MSFT » Topics » FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS

This excerpt taken from the MSFT 10-K filed Jul 30, 2009.

Financial Instruments

We consider all highly liquid interest-earning investments with a maturity of three months or less at the date of purchase to be cash equivalents. The fair value of these investments approximates their carrying value. In general, investments with original maturities of greater than three months and remaining maturities of less than one year are classified as short-term investments. Investments with maturities beyond one year may be classified as short-term based on their highly liquid nature and because such marketable securities represent the investment of cash that is available for current operations. All cash equivalents and short-term investments are classified as available-for-sale and realized gains and losses are recorded using the specific identification method. Changes in market value, excluding other-than-temporary impairments, are reflected in OCI.

Equity and other investments classified as long-term include both debt and equity instruments. Debt and publicly-traded equity securities are classified as available-for-sale and realized gains and losses are recorded using the specific identification method. Changes in market value, excluding other-than-temporary impairments, are reflected in OCI. Common and preferred stock and other investments that are restricted for more than one year or are not publicly traded are recorded at cost or using the equity method.

We lend certain fixed-income and equity securities to enhance investment income. The loaned securities continue to be carried as investments on our balance sheet. Collateral and/or security interests received (securities pledged as collateral) are determined based upon the underlying security lent and the creditworthiness of the borrower. Cash collateral is recorded as an asset with a corresponding liability.

Investments are considered to be impaired when a decline in fair value is judged to be other-than-temporary. We employ a systematic methodology on a quarterly basis that considers available quantitative and qualitative evidence in evaluating potential impairment of our investments. If the cost of an investment exceeds its fair value, we evaluate, among other factors, general market conditions, credit quality of debt instrument issuers, the duration and extent to which the fair value is less than cost, and for equity securities, our intent and ability to hold, or plans to

 

 

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sell, the investment. For fixed income securities, we also evaluate whether we have plans to sell the security or it is more likely than not that we will be required to sell the security before recovery. We also consider specific adverse conditions related to the financial health of and business outlook for the investee, including industry and sector performance, changes in technology, and operational and financing cash flow factors. Once a decline in fair value is determined to be other-than-temporary, an impairment charge is recorded to other income (expense) and a new cost basis in the investment is established.

Derivative instruments are recognized as either assets or liabilities and are measured at fair value. The accounting for changes in the fair value of a derivative depends on the intended use of the derivative and the resulting designation. See Note 5 – Derivatives.

Our current financial liabilities, including our short-term debt, have fair values that approximate their carrying values. Our long-term financial liabilities consist of long-term debt which is recorded on the balance sheet at issuance price less unamortized discount.

This excerpt taken from the MSFT 10-Q filed Apr 23, 2009.

Note 4 – Financial Instruments

SFAS No. 157 defines fair value as the price that would be received upon sale of an asset or paid upon transfer of a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date and in the principal or most advantageous market for that asset or liability. The fair value should be calculated based on assumptions that market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability, not on assumptions specific to the entity. In addition, the fair value of liabilities should include consideration of non-performance risk, including our own credit risk.

In addition to defining fair value, SFAS No. 157 expands the disclosure requirements around fair value and establishes a fair value hierarchy for valuation inputs. The hierarchy prioritizes the inputs into three levels based on the extent to which inputs used in measuring fair value are observable in the market. Each fair value measurement is reported in one of the three levels, which is determined by the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement in its entirety. These levels are:

 

   

Level 1 – inputs are based upon unadjusted quoted prices for identical instruments traded in active markets.

 

   

Level 2 – inputs are based upon quoted prices for similar instruments in active markets, quoted prices for identical or similar instruments in markets that are not active, and model-based valuation techniques for which all significant assumptions are observable in the market or can be corroborated by observable market data for substantially the full term of the assets or liabilities.

 

   

Level 3 – inputs are generally unobservable and typically reflect management’s estimates of assumptions that market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability. The fair values are therefore determined using model-based techniques that include option pricing models, discounted cash flow models, and similar techniques.

The following section describes the valuation methodologies we use to measure financial assets and liabilities at fair value.

