Annual Reports

  • 10-K (Oct 23, 2013)
  • 10-K (Oct 19, 2012)
  • 10-K (Dec 1, 2011)
  • 10-K (Nov 14, 2011)
  • 10-K (Oct 27, 2010)
  • 10-K (Oct 27, 2009)

 
Quarterly Reports

 
8-K

 
Other

Monsanto Company 10-K 2010
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MONSANTO COMPANY   2010 FORM 10-K

UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
(MARK ONE)
[X] ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE
SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended Aug. 31, 2010
or
[ ] TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE
SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from            to           
Commission file number 001-16167
(MONSANTO LOGO)
MONSANTO COMPANY
Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter
     
Delaware   43-1878297
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or   (I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
organization)    
     
800 North Lindbergh Blvd.,
St. Louis, Missouri
 
63167
(Address of principal executive offices)   (Zip Code)
     
Registrant’s telephone number including area code:   (314) 694-1000
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
     
Title of each class   Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock $0.01 par value   New York Stock Exchange
Securities Registered Pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes [X] No [ ]
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 of Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes [ ] No [X]
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes [X] No [ ]
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Website, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files). Yes [X] No [ ]
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K. [ ]
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See definition of “large accelerated filer”, “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check One): Large Accelerated Filer [X] Accelerated Filer [ ] Non-Accelerated Filer [ ] Smaller Reporting Company [ ]
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes [ ] No [X]
State the aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates computed by reference to the price at which the common equity was last sold, or the average bid and asked price of such common equity, as of the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter (Feb. 28, 2010): approximately $38.4 billion.
Indicate the number of shares outstanding of each of the registrant’s classes of common stock, as of the latest practicable date: 536,392,459 shares of common stock, $0.01 par value, outstanding at Oct. 21, 2010.
Documents Incorporated by Reference
Portions of Monsanto Company’s definitive proxy statement, which is expected to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to Regulation 14A in December 2010, are incorporated herein by reference into Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

 


 

MONSANTO COMPANY   2010 FORM 10-K

INTRODUCTION
 
This Annual Report on Form 10-K is a document that U.S. public companies file with the Securities and Exchange Commission every year. Part II of the Form 10-K contains the business information and financial statements that many companies include in the financial sections of their annual reports. The other sections of this Form 10-K include further information about our business that we believe will be of interest to investors. We hope investors will find it useful to have all of this information in a single document.
The SEC allows us to report information in the Form 10-K by “incorporating by reference” from another part of the Form 10-K or from the proxy statement. You will see that information is “incorporated by reference” in various parts of our Form 10-K. The proxy statement will be available on our Web site after it is filed with the SEC in December 2010.
Monsanto was incorporated in Delaware on Feb. 9, 2000, as a subsidiary of Pharmacia Corporation. Monsanto includes the operations, assets and liabilities that were previously the agricultural business of Pharmacia. Pharmacia is now a subsidiary of Pfizer Inc.
“Monsanto,” “the company,” “we,” “our,” and “us” are used interchangeably to refer to Monsanto Company or to Monsanto Company and its subsidiaries, as appropriate to the context. With respect to the time period prior to Sept. 1, 2000, these defined terms also refer to the agricultural business of Pharmacia.
Unless otherwise indicated, trademarks owned or licensed by Monsanto or its subsidiaries are shown in special type. Unless otherwise indicated, references to “Roundup herbicides” mean Roundup branded herbicides, excluding all lawn-and-garden herbicides, and references to “Roundup and other glyphosate-based herbicides” exclude all lawn-and-garden herbicides.
Information in this Form 10-K is current as of Oct. 27, 2010, unless otherwise specified.
CAUTION REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
 
In this report, and from time to time throughout the year, we share our expectations for our company’s future performance. These forward-looking statements include statements about our business plans; the potential development, regulatory approval, and public acceptance of our products; our expected financial performance, including sales performance, and the anticipated effect of our strategic actions; the anticipated benefits of recent acquisitions; the outcome of contingencies, such as litigation; domestic or international economic, political and market conditions; and other factors that could affect our future results of operations or financial position, including, without limitation, statements under the captions “Legal Proceedings,” “Overview — Executive Summary — Outlook,” “Seeds and Genomics Segment,” “Agricultural Productivity Segment,” “Financial Condition, Liquidity, and Capital Resources,” and “Outlook.” Any statements we make that are not matters of current reportage or historical fact should be considered forward-looking. Such statements often include words such as “believe,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “intend,” “plan,” “estimate,” “will,” and similar expressions. By their nature, these types of statements are uncertain and are not guarantees of our future performance.
Our forward-looking statements represent our estimates and expectations at the time that we make them. However, circumstances change constantly, often unpredictably, and investors should not place undue reliance on these statements. Many events beyond our control will determine whether our expectations will be realized. We disclaim any current intention or obligation to revise or update any forward-looking statements, or the factors that may affect their realization, whether in light of new information, future events or otherwise, and investors should not rely on us to do so. In the interests of our investors, and in accordance with the “safe harbor” provisions of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, Part I. Item 1A. Risk Factors below explains some of the important reasons that actual results may be materially different from those that we anticipate.

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MONSANTO COMPANY   2010 FORM 10-K

TABLE OF CONTENTS FOR FORM 10-K
 
             
PART I  
 
  Page
 
Item 1.  
Business
    4  
   
Seeds and Genomics Segment
    4  
   
Agricultural Productivity Segment
    6  
   
Research and Development
    8  
   
Seasonality and Working Capital; Backlog
    8  
   
Employee Relations
    9  
   
Customers
    9  
   
International Operations
    9  
   
Segment and Geographic Data
    9  
Item 1A.  
Risk Factors
    9  
Item 1B.  
Unresolved Staff Comments
    13  
Item 2.  
Properties
    13  
Item 3.  
Legal Proceedings
    13  
Item 4.  
[Removed and Reserved.]
    16  
   
 
       
PART II  
 
       
 
Item 5.  
Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters, and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
    17  
Item 6.  
Selected Financial Data
    20  
Item 7.  
Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
    22  
   
Overview
    22  
   
Results of Operations
    25  
   
Seeds and Genomics Segment
    29  
   
Agricultural Productivity Segment
    30  
   
Restructuring
    31  
   
Financial Condition, Liquidity, and Capital Resources
    33  
   
Outlook
    40  
   
Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates
    43  
   
New Accounting Standards
    47  
Item 7A.  
Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
    48  
Item 8.  
Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
    50  
   
Management Report
    50  
   
Management’s Annual Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting
    51  
   
Reports of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
    52  
   
Statements of Consolidated Operations
    54  
   
Statements of Consolidated Financial Position
    55  
   
Statements of Consolidated Cash Flows
    56  
   
Statements of Consolidated Shareowners’ Equity and Comprehensive Income
    57  
   
Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements
    59  
Item 9.  
Changes in and Disagreements With Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure
    125  
Item 9A.  
Controls and Procedures
    125  
Item 9B.  
Other Information
    125  

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MONSANTO COMPANY   2010 FORM 10-K

             
PART III  
 
       
 
Item 10.  
Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance
    126  
Item 11.  
Executive Compensation
    127  
Item 12.  
Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters
    128  
Item 13.  
Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence
    128  
Item 14.  
Principal Accounting Fees and Services
    128  
   
 
       
PART IV  
 
       
 
Item 15.  
Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules
    129  
   
 
       
SIGNATURES  
 
    130  
EXHIBIT INDEX
 
  132  

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MONSANTO COMPANY   2010 FORM 10-K

PART I
 
ITEM 1. BUSINESS
 
Monsanto Company, along with its subsidiaries, is a leading global provider of agricultural products for farmers. Our seeds, biotechnology trait products, and herbicides provide farmers with solutions that improve productivity, reduce the costs of farming, and produce better foods for consumers and better feed for animals.
We manage our business in two segments: Seeds and Genomics and Agricultural Productivity. We view our Seeds and Genomics segment as the driver for future growth for our company. Our Agricultural Productivity segment has encountered significant change in the glyphosate industry as numerous major global manufacturing competitors have increased production at the same time that there has been an increase in the number of distributors packaging and selling generic glyphosate sourced from these suppliers. The growth in supply and sellers has added to the competitiveness and margin erosion in the glyphosate industry and in certain regions has increased the channel inventory.
We provide information about our business, including analyses, significant news releases, and other supplemental information, on our Web site: www.monsanto.com. In addition, we make available through our Web site, free of charge, our annual report on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, and any amendments to those reports, as soon as reasonably practicable after they have been filed with or furnished to the SEC pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. Forms 3, 4 and 5 filed with respect to our equity securities under Section 16(a) of the Exchange Act are also available on our site by the end of the business day after filing. All of these materials can be found under the “Investors” tab. Our Web site also includes the following corporate governance materials, under the tab “Corporate Responsibility”: our Code of Business Conduct, our Code of Ethics for Chief Executive and Senior Financial Officers, our Board of Directors’ Charter and Corporate Governance Guidelines, and charters of our Board committees. These materials are also available on paper. Any shareowner may request them by contacting the Office of the General Counsel, Monsanto Company, 800 N. Lindbergh Blvd., St. Louis, Missouri, 63167. Information on our Web site does not constitute part of this report.
A description of our business follows.
SEEDS AND GENOMICS SEGMENT
 
Through our Seeds and Genomics segment, we produce leading seed brands, including DEKALB, Asgrow, Deltapine, Seminis, and De Ruiter and we develop biotechnology traits that assist farmers in controlling insects and weeds. We also provide other seed companies with genetic material and biotechnology traits for their seed brands. Item 7 — Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (MD&A) — Seeds and Genomics Segment — the

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MONSANTO COMPANY   2010 FORM 10-K

tabular information about net sales of our seeds and traits, is incorporated herein by reference.
 
         
Major Products Applications   Major Brands
 
Germplasm
  Row crop seeds:    
 
 
Corn hybrids and foundation seed
Soybean varieties and foundation seed
Cotton varieties, hybrids and foundation seed
Other row crop varieties and hybrids, such as canola
  DEKALB, Channel Bio for corn
Asgrow for soybeans
Deltapine for cotton
 
  Vegetable seeds:    
 
 
Open field and protected-culture seed for tomato, pepper, eggplant, melon, cucumber, pumpkin, squash, beans, broccoli, onions, and lettuce, among others
  Seminis and De Ruiter for vegetable seeds
 
       
 
Biotechnology traits(1)
 
Enable crops to protect themselves from borers and rootworm in corn and leaf- and boll-feeding worms in cotton, reducing the need for applications of insecticides
 
SmartStax, YieldGard, YieldGard VT Triple, VT Triple PRO and VT Double PRO for corn;
Bollgard and Bollgard II for cotton
 
 
Enable crops, such as corn, soybeans, cotton, and canola to be tolerant of Roundup and other glyphosate-based herbicides
 
Roundup Ready and Roundup Ready 2 Yield
(soybeans only)
 
      Genuity, global umbrella trait brand
 
 
(1)   Monsanto also offers farmers stacked-trait products, which are single-seed products in which two or more traits are combined.
Distribution of Products
We have a worldwide distribution and sales and marketing organization for our seeds and traits. We sell our products under Monsanto brands and license technology and genetic material to others for sale under their own brands. Through distributors, independent retailers and dealers, agricultural cooperatives, plant raisers, and agents, we market our DEKALB, Asgrow and Deltapine branded germplasm to farmers in every agricultural region of the world. In the United States, we market regional seed brands under our American Seeds, LLC and Channel Bio, LLC businesses to farmers directly, as well as through dealers, agricultural cooperatives and agents. In countries where they are approved for sale, we market and sell our trait technologies with our branded germplasm, pursuant to license agreements with our farmer customers. In Brazil and Paraguay, we have implemented a point-of-delivery, grain-based payment system. We contract with grain handlers to collect applicable trait fees when farmers deliver their grain. In addition to selling our products under our own brands, we license a broad package of germplasm and trait technologies to large and small seed companies in the United States and certain international markets. Those seed companies in turn market our trait technologies in their branded germplasm; they may also market our germplasm under their own brand name. Our vegetable seeds are marketed in more than 100 countries through distributors, independent retailers and dealers, agricultural cooperatives, plant raisers and agents, as well as directly to farmers.
Competition
The global market for the products of our Seeds and Genomics segment is competitive and the competition has intensified. Both our row crops and our vegetable seed businesses compete with numerous multinational agrichemical and seed marketers globally and with hundreds of smaller companies regionally. With the exception of competitors in our Seminis and De Ruiter vegetable seed business, most of our seed competitors are also licensees of our germplasm or biotechnology traits. In certain countries, we also compete with government-owned seed companies. Our biotechnology traits compete as a system with other practices, including the application of agricultural chemicals, and traits developed by other companies. Our weed- and insect-control systems compete with chemical and seed products produced by other agrichemical and seed marketers. Competition for the discovery of new traits based on biotechnology or genomics is likely to come from major global agrichemical companies, smaller biotechnology research companies and institutions, state-funded programs, and academic institutions. Enabling technologies to enhance biotechnology trait development may also come from academic researchers and biotechnology research companies. Competitors using our technology outside of license terms and farmers who save seed from one year to the next (in violation of license or other commercial terms) also affect competitive conditions.
Product performance (in particular, crop vigor and yield for our row crops and quality for our vegetable seeds), customer support and service, intellectual property rights and protection, product availability and planning, and price are important elements of our market success in seeds. In addition, distributor, retailer and farmer relationships are important in the United

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MONSANTO COMPANY   2010 FORM 10-K

States and many other countries. The primary factors underlying the competitive success of traits are performance and commercial viability; timeliness of introduction; value compared with other practices and products; market coverage; service provided to distributors, retailers and farmers; governmental approvals; value capture; public acceptance; and environmental characteristics.
Patents, Trademarks, and Licenses
In the United States and many foreign countries, Monsanto holds a broad business portfolio of patents, trademarks and licenses that provide intellectual property protection for its seeds and genomics-related products and processes. Monsanto routinely obtains patents and/or plant variety protection for its breeding technology, commercial varietal seed products, and for the parents of its commercial hybrid seed products. Monsanto also routinely obtains registrations for its commercial seed products in registration countries, as well as Plant Variety Protection Act Certificates in the United States and equivalent plant breeders’ rights in other countries. Monsanto’s insect-protection traits (including YieldGard Corn Borer in corn seed and Bollgard trait in cotton seed) are protected by patents in various countries that extend at least until 2011, and YieldGard Corn Rootworm traits extend at least until 2018. Having filed patent applications in 2001 and 2002, Monsanto anticipates that the Bollgard II product will be patent-protected in the United States, and in other areas in which patent protection was sought, at least through 2021. Monsanto’s herbicide-tolerant products (Roundup Ready traits in soybean, corn, canola and cotton seeds) are protected by U.S. patents that extend at least until 2014; and its second-generation herbicide-tolerant cotton, Roundup Ready Flex, and soybean, Roundup Ready 2 Yield, are protected by U.S. patents that extend until at least 2020.
Monsanto broadly licenses technology and patents to other parties. For example, Monsanto has licensed the Roundup Ready trait in soybean, corn, canola, and cotton seeds and the YieldGard traits in corn to a wide range of commercial entities and academic institutions. Monsanto also holds licenses from other parties relating to certain products and processes. For example, Monsanto has obtained licenses to certain technologies that it uses to produce Roundup Ready seeds and Genuity SmartStax corn. These licenses generally last for the lifetime of the applicable patents.
Monsanto owns trademark registrations and files trademark applications for the names and many of the designs used on its branded products around the world. Important company trademarks include Roundup Ready, Bollgard, Bollgard II, YieldGard, Genuity, Roundup Ready 2 Yield and SmartStax for traits; Acceleron for seed treatment products, DEKALB, Asgrow, Deltapine, and Vistive for row crop seeds, and Seminis and De Ruiter for vegetable seeds.
Raw Materials and Energy Resources
In growing locations throughout the world, we produce directly or contract with third-party growers for corn seed, soybean seed, vegetable seeds, cotton seed, canola seed and other seeds. The availability and cost of seed depends primarily on seed yields, weather conditions, farmer contract terms, commodity prices, and global supply and demand. We seek to manage commodity price fluctuations through the use of futures contracts and other hedging mechanisms. Where practicable, we attempt to minimize the weather risks by producing seed at multiple growing locations and under irrigated conditions. Our Seeds and Genomics segment also purchases the energy we need to process our seed; these energy purchases are managed in conjunction with our Agricultural Productivity segment.
AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVITY SEGMENT
 
Through our Agricultural Productivity segment, we manufacture Roundup brand herbicides and other herbicides and provide lawn-and-garden herbicide products for the residential market. Item 7 — Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (MD&A) — Agricultural Productivity Segment — the tabular information about net sales of Roundup and other glyphosate-based herbicides and other agricultural productivity products is incorporated

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MONSANTO COMPANY   2010 FORM 10-K

by reference herein.
 
         
Major Products   Applications   Major Brands
 
Glyphosate-based herbicides
  Nonselective agricultural, industrial, ornamental and turf applications for weed control   Roundup
 
Selective herbicides
  Control of preemergent annual grass and small seeded broadleaf weeds in corn and other crops   Harness for corn and cotton
 
Lawn-and-garden herbicides
  Residential lawn-and-garden applications for weed control   Roundup
Distribution of Products
In some world areas we use the same distribution and sales and marketing organization for our crop protection products as for our seeds and traits. In other world areas, we have separate distribution and sales and marketing organizations for our crop protection products. We sell our crop protection products through distributors, independent retailers and dealers and agricultural cooperatives. In some cases outside the United States, we sell such products directly to farmers. We also sell certain of the chemical intermediates of our crop protection products to other major agricultural chemical producers, who then market their own branded products to farmers. We market our lawn-and-garden herbicide products through The Scotts Miracle-Gro Company.
Competition
Our agricultural herbicide products have numerous major global manufacturing competitors who increased production at the same time that there has been an increase in the number of distributors packaging and selling generic glyphosate sourced from these suppliers. The growth in supply and sellers has added to the competitiveness and margin erosion in the glyphosate industry and in certain regions has increased the channel inventory. Competition from local or regional companies may also be significant. Our lawn-and-garden business has fewer than five significant national competitors and a larger number of regional competitors in the United States. The largest market for our lawn-and-garden herbicides is the United States.
Competitive success in crop protection products depends on price, product performance, the scope of solutions offered to farmers, market coverage, product availability and planning, and the service provided to distributors, retailers and farmers. Our lawn-and-garden herbicides compete on product performance and the brand value associated with our trademark Roundup. For additional information on competition for our agricultural herbicides, see Item 7 — MD&A — Outlook — Agricultural Productivity, which is incorporated by reference herein.
Patents, Trademarks, Licenses, Franchises and Concessions
Monsanto also relies on patent protection for the Agricultural Productivity segment of its business. Patents covering glyphosate, an active ingredient in Roundup herbicides, have expired in the United States and all other countries. However, some of the patents on Monsanto glyphosate formulations and manufacturing processes in the United States and other countries extend beyond 2015. Monsanto has obtained licenses to chemicals used to make Harness herbicides and holds trademark registrations for the brands under which its chemistries are sold. The most significant trademark in this segment is Roundup.
Monsanto holds (directly or by assignment) numerous phosphate leases issued on behalf of or granted by the U.S. government, the state of Idaho, and private parties. None of these leases are material individually, but are significant in the aggregate because elemental phosphorus is a key raw material for the production of glyphosate-based herbicides. The phosphate leases have varying terms. The leases obtained from the U.S. government are of indefinite duration, subject to the modification of lease terms at 20-year intervals.

