructuring costs of $51 million in 2009. For additional information on the 2008 and 2009 restructuring costs, including the types of restructuring costs incurred in total and by segment, please see Footnote No. 21, Restructuring Costs and Other Charges, of the Notes to the Financial Statements in our 2009 Form 10-K. For the cumulative restructuring costs incurred since inception and a roll forward of the restructuring liability through year-end
2010, please see Footnote No. 19, Restructuring Costs and Other Charges, of the Notes to our Financial Statements in this
As a result of our restructuring efforts, we realized the following annual cost savings in 2010, which were primarily reflected in our Income Statement under the expense captions noted: (i) $113 million ($73 million after-tax) for our Timeshare segment, under Timeshare-direct and General, administrative, and other; (ii) $12 million ($8 million after-tax) for hotel development across several of our Lodging segments, primarily under General, administrative, and other; and (iii) $10 million ($8 million after-tax) for reducing above property-level lodging management personnel under General, administrative, and other.
Operating Income (Loss)
2010 Compared to 2009
Operating income increased by $847 million to operating income of $695 million in 2010 from an operating loss of $152 million in 2009. The increase in operating income reflected a favorable variance of $614 million related to Timeshare strategy-impairment charges recorded in 2009, $116 million of higher Timeshare sales and services revenue net of direct expenses, a $73 million increase in base management and franchise fees, a $51 million decrease in restructuring costs, $28 million of higher incentive management fees, and $23 million of higher owned, leased, corporate housing, and other revenue net of direct expenses, partially offset by a $58 million increase in general, administrative, and other expenses. We note the reasons for the increase of $73 million in base management and franchise fees as well as the increase of $28 million in incentive management fees as compared to 2009 in the preceding Revenues section.
Timeshare sales and services revenue net of direct expenses in 2010 totaled $199 million. The increase of $116 million as compared to 2009, primarily reflected $78 million of higher financing revenue, net of expenses, which largely reflected increased interest income associated with the impact of consolidating previously unconsolidated securitized notes under the new Transfers of Financial Assets and Consolidation standards, $33 million of higher development revenue net of product costs and marketing and selling costs, and $8 million of higher other revenue, net of expenses partially offset by $3 million of lower services revenue net of expenses. Higher development revenue net of product costs and marketing and selling costs primarily reflected both lower product costs due to lower sales volumes and lower marketing and selling costs in 2010, as well as favorable variances from both a $10 million charge related to an issue with a state tax authority and a net $3 million impact from contract cancellation allowances in 2009, partially offset by lower development revenue for the reasons stated in the preceding Revenues section. See BUSINESS SEGMENTS: Timeshare, later in this report for additional information on our Timeshare segment.
The $23 million (34 percent) increase in owned, leased, corporate housing, and other revenue net of direct expenses was primarily attributable to $12 million of higher hotel agreement termination fees net of property closing costs, $8 million of higher branding fees, a $4 million reversal of a liability related to a hotel that closed in 2010, and net stronger results at some owned and leased properties due to higher RevPAR and property-level margins, partially offset by additional rent expense associated with one property and an unfavorable variance from a one-time $6 million transaction cancellation fee received in 2009.
General, administrative, and other expenses increased by $58 million (8 percent) to $780 million in 2010 from $722 million in 2009. The increase primarily reflected the following 2010 charges: an $84 million long-lived asset impairment associated with a capitalized revenue management software asset (which we did not allocate to any of our segments); a $13 million long-lived asset impairment (allocated to our Timeshare segment); and a $14 million long-lived asset impairment (allocated to our North American Limited-Service segment). See Footnote No. 8, Property and Equipment, of the Notes to our Financial Statements for additional information regarding these three impairment charges. In addition, we recorded a $4 million contract acquisition cost impairment charge (allocated to our North American Full-Service segment) in 2010. See the North American Full-Service segment discussion for additional information regarding this impairment charge. Also contributing to the year-over-year increase was $35 million of higher incentive compensation costs, $14 million of increased other expenses primarily associated with initiatives to enhance our brands globally, $7 million of increased currency exchange losses, and $2 million of increased legal expenses. These unfavorable variances were partially offset by an $8 million reversal in 2010 of guarantee accruals, primarily related to a completion guarantee for which we satisfied the related requirements, and a $4 million reversal of excess accruals for net asset tax based on the receipt of final assessments from a taxing authority located outside the United States. In addition, the comparison reflects the following 2009 expenses that we did not incur in 2010: $49 million of impairment charges related to two security deposits that we deemed unrecoverable in 2009 due, in part, to our decision not to fund certain cash flow shortfalls, partially offset by an $11 million reversal of the 2008 accrual for the funding of those cash flow shortfalls; a $7 million write-off of Timeshare segment capitalized software costs; and $4 million of bad debt expense on an accounts receivable balance. The year-over-year comparison also reflected a $15 million favorable variance in deferred compensation expenses (with changes to our deferred compensation plan, general, administrative, and other expenses for 2010 had no deferred
compensation impact, compared with $15 million of mark-to-market valuation expenses in 2009). The increase in general, administrative, and other expenses was also partially offset by the elimination of the loan loss provision in 2010, compared with a $43 million provision in 2009, which reflected $29 million associated with one Luxury segment project and $14 million associated with a North American Limited-Service segment portfolio.