 

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MICROSOFT CORPORATION

NOTES TO FINANCIAL STATEMENTS—(Continued)

(Unaudited)

 

This excerpt taken from the MSFT 10-Q filed Jan 22, 2009.

Note 4 – Financial Instruments

We adopted SFAS No. 157 on July 1, 2008 for all financial assets and liabilities and nonfinancial assets and liabilities that are recognized or disclosed at fair value in the financial statements on a recurring basis (at least annually). SFAS No. 157 defines fair value, establishes a framework for measuring fair value, and expands disclosures about fair value measurements.

SFAS No. 157 defines fair value as the price that would be received upon sale of an asset or paid upon transfer of a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date and in the principal or most advantageous market for that asset or liability. The fair value should be calculated based on assumptions that market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability, not on assumptions specific to the entity. In addition, the fair value of liabilities should include consideration of non-performance risk including our own credit risk.

 

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MICROSOFT CORPORATION

NOTES TO FINANCIAL STATEMENTS—(Continued)

(Unaudited)

 

In addition to defining fair value, SFAS No. 157 expands the disclosure requirements around fair value and establishes a fair value hierarchy for valuation inputs. The hierarchy prioritizes the inputs into three levels based on the extent to which inputs used in measuring fair value are observable in the market. Each fair value measurement is reported in one of the three levels which is determined by the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement in its entirety. These levels are:

 

 

 

Level 1 – inputs are based upon unadjusted quoted prices for identical instruments traded in active markets.

 

 

 

Level 2 – inputs are based upon quoted prices for similar instruments in active markets, quoted prices for identical or similar instruments in markets that are not active, and model-based valuation techniques for which all significant assumptions are observable in the market or can be corroborated by observable market data for substantially the full term of the assets or liabilities.

 

 

 

Level 3 – inputs are generally unobservable and typically reflect management’s estimates of assumptions that market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability. The fair values are therefore determined using model-based techniques that include option pricing models, discounted cash flow models, and similar techniques.

The following section describes the valuation methodologies we use to measure financial assets and liabilities at fair value.

This excerpt taken from the MSFT 8-K filed Nov 20, 2008.

FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS

We consider all highly liquid interest-earning investments with a maturity of three months or less at the date of purchase to be cash equivalents. The fair value of these investments approximates their carrying value. In general, investments with original maturities of greater than three months and remaining maturities of less than one year are classified as short-term investments. Investments with maturities beyond one year may be classified as short-term based on their highly liquid nature and because such marketable securities represent the investment of cash that is available for current operations. All cash equivalents and short-term investments are classified as available for sale and are recorded at market value using the specific identification method. Changes in market value are reflected in OCI (excluding other-than-temporary impairments).

Equity and other investments classified as long-term include both debt and equity instruments. Debt securities and publicly traded equity securities are classified as available for sale and are recorded at market using the specific identification method. Changes in market value are reflected in OCI (excluding other-than-temporary impairments). All other investments, excluding those accounted for using the equity method, are recorded at cost.

We lend certain fixed-income and equity securities to enhance investment income. The loaned securities continue to be carried as investments on our balance sheet. Collateral and/or security interest received is determined based upon the underlying security lent and the creditworthiness of the borrower. Cash collateral is recorded as an asset with a corresponding liability.

Investments are considered to be impaired when a decline in fair value is judged to be other-than-temporary. We employ a systematic methodology on a quarterly basis that considers available quantitative and qualitative evidence in evaluating potential impairment of our investments. If the cost of an investment exceeds its fair value, we evaluate, among other factors, general market conditions, the duration and extent to which the fair value is less than cost, and our intent and ability to hold the investment. We also consider specific adverse conditions related to the financial health of and business outlook for the investee, including industry and sector performance, changes in technology, operational and financing cash flow factors, and rating agency actions. Once a decline in fair value is determined to be other-than-temporary, an impairment charge is recorded and a new cost basis in the investment is established.