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MONSANTO COMPANY   2010 FORM 10-K

Environmental Matters
Our operations are subject to environmental laws and regulations in the jurisdictions in which we operate. Some of these laws restrict the amount and type of emissions that our operations can release into the environment. Other laws, such as the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, 42 U.S.C. 9601 et seq. (Superfund), can impose liability for the entire cost of cleanup on any former or current site owners or operators or any parties who sent waste to these sites, without regard to fault or to the lawfulness of the original disposal. These laws and regulations may be amended from time to time; they may become more stringent. We are committed to long-term environmental protection and compliance programs that reduce and monitor emissions of hazardous materials into the environment, and to the remediation of identified existing environmental concerns. Although the costs of our compliance with environmental laws and regulations cannot be predicted with certainty, such costs are not expected to have a material adverse effect on our earnings or competitive position. In addition to compliance obligations at our own manufacturing locations and off-site disposal facilities, under the terms of our Sept. 1, 2000, Separation Agreement with Pharmacia (the Separation Agreement), we are required to indemnify Pharmacia for any liability it may have for environmental remediation or other environmental responsibilities that are primarily related to Pharmacia’s former agricultural and chemicals businesses. For information regarding certain environmental proceedings, see Item 3 — Legal Proceedings. See also information regarding remediation of waste disposal sites and reserves for remediation, appearing in Note 25 — Commitments and Contingencies, which is incorporated herein by reference.
Raw Materials and Energy Resources
We are a significant purchaser of basic and intermediate raw materials. Typically, we purchase major raw materials and energy through long-term contracts with multiple suppliers. Certain important raw materials are supplied by a few major suppliers. We expect the markets for our raw materials to remain balanced, though pricing will be cyclical with recovery of the global economy. Energy is available as required, but pricing is subject to market fluctuations. We seek to manage commodity price fluctuations through the use of futures contracts and other hedging mechanisms.
Our proprietary technology is used in various global locations to produce the catalysts used in various intermediate steps in the production of glyphosate. We believe capacity is sufficient for our requirements and adequate safety stock inventory minimizes the risks associated with production outages. We manufacture and purchase disodium iminodiacetic acid, a key ingredient in the production of glyphosate. We manufacture our global supply of elemental phosphorus, a key raw material for the production of Roundup herbicides. We have multiple mineral rights which, subject to obtaining and maintaining appropriate mining permits, we believe will provide a long term supply of phosphate ore to meet our needs into the foreseeable future. As part of the ongoing course of operating our phosphorus production, we are required to periodically permit new mining leases. A new mine is currently in the process of being permitted with the U.S. Bureau of Land Management.
RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
 
Monsanto’s expenses for research and development were $1,205 million in 2010, $1,098 million in 2009 and $980 million in 2008. In addition, we incurred charges of $163 million in 2009 and $164 million in 2008 for acquired in-process research and development (IPR&D) related to acquisitions. See Note 4 — Business Combinations — for additional information regarding these acquisitions.
SEASONALITY AND WORKING CAPITAL; BACKLOG
 
For information on seasonality and working capital and backlog practices, see information in Item 7 — MD&A — Financial Condition, Liquidity, and Capital Resources, which is incorporated herein by reference.

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MONSANTO COMPANY   2010 FORM 10-K

EMPLOYEE RELATIONS
 
As of Aug. 31, 2010, we employed about 21,400 regular employees worldwide and more than 6,200 temporary employees. The number of temporary employees varies greatly during the year because of the seasonal nature of our business. We believe that relations between Monsanto and its employees are satisfactory.
CUSTOMERS
 
Although no single customer (including affiliates) represented more than 10 percent of our consolidated worldwide net sales in 2010, our three largest U.S. agricultural distributors and their affiliates represented, in the aggregate, 15 percent of our worldwide net sales and 27 percent of our U.S. net sales. During 2010, one major U.S. distributor and its affiliates represented about 10 percent of the worldwide net sales for our Seeds and Genomics segment, and about 4 percent of the worldwide net sales for our Agricultural Productivity segment.
INTERNATIONAL OPERATIONS
 
See Item 1A under the heading “Our operations outside the United States are subject to special risks and restrictions, which could negatively affect our results of operations and profitability” and Note 26 — Segment and Geographic Data, which are incorporated herein by reference. Approximately 43 percent of Monsanto’s sales, including 37 percent of our Seeds and Genomics segment’s sales and 57 percent of our Agricultural Productivity segment’s sales, originated from our legal entities outside the United States during fiscal year 2010.
SEGMENT AND GEOGRAPHIC DATA
 
For information on segment and geographic data, see Item 8 — Financial Statements and Supplementary Data — Note 26 — Segment and Geographic Data, which is incorporated by reference herein.
ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS
 
Competition in seeds and traits and agricultural chemicals has significantly affected, and will continue to affect, our sales.
    Many companies engage in plant biotechnology and breeding research and agricultural chemicals, and speed in getting a new product to market can be a significant competitive advantage. Our competitors’ success could render our existing products less competitive, resulting in reduced sales compared to our expectations or past results. We expect to see increasing competition from agricultural biotechnology firms and from major agrichemical, seed and food companies. We also expect to face continued competition for our Roundup herbicides and selective herbicides product lines, which could be influenced by trade and industrial policies of foreign countries. The extent to which we can realize cash and gross profit from our business will depend on our ability to: control manufacturing and marketing costs without adversely affecting sales; predict and respond effectively to competitor products, pricing and marketing; provide marketing programs meeting the needs of our customers and of the farmers who are our end users; maintain an efficient distribution system; and develop new products and services with features attractive to our end users.
Efforts to protect our intellectual property rights and to defend claims against us can increase our costs and will not always succeed; any failures could adversely affect sales and profitability or restrict our ability to do business.
    Intellectual property rights are crucial to our business, particularly our Seeds and Genomics segment. We endeavor to obtain and protect our intellectual property rights in jurisdictions in which our products are produced or used and in jurisdictions into which our products are imported. Different nations may provide limited rights and inconsistent duration of protection for our products. We may be unable to obtain protection for our intellectual property in key jurisdictions. Even if protection is obtained, competitors, farmers, or others in the chain of commerce may raise legal challenges to our

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MONSANTO COMPANY   2010 FORM 10-K

    rights or illegally infringe on our rights, including through means that may be difficult to prevent or detect. For example, the practice by some farmers of saving seeds from non-hybrid crops (such as soybeans, canola and cotton) containing our biotechnology traits has prevented and may continue to prevent us from realizing the full value of our intellectual property, particularly outside the United States. In addition, because of the rapid pace of technological change, and the confidentiality of patent applications in some jurisdictions, competitors may be issued patents from applications that were unknown to us prior to issuance. These patents could reduce the value of our commercial or pipeline products or, to the extent they cover key technologies on which we have unknowingly relied, require that we seek to obtain licenses or cease using the technology, no matter how valuable to our business. We cannot assure we would be able to obtain such a license on acceptable terms. The extent to which we succeed or fail in our efforts to protect our intellectual property will affect our costs, sales and other results of operations.
We are subject to extensive regulation affecting our seed biotechnology and agricultural products and our research and manufacturing processes, which affects our sales and profitability.
    Regulatory and legislative requirements affect the development, manufacture and distribution of our products, including the testing and planting of seeds containing our biotechnology traits and the import of crops grown from those seeds, and non-compliance can harm our sales and profitability. Obtaining permits for mining and production, and obtaining testing, planting and import approvals for seeds or biotechnology traits can be time-consuming and costly, with no guarantee of success. The failure to receive necessary permits or approvals could have near- and long-term effects on our ability to sell some current and future products. Planting approvals may also include significant regulatory requirements that can limit our sales. Sales of our traits can be affected in jurisdictions where planting has been approved if we have not received approval for the import of crops containing biotechnology traits into key markets. Concern about unintended but unavoidable trace amounts (sometimes called “adventitious presence”) of commercial biotechnology traits in conventional (non-biotechnology) seed, or in the grain or products produced from conventional or organic crops, among other things, could lead to increased regulation or legislation, which may include: liability transfer mechanisms that may include financial protection insurance; possible restrictions or moratoria on testing, planting or use of biotechnology traits; and requirements for labeling and traceability, which requirements may cause food processors and food companies to avoid biotechnology and select non-biotechnology crop sources and can affect farmer seed purchase decisions and the sale of our products. Further, the detection of adventitious presence of traits not approved in the importing country may result in the withdrawal of seed lots from sale or in compliance actions, such as crop destruction or product recalls. Legislation encouraging or discouraging the planting of specific crops can also harm our sales. In addition, claims that increased use of glyphosate-based herbicides or biotechnology traits increases the potential for the development of glyphosate-resistant weeds or pests resistant to our traits could result in restrictions on the use of glyphosate-based herbicides or seeds containing our traits or otherwise reduce our sales.
The degree of public acceptance or perceived public acceptance of our biotechnology products can affect our sales and results of operations by affecting planting approvals, regulatory requirements and customer purchase decisions.
    Although all of our products go through rigorous testing, some opponents of our technology actively raise public concern about the potential for adverse effects of our products on human or animal health, other plants and the environment. The potential for adventitious presence of commercial biotechnology traits in conventional seed, or in the grain or products produced from conventional or organic crops, is another factor that can affect general public acceptance of these traits. Public concern can affect the timing of, and whether we are able to obtain, government approvals. Even after approvals are granted, public concern may lead to increased regulation or legislation or litigation against government regulators concerning prior regulatory approvals, which could affect our sales and results of operations by affecting planting approvals, and may adversely affect sales of our products to farmers, due to their concerns about available markets for the sale of crops or other products derived from biotechnology. In addition, opponents of agricultural biotechnology have attacked farmers’ fields and facilities used by agricultural biotechnology companies, and may launch future attacks against farmers’ fields and our field testing sites and research, production, or other facilities, which could affect our sales and our costs.
The successful development and commercialization of our pipeline products will be necessary for our growth.

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MONSANTO COMPANY   2010 FORM 10-K

    We use advanced breeding technologies to produce hybrids and varieties with superior performance in the farmer’s field, and we use biotechnology to introduce traits that enhance specific characteristics of our crops. The processes of breeding, biotechnology trait discovery and development and trait integration are lengthy, and a very small percentage of the genes and germplasm we test is selected for commercialization. There are a number of reasons why a new product concept may be abandoned, including greater than anticipated development costs, technical difficulties, regulatory obstacles, competition, inability to prove the original concept, lack of demand, and the need to divert focus, from time to time, to other initiatives with perceived opportunities for better returns. The length of time and the risk associated with the breeding and biotech pipelines are similar and interlinked because both are required as a package for commercial success in markets where biotech traits are approved for growers. In countries where biotech traits are not approved for widespread use, our sales depend on our germplasm. Commercial success frequently depends on being the first company to the market, and many of our competitors are also making considerable investments in similar new biotechnology or improved germplasm products. Consequently, if we are not able to fund extensive research and development activities and deliver new products to the markets we serve on a timely basis, our growth and operations will be harmed.
Adverse outcomes in legal proceedings could subject us to substantial damages and adversely affect our results of operations and profitability.
    We are involved in major lawsuits concerning intellectual property, biotechnology, torts, contracts, antitrust allegations, employee benefits, and other matters, as well as governmental inquiries and investigations, the outcomes of which may be significant to results of operations in the period recognized or limit our ability to engage in our business activities. While we have insurance related to our business operations, it may not apply to or fully cover any liabilities we incur as a result of these lawsuits. In addition, pursuant to the Separation Agreement, we are required to indemnify Pharmacia for certain liabilities related to its former chemical and agricultural businesses. We have recorded reserves for potential liabilities where we believe the liability to be probable and reasonably estimable. However, our actual costs may be materially different from this estimate. The degree to which we may ultimately be responsible for the particular matters reflected in the reserve is uncertain.
Our operations outside the United States are subject to special risks and restrictions, which could negatively affect our results of operations and profitability.
    We engage in manufacturing, seed production, research and development, and sales in many parts of the world. Although we have operations in virtually every region, our sales outside the United States in fiscal year 2010 were principally to customers in Brazil, Argentina, Canada, Mexico and India. Accordingly, developments in those parts of the world generally have a more significant effect on our operations than developments in other places. Our operations outside the United States are subject to special risks and restrictions, including: fluctuations in currency values and foreign-currency exchange rates; exchange control regulations; changes in local political or economic conditions; governmental pricing directives; import and trade restrictions; import or export licensing requirements and trade policy; restrictions on the ability to repatriate funds; and other potentially detrimental domestic and foreign governmental practices or policies affecting U.S. companies doing business abroad. Acts of terror or war may impair our ability to operate in particular countries or regions, and may impede the flow of goods and services between countries. Customers in weakened economies may be unable to purchase our products, or it could become more expensive for them to purchase imported products in their local currency, or sell their commodity at prevailing international prices, and we may be unable to collect receivables from such customers. Further, changes in exchange rates may affect our net income, the book value of our assets outside the United States, and our shareowners’ equity.
In the event of any diversion of management’s attention to matters related to acquisitions or any delays or difficulties encountered in connection with integrating acquired operations, our business, and in particular our results of operations and financial condition, may be harmed.
    We have recently completed acquisitions and we expect to make additional acquisitions. We must fit such acquisitions into our long-term growth strategies to generate sufficient value to justify their cost. Acquisitions also present other challenges, including geographical coordination, personnel integration and retention of key management personnel, systems integration and the reconciliation of corporate cultures. Those operations could divert management’s attention

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MONSANTO COMPANY   2010 FORM 10-K

    from our business or cause a temporary interruption of or loss of momentum in our business and the loss of key personnel from the acquired companies.
Fluctuations in commodity prices can increase our costs and decrease our sales.
    We contract production with multiple growers at fair value and retain the seed in inventory until it is sold. These purchases constitute a significant portion of the manufacturing costs for our seeds. Additionally, our chemical manufacturing operations use chemical intermediates and energy, which are subject to increases in price as the costs of oil and natural gas increase. Accordingly, increases in commodity prices may negatively affect our cost of goods sold or cause us to increase seed or chemical prices, which could adversely affect our sales. We use hedging strategies, and most of our raw material supply agreements contain escalation factors, designed to mitigate the risk of short-term changes in commodity prices. However, we are unable to avoid the risk of medium- and long-term increases. Farmers’ incomes are also affected by commodity prices; as a result, fluctuations in commodity prices could have a negative effect on their ability to purchase our seed and chemical products.
Compliance with quality controls and regulations affecting our manufacturing may be costly, and failure to comply may result in decreased sales, penalties and remediation obligations.
    Because we use hazardous and other regulated materials in our manufacturing processes and engage in mining operations, we are subject to risks of accidental environmental contamination, and therefore to potential personal injury claims, remediation expenses and penalties. Should a catastrophic event occur at any of our facilities, we could face significant reconstruction or remediation costs, penalties, third party liability and loss of production capacity, which could affect our sales. In addition, lapses in quality or other manufacturing controls could affect our sales and result in claims for defective products.
Our ability to match our production to the level of product demanded by farmers or our licensed customers has a significant effect on our sales, costs, and growth potential.
    Farmers’ decisions are affected by market, economic and weather conditions that are not known in advance. Failure to provide distributors with enough inventories of our products will reduce our current sales. However, product inventory levels at our distributors may reduce sales in future periods, as those distributor inventories are worked down. In addition, inadequate distributor liquidity could affect distributors’ ability to pay for our products and, therefore, affect our sales or our ability to collect on our receivables. International glyphosate manufacturing capacity has increased in the past few years. The price of this glyphosate will impact the selling price and margin of Roundup brands and also on our third party sourcing business.
Our ability to issue short-term debt to fund our cash flow requirements and the cost of such debt may affect our financial condition.
    We regularly extend credit to our customers in certain areas of the world so that they can buy agricultural products at the beginning of their growing seasons. Because of these credit practices and the seasonality of our sales, we may need to issue short-term debt at certain times of the year to fund our cash flow requirements. The amount of short-term debt will be greater to the extent that we are unable to collect customer receivables when due and to manage our costs and expenses. Any downgrade in our credit rating, or other limitation on our access to short-term financing or refinancing, would increase our interest cost and adversely affect our profitability.
Weather, natural disasters and accidents may significantly affect our results of operations and financial condition.
    Weather conditions and natural disasters can affect the timing of planting and the acreage planted, as well as yields and commodity prices. In turn, the quality, cost and volumes of the seed that we are able to produce and sell will be affected, which will affect our sales and profitability. Natural disasters or industrial accidents could also affect our manufacturing facilities, or those of our major suppliers or major customers, which could affect our costs and our ability to meet supply. One of our major U.S. glyphosate manufacturing facilities is located in Luling, Louisiana, which is an area subject to hurricanes. In addition, several of our key raw material and utility suppliers have production assets in the U.S. gulf coast

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MONSANTO COMPANY   2010 FORM 10-K

    region and are also susceptible to damage risk from hurricanes. Hawaii, which is also subject to hurricanes, is a major seeds and traits location for our pipeline products.
ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
 
At Aug. 31, 2010, there were no unresolved comments from the staff of the SEC related to our periodic or current reports under the Exchange Act.
ITEM 2. PROPERTIES
 
We and our subsidiaries own or lease manufacturing facilities, laboratories, seed production and other agricultural facilities, office space, warehouses, and other land parcels in North America, South America, Europe, Asia, Australia, and Africa. Our general offices, which we own, are located in St. Louis County, Missouri. These office and research facilities are principal properties.
Additional principal properties used by the Seeds and Genomics segment include seed production and conditioning plants at Boone, Grinnell and Williamsburg, Iowa; Constantine, Michigan; Enkhuizen and Bergschenhoek, Netherlands; Illiopolis, Waterman and Farmer City, Illinois; Remington, Indiana; Kearney and Waco, Nebraska; Oxnard, California; Peyrehorade and Trèbes, France; Rojas, Argentina; Sinesti, Romania; and Uberlândia, Brazil; and research sites at Ankeny, Iowa; Research Triangle Park, North Carolina; Maui, Hawaii; Middleton, Wisconsin; Mystic, Connecticut; and Woodland, California. We own all of these properties, except the one in Maui. The Seeds and Genomics segment also uses seed foundation and production facilities, breeding facilities, and genomics and other research laboratories at various other locations worldwide.
The Agricultural Productivity segment has principal chemicals manufacturing facilities at Antwerp, Belgium; Camaçari, Brazil; Luling, Louisiana; Muscatine, Iowa; São José dos Campos, Brazil; Soda Springs, Idaho; and Zárate, Argentina. We own all of these properties, except the one in Antwerp, Belgium, which is subject to a lease for the land underlying the facility.
We believe that our principal properties are suitable and adequate for their use. Our facilities generally have sufficient capacity for our existing needs and expected near-term growth. Expansion projects are undertaken as necessary to meet future needs. In particular, we have undertaken significant multiyear projects to expand our corn production facilities in North America in anticipation of increased demand for our corn seed and completed projects that increased capacity and improved the process at our Luling, Louisiana, glyphosate facility. Use of these facilities may vary with seasonal, economic and other business conditions, but none of the principal properties is substantially idle. In certain instances, we have leased portions of sites not required for current operations to third parties.
ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
 
We are involved in various legal proceedings that arise in the ordinary course of our business, as well as proceedings that we have considered to be material under SEC regulations. These include proceedings to which we are party in our own name and proceedings to which our former parent Pharmacia Corporation or its former subsidiary Solutia Inc. is a party but that we manage and for which we are responsible. Information regarding certain material proceedings and the possible effects on our business of proceedings we are defending is disclosed in Note 25 under the subheading “Environmental and Litigation Liabilities — Litigation” and is incorporated by reference herein. Following is information regarding other material proceedings for which we are responsible.