The $58 million increase in total general, administrative, and other expenses was comprised of: a $77 million increase that we did not allocate to any of our segments; a $5 million increase impacting our Timeshare segment; an $8 million decrease impacting our North American Limited-Service segment; an $8 million decrease impacting our Luxury segment; a $7 million decrease impacting our North American Full-Service segment; and a $1 million decrease impacting our International segment.
2009 Compared to 2008
Operating income decreased by $917 million (120 percent) to an operating loss of $152 million in 2009 from operating income of $765 million in 2008. The decrease in operating income reflected Timeshare strategy-impairment charges in 2009 of $614 million, $157 million of lower incentive management fees, a $156 million decrease in combined base management and franchise fees, $69 million of lower owned, leased, corporate housing, and other revenue net of direct expenses, $6 million of lower Timeshare sales and services revenue net of direct expenses, partially offset by an $81 million decrease in general, administrative, and other expenses and a decrease in restructuring costs of $4 million. In the preceding Revenues section, we note the reasons for the decrease of $157 million in incentive management fees as well as the decrease of $156 million in combined base management and franchise fees as compared to 2008.
Timeshare sales and services revenue net of direct expenses in 2009 totaled $83 million. The decline of $6 million (7 percent) from $89 million in 2008 primarily reflected $50 million of lower development revenue net of product costs and marketing and selling costs and $17 million of lower services revenue net of expenses, mostly offset by $43 million of higher financing revenue net of financing expenses, $15 million of higher other revenue, net of expenses, and $3 million of higher reacquired and resales revenue, net of expenses. Lower development revenue net of product, marketing and selling costs primarily reflected lower revenue for timeshare intervals and to a lesser extent, lower revenue net of costs for our Asia Pacific points program, and a $10 million charge related to an issue with a state tax authority, partially offset by favorable reportability for several projects that reached revenue recognition reportability thresholds after 2008 and favorable variances from both a $22 million 2008 pretax impairment charge related to a joint venture that we fully consolidate ($10 million net of noncontrolling interest benefit) and a $9 million 2008 inventory write-down related to the termination of certain phases of timeshare development in Europe. Higher financing revenue net of financing expenses reflected higher note securitization gains, increased residual interest accretion, a decrease in the adjustment to the fair market value of residual interests, and a decrease in the cost of financing, partially offset by lower interest income. Lower services revenue net of expenses reflected weak demand for rentals and increased maintenance cost for unsold inventory. See BUSINESS SEGMENTS: Timeshare later in this section for additional information regarding our Timeshare segment.
The $69 million (50 percent) decrease in owned, leased, corporate housing, and other revenue net of direct expenses was primarily attributable to a decline of $65 million in revenue, net of expenses primarily associated with weaker demand at owned and leased properties, as well as our corporate housing business, $14 million of lower hotel agreement termination fees, and $5 million of lower branding fees associated with sale of residential real estate, partially offset by $11 million of increased branding fees associated with our affinity credit card and a $3 million favorable impact related to a property that was being renovated during 2008, and as a result was not operating at full capacity.