We use derivative instruments to manage exposures to foreign currency, equity price, interest rate and credit risks, to enhance returns, and to facilitate portfolio diversification. Our objectives for holding derivatives include reducing, eliminating, and efficiently managing the economic impact of these exposures as effectively as possible. Derivative instruments are recognized as either assets or liabilities and are measured at fair value. The accounting for changes in the fair value of a derivative depends on the intended use of the derivative and the resulting designation. For a derivative instrument designated as a fair-value hedge, the gain or loss is recognized in earnings in the period of change together with the offsetting loss or gain on the hedged item attributed to the risk being hedged. For a derivative instrument designated as a cash-flow hedge, the effective portion of the derivative’s gain or loss is initially reported as a component of OCI and is subsequently recognized in earnings when the hedged exposure affects earnings. The ineffective portion of the gain or loss is recognized in earnings. For options designated either as fair-value or cash-flow hedges, changes in the time value are excluded from the assessment of hedge effectiveness and are recognized in earnings. Gains and losses from changes in fair values of derivatives that are not designated as hedges for accounting purposes are recognized in earnings.

Foreign Currency Risk. Certain assets, liabilities, and forecasted transactions are exposed to foreign currency risk. We monitor our foreign currency exposures daily to maximize the overall effectiveness of our foreign currency hedge positions. Options are used to hedge a portion of forecasted international revenue for up to three years in the future and are designated as cash-flow hedging instruments under Statement of Financial Accounting Standards (“SFAS”) No. 133, Accounting for Derivative Instruments and Hedging Activities. Principal currencies hedged include the euro, Japanese yen, British pound, and Canadian dollar. Certain non-U.S. dollar denominated securities are hedged using foreign exchange forward contracts that are designated as fair-value hedging instruments under SFAS No. 133. Certain options and forwards not designated as hedging instruments under SFAS No. 133 are also used to hedge the impact of the variability in exchange rates on accounts receivable and collections denominated in certain foreign currencies and to manage other foreign currency exposures.

 

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Equities Price Risk. Equity investments are subject to market price risk. From time to time, we use and designate options to hedge fair values on certain equity securities. We determine the security selected for hedging by evaluating market conditions, up-front costs, and other relevant factors. Certain options, futures, and swap contracts, not designated as hedging instruments under SFAS No. 133, are also used to manage equity exposures.

Interest Rate Risk. Fixed-income securities are subject to interest rate risk. The fixed-income portfolio is diversified and consists primarily of investment grade securities to minimize credit risk. We use exchange-traded option and futures contracts and over-the-counter swap contracts, not designated as hedging instruments under SFAS No. 133, to hedge interest rate risk.

Other Derivatives. Swap contracts, not designated as hedging instruments under SFAS No. 133, are used to manage exposures to credit risks, enhance returns, and to facilitate portfolio diversification. In addition, we may invest in warrants to purchase securities of other companies as a strategic investment. Warrants that can be net share settled are deemed derivative financial instruments and are not designated as hedging instruments. “To Be Announced” forward purchase commitments of mortgage-backed assets are also considered derivatives in cases where physical delivery of the assets is not taken at the earliest available delivery date. All derivative instruments not designated as hedging instruments are recorded at fair value, with changes in value recognized in earnings during the period of change.

This excerpt taken from the MSFT 10-Q filed Oct 23, 2008.

Note 4 – Financial Instruments

We adopted SFAS No. 157 on July 1, 2008 for all financial assets and liabilities and nonfinancial assets and liabilities that are recognized or disclosed at fair value in the financial statements on a recurring basis (at least annually). SFAS No. 157 defines fair value, establishes a framework for measuring fair value, and expands disclosures about fair value measurements.

SFAS No. 157 defines fair value as the price that would be received upon sale of an asset or paid upon transfer of a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date and in the principal or most advantageous market for that asset or liability. The fair value should be calculated based on assumptions that market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability, not on assumptions specific to the entity. In addition, the fair value of liabilities should include consideration of non-performance risk including our own credit risk.

In addition to defining fair value, SFAS No. 157 expands the disclosure requirements around fair value and establishes a fair value hierarchy for valuation inputs. The hierarchy prioritizes the inputs into three levels based on the extent to which inputs used in measuring fair value are observable in the market. Each fair value measurement is reported in one of the three levels which is determined by the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement in its entirety. These levels are:

 

   

Level 1 – inputs are based upon unadjusted quoted prices for identical instruments traded in active markets.