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MONSANTO COMPANY   2010 FORM 10-K

Patent and Commercial Proceedings
On Dec. 23, 2008, we entered into a dispute resolution process with Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc. (Pioneer), a wholly owned subsidiary of E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company (DuPont), to address issues regarding the unauthorized use of our proprietary technology. Pioneer has announced plans to combine or stack their Optimum ® GAT ® trait in soybeans with our patented first generation Roundup Ready technology, contrary to their previously disclosed plans to discontinue use of soybean varieties containing our technology and pursue the Optimum® GAT® trait alone. We believe that Pioneer is not authorized to make this genetic combination, and we are seeking to prevent non-consensual use of our proprietary technology. On May 4, 2009, following unsuccessful discussions, Monsanto filed suit against DuPont and Pioneer in Federal District Court in St. Louis asserting patent infringement and breach of contract claims to prevent the unauthorized use of our Roundup Ready technology in corn and soybeans. On June 16, 2009, the defendants filed an answer and counterclaim seeking injunctive relief, damages and specific performance asserting a claim of license as well as the invalidity or unenforceability of the patent asserted by Monsanto, and also claiming alleged anticompetitive behavior relating to traits for corn and soybeans. The court, on Sept. 16, 2009, severed the antitrust defense interposed by DuPont for a separate, subsequent trial following our case for patent infringement and license breach. On Oct. 23, 2009, the Court heard our motion for judgment on the pleadings to declare DuPont and Pioneer in breach of their corn and soybean licensing agreements with us. On Jan. 15, 2010, the Court granted our motion declaring that DuPont and Pioneer are not licensed to create a product containing Roundup Ready and Optimum® GAT® traits stacked in combination. The remaining patent claims are set for trial on Oct. 17, 2011. We believe we have meritorious legal positions and will continue to represent our interests vigorously in this matter.
Two purported class action suits were filed against us on Sept. 26, 2006, supposedly on behalf of all farmers who purchased our Roundup brand herbicides in the United States for commercial agricultural purposes since Sept. 26, 2002. Plaintiffs essentially allege that we have monopolized the market for glyphosate for commercial agricultural purposes. Plaintiffs seek an unspecified amount of damages and injunctive relief. In late February 2007, three additional suits were filed, alleging similar claims. All of these suits were filed in the U.S. District Court for the District of Delaware. On July 18, 2007, the court ruled that any such suit had to be filed in federal or state court in Missouri; the court granted our motion to dismiss the two original cases. On Aug. 8, 2007, plaintiffs in the remaining three cases voluntarily dismissed their complaints, which have not been re-filed. On Aug. 10, 2007, the same set of counsel filed a parallel action in federal court in San Antonio, Texas, on behalf of a retailer of glyphosate named Texas Grain. Plaintiffs seek to certify a national class of all entities that purchased glyphosate directly from us since August 2003. The magistrate judge issued his recommendation to the District Court on Aug. 7, 2009, denying class certification. We believe we have meritorious legal positions and will continue to represent our interests vigorously in this matter.
Governmental Proceedings and Undertakings
On Sept. 17, 2007, the EPA issued a Notice of Violation to us, alleging violations of the Clean Water Act at the South Rasmussen Mine near Soda Springs, Idaho. The EPA has asserted that the alleged violations may subject us to civil penalties. We are working with the EPA to reach a resolution of this matter. We believe we have meritorious legal positions and will continue to represent our interests vigorously in this matter.
On April 18, 2005, we received a subpoena from the Illinois Attorney General and have produced documents relating to the prices and terms upon which we license technology for genetically modified seeds, and upon which we sell or license genetically modified seeds to farmers. We believe we have meritorious legal positions and will continue to represent our interests vigorously in this matter.
On Sept. 4, 2007, we received a civil investigative demand from the Iowa Attorney General seeking information regarding the production and marketing of glyphosate and the development, production, marketing, or licensing of soybean, corn, or cotton germplasm containing transgenic traits. Iowa coordinated this inquiry with several other states. We have fully cooperated with this investigation and complied with all requests. We believe we have meritorious legal positions and will continue to represent our interests vigorously in this matter.
We have reported to the EPA that in prior years sales and planting of our Bollgard and Bollgard II cotton products occurred in ten Texas counties where the registrations had included relevant restrictions. On July 1, 2010, we finalized a settlement with the EPA, without admitting liability, and paid a civil penalty of an immaterial amount.

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MONSANTO COMPANY   2010 FORM 10-K

On Dec. 2, 2005, the Federal Revenue Service of the Ministry of Finance of Brazil issued a tax assessment against our wholly owned subsidiary, Monsanto do Brasil Ltda., challenging the tax treatment of $575 million of notes issued in 1998 on the basis that the transactions involving the notes represented contributions to the capital of Monsanto do Brasil rather than funding through issuance of notes. The assessment denies tax deductions for approximately $1.2 billion (subject to currency exchange rates) of interest expense and currency exchange losses that were claimed by Monsanto do Brasil under the notes. The assessment seeks payment of approximately $243 million (subject to currency exchange rates) of tax, penalties and interest related to the notes, and would preclude Monsanto do Brasil from using a net operating loss carryforward of approximately $1.1 billion (subject to currency exchange rates). The issuance of the notes was properly registered with the Central Bank of Brazil and we believe that there is no basis in law for this tax assessment. On Dec. 29, 2005, Monsanto do Brasil filed an appeal of this assessment with the Federal Revenue Service. On Oct. 28, 2008, the company received a partially favorable decision issued by the first level of Administrative Court. The Court reduced the assessed penalty from 150% to 75%, respectively, from $82 million to $41 million (each subject to currency exchange rates) and maintained the tax and interest. On Nov. 26, 2008, we filed an appeal before the second level of Administrative Court with regard to the adverse portion of the decision by the first level of Administrative Court. The Federal Revenue Service also appealed the portion of the decision favorable to Monsanto do Brasil. On Sept. 17, 2010, the appeals were assigned to the Administrative Council of Tax Appeals. The court date is pending. The company continues to believe that there is no basis in law for this tax assessment. Under the terms of a tax sharing agreement concluded with Pharmacia at the time of our separation from Pharmacia, Pharmacia would be responsible for a portion of any liability incurred by virtue of the tax assessment. As noted, certain dollar amounts have been calculated based on an exchange rate of 1.7 Brazilian reais per U.S. dollar, and will fluctuate with exchange rates in the future. We believe we have meritorious legal positions and will continue to represent our interests vigorously in this matter.
On Jan. 12, 2010, the Antitrust Division of the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ) issued a civil investigative demand to Monsanto requesting information on our soybean traits business. Among other things, the DOJ has requested information regarding our plans for and licensing of soybean seed containing Roundup Ready or Roundup Ready 2 Yield traits. We are cooperating with this request. We believe we have meritorious legal positions and will continue to represent our interests vigorously in this matter.
Securities and Derivative Proceedings
On July 29, 2010, a purported class action suit, styled Rochester Laborers Pension Fund v. Monsanto Co., et al., was filed against us and three of our past and present executive officers in the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Missouri. The suit alleges that defendants violated the federal securities laws by making false or misleading statements between Jan. 7, 2009, and May 27, 2010, regarding our earnings guidance for fiscal 2009 and 2010 and the anticipated future performance of our Roundup business. The alleged class consists of all persons who purchased or otherwise acquired Monsanto common stock between Jan. 7, 2009, and May 27, 2010. Plaintiff claims that these statements artificially inflated the price of our stock and that purchasers of our stock during the relevant period were damaged when the stock price later declined. Plaintiff seeks the award of unspecified amount of damages on behalf of the alleged class, counsel fees and costs. We believe we have meritorious legal positions and will continue to represent our interests vigorously in this matter. On Sept. 27, 2010, three members of the alleged class moved to be appointed the lead plaintiff in the action. Those motions have not yet been ruled upon. On Sept. 28, 2010, plaintiff Rochester Laborers Pension Fund advised the Court that it does not intend to file a motion for appointment as lead plaintiff, but is willing to serve as lead plaintiff should the movants fail to satisfy the requirements for doing so.
On Aug. 4 and 5, 2010, two purported derivative suits styled Espinoza v. Grant, et al. and Clark v. Grant, et al., were filed on our behalf against our directors and three of our past and present executive officers in the Circuit Court of St. Louis County, Missouri. Asserting claims for breach of fiduciary duty, corporate waste and unjust enrichment, plaintiffs allege that our directors themselves made or allowed Monsanto to make the same allegedly false and misleading statements at issue in the purported class action. Plaintiffs also assert a claim arising out of the acceleration of certain stock options held by one of our former executive officers upon his retirement, as well as a claim based on one director’s sale of Monsanto stock while allegedly in possession of material, non-public information relating to our earnings guidance. Plaintiffs seek injunctive relief and the award of unspecified amounts of damages and restitution for Monsanto, counsel fees and costs. Plaintiffs have moved for an order consolidating the Espinoza and Clark actions and appointing lead and liaison counsel. The parties have stipulated to the consolidation of the Espinoza and Clark actions and submitted the stipulation to the Court for its approval. Defendants have moved for a stay of these actions in favor of the proposed federal securities class action (described above) and the federal derivative action (described below). The parties have stipulated to a stay of these actions pending resolution of

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MONSANTO COMPANY   2010 FORM 10-K

motions to dismiss expected to be filed in the federal actions, subject to specified exceptions, and have submitted their stipulation to the Court for its approval.
On Aug. 30, 2010, another purported derivative action styled Kurland v. AtLee, et al., was filed on our behalf against our directors in the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Missouri. Asserting claims for breach of fiduciary duty, abuse of control, gross mismanagement, corporate waste, unjust enrichment and insider selling and misappropriation under Delaware law, the complaint contains allegations similar to the two state court derivative actions described above relating to the same allegedly false and misleading statements and a director’s sale of shares, and adds allegations relating to a senior executive’s sale of Monsanto stock while allegedly in possession of material, non-public information. Plaintiffs seek injunctive relief and the award of unspecified amounts of compensatory and exemplary damages, counsel fees and costs. On Sept. 3, 2010, defendants in the Rochester securities class action described above moved for consolidation and coordination of that action with the Kurland derivative action. On Sept. 28, 2010, the Court denied this motion, stating that pretrial coordination of the federal actions should occur. On Oct. 11, 2010, a second purported derivative action styled Stone v. Bachmann, et al., was filed on our behalf against certain of our directors. The allegations made and relief sought in the Stone action are substantially similar to the allegations made and relief sought in the Kurland action. On Oct. 13, 2010, a third purported derivative action, Styled Fagin v. AtLee, et al., was filed on our behalf against our directors in the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Missouri. The allegations made and relief sought in the Fagin action are substantially similar to the allegations made and relief sought in both the Kurland and Stone actions.
ITEM 4. [Removed and Reserved.]
 
Executive Officers
See Part III — Item 10 of this Report on Form 10-K for information about our Executive Officers.

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MONSANTO COMPANY   2010 FORM 10-K

PART II
 
ITEM 5.  MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS, AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
 
Monsanto’s common stock is traded principally on the New York Stock Exchange, under the symbol MON. The number of shareowners of record as of Oct. 21, 2010, was 40,580.
On June 27, 2006, the board of directors approved a two-for-one split of the company’s common shares. The additional shares resulting from the stock split were paid on July 28, 2006, to shareowners of record on July 7, 2006. All share and per share information herein reflects this stock split.
The original dividend rate adopted by the board of directors following the initial public offering (IPO) in October 2000 was $0.06. The board of directors increased the company’s quarterly dividend rate in April 2003 to $0.065, in May 2004 to $0.0725, in December 2004 to $0.085, in December 2005 to $0.10, in December 2006 to $0.125, in August 2007 to $0.175, in June 2008 to $0.24, in January 2009 to $0.265 and in August 2010 to $0.28.
The following table sets forth dividend declarations, as well as the high and low sales prices for Monsanto’s common stock, for the fiscal year 2010 and 2009 quarters indicated.
                                         

    1st   2nd   3rd   4th   Fiscal
Dividends per Share    Quarter   Quarter   Quarter   Quarter   Year

                                       
2010
  $     $ 0.53 (1)   $     $ 0.55 (1)   $ 1.08  

2009
  $     $ 0.51 (2)   $     $ 0.53 (2)   $ 1.04  

                                             

        1st   2nd   3rd   4th   Fiscal
Common Stock Price        Quarter   Quarter   Quarter   Quarter   Year

                                           
2010
  High   $ 84.36     $ 87.06   $ 74.80     $ 62.29   $ 87.06  
 
  Low     66.57       70.53     48.16       44.61     44.61  

2009
  High   $ 121.32     $ 87.32   $ 93.35     $ 87.40   $ 121.32  
 
  Low     63.47       65.60     69.62       70.08     63.47  

 
(1)   During the period from Dec. 1, 2009, through Feb. 28, 2010, Monsanto declared two dividends, $0.265 per share on Dec. 7, 2009, and $0.265 per share on Jan. 26, 2010. During the period from June 1, 2010, through Aug. 31, 2010, Monsanto declared two dividends, $0.265 per share on June 9, 2010, and $0.28 per share on Aug. 4, 2010.
 
(2)   During the period from Dec. 1, 2008, through Feb. 28, 2009, Monsanto declared two dividends, $0.24 per share on Dec. 8, 2008, and $0.265 per share on Jan. 14, 2009. During the period from June 1, 2009, through Aug. 31, 2009, Monsanto declared two dividends, $0.265 per share on June 9, 2009, and $0.265 per share on Aug. 5, 2009.

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MONSANTO COMPANY   2010 FORM 10-K

Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
The following table summarizes purchases of equity securities during the fourth quarter of fiscal year 2010 by Monsanto and affiliated purchasers, pursuant to SEC rules.
                                 
                    (c) Total Number of Shares   (d) Approximate Dollar
                    Purchased as Part of   Value of Shares that May
    (a) Total Number of   (b) Average Price Paid   Publicly Announced Plans   Yet Be Purchased Under
Period   Shares Purchased   per Share(1)   or Programs   the Plans or Programs

June 2010:
                               
June 1, 2010, through June 30, 2010
    204,558 (2)    $ 49.63       204,400     $ 23,090,661  
July 2010:
                               
July 1, 2010, through July 31, 2010
    356,400 (3)    $ 53.17       288,900     $ 1,007,656,927  
August 2010:
                               
Aug. 1, 2010, through Aug. 31, 2010
    149,600     $ 58.17       149,600     $ 998,954,568  

Total
    710,558     $ 53.20       642,900     $ 998,954,568  
 
 
(1)   The average price paid per share is calculated on a trade date basis and excludes commission.
 
(2)   Includes 158 shares withheld to cover the withholding taxes upon the vesting of restricted stock.
 
(3)   Includes 67,500 shares purchased by affiliated purchasers.
In April 2008, the board of directors authorized a repurchase program of up to $800 million of the company’s common stock over a three-year period. This repurchase program commenced Dec. 23, 2008, and was completed on Aug. 24, 2010. In June 2010, the board of directors authorized a new repurchase program of up to an additional $1 billion of the company’s common stock over a three-year period beginning July 1, 2010. This repurchase program commenced Aug. 24, 2010, and will expire on Aug. 24, 2013. There were no other publicly announced plans outstanding as of Aug. 31, 2010.

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MONSANTO COMPANY   2010 FORM 10-K

Stock Price Performance Graph
The graph below compares the performance of Monsanto’s common stock with the performance of the Standard & Poor’s 500 Stock Index (a broad-based market index) and a peer group index over a 60-month period extending through the end of the 2010 fiscal year. The graph assumes that $100 was invested on Sept. 1, 2005, in our common stock, in the Standard & Poor’s 500 Stock Index and the peer group index, and that all dividends were reinvested.
Because we are involved both in the agricultural products business and in the seeds and genomics business, no published peer group accurately mirrors our portfolio of businesses. Accordingly, we created a peer group index that includes Bayer AG ADR, Dow Chemical Company, DuPont (E.I.) de Nemours and Company, BASF AG and Syngenta AG. The Standard & Poor’s 500 Stock Index and the peer group index are included for comparative purposes only. They do not necessarily reflect management’s opinion that such indices are an appropriate measure of the relative performance of the stock involved, and they are not intended to forecast or be indicative of possible future performance of our common stock.
(LINE GRAPH)
In accordance with the rules of the SEC, the information contained in the Stock Price Performance Graph on this page shall not be deemed to be “soliciting material,” or to be “filed” with the SEC or subject to the SEC’s Regulation 14A, or to the liabilities of Section 18 of the Exchange Act, except to the extent that Monsanto specifically requests that the information be treated as soliciting material or specifically incorporates it by reference into a document filed under the Securities Act, or the Exchange Act.