General, administrative, and other expenses decreased by $81 million (10 percent) to $722 million in 2009 from $803 million in 2008. The decrease primarily reflected $186 million of lower expenses, largely due to cost savings generated from the restructuring efforts initiated in 2008 and lower incentive compensation as well as a $12 million favorable variance due to development cancellations in 2008. Additionally, in 2009 we reached final settlement regarding the Delta Airlines lease investment and recorded a $3 million recovery of the investment previously reserved in the General, administrative, and other expense caption on our Income Statement. For additional information regarding the Delta Airlines lease investment, see the Investment in Leveraged Lease caption in Managements Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations in our 2008 Form 10-K. These benefits were partially offset by the following items: $49 million of impairment charges for two security deposits that we deemed unrecoverable in 2009 due, in part, to our decision not to fund certain cash flow shortfalls, partially offset by a $15 million accrual in 2008 for the expected funding of those cash flow shortfalls and an $11 million reversal in 2009 of the remaining balance of that 2008 accrual due to the decision to no longer fund those cash flow shortfalls; 2009 provisions for loan losses of $43 million for two loans partially offset by a $22 million favorable variance from a 2008 provision on a fully impaired loan; an $8 million impairment charge related to the write-off of contract acquisition costs for one property; a $7 million write-off of Timeshare segment capitalized software costs; $12 million of expenses primarily related to write-offs of other assets that we deemed non-recoverable, performance cure accruals, and guarantee accruals associated with 12 hotels; and $4 million of bad debt expense on an accounts receivable balance. Additionally, 2009 included a $15 million unfavorable impact
associated with deferred compensation expenses, compared to a $28 million favorable impact in 2008, both of which reflected mark-to-market valuations. Of the $81 million decrease in total general, administrative, and other expenses, a $1 million increase was attributable to our Lodging segments, a $31 million decrease was attributable to our Timeshare segment, and a $51 million decrease was unallocated.
Gains (Losses) and Other Income (Expense)
The table below shows our gains (losses) and other income for 2010, 2009, and 2008:
2010 Compared to 2009
We did not extinguish any debt in 2010. In 2009, we repurchased $122 million principal amount of our Senior Notes in the open market, across multiple series. The $21 million gain on debt extinguishment in 2009 represents the difference between the $98 million purchase price and the $119 million net carrying amount of Senior Notes we repurchased during the period. The $5 million impairment of equity securities in 2009 reflected an other-than-temporary impairment of marketable securities in accordance with the guidance for accounting for certain investments in debt and equity securities. For additional information on the impairment, see Footnote No. 5, Fair Value Measurements, of the Notes to the Financial Statements in our 2009 Form 10-K.
2009 Compared to 2008
See the previous paragraph for information on our debt extinguishment and impairment of equity securities in 2009. We did not extinguish any debt in 2008.
2010 Compared to 2009
Interest expense increased by $62 million (53 percent) to $180 million in 2010 compared to $118 million in 2009. This increase was driven by: (1) the consolidation of $1,121 million of debt in the 2010 first quarter associated with previously securitized notes, which resulted in a $55 million increase in interest expense in 2010 related to that debt; (2) a $14 million unfavorable variance from 2009 as a result of lower capitalized interest in 2010 associated with construction projects; and (3) $12 million of higher interest expense in 2010 associated with our executive deferred compensation plan. These increases were partially offset by: (1) $12 million of lower interest expense associated with our repurchase of $122 million of principal amount of our Senior Notes in 2009, the maturity of our Series C Senior Notes in the 2009 fourth quarter and other net debt reductions; and (2) a $7 million decrease in interest expense associated with our $2.4 billion multicurrency revolving credit facility (our Credit Facility), which primarily reflected lower average borrowings.
2009 Compared to 2008
Interest expense decreased by $45 million (28 percent) to $118 million in 2009 compared to $163 million in 2008. Interest expense associated with commercial paper and our Credit Facility decreased by $25 million reflecting the repayment of our commercial paper in 2008 and increased borrowings under the Credit Facility with a lower interest rate. We also benefited from a $26 million decrease in interest costs associated with various programs that we operate on behalf of owners (including our Marriott Rewards, gift certificates, and self-insurance programs) as a result of lower interest rates, and the repurchase of some of our Senior Notes across multiple series in the 2008 fourth quarter and 2009 first quarter (see Liquidity and Capital Resources in our 2009 Form 10-K for additional information), which resulted in a $12 million reduction to interest expense, and finally, other interest expense decreases of $5 million. These decreases in interest expense were partially offset by a $23 million unfavorable variance to 2008 as a result of lower capitalized interest in 2009 associated with construction projects.
Interest Income and Income Tax
2010 Compared to 2009
Interest income decreased by $6 million (24 percent) to $19 million in 2010, from $25 million in 2009, primarily reflecting a $4 million decrease associated with a loan that we determined was impaired in 2009. Because we recognize
interest on impaired loans on a cash basis, we did not recognize any interest on this loan after its impairment. The decline in interest income also reflected a $2 million decrease due to a reduction in principal due associated with one loan.