 

   

Level 2 – inputs are based upon quoted prices for similar instruments in active markets, quoted prices for identical or similar instruments in markets that are not active, and model-based valuation techniques for which all significant assumptions are observable in the market or can be corroborated by observable market data for substantially the full term of the assets or liabilities.

 

   

Level 3 – inputs are generally unobservable and typically reflect management’s estimates of assumptions that market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability. The fair values are therefore determined using model-based techniques that include option pricing models, discounted cash flow models, and similar techniques.

The following section describes the valuation methodologies we use to measure different financial assets and liabilities at fair value.

This excerpt taken from the MSFT 10-K filed Jul 31, 2008.

FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS

We consider all highly liquid interest-earning investments with a maturity of three months or less at the date of purchase to be cash equivalents. The fair value of these investments approximates their carrying value. In general, investments with original maturities of greater than three months and remaining maturities of less than one year are classified as short-term investments. Investments with maturities beyond one year may be classified as short-term based on their highly liquid nature and because such marketable securities represent the investment of cash that is available for current operations. All cash equivalents and short-term investments are classified as available for sale and are recorded at market value using the specific identification method. Changes in market value are reflected in OCI (excluding other-than-temporary impairments).

Equity and other investments classified as long-term include both debt and equity instruments. Debt securities and publicly traded equity securities are classified as available for sale and are recorded at market using the specific identification method. Changes in market value are reflected in OCI (excluding other-than-temporary impairments). All other investments, excluding those accounted for using the equity method, are recorded at cost.

We lend certain fixed-income and equity securities to enhance investment income. The loaned securities continue to be carried as investments on our balance sheet. Collateral and/or security interest received is determined based upon the underlying security lent and the creditworthiness of the borrower. Cash collateral is recorded as an asset with a corresponding liability.

Investments are considered to be impaired when a decline in fair value is judged to be other-than-temporary. We employ a systematic methodology on a quarterly basis that considers available quantitative and qualitative evidence in evaluating potential impairment of our investments. If the cost of an investment exceeds its fair value, we evaluate, among other factors, general market conditions, the duration and extent to which the fair value is less than cost, and our intent and ability to hold the investment. We also consider specific adverse conditions related to the financial health of and business outlook for the investee, including industry and sector performance, changes in technology, operational and financing cash flow factors, and rating agency actions. Once a decline in fair value is determined to be other-than-temporary, an impairment charge is recorded and a new cost basis in the investment is established.

We use derivative instruments to manage exposures to foreign currency, equity price, interest rate and credit risks, to enhance returns, and to facilitate portfolio diversification. Our objectives for holding derivatives include reducing, eliminating, and efficiently managing the economic impact of these exposures as effectively as possible. Derivative instruments are recognized as either assets or liabilities and are measured at fair value. The accounting for changes in the fair value of a derivative depends on the intended use of the derivative and the resulting designation. For a derivative instrument designated as a fair-value hedge, the gain or loss is recognized in earnings in the period of change together with the offsetting loss or gain on the hedged item attributed to the risk being hedged. For a derivative instrument designated as a cash-flow hedge, the effective portion of the derivative’s gain or loss is initially reported as a component of OCI and is subsequently recognized in earnings when the hedged exposure affects earnings. The ineffective portion of the gain or loss is recognized in earnings. For options designated either as fair-value or cash-flow hedges, changes in the time value are excluded from the assessment of hedge effectiveness and are recognized in earnings. Gains and losses from changes in fair values of derivatives that are not designated as hedges for accounting purposes are recognized in earnings.

 

 

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Foreign Currency Risk.    Certain assets, liabilities, and forecasted transactions are exposed to foreign currency risk. We monitor our foreign currency exposures daily to maximize the overall effectiveness of our foreign currency hedge positions. Options are used to hedge a portion of forecasted international revenue for up to three years in the future and are designated as cash-flow hedging instruments under Statement of Financial Accounting Standards (“SFAS”) No. 133, Accounting for Derivative Instruments and Hedging Activities. Principal currencies hedged include the euro, Japanese yen, British pound, and Canadian dollar. Certain non-U.S. dollar denominated securities are hedged using foreign exchange forward contracts that are designated as fair-value hedging instruments under SFAS No. 133. Certain options and forwards not designated as hedging instruments under SFAS No. 133 are also used to hedge the impact of the variability in exchange rates on accounts receivable and collections denominated in certain foreign currencies and to manage other foreign currency exposures.