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MONSANTO COMPANY   2010 FORM 10-K

ITEM 6. SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA
 
SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA
 
                                              
    Year Ended Aug. 31,
(Dollars in millions, except per share amounts)   2010   2009   2008   2007   2006

Operating Results:
                                       
Net sales(1)
  $ 10,502     $ 11,724     $ 11,365     $ 8,349     $ 7,065  
Income from operations
    1,607       3,103       2,721       1,409       1,139  
Income from continuing operations(6)
    1,124       2,122       2,027       925       688  
Income on discontinued operations(2)
    4       11       17       80       24  
Cumulative effect of a change in accounting principle, net of tax benefit(3)
                            (6 )
Net income attributable to Monsanto Company
    1,109       2,109       2,024       993       689  
Basic Earnings (Loss) per Share Attributable to Monsanto Company:(4)(5)
                                       
Income from continuing operations
  $ 2.03     $ 3.83     $ 3.66     $ 1.68     $ 1.24  
Income on discontinued operations(2)
    0.01       0.02       0.03       0.14       0.04  
Cumulative effect of accounting change(3)
                            (0.01 )
Net income
    2.04       3.85       3.69       1.82       1.27  
Diluted Earnings (Loss) per Share Attributable to Monsanto Company:(4)(5)
                                       
Income from continuing operations
  $ 2.01     $ 3.78     $ 3.59     $ 1.64     $ 1.22  
Income on discontinued operations(2)
          0.02       0.03       0.15       0.04  
Cumulative effect of accounting change(3)
                            (0.01 )
Net income
    2.01       3.80       3.62       1.79       1.25  
Financial Position at end of Period:
                                       
Total assets
  $ 17,867     $ 17,877     $ 17,991     $ 12,983     $ 11,728  
Working capital(7)
    3,581       4,127       3,170       2,009       3,182  
Current ratio(7)
    2.01:1       2.10:1       1.71:1       1.65:1       2.40:1  
Long-term debt
    1,862       1,724       1,792       1,150       1,639  
Debt-to-capital ratio(8)
    17 %     15 %     16 %     16 %     20 %
Other Data:(4)
                                       
Dividends per share
  $ 1.08     $ 1.04     $ 0.83     $ 0.55     $ 0.40  
Stock price per share:
                                       
High
  $ 87.06     $ 121.32     $ 145.80     $ 70.88     $ 47.58  
Low
  $ 44.61     $ 63.47     $ 69.22     $ 42.75     $ 27.80  
End of period
  $ 52.65     $ 83.88     $ 114.25     $ 69.74     $ 47.44  
Basic shares outstanding(5)
    543.7       547.1       548.9       544.8       540.6  
Diluted shares outstanding(5)
    550.8       555.6       559.7       555.3       551.9  

See Item 7 — Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations — for information regarding the factors that have affected or may affect the comparability of our business results.
 
(1)   In 2006 and 2007, American Seeds acquired several regional seed companies. In 2007, we acquired Delta and Pine Land Company (DPL) and divested the Stoneville® and NexGen® cotton seed brands and related business assets. In 2008, we acquired De Ruiter, Cristiani, and Agroeste and entered into an agreement to divest the Dairy business. In 2009, we acquired Aly Participacoes Ltda. and WestBred, LLC and divested the Dairy business. See Note 4 — Business Combinations for further details of these acquisitions and Note 29 — Discontinued Operations for further details of these divestitures.
 
(2)   In 2006, we recorded an additional write-down of $3 million aftertax related to the remaining assets associated with the environmental technologies businesses. In 2007, we sold the Stoneville and NexGen businesses as part of the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ) approval for the acquisition of DPL. In 2008, we entered into an agreement to sell the Dairy business. Accordingly, these businesses have been presented as discontinued operations in the Statements of Consolidated Operations for all periods presented above. See Note 29 — Discontinued Operations for further details of these completed dispositions.
 
(3)   In 2006, we adopted the Asset Retirement and Environmental Obligations topic of the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) Accounting Standards Codification (ASC). In connection with the adoption of this new accounting guidance, we recorded a cumulative effect of accounting change of $6 million aftertax.
 
(4)   For all periods presented, the share and per share amounts (including stock price) reflect the effect of the two-for-one stock split (in the form of a 100 percent stock dividend) that was completed on July 28, 2006.

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MONSANTO COMPANY   2010 FORM 10-K

(5)   Effective Sept. 1, 2009, we retrospectively adopted a FASB-issued standard that requires unvested share-based payment awards that contain rights to receive non-forfeitable dividends or dividend equivalents to be included in the two-class method of computing earnings per share as described in the Earnings Per Share topic of the ASC.
 
(6)   Effective Sept. 1, 2009, we retrospectively adopted the new accounting guidance related to the Consolidation topic of the ASC.
 
(7)   Working capital is total current assets less total current liabilities; current ratio represents total current assets divided by total current liabilities.
 
(8)   Debt-to-capital ratio is the sum of short-term and long-term debt, divided by the sum of short-term and long-term debt and shareowners’ equity.

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MONSANTO COMPANY   2010 FORM 10-K

ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
 
OVERVIEW
 
Background
Monsanto Company, along with its subsidiaries, is a leading global provider of agricultural products for farmers. Our seeds, biotechnology trait products, and herbicides provide farmers with solutions that improve productivity, reduce the costs of farming, and produce better foods for consumers and better feed for animals.
We manage our business in two segments: Seeds and Genomics and Agricultural Productivity. Through our Seeds and Genomics segment, we produce leading seed brands, including DEKALB, Asgrow, Deltapine, Seminis and De Ruiter, and we develop biotechnology traits that assist farmers in controlling insects and weeds. We also provide other seed companies with genetic material and biotechnology traits for their seed brands. Through our Agricultural Productivity segment, we manufacture Roundup brand herbicides and other herbicides and provide lawn-and-garden herbicide products for the residential market. Approximately 43 percent of our total company sales, 37 percent of our Seeds and Genomics segment sales, and 57 percent of our Agricultural Productivity segment sales originated from our legal entities outside the United States during fiscal year 2010.
In the fourth quarter of 2008, we entered into an agreement to divest the animal agricultural products business (the Dairy business). This transaction was consummated on Oct. 1, 2008. As a result, financial data for this business has been presented as discontinued operations as outlined below. The financial statements have been prepared in compliance with the provisions of the Property, Plant and Equipment topic of the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) Accounting Standards Codification (ASC). Accordingly, for all periods presented herein, the Statements of Consolidated Operations and Consolidated Financial Position have been conformed to this presentation. The Dairy business was previously reported as part of the Agricultural Productivity segment. See Note 29 — Discontinued Operations — for further details.
This MD&A should be read in conjunction with Monsanto’s consolidated financial statements and the accompanying notes. The notes to the consolidated financial statements referred to throughout this MD&A are included in Part II — Item 8 — Financial Statements and Supplementary Data — of this Report on Form 10-K. Unless otherwise indicated, “earnings (loss) per share” and “per share” mean diluted earnings (loss) per share. Unless otherwise noted, all amounts and analyses are based on continuing operations.
Non-GAAP Financial Measures
MD&A includes financial information prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP), as well as two other financial measures, EBIT and free cash flow, that are considered “non-GAAP financial measures.” Generally, a non-GAAP financial measure is a numerical measure of a company’s financial performance, financial position or cash flows that excludes (or includes) amounts that are included in (or excluded from) the most directly comparable measure calculated and presented in accordance with GAAP. The presentation of EBIT and free cash flow information is intended to supplement investors’ understanding of our operating performance and liquidity. Our EBIT and free cash flow measures may not be comparable to other companies’ EBIT and free cash flow measures. Furthermore, these measures are not intended to replace net income (loss), cash flows, financial position, or comprehensive income (loss), as determined in accordance with U.S. GAAP.
EBIT is defined as earnings (loss) before interest and taxes. Earnings (loss) is intended to mean net income (loss) as presented in the Statements of Consolidated Operations under GAAP. EBIT is the primary operating performance measure for our two business segments. We believe that EBIT is useful to investors and management to demonstrate the operational profitability of our segments by excluding interest and taxes, which are generally accounted for across the entire company on a consolidated basis. EBIT is also one of the measures used by Monsanto management to determine resource allocations within the company. See Note 26 — Segment and Geographic Data — for a reconciliation of EBIT to net income (loss) for fiscal years 2010, 2009 and 2008.
We also provide information regarding free cash flow, an important liquidity measure for Monsanto. We define free cash flow as the total of net cash provided or required by operating activities and net cash provided or required by investing activities. We believe that free cash flow is useful to investors and management as a measure of the ability of our business to

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MONSANTO COMPANY   2010 FORM 10-K

generate cash. This cash can be used to meet business needs and obligations, to reinvest in the company for future growth, or to return to our shareowners through dividend payments or share repurchases. Free cash flow is also used by management as one of the performance measures in determining incentive compensation. See the “Financial Condition, Liquidity, and Capital Resources — Cash Flow” section of MD&A for a reconciliation of free cash flow to net cash provided by operating activities and net cash required by investing activities on the Statements of Consolidated Cash Flows.
Executive Summary
Consolidated Operating Results — Net sales in 2010 decreased $1,222 million from 2009. This decline was primarily a result of decreased sales of Roundup and other glyphosate-based herbicides in the United States, Europe and Brazil. Net income attributable to Monsanto Company in 2010 was $2.01 per share, compared with $3.80 per share in 2009.
The following factors affected the two-year comparison:
2010:
    We recorded restructuring charges of $324 million in 2010 which was recorded in restructuring charges for $210 million and cost of goods sold for $114 million in the Statement of Consolidated Operations. See Note 5 — Restructuring — for further discussion.
2009:
    We recorded restructuring charges of $406 million in fourth quarter 2009 which was recorded in restructuring charges for $361 million and cost of goods sold for $45 million in the Statement of Consolidated Operations. See Note 5 — Restructuring — for further discussion.
Financial Condition, Liquidity, and Capital Resources — In 2010, net cash provided by operating activities was $1,398 million, compared with $2,246 million in 2009. Net cash required by investing activities was $834 million in 2010, compared with $723 million in 2009. As a result, our free cash flow, as defined in the “Overview — Non-GAAP Financial Measures” section of MD&A, was a source of cash of $564 million in 2010, compared with $1,523 million in 2009. We used cash of $57 million in 2010 for acquisitions of businesses, compared with $329 million in 2009. For a more detailed discussion of the factors affecting the free cash flow comparison, see the “Cash Flow” section of the “Financial Condition, Liquidity, and Capital Resources” section in this MD&A.
Outlook — We plan to continue to improve our products in order to maintain market leadership and to support near-term performance. We are focused on applying innovation and technology to make our farmer customers more productive and profitable by protecting yields and improving the ways they can produce food, fiber and feed. We use the tools of modern biology to make seeds easier to grow, to allow farmers to do more with fewer resources, and to produce healthier foods for consumers. Our current research and development (R&D) strategy and commercial priorities are focused on bringing our farmer customers second- and third-generation traits, on delivering multiple solutions in one seed (“stacking”), and on developing new pipeline products. Our capabilities in biotechnology and breeding research are generating a rich product pipeline that is expected to drive long-term growth. The viability of our product pipeline depends in part on the speed of regulatory approvals globally, and on continued patent and legal rights to offer our products.
We plan to improve and to grow our vegetable seeds business. We have applied our molecular breeding and marker capabilities to our library of vegetable germplasm. In the future, we will continue to focus on accelerating the potential growth of this business and executing our business plans.
Roundup herbicides remain the largest crop protection brand globally. Following a period of increasing inventories within the global glyphosate market and expansion of global glyphosate production capacity, the market has moved to an oversupply position. As a result, the significant supply of lower-priced generics has caused increased competitive pressure in the market and a decline in the business. We are focused on managing the costs associated with our agricultural chemistry business as that sector matures globally.

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MONSANTO COMPANY   2010 FORM 10-K

See the “Outlook” section of MD&A for a more detailed discussion of some of the opportunities and risks we have identified for our business. For additional information related to the outlook for Monsanto, see “Caution Regarding Forward-Looking Statements” above and Part I — Item 1A — Risk Factors of this Form 10-K.

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MONSANTO COMPANY   2010 FORM 10-K

RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
 
                                         

    Year Ended Aug. 31,
                            Change
                            2010 vs.   2009 vs.
(Dollars in millions, except per share amounts)   2010   2009   2008   2009   2008

Net Sales
  $ 10,502     $ 11,724     $ 11,365       (10) %     3 %
Gross Profit
    5,086       6,762       6,177       (25) %     9 %
Operating Expenses:
                                       
Selling, general and administrative expenses
    2,064       2,037       2,312       1 %     (12) %
Research and development expenses
    1,205       1,098       980       10 %     12 %
Acquired in-process research and development
          163       164     NM     (1) %
Restructuring charges, net
    210       361             (42) %   NM

Total Operating Expenses
    3,479       3,659       3,456       (5) %     6 %

Income from Operations
    1,607       3,103       2,721       (48) %     14 %
Interest expense
    162       129       110       26 %     17 %
Interest income
    (56 )     (71 )     (132 )     (21) %     (46) %
Solutia-related income, net
                (187 )   NM   NM
Other expense, net
    7       78       4       (91) %   NM

Income from Continuing Operations Before Income Taxes
    1,494       2,967       2,926       (50) %     1 %
Income tax provision
    370       845       899       (56) %     (6) %

Income from Continuing Operations Including Portion
                                       
Attributable to Noncontrolling Interest
    1,124       2,122       2,027       (47) %     5 %

Discontinued Operations:
                                       
Income from operations of discontinued businesses
    4       19       20       (79) %     (5) %
Income tax provision
          8       3     NM   NM

Income on Discontinued Operations
    4       11       17       (64) %     (35) %

Net Income
  $ 1,128     $ 2,133     $ 2,044       (47) %     4 %

Less: Net income attributable to noncontrolling interest
    19       24       20       (21) %     20 %

Net Income Attributable to Monsanto Company
  $ 1,109     $ 2,109     $ 2,024       (47) %     4 %
 
Diluted Earnings per Share Attributable to Monsanto Company:
                                       
Income from continuing operations
  $ 2.01     $ 3.78     $ 3.59       (47) %     5 %
Income on discontinued operations
          0.02       0.03       (100) %     (33) %

Net Income Attributable to Monsanto Company
  $ 2.01     $ 3.80     $ 3.62       (47) %     5 %
 
NM = Not Meaningful
                                       
 
                                       
Effective Tax Rate
    25 %     28 %     31 %                
 
                                       
Comparison as a Percent of Net Sales:
                                       
Gross profit
    48 %     58 %     54 %                
Selling, general and administrative expenses
    20 %     17 %     20 %                
Research and development expenses (excluding acquired IPR&D)
    11 %     9 %     9 %                
Total operating expenses
    33 %     31 %     30 %                
Income from continuing operations before income taxes
    14 %     25 %     26 %                
Net income attributable to Monsanto Company
    11 %     18 %     18 %                
Overview of Financial Performance (2010 compared with 2009)
The following section discusses the significant components of our results of operations that affected the comparison of fiscal year 2010 with fiscal year 2009.
Net sales decreased 10 percent in 2010 from 2009. Our Seeds and Genomics segment net sales improved 4 percent, and our Agricultural Productivity segment net sales declined 35 percent. The following table presents the percentage changes in 2010 worldwide net sales by segment compared with net sales in 2009, including the effect that volume, price, currency and

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MONSANTO COMPANY   2010 FORM 10-K

acquisitions had on these percentage changes:
                                                 

    2010 Percentage Change in Net Sales vs. 2009
                                    Impact of    
    Volume   Price   Currency   Subtotal   Acquisitions(1)   Net Change

Seeds and Genomics Segment
    (2) %     4 %     2 %     4 %         4 %
Agricultural Productivity Segment
    27 %     (63) %     1 %     (35) %         (35) %
Total Monsanto Company
    9 %     (21) %     2 %     (10) %         (10) %

 
(1)   See Note 4 — Business Combinations — and “Financial Condition, Liquidity, and Capital Resources” in MD&A for details of our acquisitions in fiscal years 2010 and 2009. In this presentation, acquisitions are segregated for one year from the acquisition date.
For a more detailed discussion of the factors affecting the net sales comparison, see the “Seeds and Genomics Segment” and the “Agricultural Productivity Segment” sections.
Gross profit decreased 25 percent, or $1,676 million. Total company gross profit as a percent of net sales decreased 10 percentage points to 48 percent in 2010, driven by decreases in average net selling prices of Roundup and other glyphosate-based herbicides. Gross profit as a percent of net sales for the Seeds and Genomics segment decreased 2 percentage points to 60 percent in the 12-month comparison partially due to increased restructuring charges recorded in cost of goods sold related to inventory impairments over the prior year. Gross profit as a percent of net sales for the Agricultural Productivity segment decreased 32 percentage points to 19 percent in the 12-month comparison. See the “Seeds and Genomics Segment” and “Agricultural Productivity Segment” sections of MD&A for details.
Operating expenses decreased 5 percent, or $180 million, in 2010 from 2009, primarily because of the $163 million of acquired in-process R&D in 2009 and $151 million less in restructuring charges. Selling, general and administrative (SG&A) expenses increased 1 percent primarily because of increased marketing expense offset by lower spending for administrative functions and incentives. R&D expenses increased 10 percent due to an increase in activity of our expanded product pipeline. Restructuring charges decreased 42 percent because the majority of the actions took place upon approval and communication of the 2009 Restructuring Plan in fiscal year 2009. As a percent of net sales, SG&A expenses increased 3 points to 20 percent of net sales, and R&D expenses increased 2 points to 11 percent of net sales in 2010.
Interest expense increased 26 percent, or $33 million, in fiscal year 2010 from 2009. The increased expense was primarily due to an increased level of customer financing costs during 2010 compared to 2009.
Interest income decreased 21 percent, or $15 million, in 2010 because of less interest earned on lower average cash balances primarily in the United States, Brazil and Europe.
Other expense — net was $7 million in 2010, compared with $78 million in 2009. The decrease occurred due to the gain recorded on the Seminium, S.A. (Seminium) acquisition as well as a decline in foreign currency losses in 2010. See Note 4 — Business Combinations — for further information on the Seminium acquisition.
Income tax provision for 2010 decreased to $370 million, a decrease of $475 million from 2009 primarily as a result of the decrease in pretax income from continuing operations. The effective tax rate decreased to 25 percent, a decrease of 3 percentage points from fiscal year 2009. The following items had an impact on the effective tax rate:
    The effective tax rate for 2010 decreased because of the restructuring charges of $324 million ($224 million after tax).
 
    Benefits totaling $100 million were recorded in 2010 relating to several discrete tax adjustments. The majority of these items was the result of the resolution of several domestic and ex-US tax audits, favorable adjustments from the filing of tax returns and the expiration of statutes of limitations in several jurisdictions. These benefits were partially offset by a tax charge of $8 million as a result of the elimination of the tax benefit associated with the Medicare Part D subsidy as a result of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act signed by President Obama on March 23,

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MONSANTO COMPANY   2010 FORM 10-K

      2010, and the Health Care and Education Act of 2010 signed on March 30, 2010 (collectively the “Healthcare Acts”).
 