Our income tax expense increased by $158 million (243 percent) to a provision of $93 million in 2010 from a benefit of $65 million in 2009. The increase was primarily due to pretax income in 2010 (as compared to a pretax loss in 2009) and $14 million of higher tax expense associated with changes to our deferred compensation plan (there were no 2010 plan changes impacting deferred compensation expenses, compared with changes which had a $14 million favorable impact in 2009). The increase was partially offset by a lower tax rate in 2010, as 2009 reflected $52 million of income tax expense primarily related to the treatment of funds received from certain non-U.S. subsidiaries. In the 2010 fourth quarter, we settled issues with the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) on our treatment of funds received from certain non-U.S. subsidiaries. In conjunction with that settlement, we recorded an $85 million benefit to our income tax provision in 2010. Our 2010 income tax expense also reflected a $12 million benefit we recorded primarily associated with revisions to prior years estimated foreign tax expense.
2009 Compared to 2008
Interest income decreased by $14 million (36 percent) to $25 million in 2009, from $39 million in 2008, primarily reflecting $8 million of interest income we recorded in 2008 for three loans that subsequently became impaired. Because we recognize interest on impaired loans on a cash basis, we did not recognize any interest on these impaired loans in 2009. The decline in interest income also reflected $5 million of lower interest income due to a decline in interest rates on our cash balances, $2 million of previously reserved interest income collected in 2008, and $2 million of lower interest income in 2009 reflecting a reduction in principal due associated with one loan, partially offset by $4 million of additional interest income from new loans funded at year-end 2008 and in 2009.
Our tax provision decreased by $415 million (119 percent) to a benefit of $65 million in 2009 from a provision of $350 million in 2008, reflecting a pretax loss in 2009 and $43 million of lower tax expense associated with our deferred compensation plan. The decrease was partially offset by an increase to the effective tax rate in 2009 due to a change in our mix of worldwide income resulting from substantial reductions of non-U.S. income in jurisdictions with low tax rates. The 2009 tax rate also reflected $52 million of income tax expense, primarily related to the treatment of funds received from certain non-U.S. subsidiaries, an issue that was the subject of ongoing discussions at that time between us and the IRS. The charges recorded in 2009 primarily related to our then current exposure related to this issue. In addition to tax expense on pretax earnings, tax expense for 2008 also reflected: (1) $29 million of income tax expense primarily related to an unfavorable U.S. Court of Federal Claims decision involving a refund claim associated with a 1994 tax planning transaction; (2) $19 million of income tax expense due primarily to prior years tax adjustments, including a settlement with the IRS that resulted in a lower than expected refund of taxes associated with a 1995 leasing transaction; and (3) $24 million of income tax expense related to the tax treatment of funds received from certain non-U.S. subsidiaries.
Equity in (Losses) Earnings
2010 Compared to 2009
Equity in losses of $18 million in 2010 decreased by $48 million from equity in losses of $66 million in 2009 and primarily reflected favorable variances from a $30 million impairment charge associated with a Luxury segment joint venture investment that we determined was fully impaired and a $3 million impairment charge for a joint venture that we did not allocate to one of our segments, both incurred in 2009. In the 2010 fourth quarter we also recorded an $11 million reversal of a funding liability (recorded in 2009) due to progress in that quarter on certain construction-related legal claims and other factors. See Footnote No. 18, Timeshare Strategy-Impairment Charges, of the Notes to our Financial Statements for additional information regarding this reversal. Increased earnings of $5 million for our International segment joint ventures and $3 million of lower cancellation reserves at our Timeshare segment joint venture also contributed to the decrease in equity in losses. A 2010 impairment charge of $5 million associated with our North American Limited-Service segment joint venture partially offset the favorable impacts.
2009 Compared to 2008
Equity in losses of $66 million in 2009 increased by $81 million from equity in earnings of $15 million in 2008 and primarily reflected a $30 million impairment charge in 2009 associated with a Luxury segment joint venture investment that we determined to be fully impaired. The decrease in joint venture equity earnings also reflected an unfavorable comparison to $15 million of equity earnings in 2008 from a joint venture that sold portfolio assets and had significant associated gains, and $5 million of earnings in 2008 from another joint venture primarily reflecting insurance proceeds received by that joint venture. Further contributing to the decline were $24 million of decreased earnings in 2009 for a Timeshare segment joint venture residential and fractional project, $7 million of equity losses associated with a North American Limited-Service segment joint venture, a $3 million impairment and $2 million of other equity losses associated with an International segment joint venture, and $9 million of equity losses at certain other joint ventures, all of which were negatively affected by the weak demand environment. The unfavorable impacts also included a $3 million impairment
charge for a joint venture that is not allocated to one of our segments and for which we do not expect to recover our investment. These decreases were partially offset by an unfavorable $11 million impact in 2008 associated with tax law changes in a country in which two international joint ventures operate and a 2008 impairment charge of $9 million associated with one Luxury segment joint venture under development. See Footnote No. 21, Restructuring Costs and Other Charges, of the Notes to the Financial Statements in our 2009 Form 10-K for more information on some of these joint venture impairments.