Equities Price Risk.    Equity investments are subject to market price risk. From time to time, we use and designate options to hedge fair values on certain equity securities. We determine the security selected for hedging by evaluating market conditions, up-front costs, and other relevant factors. Certain options, futures, and swap contracts, not designated as hedging instruments under SFAS No. 133, are also used to manage equity exposures.

Interest Rate Risk.    Fixed-income securities are subject to interest rate risk. The fixed-income portfolio is diversified and consists primarily of investment grade securities to minimize credit risk. We use exchange-traded option and futures contracts and over-the-counter swap contracts, not designated as hedging instruments under SFAS No. 133, to hedge interest rate risk.

Other Derivatives.    Swap contracts, not designated as hedging instruments under SFAS No. 133, are used to manage exposures to credit risks, enhance returns, and to facilitate portfolio diversification. In addition, we may invest in warrants to purchase securities of other companies as a strategic investment. Warrants that can be net share settled are deemed derivative financial instruments and are not designated as hedging instruments. “To Be Announced” forward purchase commitments of mortgage-backed assets are also considered derivatives in cases where physical delivery of the assets is not taken at the earliest available delivery date. All derivative instruments not designated as hedging instruments are recorded at fair value, with changes in value recognized in earnings during the period of change.

This excerpt taken from the MSFT 10-K filed Aug 3, 2007.

FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS

We consider all highly liquid interest-earning investments with a maturity of three months or less at the date of purchase to be cash equivalents. The fair value of these investments approximates their carrying value. In general, investments with original maturities of greater than three months and remaining maturities of less than one year are classified as short-term investments. Investments with maturities beyond one year may be classified as short-term based on their highly liquid nature and because such marketable securities represent the investment of cash that is available for current operations. All cash equivalents and short-term investments are classified as available for sale and are recorded at market value using the specific identification method. Changes in market value are reflected in OCI (excluding other-than-temporary impairments).

 

 

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Equity and other investments may include both debt and equity instruments. Debt securities and publicly traded equity securities are classified as available for sale and are recorded at market using the specific identification method. Changes in market value are reflected in OCI (excluding other-than-temporary impairments). All other investments, excluding those accounted for using the equity method, are recorded at cost.

We lend certain fixed-income and equity securities to enhance investment income. The loaned securities continue to be carried as investments on our balance sheet. Collateral and/or security interest is determined based upon the underlying security and the creditworthiness of the borrower. Cash collateral is recorded as an asset with a corresponding liability.

Investments are considered to be impaired when a decline in fair value is judged to be other-than-temporary. We employ a systematic methodology on a quarterly basis that considers available quantitative and qualitative evidence in evaluating potential impairment of our investments. If the cost of an investment exceeds its fair value, we evaluate, among other factors, general market conditions, the duration and extent to which the fair value is less than cost, and our intent and ability to hold the investment. We also consider specific adverse conditions related to the financial health of and business outlook for the investee, including industry and sector performance, changes in technology, operational and financing cash flow factors, and rating agency actions. Once a decline in fair value is determined to be other-than-temporary, an impairment charge is recorded and a new cost basis in the investment is established.

We use derivative instruments to manage exposures to foreign currency, equity price, interest rate and credit risks, to enhance returns, and to facilitate portfolio diversification. Our objectives for holding derivatives include reducing, eliminating, and efficiently managing the economic impact of these exposures as effectively as possible. Derivative instruments are recognized as either assets or liabilities and are measured at fair value. The accounting for changes in the fair value of a derivative depends on the intended use of the derivative and the resulting designation. For a derivative instrument designated as a fair-value hedge, the gain or loss is recognized in earnings in the period of change together with the offsetting loss or gain on the hedged item attributed to the risk being hedged. For a derivative instrument designated as a cash-flow hedge, the effective portion of the derivative’s gain or loss is initially reported as a component of OCI and is subsequently recognized in earnings when the hedged exposure affects earnings. The ineffective portion of the gain or loss is recognized in earnings. For options designated either as fair-value or cash-flow hedges, changes in the time value are excluded from the assessment of hedge effectiveness and are recognized in earnings. Gains and losses from changes in fair values of derivatives that are not designated as hedges for accounting purposes are recognized in earnings.