    Benefits totaling $168 million were recorded in 2009 relating to several discrete tax adjustments. The majority of these items was the result of the resolution of several domestic and ex-US tax audits and other tax matters in addition to the retroactive extension of the R&D credit that was enacted on Oct. 3, 2008, as part of the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008.
Without these items, our effective tax rate for 2010 would still have been lower than the 2009 rate, primarily driven by a shift in our earnings mix to lower tax rate jurisdictions.
Overview of Financial Performance (2009 compared with 2008)
The following section discusses the significant components of our results of operations that affected the comparison of fiscal year 2009 with fiscal year 2008.
Net sales increased 3 percent in 2009 from 2008. Our Seeds and Genomics segment net sales improved 15 percent, and our Agricultural Productivity segment net sales declined 11 percent. The following table presents the percentage changes in 2009 worldwide net sales by segment compared with net sales in 2008, including the effect that volume, price, currency and acquisitions had on these percentage changes:
                                                 

    2009 Percentage Change in Net Sales vs. 2008
                                    Impact of    
    Volume   Price   Currency   Subtotal   Acquisitions(1)   Net Change
   
Seeds and Genomics Segment
    (1) %     19 %     (5) %     13 %     2 %     15 %
Agricultural Productivity Segment
    (24) %     17 %     (4) %     (11) %         (11) %
Total Monsanto Company
    (11) %     17 %     (4) %     2 %     1 %     3 %

 
(1)   See Note 4 — Business Combinations — and “Financial Condition, Liquidity, and Capital Resources” in MD&A for details of our acquisitions in fiscal years 2009 and 2008. In this presentation, acquisitions are segregated for one year from the acquisition date.
For a more detailed discussion of the factors affecting the net sales comparison, see the “Seeds and Genomics Segment” and the “Agricultural Productivity Segment” sections.
Gross profit increased 9 percent, or $585 million. Total company gross profit as a percent of net sales increased 4 percentage points to 58 percent in 2009, driven by increases in average net selling prices of corn and soybean seed and traits and Roundup and other glyphosate-based herbicides. Gross profit as a percent of net sales for the Seeds and Genomics segment increased 1 percentage point to 62 percent in the 12-month comparison. Gross profit as a percent of net sales for the Agricultural Productivity segment increased 5 percentage points to 51 percent in the 12-month comparison. See the “Seeds and Genomics Segment” and “Agricultural Productivity Segment” sections of MD&A for details.
Operating expenses increased 6 percent, or $203 million, in 2009 from 2008, primarily because of the $361 million pre-tax restructuring charge in 2009. Selling, general and administrative (SG&A) expenses decreased 12 percent primarily because of lower spending for marketing, administrative functions and incentives. R&D expenses increased 12 percent due to an increase in our investment in our product pipeline. As a percent of net sales, SG&A expenses decreased 3 points to 17 percent of net sales, and R&D expenses remained at 9 percent of net sales in 2009.
Interest expense increased 17 percent, or $19 million, in fiscal year 2009 from 2008. The increased expense was primarily due to higher long-term debt interest expense due to the $550 million of debt issued in third quarter 2008.
Interest income decreased 46 percent, or $61 million, in 2009 because of lower average cash balances primarily in Brazil and lower interest rates.

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MONSANTO COMPANY   2010 FORM 10-K

We recorded Solutia-related income of $187 million in 2008. We recorded a gain of $210 million pretax (Solutia-related gain), associated with the settlement of our claim on Feb. 28, 2008, in connection with Solutia’s emergence from bankruptcy. Since Solutia has emerged from bankruptcy, any related expenses for these assumed liabilities are now included within operating expenses.
Other expense — net increased $74 million, to $78 million in 2009. The increase is primarily due to hedging losses partially offset by foreign currency gains.
Income tax provision for 2009 decreased to $845 million, a decrease of $54 million from 2008. The effective tax rate on continuing operations was 28 percent, a decrease of 3 percentage points from fiscal year 2008. This difference was primarily the result of the following items:
  Benefits totaling $168 million were recorded in 2009 relating to several discrete tax adjustments. The majority of these items was the result of the resolution of several domestic and ex-U.S. tax audits and other tax matters in addition to the retroactive extension of the R&D credit that was enacted on Oct. 3, 2008, as part of the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008.
 
  The effective tax rate for 2008 was affected by our Solutia-related gain for which taxes were provided at a higher U.S.-based rate, a tax benefit of $43 million for the reversal of our remaining valuation allowance in Argentina and additional tax expense for a transfer pricing item.
Without these items, our effective tax rate for 2009 would have been higher than the 2008 rate, primarily driven by a shift in our earnings mix to higher tax rate jurisdictions.
The factors noted above explain the change in income from continuing operations. In 2009, we recorded income on discontinued operations of $11 million compared to $17 million in 2008 due to the gain recorded on the sale of the Dairy business. In 2008, the $17 million related to income from operations of the Dairy business.

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MONSANTO COMPANY   2010 FORM 10-K

SEEDS AND GENOMICS SEGMENT
 
                                         



    Year Ended Aug. 31,
  Change
(Dollars in millions)   2010   2009   2008   2010 vs. 2009   2009 vs. 2008

 
Net Sales
                                       
Corn seed and traits
  $ 4,260     $ 4,113     $ 3,542       4 %     16 %
Soybean seed and traits
    1,486       1,448       1,174       3 %     23 %
Cotton seed and traits
    611       466       450       31 %     4 %
Vegetable seeds
    835       808       744       3 %     9 %
All other crops seeds and traits
    419       462       459       (9) %     1 %

 
Total Net Sales
  $ 7,611     $ 7,297     $ 6,369       4 %     15 %
 
   
Gross Profit
                                       
Corn seed and traits
  $ 2,464     $ 2,606     $ 2,174       (5) %     20 %
Soybean seed and traits
    905       871       725       4 %     20 %
Cotton seed and traits
    454       344       313       32 %     10 %
Vegetable seeds
    492       416       394       18 %     6 %
All other crops seeds and traits
    223       267       251       (16) %     6 %

 
Total Gross Profit
  $ 4,538     $ 4,504     $ 3,857       1 %     17 %
 
   
EBIT(1)
  $ 1,597     $ 1,655     $ 1,200       (4) %     38 %

 
 
(1)   EBIT is defined as earnings (loss) before interest and taxes. Interest and taxes are recorded on a total company basis. We do not record these items at the segment level. See Note 26 — Segment and Geographic Data and the “Overview — Non-GAAP Financial Measures” section of MD&A for further details.
Seeds and Genomics Financial Performance for Fiscal Year 2010
Net sales of corn seed and traits increased 4 percent, or $147 million, in the 12-month comparison. In 2010, sales improved primarily in the United States and Argentina because of increased average net selling price and a shift to higher margin corn trait products.
Cotton seed and traits net sales increased 31 percent, or $145 million, in 2010. This sales increase was driven by an increase in planted acres primarily in the United States and India.
In 2010, all other crops seeds and traits net sales decreased 9 percent, or $43 million, in the 12-month comparison because of the divestiture of our global sunflower assets in August 2009.
Gross profit increased 1 percent for this segment due to increased net sales. Gross profit as a percent of sales for this segment decreased 2 percentage points to 60 percent in 2010. This decline was primarily driven by higher U.S. hedging losses on commodity prices and higher manufacturing costs for corn. In addition, we recorded inventory impairments of $93 million in 2010 compared with $24 million in 2009 related to discontinued seed products worldwide as part of our 2009 Restructuring Plan in 2010. See Note 5 — Restructuring — for further information.
EBIT for the Seeds and Genomics segment decreased $58 million to $1,597 million in 2010.
Seeds and Genomics Financial Performance for Fiscal Year 2009
Net sales of corn seed and traits increased 16 percent, or $571 million, in the 12-month comparison. In 2009, our U.S. corn seed and traits sales improved because of increased average net selling price and a demand shift to higher margin triple trait corn products, compared with 2008.
Soybean seed and traits net sales increased 23 percent, or $274 million, in 2009. This sales increase was driven by an increase in sales volume of U.S. soybean seed and traits driven by an increase in soybean acres and stronger customer demand in the United States. Also, soybean seed and traits revenues increased in the United States because of higher average net selling prices.

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MONSANTO COMPANY   2010 FORM 10-K

In 2009, vegetable seeds net sales increased 9 percent, or $64 million, in the 12-month comparison because of the De Ruiter acquisition in June 2008 and higher average net selling prices. These increases were partially offset by unfavorable foreign currency translation rate of the European euro vs. the U.S. dollar.
Gross profit increased 17 percent for this segment due to increased net sales. Gross profit as a percent of sales for this segment increased 1 percentage point to 62 percent in 2009. This improvement was primarily driven by increased prices in U.S. corn seed and traits, U.S. soybean seed and traits and a demand shift to higher margin triple trait corn products. These positive factors were partially offset by higher costs in the United States resulting from higher commodity prices paid for our seed production.
EBIT for the Seeds and Genomics segment increased $455 million to $1,655 million in 2009. In the 12-month comparison, incremental SG&A and R&D expenses related to the growth of the business and the 2009 acquisitions partially offset the gross profit improvement from higher net sales across all crops. Further, restructuring charges incurred of $292 million reduced EBIT in fourth quarter 2009. For further information see Note 5 — Restructuring.
AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVITY SEGMENT
 
                                         



  Year Ended Aug. 31,
  Change
(Dollars in millions)   2010   2009   2008   2010 vs. 2009   2009 vs. 2008
 
   
Net Sales
                                       
Roundup and other glyphosate-based herbicides
  $ 2,029     $ 3,527     $ 4,094       (42) %     (14) %
All other agricultural productivity products
    862       900       902       (4) %      
 
   
Total Net Sales
  $ 2,891     $ 4,427     $ 4,996       (35) %     (11) %
 
   
Gross Profit
                                       
Roundup and other glyphosate-based herbicides
  $ 142     $ 1,836     $ 1,976       (92) %     (7) %
All other agricultural productivity products
    406       422       344       (4) %     23 %
 
   
Total Gross Profit
  $ 548     $ 2,258     $ 2,320       (76) %     (3) %
 
   
EBIT(1)
  $ (25 )   $ 1,352     $ 1,691       (102) %     (20) %
 
   
(1)   EBIT is defined as earnings (loss) before interest and taxes. Interest and taxes are recorded on a total company basis. We do not record these items at the segment level. See Note 26 — Segment and Geographic Data and the “Overview — Non-GAAP Financial Measures” section of MD&A for further details.
Agricultural Productivity Financial Performance for Fiscal Year 2010
Net sales of Roundup and other glyphosate-based herbicides decreased 42 percent, or $1,498 million, in 2010. In the 12-month comparison, sales of Roundup and other glyphosate-based herbicides decreased primarily in the United States, Europe and Brazil. The average net selling price decreased in all regions because of a previously announced price decrease on our products and increased marketing programs over the prior year. Offsetting this decline, global sales volumes of Roundup and other glyphosate-based herbicides increased 38 percent in 2010 from 2009.
Sales of Roundup and other glyphosate-based herbicides declined in the United States and other world areas primarily because of a decrease in the net selling price due to a shift in the market to generic competition.
Gross profit as a percent of sales decreased 32 percentage points for the Agricultural Productivity segment to 19 percent in 2010. This decrease was primarily because of lower average net selling prices of Roundup and other glyphosate-based herbicides.
The sales decreases discussed in this section resulted in $1,710 million lower gross profit in 2010. EBIT for the Agricultural Productivity segment decreased $1,377 million, to a negative $25 million in 2010. Contributing to this decrease was lower net selling prices reducing EBIT in 2010.

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MONSANTO COMPANY   2010 FORM 10-K

Agricultural Productivity Financial Performance for Fiscal Year 2009
Net sales of Roundup and other glyphosate-based herbicides decreased 14 percent, or $567 million, in 2009. In the 12-month comparison, sales of Roundup and other glyphosate-based herbicides increased primarily in Brazil and Canada. The average net selling price increased in most regions. Offsetting these increases, global sales volumes of Roundup and other glyphosate-based herbicides decreased 29 percent in 2009 from 2008.
Sales volumes of Roundup and other glyphosate-based herbicides increased in Brazil primarily in the first quarter of the fiscal year as the herbicide market increased with improved farmer liquidity resulting from higher soybean commodity prices and the increase in acres planted for Roundup Ready soybeans and sugarcane in 2009 over 2008.
Sales of Roundup and other glyphosate-based herbicides declined in the United States and other world areas except as mentioned above because demand fell due to the increased price of our product and shift to generic competition.
Gross profit as a percent of sales increased 5 percentage points for the Agricultural Productivity segment to 51 percent in 2009. This improvement was primarily because of an increase in the average net selling prices of Roundup and other glyphosate-based herbicides.
The sales decreases discussed in this section resulted in $62 million lower gross profit in 2009. EBIT for the Agricultural Productivity segment decreased $339 million, to $1,352 million in 2009. Contributing to this decrease was our Solutia-related gain of $210 million recorded in second quarter 2008. See further discussion at Note 27 — Other Expense and Solutia-Related Items. Further, restructuring charges incurred of $114 million reduced EBIT in fourth quarter 2009. See Note 5 — Restructuring — for additional information.
RESTRUCTURING
 
Restructuring charges were recorded in the Statements of Consolidated Operations as follows:
                 

  Year Ended Aug. 31,
(Dollars in millions)   2010   2009
 
Costs of Goods Sold(1)
  $ (114 )   $ (45 )
Restructuring Charges, Net(1)(2)
    (210 )     (361 )
 
Loss from Continuing Operations Before Income Taxes
    (324 )     (406 )
Income Tax Benefit
    100       116  
 
Net Loss
  $ (224 )   $ (290 )
 
(1)   For the fiscal year ended 2010, the $114 million of restructuring charges recorded in costs of goods sold were split by segment as follows: $13 million in Agricultural Productivity and $101 million in Seeds and Genomics. For the fiscal year ended 2009, the $45 million of restructuring charges recorded in cost of goods sold were split by segment as follows: $1 million in Agricultural Productivity and $44 million in Seeds and Genomics. For the fiscal year ended 2010, the $210 million of restructuring charges recorded in restructuring charges, net were split by segment as follows: $79 million in Agricultural Productivity and $131 million in Seeds and Genomics. For the fiscal year ended 2009, the $361 million of restructuring charges were split by segment as follows: $113 million in Agricultural Productivity and $248 million in Seeds and Genomics.
 
(2)   The restructuring charges for the fiscal year ended 2010 include reversals of $32 million related to the 2009 Restructuring Plan. The reversals are primarily related to severance as positions originally included in the plan were eliminated through attrition.
On June 23, 2009, our Board of Directors approved a restructuring plan (2009 Restructuring Plan) to take future actions to reduce costs in light of the changing market supply environment for glyphosate. These actions are designed to enable us to stabilize the Roundup business and allow it to deliver optimal gross profit and a sustainable level of operating cash in the coming years, while better aligning spending and working capital needs. We also announced that we will take steps to better align the resources of our global seeds and traits business. These actions include certain product and brand rationalization within the seed businesses. On Sept. 9, 2009, we committed to take additional actions related to the previously announced restructuring plan. Furthermore, while implementing the plan, we identified additional opportunities to better align our resources, and on Aug. 26, 2010, committed to take additional actions. The plan is expected to be completed by the end of the first quarter in fiscal year 2011, and substantially all payments will be made by the end of the second quarter in fiscal year 2011.

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MONSANTO COMPANY   2010 FORM 10-K

The total restructuring costs are now expected to be $780 million and will be completed by the end of the first quarter of 2011. The charges are expected to be comprised of approximately $360 million to $370 million in severance and related benefits, $155 million of costs related to facility closures and exit costs and $255 million of asset impairments. Payments related to the 2009 Restructuring Plan will be generated from cash from operations.
The following table displays the pretax charges of $324 million and $406 million incurred by segment under the 2009 Restructuring Plan for the fiscal years ended 2010 and 2009, respectively, as well as the cumulative pretax charges of $730 million under the 2009 Restructuring Plan.
                                                 

    Year Ended Aug. 31, 2010
  Year Ended Aug. 31, 2009
    Seeds and   Agricultural           Seeds and   Agricultural    
(Dollars in millions)   Genomics   Productivity   Total   Genomics   Productivity   Total
 
   
Work Force Reductions
  $ 85     $ 47     $ 132     $ 175     $ 63     $ 238  
Facility Closures / Exit Costs
    46       31       77       3       47       50  
Asset Impairments
                                               
Property, plant and equipment
    8       1       9       31       4       35  
Inventory
    93       13       106       24             24  
Other intangible assets
                      59             59  
 
   
Total Restructuring Charges, Net
  $ 232     $ 92     $ 324     $ 292     $ 114     $ 406  
 
   
 
                                               
                             
                            Cumulative Amount through Aug. 31, 2010
                             
 
                          Seeds and   Agricultural        
(Dollars in millions)
                          Genomics   Productivity   Total
 
Work Force Reductions
                          $ 260     $ 110     $ 370  
Facility Closures / Exit Costs
                            49       78       127  
Asset Impairments
                                               
Property, plant and equipment
                            39       5       44  
Inventory
                            117       13       130  
Other intangible assets
                            59             59  
 
Total Restructuring Charges, Net
                          $ 524     $ 206     $ 730  
 
Our written human resource policies are indicative of an ongoing benefit arrangement with respect to severance packages. Benefits paid pursuant to an ongoing benefit arrangement are specifically excluded from the Exit or Disposal Cost Obligations topic of the ASC, therefore severance charges incurred in connection with the 2009 Restructuring Plan are accounted for when probable and estimable as required under the Compensation – Nonretirement Postemployment Benefits topic of the ASC. In addition, when the decision to commit to a restructuring plan requires an asset impairment review, we evaluate such impairment issues under the Property, Plant and Equipment topic of the ASC. Certain asset impairment charges were recorded in the fourth quarters of 2010 and 2009 related to the decisions to shut down facilities under the 2009 Restructuring Plan as the future cash flows for these facilities were insufficient to recover the net book value of the related long-lived assets.
In fiscal year 2010, pretax restructuring charges of $324 million were recorded. The $132 million in work force reductions was related primarily to Europe and the United States. The facility closures/exit costs of $77 million were related primarily to the finalization of the termination of a chemical supply contract in the United States and worldwide entity consolidation costs. In asset impairments, inventory impairments of $106 million recorded in cost of goods sold were related to discontinued products worldwide. In fiscal year 2009, pretax restructuring charges of $406 million were recorded. The $238 million in work force reductions related to site closures and downsizing primarily in the United States and Europe. The facility closures/exit costs of $50 million related primarily to the termination of a chemical supply contract in the United States and the termination of chemical distributor contracts in Central America. In asset impairments, property, plant, and equipment impairments of $35 million related to certain manufacturing and technology breeding facilities in the United States, Europe, and Central America that were closed in fiscal year 2010. Inventory impairments of $24 million were also recorded for discontinued seed products in the United States and Europe. Other intangible impairments of $59 million related to the discontinuation of certain seed brands, which included $18 million related to the write-off of intellectual property for

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MONSANTO COMPANY   2010 FORM 10-K

technology that we elected to no longer pursue. Of the $118 million total asset impairments in fiscal year 2009, $45 million was recorded in cost of goods sold and the remainder in restructuring charges.
The actions related to the overall restructuring plan are expected to produce annual cost savings of $300 million to $340 million, primarily in cost of goods sold and SG&A. Approximately one-fourth of these savings were recognized in fiscal year 2010, with the full benefit expected to be realized in 2011.
FINANCIAL CONDITION, LIQUIDITY, AND CAPITAL RESOURCES
 
Working Capital and Financial Condition
 
                 
  As of Aug. 31,
(Dollars in millions, except current ratio)   2010   2009
 
Cash and Cash Equivalents
  $ 1,485     $ 1,956  
Trade Receivables, Net
    1,590       1,556  
Inventory, Net
    2,739       2,934  
Other Current Assets(1)
    1,308       1,437  
 
Total Current Assets
  $ 7,122     $ 7,883  
 
Short-Term Debt
  $ 241     $ 79  
Accounts Payable
    752       676  
Accrued Liabilities(2)
    2,548       3,001  
 
Total Current Liabilities
  $ 3,541     $ 3,756  
 
Working Capital(3)
  $ 3,581     $ 4,127  
Current Ratio(3)
    2.01:1       2.10:1  
 
(1)   Includes miscellaneous receivables, deferred tax assets and other current assets.
 