Net Losses Attributable to Noncontrolling Interests
2010 Compared to 2009
Net losses attributable to noncontrolling interests decreased by $7 million in 2010 to zero, compared to $7 million in 2009. The benefit for net losses attributable to noncontrolling interests in 2009 of $7 million are net of tax and reflected our partners share of losses totaling $11 million associated with joint ventures we consolidate, net of our partners share of tax benefits of $4 million associated with the losses.
2009 Compared to 2008
Net losses attributable to noncontrolling interests decreased by $8 million in 2009 to $7 million compared to $15 million in 2008.
Income (Loss) from Continuing Operations
2010 Compared to 2009
Income from continuing operations of $458 million in 2010 increased by $811 million (230 percent) from a loss of $353 million in 2009, income from continuing operations attributable to Marriott of $458 million in 2010 increased by $804 million (232 percent) from a loss of $346 million in 2009, and diluted income per share from continuing operations attributable to Marriott of $1.21 per share increased by $2.18 (225 percent) from losses of $0.97 per share in 2009. As discussed in more detail in the preceding sections beginning with Operating Income (Loss), the $458 million increase in income from continuing operations compared to the prior year was due to a favorable variance related to Timeshare strategy-impairment charges in 2009 ($752 million), higher Timeshare sales and services revenue net of direct expenses ($116 million), lower restructuring costs ($51 million), higher base management and franchise fees ($73 million), lower equity in losses ($48 million), higher incentive management fees ($28 million), higher owned, leased, corporate housing, and other revenue net of direct expenses ($23 million), and higher gains and other income ($4 million). These favorable variances were partially offset by higher income taxes ($158 million), higher general, administrative, and other expenses ($58 million), higher interest expense ($62 million), and lower interest income ($6 million).
2009 Compared to 2008
Compared to the prior year, loss from continuing operations increased by $697 million (203 percent) to a 2009 loss of $353 million from 2008 income of $344 million, loss from continuing operations attributable to Marriott increased by $705 million (196 percent) to a 2009 loss of $346 million from 2008 income of $359 million, and diluted losses per share from continuing operations attributable to Marriott increased by $1.94 (200 percent) to $0.97 per share from earnings of $0.97 per share. As discussed in more detail in the preceding sections beginning with Operating Income (Loss), the $697 million increase in loss from continuing operations compared to the prior year was due to 2009 Timeshare strategy-impairment charges ($752 million), lower incentive management fees ($157 million), lower base management and franchise fees ($156 million), lower equity in earnings ($81 million), lower owned, leased, corporate housing, and other revenue net of direct expenses ($69 million), lower interest income ($14 million), lower gains and other income ($7 million), and lower Timeshare sales and services revenue net of direct expenses ($6 million). Lower income taxes ($415 million), lower general, administrative, and other expenses ($81 million), lower interest expense ($45 million), and lower restructuring costs ($4 million) partially offset the unfavorable variances.
Earnings Before Interest Expense, Taxes, Depreciation and Amortization (EBITDA) and Adjusted EBITDA
EBITDA, a financial measure which is not prescribed or authorized by United States generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP), reflects earnings excluding the impact of interest expense, provision for income taxes, depreciation and amortization. We consider EBITDA to be an indicator of operating performance because we use it to measure our ability to service debt, fund capital expenditures, and expand our business. We also use EBITDA, as do analysts, lenders, investors and others, to evaluate companies because it excludes certain items that can vary widely across different industries or among companies within the same industry. For example, interest expense can be dependent on a companys capital structure, debt levels and credit ratings. Accordingly, the impact of interest expense on earnings can vary significantly among companies. The tax positions of companies can also vary because of their differing abilities to take advantage of tax benefits and because of the tax policies of the jurisdictions in which they operate. As a result, effective tax rates and provision for income taxes can vary considerably among companies. EBITDA also excludes depreciation and
amortization because companies utilize productive assets of different ages and use different methods of both acquiring and depreciating productive assets. These differences can result in considerable variability in the relative costs of productive assets and the depreciation and amortization expense among companies.