Foreign Currency Risk.    Certain assets, liabilities, and forecasted transactions are exposed to foreign currency risk. We monitor our foreign currency exposures daily to maximize the overall effectiveness of our foreign currency hedge positions. Options are used to hedge a portion of forecasted international revenue for up to three years in the future and are designated as cash-flow hedging instruments under Statement of Financial Accounting Standards (“SFAS”) No. 133, Accounting for Derivative Instruments and Hedging Activities. Principal currencies hedged include the euro, Japanese yen, British pound, and Canadian dollar. Certain non-U.S. dollar denominated securities are hedged using foreign exchange forward contracts that are designated as fair-value hedging instruments under SFAS No. 133. Certain options and forwards not designated as hedging instruments under SFAS No. 133 are also used to hedge the impact of the variability in exchange rates on accounts receivable and collections denominated in certain foreign currencies and to manage other foreign currency exposures.

Equities Price Risk.    Equity investments are subject to market price risk. From time to time, we use and designate options to hedge fair values on certain equity securities. We determine the security, selected for hedging by evaluating market conditions, up-front costs, and other relevant factors. Certain options, futures and swap contracts, not designated as hedging instruments under SFAS No. 133, are also used to manage equity exposures.

Interest Rate Risk.    Fixed-income securities are subject to interest rate risk. The fixed-income portfolio is diversified and consists primarily of investment grade securities to minimize credit risk. We use exchange-traded option and futures contracts and over-the-counter swap contracts, not designated as hedging instruments under SFAS No. 133, to hedge interest rate risk.

Other Derivatives.    Swap contracts, not designated as hedging instruments under SFAS No. 133, are used to manage exposures to credit risks, enhance returns, and to facilitate portfolio diversification. In addition, we may invest in warrants to purchase securities of other companies as a strategic investment. Warrants that can be net share settled are deemed derivative financial instruments and are not designated as hedging instruments. “To Be

 

 

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Announced” forward purchase commitments of mortgage-backed assets are also considered derivatives in cases where physical delivery of the assets in not taken at the earliest available delivery date. All derivative instruments not designated as hedging instruments are recorded at fair value, with changes in value recognized in earnings during the period of change.

This excerpt taken from the MSFT 10-K filed Aug 25, 2006.

FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS

We consider all highly liquid interest-earning investments with a maturity of three months or less at the date of purchase to be cash equivalents. In general, investments with original maturities of greater than three months and remaining maturities of less than one year are classified as short term investments. Investments with maturities beyond one year may be classified as short-term based on their highly liquid nature and because such marketable securities represent the investment of cash that is available for current operations. All cash equivalents and short-term investments are classified as available for sale and are recorded at market value using the specific identification method; unrealized gains and losses (excluding other-than-temporary impairments) are reflected in OCI.

Equity and other investments may include both debt and equity instruments. Debt securities and publicly traded equity securities are classified as available for sale and are recorded at market using the specific identification method. Unrealized gains and losses (excluding other-than-temporary impairments) are reflected in OCI. All other investments, excluding those accounted for using the equity method, are recorded at cost.

We lend certain fixed-income and equity securities to enhance investment income. The loaned securities continue to be carried as investments on our balance sheet. Collateral and/or security interest is determined based upon the underlying security and the creditworthiness of the borrower. Cash collateral is recorded as an asset with a corresponding liability.

 

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Investments are considered to be impaired when a decline in fair value is judged to be other-than-temporary. We employ a systematic methodology on a quarterly basis that considers available quantitative and qualitative evidence in evaluating potential impairment of our investments. If the cost of an investment exceeds its fair value, we evaluate, among other factors, general market conditions, the duration and extent to which the fair value is less than cost, and our intent and ability to hold the investment. We also consider specific adverse conditions related to the financial health of and business outlook for the investee, including industry and sector performance, changes in technology, operational and financing cash flow factors, and rating agency actions. Once a decline in fair value is determined to be other-than-temporary, an impairment charge is recorded and a new cost basis in the investment is established.