(2)   Includes income taxes payable, accrued compensation and benefits, accrued marketing programs, deferred revenues, grower production accruals, dividends payable, customer payable, restructuring reserves and miscellaneous short-term accruals.
 
(3)   Working capital is total current assets less total current liabilities; current ratio represents total current assets divided by total current liabilities.
Working capital decreased $546 million between Aug. 31, 2010, and Aug. 31, 2009, primarily because of the following factors:
    Cash and cash equivalents decreased $471 million. For a more detailed discussion of the factors affecting the cash flow comparison, see the “Cash Flow” section in this section of MD&A.
 
    Inventory decreased $195 million, primarily because of lower corn production in fiscal year 2010, higher obsolescence reserves and lower cost of production for Agricultural Productivity inventory.
 
    Short-term debt increased $162 million related to our purchase of the Chesterfield Village Research Center in April 2010.
These decreases to working capital between Aug. 31, 2010, and Aug. 31, 2009, were partially offset by the following factor:
    Customer payable decreased $224 million because fewer customers overpaid in 2010 compared to the prior year.
Backlog: Inventories of finished goods, goods in process, and raw materials and supplies are maintained to meet customer requirements and our scheduled production. As is consistent with the nature of the seed industry, we generally produce in one growing season the seed inventories we expect to sell the following season. In general, we do not manufacture our products against a backlog of firm orders; production is geared to projected demand.
Customer Financing Programs: We previously established a revolving financing program of up to $250 million, which allowed certain U.S. customers to finance their product purchases, royalties and licensing fee obligations. We received $130 million for fiscal year 2009 and $66 million for fiscal year 2008 from the proceeds of loans made to our customers through this financing program. These proceeds were included in the net cash provided by operating activities in the Statements of

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MONSANTO COMPANY   2010 FORM 10-K

Consolidated Cash Flows. We originated these customer loans on behalf of the third-party specialty lender, a special-purpose entity (SPE) that we consolidated, using our credit and other underwriting guidelines approved by the lender. We serviced the loans and provided a first-loss guarantee of up to $130 million. Following origination, the lender transferred the loans to multiseller commercial paper conduits through a nonconsolidated qualifying special-purpose entity (QSPE). We had no ownership interest in the lender, in the QSPE, or in the loans. The program was terminated in the third quarter of fiscal year 2009. Accordingly, there were no loan balances outstanding as of Aug. 31, 2010, and Aug. 31, 2009. We accounted for this transaction as a sale, in accordance with the Transfers and Servicing topic of the ASC.
During the second quarter 2010, we began participating in a revolving financing program in Brazil. The program allows us to transfer up to 1 billion Brazilian reais (approximately $550 million) in customer receivables to a QSPE. Third parties, primarily investment funds, hold an 88 percent senior interest in the QSPE, and we hold the remaining 12 percent subordinate interest. Because QSPEs are excluded from the scope of the current guidance within the Consolidation topic of the ASC, and we do not have the unilateral right to liquidate the QSPE, the consolidation guidance does not have an effect on our accounting for this customer financing program.
Our investment in the QSPE was $10 million as of Aug. 31, 2010. It is included in other assets in the Statements of Consolidated Financial Position and is classified as a debt security. Interest earned on our investment in the QSPE was $2 million for the year ended Aug. 31, 2010, and is included in interest income on the Statements of Consolidated Operations.
Under the financing program, our transfer of select customer receivables to the QSPE is accounted for as a sale in accordance with the Transfers and Servicing topic of the ASC. We do not service the receivables. However, under the QSPE, a recourse provision requires us to cover the first 12 percent of credit losses within the program.
Proceeds from customer receivables sold through the financing program and derecognized from the Statements of Consolidated Financial Position totaled $115 million for fiscal year 2010. These proceeds are included in net cash provided by operating activities in the Statements of Consolidated Cash Flows and are net of a loss on sale of receivables of $10 million for the year ended Aug. 31, 2010. The remaining receivable balance in the QSPE outstanding as of Aug. 31, 2010, was $48 million. As of Aug. 31, 2010, there were $3 million of receivables sold through this financing program that were delinquent. Based on our historical collection experience with these customers and a current assessment of credit exposure, we recorded our recourse provision at $5 million as of Aug. 31, 2010. Adverse changes in the actual loss rate would decrease our investment asset. The maximum potential amount of future payments under the recourse provision was $15 million as of Aug. 31, 2010. If we are called upon to make payments under the recourse provision, we would have the benefit under the financing program of any amounts subsequently collected from the customer.
In August 2009, we entered into an agreement in the United States to sell customer receivables up to a maximum of $500 million and to service such accounts. These receivables qualify for sales treatment under the Transfers and Servicing topic of the ASC and, accordingly, the proceeds are included in net cash provided by operating activities in the Statements of Consolidated Cash Flows. The gross amount of receivables sold totaled $221 million and $319 million in fiscal year 2010 and 2009, respectively. The agreement includes recourse provisions and thus a liability was established at the time of sale that approximates fair value based upon our historical collection experience with such receivables and a current assessment of credit exposure. The recourse liability recorded by us was $2 million as of Aug. 31, 2010, and Aug. 31, 2009. The maximum potential amount of future payments under the recourse provisions of the agreement was $9 million as of Aug. 31, 2010. The outstanding balance of the receivables sold was $223 million and $319 million as of Aug. 31, 2010, and Aug. 31, 2009, respectively. There were delinquent loans totaling $3 million as of Aug. 31, 2010, and there were no delinquent loans as of Aug. 31, 2009.
We sell accounts receivable in the United States, European regions and Argentina both with and without recourse. These sales qualify for sales treatment under the Transfers and Servicing topic of the ASC and, accordingly, the proceeds are included in net cash provided by operating activities in the Statements of Consolidated Cash Flows. The gross amounts of accounts receivable sold totaled $112 million, $72 million and $48 million for 2010, 2009 and 2008, respectively. The liability for the guarantees for sales with recourse is recorded at an amount that approximates fair value, based on our historical collection experience for the customers associated with the sales of the accounts receivable and a current assessment of credit exposure. Our guarantee liability was less than $1 million as of Aug. 31, 2010, and Aug. 31, 2009. The maximum potential amount of future payments under the recourse provisions of the agreements was $58 million as of Aug.

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MONSANTO COMPANY   2010 FORM 10-K

31, 2010. The outstanding balance of the receivables sold was $91 million and $57 million as of Aug. 31, 2010, and Aug. 31, 2009, respectively.
We also have agreements with lenders to establish programs to provide financing of up to 550 million Brazilian reais (approximately $300 million) for selected customers in Brazil. The amount of loans outstanding was $100 million and $160 million as of Aug. 31, 2010, and Aug. 31, 2009, respectively. In this program, we provide a full guarantee of the loans in the event of customer default. The maximum potential amount of future payments under the guarantees was $100 million as of Aug. 31, 2010. The liability for the guarantee is recorded at an amount that approximates fair value, primarily based on our historical collection experience with customers that participate in the program and a current assessment of credit exposure. Our guarantee liability was $3 million and $6 million as of Aug. 31, 2010, and Aug. 31, 2009, respectively. If performance is required under the guarantee, we may retain amounts that are subsequently collected from customers.
We also have similar agreements with banks that provide financing to our customers in the United States, Brazil, Europe and Argentina. The amount of loans outstanding was $36 million and $48 million as of Aug. 31, 2010, and Aug. 31, 2009, respectively. We provide a guarantee of the loans in the event of customer default. The maximum potential amount of future payments under the guarantees was $29 million as of Aug. 31, 2010. The liability for the guarantee is recorded at an amount that approximates fair value, primarily based on our historical collection experience with customers that participate in the program and a current assessment of credit exposure. Our guarantee liability was $2 million and $5 million as of Aug. 31, 2010, and Aug. 31, 2009, respectively.
Cash Flow
                         

  Year Ended Aug. 31,
(Dollars in millions)   2010   2009   2008
 
Net Cash Provided by Operating Activities
  $ 1,398     $ 2,246     $ 2,837  
Net Cash Required by Investing Activities
    (834 )     (723 )     (2,042 )
 
Free Cash Flow(1)
    564       1,523       795  
 
Net Cash Required by Financing Activities
    (1,038 )     (1,075 )     (125 )
Effect of Exchange Rate Changes on Cash and Cash Equivalents
    3       (105 )     77  
 
Net (Decrease) Increase in Cash and Cash Equivalents
    (471 )     343       747  
Cash and Cash Equivalents at Beginning of Period
    1,956       1,613       866  
 
Cash and Cash Equivalents at End of Period
  $ 1,485     $ 1,956     $ 1,613  
 
(1)   Free cash flow represents the total of net cash provided or required by operating activities and provided or required by investing activities (see the “Overview — Non-GAAP Financial Measures” section in MD&A for a further discussion).
2010 compared with 2009: In 2010, our free cash flow was a source of cash of $564 million, compared with $1,523 million in 2009. Cash provided by operating activities decreased 38 percent, or $848 million, in 2010, primarily because of the decrease in net income of $1,005 million which was impacted by a number of noncash charges in 2010. Further, the change in accounts receivable of $548 million provided less cash from lower collections during the current year. In addition, increases in cash required by restructuring payments of $263 million in 2010 impacted operating activities. These decreases were partially offset by a change in cash provided by inventory of $851 million which occurred primarily because of a decline in inventory production. Another offset was a change in deferred revenue of $611 million due to the prepay program for Roundup in Brazil in August 2008 which was not repeated for the year ended Aug. 31, 2009.
Cash required by investing activities was $834 million in 2010 compared with $723 million in 2009. In 2009, we received proceeds of $300 million related to the sale of the Dairy business. In addition, we received $132 million in 2009 from the maturity of short-term equity securities. Offsetting these increases in the prior year, we acquired the sugarcane business for $264 million, and there was no similar sized acquisition in the current year. Further, our capital expenditures decreased $161 million in 2010 because of less spending on corn seed production facilities.
The amount of cash required by financing activities was $1,038 million in 2010 compared with $1,075 million in 2009. The net change in short-term financing was a source of cash of $22 million in 2010 compared with a use of cash of $112 million in 2009. Further, treasury stock purchases increased $134 million as we accelerated our repurchase of shares in 2010 compared to the same prior-year period.

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MONSANTO COMPANY   2010 FORM 10-K

2009 compared with 2008: In 2009, our free cash flow was a source of cash of $1,523 million, compared with $795 million in 2008. Cash provided by operating activities decreased 21 percent, or $591 million, in 2009, primarily because of the change in cash provided by deferred revenue of $1,192 million which occurred primarily because of the introduction of the prepay program for Roundup in Brazil in August 2008. This program did not reoccur in August 2009. These decreases were offset by higher earnings and a change in accounts receivable of $844 million due to higher collections and customer financing programs.
Cash required by investing activities was $723 million in 2009 compared with $2,042 million in 2008. This decrease is primarily attributable to cash used for acquisitions of $329 million in 2009 compared with $1,007 million in 2008. Further, we received proceeds of $300 million in 2009 related to the sale of the Dairy business. In addition, we used cash of $132 million in 2008 for the purchase of short-term equity securities compared with no purchases in 2009.
Cash required by financing activities was $1,075 million in 2009, compared with $125 million in 2008. The net change in short-term financing was a use of cash of $112 million in 2009 compared with a source of $82 million in 2008. Cash proceeds from long-term debt decreased $546 million in 2009 from 2008. Cash required for long-term debt reductions was $71 million in 2009, compared with $254 million in 2008. The 12-month comparison of long-term debt proceeds and reductions are affected because we issued $550 million of long-term debt and $238 million of short-term debt was repaid in 2008. Dividend payments increased 32 percent, or $133 million, because we paid dividends of $1.04 per share in 2009 compared with 83 cents per share in 2008. Further, stock option exercises decreased $75 million in 2009.
Capital Resources and Liquidity
                 

    As of Aug. 31,
(Dollars in millions, except debt-to-capital ratio)   2010   2009
 
Short-Term Debt
  $ 241     $ 79  
Long-Term Debt
    1,862       1,724  
Total Shareowners’ Equity
    10,099       10,056  
Debt-to-Capital Ratio
    17 %     15 %
 
A major source of our liquidity is operating cash flows, which are derived from net income. This cash-generating capability provides us with the financial flexibility we need to meet operating, investing and financing needs. To the extent that cash provided by operating activities is not sufficient to fund our cash needs, which generally occurs during the first and third quarters of the fiscal year because of the seasonal nature of our business, short-term commercial paper borrowings are used to finance these requirements. Although the commercial paper market has not fully returned to historical levels, the market is available to those companies with high short-term credit ratings such as Monsanto. We accessed the commercial paper markets in 2010 for periods of time to finance working capital needs and our options have not been limited. We had no commercial paper borrowings outstanding as of Aug. 31, 2010.
Our August 2010 debt-to-capital ratio increased 2 percentage points compared with the August 2009 ratio, primarily because of the increase in short-term and long-term debt due to the Chesterfield Village Research Center purchase.
We plan to issue new fixed-rate debt on or before Aug. 15, 2012, in order to repay $486 million of 73/8% Senior Notes that are due on Aug. 15, 2012. In March 2009, we entered into forward-starting interest rate swaps with a total notional amount of $250 million. In August 2010, we entered into additional forward-starting interest rate swaps with a total notional amount of $225 million. Our purpose was to hedge the variability of the forecasted interest payments on this expected debt issuance that may result from changes in the benchmark interest rate before the debt is issued.
We plan to issue additional fixed-rate debt on or before April 15, 2011. In July 2010, we entered into forward-starting interest rate swaps with a notional amount of $300 million. Our purpose was to hedge the variability of the forecasted interest payments on this expected debt issuance that may result from changes in the benchmark interest rate before the debt is issued.
We are currently evaluating the impact of the Healthcare Acts. We recorded a tax charge of $8 million during the third quarter of 2010 due to the elimination of the tax benefit associated with the Medicare Part D subsidy included in the Healthcare Acts. We are still evaluating the other impacts from the Healthcare Acts, but we do not expect them to have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements in the short term. The longer term potential impacts of the

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Healthcare Acts to our consolidated financial statements are currently uncertain. We will continue to assess how the Healthcare Acts apply to us and how best to meet the stated requirements.
In August 2009, we sold our global sunflower assets to Syngenta for $160 million in proceeds which were formerly part of all other crops seeds and traits in our Seeds and Genomics segment. We recorded a pretax gain on the sale of $59 million or $.08 per share aftertax.
In June 2008, we assumed debt of $73 million as part of the De Ruiter acquisition. In February 2009, this debt was repaid. The assumed debt, denominated in European euros, was due on Sept. 25, 2012. The interest rate was a variable rate based on the Euro Interbank Offered Rate (Euribor).
In May 2002, we filed a shelf registration with the SEC for the issuance of up to $2.0 billion of registered debt (2002 shelf registration). In August 2002, we issued $800 million in 73/8% Senior Notes under the 2002 shelf registration (73/8% Senior Notes). As of Aug. 31, 2010, $486 million of the 73/8% Senior Notes are due on Aug. 15, 2012 (see the discussion later in this section regarding a debt exchange for $314 million of the 73/8% Senior Notes). In May 2003, we issued $250 million of 4% Senior Notes (4% Senior Notes) under the 2002 shelf registration, which were repaid on May 15, 2008.
In May 2005, we filed a new shelf registration with the SEC (2005 shelf registration) that allowed us to issue up to $2.0 billion of debt, equity and hybrid offerings (including debt securities of $950 million that remained available under the 2002 shelf registration). In July 2005, we issued 51/2% 2035 Senior Notes of $400 million under the 2005 shelf registration. The net proceeds from the sale of the 51/2% 2035 Senior Notes were used to reduce commercial paper borrowings. In April 2008, we issued 51/8% 2018 Senior Notes of $300 million. The net proceeds from the sale of the 51/8% 2018 Senior Notes were used to finance the expansion of corn seed production facilities. Also in April 2008, we issued 57/8% 2038 Senior Notes of $250 million. The net proceeds from the sale of the 57/8% 2038 Senior Notes were used to repay $238 million of 4% Senior Notes that were due on May 15, 2008. The 2005 shelf registration expired in December 2008.
In October 2008, we filed a new shelf registration with the SEC (2008 shelf registration) that allows us to issue an unlimited capacity of debt, equity and hybrid offerings. The 2008 shelf registration will expire on Oct. 31, 2011.
In August 2005, we exchanged $314 million of new 51/2% Senior Notes due 2025 (51/2% 2025 Senior Notes) for $314 million of our outstanding 73/8% Senior Notes due 2012, which were issued in 2002. The exchange was conducted as a private transaction with holders of the outstanding 73/8% Senior Notes who certified to the company that they were “qualified institutional buyers” within the meaning of Rule 144A under the Securities Act of 1933. Under the terms of the exchange, the company paid a premium of $53 million to holders participating in the exchange. The transaction has been accounted for as an exchange of debt under the Debt topic of the ASC, and the $53 million premium is being amortized over the life of the new 51/2% 2025 Senior Notes. As a result of the debt premium, the effective interest rate on the 51/2% 2025 Senior Notes will be 7.035% over the life of the debt. The exchange of debt allowed the company to adjust its debt-maturity schedule while also allowing it to take advantage of market conditions which the company considered favorable. In February 2006, we issued $314 million aggregate principal amount of our 51/2% Senior Notes due 2025 in exchange for the same principal amount of our 73/8% Senior Notes due 2025, which had been issued in the private placement transaction in August 2005. The offering of the notes issued in February was registered under the Securities Act through a Form S-4 filing.
During February 2007, we finalized a new $2 billion credit facility agreement with a group of banks. This agreement provides a five-year senior unsecured revolving credit facility, which replaced the $1 billion credit facility established in 2004. This facility was initiated to be used for general corporate purposes, which may include working capital requirements, acquisitions, capital expenditures, refinancing and support of commercial paper borrowings. This facility, which was unused as of Aug. 31, 2010, gives us the financial flexibility to satisfy short- and medium-term funding requirements. As of Aug. 31, 2010, we were in compliance with all debt covenants under this credit facility.
Capital Expenditures: Our capital expenditures were $755 million in 2010, $916 million in 2009 and $918 million in 2008. The primary driver of this year’s decrease is lower spending on projects to expand corn seed production facilities compared with the prior year. We expect fiscal year 2011 capital expenditures to be $600 to $700 million. The primary driver of this decrease compared with 2010 is lower overall spending on projects.
Purchase of Chesterfield Village Research Center: In November 2009, we entered into an agreement to acquire Pfizer’s Chesterfield Village Research Center located in Chesterfield, Missouri. We acquired the property in April 2010 for $435 million of which $111 million was paid this year and is reflected in capital expenditures and $324 million is due over the next two fiscal years.