We also evaluate adjusted EBITDA, another non-GAAP financial measure, as an indicator of operating performance. Our adjusted EBITDA excludes the 2008 and 2009 restructuring costs and other charges totaling $192 million and $213 million, respectively, the 2009 Timeshare strategy-impairment charges totaling $752 million, and for 2010, both impairment charges totaling $111 million and the $11 million reversal of a prior year impairment charge. We evaluate adjusted EBITDA that excludes these items to allow for period-over-period comparisons of our ongoing core operations before material charges. EBITDA and adjusted EBITDA also facilitate our comparison of results from our ongoing operations before material charges with results from other lodging companies.
EBITDA and adjusted EBITDA have limitations and should not be considered in isolation or as a substitute for performance measures calculated in accordance with GAAP. Both of these non-GAAP measures exclude certain cash expenses that we are obligated to make. In addition, other companies in our industry may calculate adjusted EBITDA differently than we do or may not calculate it at all, limiting adjusted EBITDAs usefulness as a comparative measure. The table below shows our EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA calculations and reconciles those measures with Net Income (Loss) attributable to Marriott.
We are a diversified hospitality company with operations in five business segments: North American Full-Service Lodging, North American Limited-Service Lodging, International Lodging, Luxury Lodging, and Timeshare. See Footnote No. 17, Business Segments, of the Notes to our Financial Statements for further information on our segments including how we aggregate our individual brands into each segment, and other information about each segment, including revenues, income (loss) from continuing operations attributable to Marriott, net losses attributable to noncontrolling interests, equity in (losses) earnings of equity method investees, assets, and capital expenditures.
At year-end 2010, we operated or franchised the following properties by segment (excluding 2,043 corporate housing rental units associated with our ExecuStay brand):
Lodging (reflects all five of our Lodging segments)
2010 Compared to 2009
We added 154 properties (28,114 rooms) and 31 properties (6,072 rooms) exited the system in 2010. These figures do not include residential or ExecuStay units. We also added three residential properties (442 units) and one residential property (25 units) exited the system in 2010.
Total segment financial results increased by $979 million to $983 million in 2010 from $4 million in 2009, and total segment revenues increased by $780 million to $11,611 million in 2010, a 7 percent increase from revenues of $10,831 million in 2009.
The year-over-year increase in revenues included a $557 million increase in cost reimbursements revenue, which does not impact operating income or net income attributable to Marriott. The results, compared to 2009, reflected a favorable variance from $685 million of 2009 Timeshare strategy-impairment charges, $614 million of which were reported in the Timeshare strategy-impairment charges caption and $71 million of which were reported in the Timeshare strategy-impairment charges (non-operating) caption of our Income Statements, an increase of $116 million in Timeshare sales and services revenue net of direct expenses, $19 million of decreased general, administrative, and other expenses, a $73 million increase in base management and franchise fees to $1,003 million in 2010 from $930 million in 2009, a $48 million decrease in restructuring costs, $35 million of lower joint venture equity losses, $28 million of higher incentive management fees to $182 million in 2010 from $154 million in 2009, an increase of $21 million in owned, leased, corporate housing, and other revenue net of direct expenses, and a $21 million increase in gains and other income. These favorable variances were partially offset by $55 million of increased interest expense and an $11 million decrease in net losses attributable to noncontrolling interest benefit. For more detailed information regarding the variances see the preceding sections beginning with Operating Income (Loss).
In 2010, 27 percent of our managed properties paid incentive management fees to us versus 25 percent in 2009. In addition, in 2010, 65 percent of our incentive fees were derived from properties outside of the continental United States versus 67 percent in 2009.
See Statistics below for detailed information on Systemwide RevPAR and Company-operated RevPAR by segment, region and brand.
Compared to 2009, worldwide comparable company-operated house profit margins in 2010 increased by 50 basis points and worldwide comparable company-operated house profit per available room (HP-PAR) increased by 6.4 percent on a constant U.S. dollar basis, reflecting the impact of tight cost controls in 2010 at properties in our system and increased demand, partially offset by decreased average daily rates. North American company-operated house profit margins were nearly unchanged as compared to 2009 while HP-PAR at those same properties increased by 3.8 percent reflecting increased demand and tight cost controls at properties, partially offset by decreased average daily rates and lower cancellation and attrition fees. International company-operated house profit margins increased by 120 basis points and HP-PAR at those properties increased by 10.6 percent reflecting increased demand and continued tight property-level cost controls.
2009 Compared to 2008