We use derivative instruments to manage exposures to foreign currency, equity price, interest rate and credit risks, to enhance returns, and to facilitate portfolio diversification. Our objectives for holding derivatives include reducing, eliminating, and efficiently managing the economic impact of these exposures as effectively as possible. Derivative instruments are recognized as either assets or liabilities and are measured at fair value. The accounting for changes in the fair value of a derivative depends on the intended use of the derivative and the resulting designation. For a derivative instrument designated as a fair-value hedge, the gain or loss is recognized in earnings in the period of change together with the offsetting loss or gain on the hedged item attributed to the risk being hedged. For a derivative instrument designated as a cash-flow hedge, the effective portion of the derivative’s gain or loss is initially reported as a component of OCI and is subsequently recognized in earnings when the hedged exposure affects earnings. The ineffective portion of the gain or loss is recognized in earnings. For options designated either as fair-value or cash-flow hedges, changes in the time value are excluded from the assessment of hedge effectiveness and are recognized in earnings. Gains and losses from changes in fair values of derivatives that are not designated as hedges for accounting purposes are recognized in earnings.

Foreign Currency Risk.    Certain assets, liabilities, and forecasted transactions are exposed to foreign currency risk. We monitor our foreign currency exposures daily to maximize the overall effectiveness of our foreign currency hedge positions. Options are used to hedge a portion of forecasted international revenue for up to three years in the future and are designated as cash-flow hedging instruments under Statement of Financial Accounting Standards (“SFAS”) No. 133, Accounting for Derivative Instruments and Hedging Activities. Principal currencies hedged include the euro, Japanese yen, British pound, and Canadian dollar. Certain non-U.S. dollars denominated securities are hedged using foreign exchange forward contracts that are designated as fair-value hedging instruments under SFAS No. 133. Certain options and forwards not designated as hedging instruments under SFAS No. 133 are also used to hedge the impact of the variability in exchange rates on accounts receivable and collections denominated in certain foreign currencies and to manage other foreign currency exposures.

Equities Price Risk.    Equity investments are subject to market price risk. From time to time, we use and designate options to hedge fair values and cash flows on certain equity securities. We determine the security, or forecasted sale thereof, selected for hedging by evaluating market conditions, up-front costs, and other relevant factors. Certain options, futures and swap contracts, not designated as hedging instruments under SFAS No. 133, are also used to manage equity exposures.

Interest Rate Risk.    Fixed-income securities are subject to interest rate risk. The fixed-income portfolio is diversified and consists primarily of investment grade securities to minimize credit risk. We use exchange-traded option and future contracts and over-the-counter swap contracts, not designated as hedging instruments under SFAS No. 133, to hedge interest rate risk.

Other Derivatives.    Swap contracts, not designated as hedging instruments under SFAS No. 133, are used to manage exposures to credit risks, enhance returns, and to facilitate portfolio diversification. In addition, we may invest in warrants to purchase securities of other companies as a strategic investment. Warrants that can be net share settled are deemed derivative financial instruments and are not designated as hedging instruments. “To Be Announced” forward purchase commitments of mortgage-backed assets are also considered derivatives in cases where physical delivery of the assets are not taken at the earliest available delivery date. All derivative instruments not designated as hedging instruments are recorded at fair value, with changes in value recognized in earnings during the period of change.

 

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This excerpt taken from the MSFT 10-K filed Aug 26, 2005.

FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS

 

We consider all highly liquid interest-earning investments with a maturity of three months or less at the date of purchase to be cash equivalents. Investments with maturities beyond one year may be classified as short-term based on their highly liquid nature and because such marketable securities represent the investment of cash that is available for current operations. All cash equivalents and short-term investments are classified as available for sale and are recorded at market value using the specific identification method; unrealized gains and losses (excluding other-than-temporary impairments) are reflected in OCI.

Equity and other investments include both debt and equity instruments. Debt securities and publicly traded equity securities are classified as available for sale and are recorded at market using the specific identification method. Unrealized gains and losses (excluding other-than-temporary impairments) are reflected in OCI. All other investments, excluding those accounted for using the equity method, are recorded at cost.