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Pension Contributions: In addition to contributing amounts to our pension plans if required by pension plan regulations, we continue to also make discretionary contributions if we believe they are merited. Although contributions to the U.S. qualified plan were not required, we contributed $105 million in 2010 of which $30 million was prefunded for 2011, $170 million in 2009 and $120 million in 2008. For fiscal year 2011, contributions in the range of $30 million are planned for the U.S. qualified pension plan. Although the level of required future contributions is unpredictable and depends heavily on return on plan asset experience and interest rates levels, we expect to continue contributing to the plan on a regular basis in the near term.
Share Repurchases: In October 2005, the board of directors authorized the purchase of up to $800 million of our common stock over a four-year period. In 2009 and 2008, we purchased $129 million and $361 million, respectively, of our common stock under the $800 million authorization. A total of 11.2 million shares have been repurchased under this program, which was completed on Dec. 23, 2008. In April 2008, the board of directors authorized another share repurchase program of up to $800 million of our common stock over a three-year period. This repurchase program commenced Dec. 23, 2008, and was completed on Aug. 24, 2010. In 2010 and 2009, we purchased $531 million and $269 million, respectively, of our common stock. A total of 11.3 million shares have been repurchased under the April 2008 program. In June 2010, the board of directors authorized a new repurchase program of up to an additional $1 billion of our common stock over a three-year period beginning July 1, 2010. In 2010, we purchased $1 million of our common stock. There were no other publicly announced plans outstanding as of Aug. 31, 2010.
Dividends: We paid dividends totaling $577 million in 2010, $552 million in 2009, and $419 million in 2008. In August 2010, we increased our dividend 6 percent to $0.28 per share. We continue to review our options for returning additional value to shareowners, including the possibility of a dividend increase.
Divestiture: In October 2008, we consummated the sale of the Dairy business after receiving approval from the appropriate regulatory agencies and received $300 million in cash, and may receive additional contingent consideration. The contingent consideration is a 10-year earn-out with potential annual payments being earned by the company if certain revenue levels are exceeded. During fiscal year 2009, income from operations of discontinued businesses included an $11 million pre-tax gain related to the sale.
2010 Acquisitions: In April 2010, we acquired a corn and soybean processing plant located in Paine, Chile from Anasac, a Santiago-based company that provides seed processing services. Acquisition costs were less than $1 million, and classified as selling, general, and administrative expenses. The total cash paid and the fair value of the acquisition were $34 million, and the purchase price was primarily allocated to fixed assets, goodwill, and intangibles.
In October 2009, we acquired the remaining 51 percent equity interest in Seminium, a leading Argentinean corn seed company. Acquisition costs were less than $1 million, and classified as selling, general and administrative expenses. The total fair value of Seminium was $36 million. This fair value includes $20 million of cash paid (net of cash acquired) and $16 million for the fair value of Monsanto’s 49 percent equity interest in Seminium held prior to the acquisition.
2009 Acquisitions: In December 2008, we acquired 100 percent of the outstanding stock of Aly Participacoes Ltda. (Aly), which operates the sugarcane breeding and technology companies, CanaVialis S.A. and Alellyx S.A., both of which are based in Brazil, for 616 million Brazilian reais or $264 million (net of cash acquired), inclusive of transaction costs of less than $1 million. We consummated the transaction with existing cash.
In July 2009, we acquired the assets of WestBred, LLC, a Montana-based company that specializes in wheat germplasm, for $49 million (net of cash acquired), inclusive of transaction costs of $4 million. The acquisition will bolster the future growth of Monsanto’s seeds and traits platform.
For all acquisitions described above, the business operations and employees of the acquired entities were added into the Seeds and Genomics segment results upon acquisition. These acquisitions were accounted for as purchase transactions. Accordingly, the assets and liabilities of the acquired entities were recorded at their estimated fair values at the dates of the acquisitions. See Note 4 — Business Combinations — for further discussion of these acquisitions.

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Contractual Obligations: We have certain obligations and commitments to make future payments under contracts. The following table sets forth our estimates of future payments under contracts as of Aug. 31, 2010. See Note 25 — Commitments and Contingencies — for a further description of our contractual obligations.
                                                         

    Payments Due by Fiscal Year Ending Aug. 31,
                                                  2016 and
(Dollars in millions)   Total   2011   2012   2013   2014   2015   beyond
 
Total Debt, including Capital Lease Obligations
  $ 2,103     $ 241     $ 624     $ 3     $ 3     $ 3     $ 1,229  
Interest Payments Relating to Long-Term Debt and Capital Lease Obligations(1)
    1,433       107       107       71       71       71       1,006  
Operating Lease Obligations
    538       117       108       89       71       43       110  
Purchase Obligations:
                                                       
Uncompleted additions to property
    103       103                                
Commitments to purchase inventories
    1,837       881       229       201       187       183       156  
Commitments to purchase breeding research
    129       45       45       3       3       3       30  
R&D alliances and joint venture obligations
    164       71       37       19       12       8       17  
Other purchase obligations
    9       4       4       1                    
Other Liabilities:
                                                       
Postretirement and ESOP liabilities(2)
    127       71                               56  
Unrecognized tax benefits(3)
    292       6                                          
Other liabilities
    186       26       18       21       15       7       99  
 
Total Contractual Obligations
  $ 6,921     $ 1,672     $ 1,172     $ 408     $ 362     $ 318     $ 2,703  
 
(1)   For variable rate debt, interest is calculated using the applicable rates as of Aug. 31, 2010.
 
(2)   Includes the company’s planned pension and other postretirement benefit contributions for 2011. The actual amounts funded in 2011 may differ from the amounts listed above. Contributions in 2012 through 2015 are excluded as those amounts are unknown. Refer to Note 17 — Postretirement Benefits – Pensions — and Note 18 — Postretirement Benefits – Health Care and Other Postemployment Benefits — for more information. The 2016 and beyond amount relates to the ESOP enhancement liability balance. Refer to Note 19 — Employee Savings Plans — for more information.
 
(3)   Unrecognized tax benefits relate to uncertain tax positions recorded under the Income Taxes topic of the ASC. We are unable to reasonably predict the timing of tax settlements, as tax audits can involve complex issues and the resolution of those issues may span multiple years, particularly if subject to negotiation or litigation. See Note 13 — Income Taxes — for more information.
Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements
Under our Separation Agreement with Pharmacia, we are required to indemnify Pharmacia for certain matters, such as environmental remediation obligations and litigation. To the extent we are currently managing any such matters, we evaluate them in the course of managing our own potential liabilities and establish reserves as appropriate. However, additional matters may arise in the future, and we may manage, settle or pay judgments or damages with respect to those matters in order to mitigate contingent liability and protect Pharmacia and Monsanto. See Note 25 — Commitments and Contingencies and Part I — Item 3 — Legal Proceedings — for further information.
We have entered into various customer financing programs which are accounted for in accordance with the Transfers and Servicing topic of the ASC. See Note 7 — Customer Financing Programs — for further information.
Other Information
As discussed in Note 25 — Commitments and Contingencies and Item 3 — Legal Proceedings, Monsanto is responsible for significant environmental remediation and is involved in a number of lawsuits and claims relating to a variety of issues. Many of these lawsuits relate to intellectual property disputes. We expect that such disputes will continue to occur as the agricultural biotechnology industry evolves.
Seasonality
Our fiscal year end of August 31 synchronizes our quarterly and annual results with the natural flow of the agricultural cycle in our major markets. It provides a more complete picture of the North American and South American growing seasons in the same fiscal year. Sales by our Seeds and Genomics segment, and to a lesser extent, by our Agricultural Productivity segment, are seasonal. In fiscal year 2010, approximately 74 percent of our Seeds and Genomics segment sales occurred in the second

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and third quarters. This segment’s seasonality is primarily a function of the purchasing and growing patterns in North America. Agricultural Productivity segment sales were more evenly spread across our fiscal year quarters in 2010, with approximately 55 percent of these sales occurring in the second half of the year. Seasonality varies by the world areas where our Agricultural Productivity businesses operate. For example, the United States, Brazil and Europe were the largest contributors to Agricultural Productivity sales in 2010, and experienced most of their sales evenly across our fiscal quarters in 2010.
Net income is the highest in second and third quarters, which correlates with the sales of the Seeds and Genomics segment and its gross profit contribution. Sales and income may shift somewhat between quarters, depending on planting and growing conditions. Our inventory is at its lowest level at the end of our fiscal year, which is consistent with the agricultural cycles in our major markets. Additionally, our trade accounts receivable are at their lowest levels in our fourth quarter, primarily because of collections received on behalf of both segments in the United States and Latin America, and the seasonality of our sales.
As is the practice in our industry, we regularly extend credit to enable our customers to acquire crop protection products and seeds at the beginning of the growing season. Because of the seasonality of our business and the need to extend credit to customers, we use short-term borrowings to finance working capital requirements. Our need for such financing is generally higher in the first and third quarters of the fiscal year and lower in the second and fourth quarters of the fiscal year. Our customer financing programs are expected to continue to reduce our reliance on commercial paper borrowings.
OUTLOOK
 
We believe we have achieved an industry-leading position in the areas in which we compete in both of our business segments. However, the outlook for each part of our business is quite different. In the Seeds and Genomics segment, our seeds and traits business is expected to expand via our investment in new products. In the Agricultural Productivity segment, we expect to deliver competitive products in a more stable business.
We believe that our company is positioned to deliver value-added products to growers enabling us to grow our gross profit in the future. We expect to see strong cash flow in the future, and we remain committed to returning value to shareowners through vehicles such as investments that expand the business, dividends and share repurchases. We will remain focused on cost and cash management for each segment, both to support the progress we have made in managing our investment in working capital and to realize the full earnings potential of our businesses. We plan to continue to seek additional external financing opportunities for our customers as a way to manage receivables for each of our segments.
Economic activity in the United States and globally appears to be recovering from the slowdown seen in fiscal year 2009, though credit availability is still restrained. Outside of the United States, our businesses will continue to face additional challenges related to the risks inherent in operating in emerging markets. We expect to continue to monitor these developments and the challenges and issues they place on our business. We believe we have taken appropriate measures to manage our credit exposure, which has the potential to affect sales negatively in the near term. In addition, volatility in foreign currency exchange rates may negatively affect our profitability, the book value of our assets outside the United States, and our shareowners’ equity.
Seeds and Genomics
Our capabilities in plant breeding and biotechnology research are generating a rich and balanced product pipeline that we expect will drive long-term growth. We plan to continue to invest in the areas of seeds, genomics and biotechnology and to invest in technology arrangements that have the potential to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of our R&D efforts. We believe that our seeds and traits businesses will have significant near-term growth opportunities through a combination of improved breeding and continued growth of stacked and second-generation biotech traits.
We expect advanced breeding techniques combined with improved production practices and capital investments will continue to contribute to improved germplasm quality and yields for our seed offerings, leading to increased global demand for both

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our branded germplasm and our licensed germplasm. Our vegetable portfolio will focus on 23 crops. We plan to continue applying our molecular breeding and marker capabilities to our vegetable seeds germplasm, which we expect will lead to business growth. The integration of De Ruiter has improved our abilities to develop and deliver new, innovative products to our broad customer base. The acquisition of Aly will enable us to combine our areas of breeding expertise to enhance yields in sugarcane, a crop that is vital to addressing growing global food and fuel demands. We also plan to continue making strategic acquisitions in our seed businesses to grow our branded seed market share, expand our germplasm library and strengthen our global breeding programs. We expect to see continued competition in seeds and genomics in the near term. We believe we will have a competitive advantage because of our global breeding capabilities and our multiple-channel sales approach in the United States for corn and soybean seeds.
Commercialization of second- and third-generation traits and the stacking of multiple traits in corn and cotton are expected to increase penetration in approved markets, particularly as we continue to price our traits in line with the value growers have experienced. In 2010, we saw higher-value, stacked-trait products representing a larger share of our total U.S. corn seed sales than they did in 2009. Acquisitions may also present mid to longer term opportunities to increase penetration of our traits. We experienced an increase in competition in biotechnology as more competitors launched traits in the United States and internationally. However, we believe our competitive position continues to enable us to deliver second- and third-generation traits when our competitors are delivering their first-generation traits.
Key regulatory approvals were obtained for the 2010 commercial launch of our next generation corn product. Genuity SmartStax, a product that contains five proteins that control important above ground (corn borer, corn ear worm) and below ground (corn root worm) pests and provides tolerance to the herbicides glyphosate and glufosinate, uses multiple modes of action for insect control, the proven means to enhance performance, reduce structured refuge and maintain long-term durability of corn trait technology. Genuity SmartStax uniquely features a combination of weed and insect control traits that significantly reduces the risk of resistance for both above and below ground pests. As a result, the U.S. EPA and the Canadian Food Inspection Agency allowed reduction of the typical structured farm refuge from 20 percent to 5 percent for Genuity SmartStax in the U.S. Corn Belt and Canada and from 50 percent to 20 percent for the U.S. Cotton Belt. Genuity SmartStax corn was launched in the United States in 2010.
Full regulatory submissions were completed for a 5 percent refuge-in-a-bag (RIB) seed blend to the U.S. EPA for Genuity SmartStax and Genuity VT2PRO. Genuity SmartStax and VT2PRO RIB would provide a single bag solution to enable farmers in the Corn Belt to plant corn without a separate refuge.
We have recently received Brazilian National Technical Biosafety Committee approval for Bt Roundup Ready 2 Yield soybeans, which is an important step toward commercialization of the first biotechnology trait developed specifically for a non-US market. Key import submissions are under regulatory review. Other global cultivation opportunities were also expanded for corn and cotton with approval of Bollgard II Cotton in Brazil and corn field trials in Mexico, Vietnam and Pakistan.
During 2007, we announced a long-term joint R&D and commercialization collaboration in plant biotechnology with BASF that will focus on high-yielding crops and crops that are tolerant to adverse conditions such as drought. We have completed all North American and key import country regulatory submissions for the first biotech drought-tolerant corn product. Pending necessary approvals, the product is on track for an introduction around 2012. Over the long-term life of the collaboration, we and BASF will dedicate a joint budget of potentially $2.5 billion to fund a dedicated pipeline of yield and stress tolerance traits for corn, soybeans, cotton, canola and wheat.
Our international traits businesses, in particular, will probably continue to face unpredictable regulatory environments that may be highly politicized. We operate in volatile, and often difficult, economic environments. Although we see growth potential in our India cotton business with the ongoing conversion to higher planting rates with hybrids and Bollgard II, this business is currently operating under state governmental pricing directives that we believe limit near-term earnings potential in India.
In Brazil, notwithstanding continuing and varied legal challenges by private and governmental parties, we expect to continue to operate our dual-track business model of certified seeds and our point-of-delivery payment system (Roundup Ready soybeans) or our indemnification collection system (Bollgard cotton) to ensure that we capture value on all of our Roundup

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Ready soybeans and Bollgard cotton crops grown there. Income is expected to grow as farmers choose to plant more of these approved traits. Although Brazilian law clearly states that these products protected by pipeline patents have the duration of the U.S. patent (2014 for Roundup Ready soybeans and 2011 for Bollgard cotton), legal rulings have not consistently achieved that outcome. Continued commercial approval of new products such as the recently approved Yieldgard VT Pro, Yieldgard Roundup Ready 2, Yieldgard Corn Borer and Bt Roundup Ready 2 Yield soybeans will provide the opportunity for a step change in contributions from seeds and traits in Brazil. As noted above, Yieldgard Corn Borer was approved recently, and was planted in the past two growing seasons. The agricultural economy in Brazil could be impacted by global commodity prices, particularly for corn and soybeans. We continue to maintain our strict credit policy, expand our grain-based collection system, and focus on cash collection and sales, as part of a continuous effort to manage our Brazilian risk against such volatility.
Efforts to secure an orderly system in Argentina to support the introduction of new technology products are underway. We do not plan to collect on Roundup Ready soybeans and we do not plan to commercialize new soybean or cotton traits in Argentina until we can achieve more certainty that we will be compensated for providing the technology. All on-going soybean litigations have been settled. We are continuing to discuss alternative arrangements with various Argentine stakeholders pertaining to new soybean and cotton trait products. However, we have no certainty that any of these discussions will lead to an income producing outcome.
In March 2008, a judge of the French Supreme Administrative court (Conseil d’Etat) rejected an application for interim relief by French farmers, French grower associations and various companies, including Monsanto, to overturn the French government’s suspension of planting of Yieldgard Corn Borer pending review and completion under a new regulatory regime. The outcome means that there will be no additional sales or planting of this product in France during the forthcoming growing season. The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has issued an opinion that the French suspension is not supported on a scientific basis. The case has now been referred to the European Court of Justice (ECJ) and the ban remains in place. On April 17, 2009, Germany invoked the safeguard clause and also banned the planting of Yieldgard Corn Borer. We sought interim relief to overturn the ban which the German administrative courts denied. As a result, there will be no sales or planting of MON810 products in Germany this growing season. The court proceedings are postponed pending the outcome of administrative proceedings. Other European Union Member States (e.g., Austria, Luxembourg and Greece) have also invoked safeguard measures but we have focused our legal challenges to those countries with significant corn plantings.
Agricultural Productivity
Our Roundup herbicide gross profit peaked in 2008 and declined 7 percent in 2009 and an additional 92 percent in 2010. The structural changes that have occurred in the global glyphosate market, including oversupply and overcapacity at the manufacturing level, have created a significant compression in the manufacturer’s margin. We believe this structural change is permanent and will therefore have a long term impact on the level of profits and cash generated by this business. While we expect the business to continue to be cash positive, we have oriented the focus of Monsanto’s crop protection business to strategically support Monsanto’s Roundup Ready crops.
We have submitted a mine plan to the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) regarding a new phosphate ore mine near Soda Springs, Idaho, that we intend to use to meet existing and future production demands for our Roundup herbicides and licensed glyphosate. BLM is in the process of finalizing an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the mine. We anticipate receiving regulatory approvals for our new mine in fiscal year 2011. However, we are aware that certain environmental groups have initiated litigation against other phosphate producers to disrupt and delay the permitting process.
Our selective chemistry business is expected to remain stable due to introductions of new formulations and our focus on weed management solutions in Roundup Ready crops.
The lawn-and-garden business should continue benefiting from the Roundup brand equity in the marketplace and remain a strong cash generator for Monsanto.