We lend certain fixed income and equity securities to enhance investment income. Collateral and/or security interest is determined based upon the underlying security and the creditworthiness of the borrower. The fair value of collateral that we are permitted to sell or re-pledge was $499 million at both June 30, 2004 and 2005.

Investments are considered to be impaired when a decline in fair value is judged to be other-than-temporary. We employ a systematic methodology on a quarterly basis that considers available quantitative and qualitative evidence in evaluating potential impairment of our investments. If the cost of an investment exceeds its fair value, we evaluate, among other factors, general market conditions, the duration and extent to which the fair value is less than cost, and our intent and ability to hold the investment. We also consider specific adverse conditions related to the financial health of and business outlook for the investee, including industry and sector performance, changes in technology, operational and financing cash flow factors, and rating agency actions. Once a decline in fair value is determined to be other-than-temporary, an impairment charge is recorded and a new cost basis in the investment is established.

 

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We use derivative instruments to manage exposures to foreign currency, equities price, interest rate and credit risks, to enhance returns, and to facilitate portfolio diversification. Our objectives for holding derivatives include reducing, eliminating, and efficiently managing the economic impact of these exposures as effectively as possible. Derivative instruments are recognized as either assets or liabilities and are measured at fair value. The accounting for changes in the fair value of a derivative depends on the intended use of the derivative and the resulting designation. For a derivative instrument designated as a fair-value hedge, the gain or loss is recognized in earnings in the period of change together with the offsetting loss or gain on the hedged item attributed to the risk being hedged. For a derivative instrument designated as a cash-flow hedge, the effective portion of the derivative’s gain or loss is initially reported as a component of OCI and is subsequently recognized in earnings when the hedged exposure affects earnings. The ineffective portion of the gain or loss is recognized in earnings. For options designated either as fair-value or cash-flow hedges, changes in the time value are excluded from the assessment of hedge effectiveness and are recognized in earnings. Gains and losses from changes in fair values of derivatives that are not designated as hedges for accounting purposes are recognized in earnings.

 

Foreign Currency Risk.    Certain forecasted transactions and assets are exposed to foreign currency risk. We monitor our foreign currency exposures daily to maximize the overall effectiveness of our foreign currency hedge positions. Options are used to hedge a portion of forecasted international revenue for up to three years in the future and are designated as cash-flow hedging instruments under Statement of Financial Accounting Standards (SFAS) No. 133, Accounting for Derivative Instruments and Hedging Activities. Principal currencies hedged include the euro, Japanese yen, British pound, and Canadian dollar. Certain non-U.S. dollar denominated securities are hedged using foreign exchange forward contracts that are designated as fair-value hedging instruments under SFAS No. 133. Certain options and forwards not designated as hedging instruments under SFAS No. 133 are also used to hedge the impact of the variability in exchange rates on accounts receivable and collections denominated in certain foreign currencies and to manage other foreign currency exposures.

 

Equities Price Risk.    Equity investments are subject to market price risk. From time to time, we use and designate options to hedge fair values and cash flows on certain equity securities. We determine the security, or forecasted sale thereof, selected for hedging by evaluating market conditions, up-front costs, and other relevant factors. Certain options, futures and swap contracts, not designated as hedging instruments under SFAS No. 133, are also used to manage equity exposures.

 

Interest Rate Risk.    Fixed-income securities are subject to interest rate risk. The fixed-income portfolio is diversified and consists primarily of investment grade securities to minimize credit risk. We use exchange-traded option and future contracts and over-the-counter swap contracts, not designated as hedging instruments under SFAS No. 133, to hedge interest rate risk.

 

Other Derivatives.    Swap contracts, not designated as hedging instruments under SFAS No. 133, are used to manage exposures to credit risks, enhance returns, and to facilitate portfolio diversification. In addition, we may invest in warrants to purchase securities of other companies as a strategic investment. Warrants that can be net share settled are deemed derivative financial instruments and are not designated as hedging instruments. To Be Announced (TBAs) forward purchase commitments of mortgage-backed assets are also considered derivatives in cases where physical delivery of the assets are not taken at the earliest available delivery date. All derivative instruments not designated as hedging instruments are recorded at fair value, with changes in value recognized in earnings during the period of change.

 

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