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CRITICAL ACCOUNTING POLICIES AND ESTIMATES
 
In preparing our financial statements, we must select and apply various accounting policies. Our most significant policies are described in Note 2 — Significant Accounting Policies. In order to apply our accounting policies, we often need to make estimates based on judgments about future events. In making such estimates, we rely on historical experience, market and other conditions, and on assumptions that we believe to be reasonable. However, the estimation process is by its nature uncertain given that estimates depend on events over which we may not have control. If market and other conditions change from those that we anticipate, our results of operations, financial condition and changes in financial condition may be materially affected. In addition, if our assumptions change, we may need to revise our estimates, or to take other corrective actions, either of which may also have a material effect on our results of operations, financial condition or changes in financial condition. Members of our senior management have discussed the development and selection of our critical accounting estimates, and our disclosure regarding them, with the audit and finance committee of our board of directors, and do so on a regular basis.
We believe that the following estimates have a higher degree of inherent uncertainty and require our most significant judgments. In addition, had we used estimates different from any of these, our results of operations, financial condition or changes in financial condition for the current period could have been materially different from those presented.
Goodwill: The majority of our goodwill relates to our seed company acquisitions. We are required to assess whether any of our goodwill is impaired. In order to do this, we apply judgment in determining our reporting units, which represent component parts of our business. Our annual goodwill impairment assessment involves estimating the fair value of a reporting unit and comparing it with its carrying amount. If the carrying value of the reporting unit exceeds its fair value, additional steps are required to calculate a potential impairment loss.
Calculating the fair value of the reporting units requires significant estimates and long-term assumptions. Any changes in key assumptions about the business and its prospects, or any changes in market conditions, interest rates or other externalities, could result in an impairment charge. We estimate the fair value of our reporting units by applying discounted cash flow methodologies. A discounted cash flow analysis requires us to make various judgmental estimates and assumptions that include, but are not limited to, sales growth, gross profit margin rates and discount rates. Discount rates were evaluated by reporting unit to account for differences in inherent industry risk. Sales growth and gross profit margin assumptions were based on our long range plan.
The annual goodwill impairment tests were performed as of March 1, 2010, and March 1, 2009. No indications of goodwill impairment existed as of either date. In 2010 and 2009, we recorded goodwill related to our acquisitions (see Note 4 — Business Combinations). As part of the annual goodwill impairment tests, we compared our total market capitalization with the aggregate estimated fair value of our reporting units to ensure that significant differences are understood. At March 1, 2010, and March 1, 2009, our market capitalization exceeded the aggregate estimated fair value of our reporting units. Future declines in the fair value of our reporting units could result in an impairment of goodwill and reduce net income.
In assessing goodwill for impairment for the Roundup and other glyphosate-based herbicides reporting unit, the estimated fair value exceeded the carrying value by approximately 8 percent. At March 1, 2010, the carrying value of this reporting unit included an allocation of goodwill of $54 million. The key assumptions with the most significant impact on reporting unit fair value calculations include the discount rate and the gross profit margin rate. The discount rate used for the Roundup and other glyphosate-based herbicides reporting unit was 7.5 percent and an increase in 50 basis points would have resulted in a fair value equal to the carrying value of the reporting unit. The gross profit margin rate used for the Roundup and other glyphosate-based herbicides reporting unit is 17 percent during the cash flow projection period, and a decrease of 50 basis points would have resulted in a fair value that was approximately 1 percent above the carrying value of the reporting unit.
Intangible Assets: In accordance with the Intangibles – Goodwill and Other topic of the ASC, all amortizable intangible assets are assessed for impairment whenever events indicate a possible loss. Such an assessment involves estimating undiscounted cash flows over the remaining useful life of the intangible. If the review indicates that undiscounted cash flows are less than the recorded value of the intangible asset, the carrying amount of the intangible is reduced by the estimated cash-flow shortfall on a discounted basis, and a corresponding loss is charged to the Statement of Consolidated Operations. Significant changes in key assumptions about the business, market conditions and prospects for which the intangible asset is currently utilized or expected to be utilized could result in an impairment charge.

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Litigation and Other Contingencies: We are involved in various intellectual property, tort, contract, antitrust, employee benefit, environmental and other claims and legal proceedings; environmental remediation; government investigations and product claims. We routinely assess the likelihood of adverse judgments or outcomes to those matters, as well as ranges of probable losses, to the extent losses are reasonably estimable. We record accruals for such contingencies to the extent that we conclude their occurrence is probable and the financial impact, should an adverse outcome occur, is reasonably estimable. Disclosure for specific legal contingencies is provided if the likelihood of occurrence is at least reasonably possible and the exposure is considered material to the consolidated financial statements. In making determinations of likely outcomes of litigation matters, management considers many factors. These factors include, but are not limited to, past history, scientific and other evidence, and the specifics and status of each matter. If our assessment of the various factors changes, we may change our estimates. That may result in the recording of an accrual or a change in a previously recorded accrual. Predicting the outcome of claims and litigation, and estimating related costs and exposure involves substantial uncertainties that could cause actual costs to vary materially from estimates and accruals.
Our environmental, litigation and product liability reserve at Aug. 31, 2010, and Aug. 31, 2009, was $255 million and $262 million, respectively. The reserve related to environmental matters represents the discounted cost that we would expect to incur in connection with those matters. We expect to pay for these potential liabilities over time as the various legal proceedings and product claims are resolved and remediation is performed at the various environmental sites. Actual costs to us may differ materially from this estimate. Further, additional litigation or environmental matters that are not reflected in this reserve may arise or become probable and reasonably estimable in the future, and we may also manage, settle or pay judgments or damages with respect to litigation or environmental matters in order to mitigate contingent potential liabilities.
Pensions and Other Postretirement Benefits: The actuarial valuations of our pension and other postretirement benefit costs, assets and obligations affect our financial position, results of operations and cash flows. These valuations require the use of assumptions and long-range estimates. These assumptions include, among others: assumptions regarding interest and discount rates, assumed long-term rates of return on pension plan assets, health care cost trends, and projected rates of salary increases. We regularly evaluate these assumptions and estimates as new information becomes available. Changes in assumptions (caused by conditions in the debt and equity markets, changes in asset mix, and plan experience, for example) could have a material effect on our pension obligations and expenses, and can affect our net income, liabilities, and shareowners’ equity. In addition, changes in assumptions such as rates of return, fixed income rates used to value liabilities or declines in the fair value of plan assets may result in voluntary decisions or mandatory requirements to make additional contributions to our qualified pension plan. Because of the design of our postretirement health care plans, our liabilities associated with these plans are not highly sensitive to assumptions regarding health care cost trends.
Fiscal year 2011 pension expense, which will be determined using assumptions as of Aug. 31, 2010, is expected to increase compared with fiscal year 2010 because we decreased our expected rate of return on assets assumption as of Aug. 31, 2010, to 7.5 percent. This assumption was 7.75 percent in 2010, 8.0 percent in 2009, and 8.25 percent in 2008. To determine the rate of return, we consider the historical experience and expected future performance of the plan assets, as well as the current and expected allocation of the plan assets. The U.S. qualified pension plan’s asset allocation as of Aug. 31, 2010, was approximately 59 percent equity securities, 33 percent debt securities and 8 percent other investments, in line with policy ranges. We periodically evaluate the allocation of plan assets among the different investment classes to ensure that they are within policy guidelines and ranges. Although we do not currently expect to further reduce the assumed rate of return in the near term, holding all other assumptions constant, we estimate that a half-percent decrease in the expected return on plan assets would lower our fiscal year 2011 pre-tax income by approximately $7 million.
Our discount rate assumption for the 2011 U.S. pension expense is 4.35 percent. This assumption was 5.30 percent, 6.50 percent and 6.05 percent in 2010, 2009 and 2008, respectively. In determining the discount rate, we use yields on high-quality fixed-income investments (including among other things, Moody’s Aa corporate bond yields) that match the duration of the pension obligations. To the extent the discount rate increases or decreases, our pension obligation is decreased or increased accordingly. Holding all other assumptions constant, we estimate that a half-percent decrease in the discount rate will decrease our fiscal year 2011 pre-tax income by approximately $5 million. Our salary rate assumption as of Aug. 31, 2010, was approximately 4.0 percent prospectively on all plans. Holding all other assumptions constant, we estimate that a half-percent increase in the salary rate assumption would decrease our fiscal year 2011 pretax income by $2 million.
Income Taxes: Management regularly assesses the likelihood that deferred tax assets will be recovered from future taxable income. To the extent management believes that it is more likely than not that a deferred tax asset will not be realized, a valuation allowance is established. When a valuation allowance is established or increased, an income tax charge is included

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in the consolidated financial statements and net deferred tax assets are adjusted accordingly. Changes in tax laws, statutory tax rates and estimates of the company’s future taxable income levels could result in actual realization of the deferred tax assets being materially different from the amounts provided for in the consolidated financial statements. If the actual recovery amount of the deferred tax asset is less than anticipated, we would be required to write-off the remaining deferred tax asset and increase the tax provision, resulting in a reduction of net income and shareowners’ equity.
Under the Income Taxes topic of the ASC, in order to recognize the benefit of an uncertain tax position, the taxpayer must be more likely than not of sustaining the position, and the measurement of the benefit is calculated as the largest amount that is more than 50 percent likely to be realized upon resolution of the position. Tax authorities regularly examine the company’s returns in the jurisdictions in which we do business. Management regularly assesses the tax risk of the company’s return filing positions and believes its accruals for uncertain tax positions are adequate as of Aug. 31, 2010.
As of Aug. 31, 2010, management has recorded deferred tax assets of approximately $600 million in Brazil primarily related to net operating loss carryforwards (NOLs) that have no expiration date. We also had available approximately $330 million of U.S. foreign tax credit carryforwards. Management continues to believe it is more likely than not that we will realize our deferred tax assets in Brazil and the United States.
Marketing Programs: Accrued marketing program costs are recorded in accordance with the Revenue Recognition topic of the ASC, based upon specific performance criteria met by our customers, such as purchase volumes, promptness of payment, and market share increases. We introduced marketing programs that provide certain customers price protection consideration if standard published prices fall lower than the price the distributor paid on eligible products. The associated cost of marketing programs is recorded in net sales in the Statements of Consolidated Operations. As actual expenses are not known at the time of the sale, an estimate based on the best available information (such as historical experience) is used as a basis for the liability. Management analyzes and reviews the marketing program balances on a quarterly basis, and adjustments are recorded as appropriate.
Allowance for Doubtful Trade Receivables: We maintain an allowance for doubtful trade receivables. This allowance represents our estimate of accounts receivable that, subsequent to the time of sale, we have estimated to be of doubtful collectibility because our customers may not be able to pay. In determining the adequacy of the allowance for doubtful accounts, we consider historical bad-debt experience, customer creditworthiness, market conditions, and economic conditions. We perform ongoing evaluations of our allowance for doubtful accounts, and we adjust the allowance as required. Increases in this allowance will reduce the recorded amount of our net trade receivables, net income and shareowners’ equity, and increase our bad-debt expense.
Allowances for Returns and Inventory Obsolescence: Where the right of return exists in our seed business, sales revenues are reduced at the time of sale to reflect expected returns. In order to estimate the expected returns, management analyzes historical returns, economic trends, market conditions, and changes in customer demand. In addition, we establish allowances for obsolescence of inventory equal to the difference between the cost of inventory and the estimated market value, based on assumptions about future demand and market conditions. We regularly evaluate the adequacy of our return allowances and inventory obsolescence reserves. If economic and market conditions are different from those we anticipated, actual returns and inventory obsolescence could be materially different from the amounts provided for in our consolidated financial statements. If seed returns are higher than anticipated, our net sales, net trade receivables, net income and shareowners’ equity for future periods will be reduced. If inventory obsolescence is higher than expected, our cost of goods sold will be increased, and our inventory valuations, net income, and shareowners’ equity will be reduced.
Stock-Based Compensation: The Compensation – Stock Compensation topic of the ASC requires the measurement and recognition of compensation expense for all share-based payment awards made to employees and directors based on estimated fair value. Pre-tax stock-based compensation expense recognized was $105 million, $131 million and $90 million in 2010, 2009 and 2008, respectively.
We estimate the value of employee stock options on the date of grant using a lattice-binomial model. The determination of fair value of share-based payment awards on the date of grant using an option-pricing model is affected by our stock price as well as assumptions regarding a number of highly complex and subjective variables. These variables include, but are not limited to, the expected stock price volatility over the term of the awards, and actual and projected employee stock option exercise behaviors. The use of a lattice-binomial model requires extensive actual employee exercise behavior data and a number of complex assumptions including expected volatility, risk-free interest rate, and expected dividends. We based our

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estimate of future volatility on a combination of historical volatility on our stock and implied volatility on publicly traded options on our stock. The risk-free interest rate assumption is based on observed interest rates appropriate for the term of our employee stock options. The dividend yield assumption is based on the history and expectation of dividend payouts. The weighted-average estimated value of employee stock options granted during 2010 was $24.03 per share using the lattice-binomial model.
We estimate the value of restricted stock and restricted stock units based on the fair value of our stock on the date of grant. When dividends are not paid on outstanding restricted stock units, we value the award by reducing the grant-date price by the present value of the dividends expected to be paid, discounted at the appropriate risk-free interest rate. The risk-free interest rate assumption is based on observed interest rates appropriate for the term of our restricted stock units. The weighted-average value of restricted stock units granted during 2010 was $69.57.
Pre-tax unrecognized compensation expense, net of estimated forfeitures, for stock options, nonvested restricted stock and nonvested restricted stock units was $121 million as of Aug. 31, 2010, which will be recognized over the weighted-average remaining vesting periods of one to two years.
If factors change and we employ different assumptions in the application of the Compensation – Stock Compensation topic of the ASC in future periods, or if employee exercise behavior or forfeiture rates of restricted stock units is significantly different from the assumptions in our model, the compensation expense that we record may differ significantly from what we have recorded in the current period.

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NEW ACCOUNTING STANDARDS
 
In July 2010, the FASB issued a new update that requires enhanced disclosures regarding credit quality and the related allowance for credit losses of financing receivables. The new disclosures will require additional information for nonaccrual and past due accounts, the allowance for credit losses, impaired loans, credit quality, and account modifications. Accordingly, we will include the new disclosure requirements as of the end of the reporting period beginning in second quarter 2011, and the disclosures related to activities during the reporting period beginning in our third quarter 2011. We are currently evaluating the disclosure impact of including this update on the consolidated financial statements.
In January 2010, the FASB issued an amendment to the Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures topic of the ASC. This amendment requires disclosures about transfers into and out of Levels 1 and 2 and separate disclosures about purchases, sales, issuances, and settlements relating to Level 3 measurements. It also clarifies existing fair value disclosures about the level of disaggregation and about inputs and valuation techniques used to measure fair value. This amendment is effective for periods beginning after Dec. 15, 2009, except for the requirement to provide the Level 3 activity of purchases, sales, issuances, and settlements, which will be effective for fiscal years beginning after Dec. 15, 2010, and for interim periods within those fiscal years. Accordingly, we prospectively adopted this amendment in third quarter 2010, except for the additional Level 3 requirements which will be adopted in fiscal year 2011. See Note 15 — Fair Value Measurements for the new disclosures. We are currently evaluating the disclosure impact of adopting the additional Level 3 requirements of the standard on the consolidated financial statements.
In June 2009, the FASB issued its ASC Topic 105, Generally Accepted Accounting Principles, which became the single source of authoritative GAAP (other than rules and interpretive releases of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission). The ASC is topically based with topics organized by ASC number and updated with Accounting Standards Updates (ASUs). ASUs replace accounting guidance that historically was issued as FASB Statements of Financial Accounting Standards (SFAS), FASB Interpretations (FIN), FASB Staff Positions (FSP), Emerging Issues Task Force (EITF) Issues or other types of accounting standards. The ASC became effective Nov. 30, 2009, for Monsanto and disclosures within this Annual Report on Form 10-K have been updated to reflect the change. The ASC does not change GAAP and did not impact our consolidated financial statements.
In June 2009, the FASB issued a standard that requires an analysis to determine whether a variable interest gives the entity a controlling financial interest in a variable interest entity. This statement requires an ongoing reassessment and eliminates the quantitative approach previously required for determining whether an entity is the primary beneficiary. This standard is effective for fiscal years beginning after Nov. 15, 2009. Accordingly, we will adopt this standard in fiscal year 2011. We are currently evaluating the impact of adoption on the consolidated financial statements.
In June 2009, the FASB issued a standard that removes the concept of a qualifying special-purpose entity (QSPE) from GAAP and removes the exception from applying consolidation principles to a QSPE. This standard also clarifies the requirements for isolation and limitations on portions of financial assets that are eligible for sale accounting. This standard is effective for fiscal years beginning after Nov. 15, 2009. Accordingly, we will adopt this standard in fiscal year 2011. We are currently evaluating the impact of adoption on our QSPE related to a Brazilian financing program, other financing programs and on the consolidated financial statements.
In December 2008, the FASB issued a standard that provides additional guidance regarding disclosures about plan assets of defined benefit pension or other postretirement plans. This standard is effective for financial statements issued for fiscal years ending after Dec. 15, 2009. Accordingly, we adopted this standard as of Aug. 31, 2010. See Note 17 — Postretirement Benefits — Pensions — for the disclosures required by this standard.
In February 2008, the FASB issued a standard that delayed the effective date of the new guidance regarding fair value measurement and disclosure for nonfinancial assets and liabilities to fiscal years beginning after Nov. 15, 2008. Accordingly, we adopted in fiscal year 2010 the additional requirements of the Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures topic of the ASC that were deferred by this standard. The adoption of this standard did not have an impact on our consolidated financial

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statements. See Note 14 — Debt and Other Credit Arrangements and Note 15 — Fair Value Measurements — for additional discussion regarding fair value measurements.
In December 2007, the FASB issued a standard that requires an entity to clearly identify and present its ownership interests in subsidiaries held by parties other than the entity in the consolidated financial statements within the equity section but separate from the entity’s equity. It also requires the amount of consolidated net income attributable to the parent and to the noncontrolling interest be clearly identified and presented on the face of the Statements of Consolidated Operations; changes in ownership interest be accounted for similarly, as equity transactions; and when a subsidiary is deconsolidated, any retained noncontrolling equity investment in the former subsidiary and the gain or loss on the deconsolidation of the subsidiary be measured at fair value. This statement is effective for financial statements issued for fiscal years beginning after Dec. 15, 2008. The provisions of the standard related to accounting for changes in ownership are to be applied prospectively, except for the presentation and disclosure requirements, which are to be applied retrospectively. We adopted this standard on Sept. 1, 2009, and the presentation and disclosure requirements of this standard were applied retrospectively to all periods presented. The adoption of this standard did not have a material impact on the consolidated financial statements, other than the following changes in presentation of noncontrolling interests:
    Consolidated net income was recast to include net income attributable to both the company and noncontrolling interests in the Statements of Consolidated Operations.
 
    Noncontrolling interests were reclassified from other liabilities to equity, separate from the parent’s shareowners’ equity, in the Statements of Consolidated Financial Position.
 
    The Statements of Consolidated Cash Flows now begin with net income (including noncontrolling interests) instead of net income attributable to Monsanto Company, with net income from noncontrolling interests (previously, minority interests) no longer a reconciling item in arriving at net cash provided by operating activities, and the Statements of Consolidated Cash Flows were recast to include dividend payments to noncontrolling interests.
 
    Statements of Consolidated Shareowners’ Equity and Comprehensive Income have been combined and were recast to include noncontrolling interests.
ITEM 7A. QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK
 
We are exposed to the effect of interest rate changes, foreign currency fluctuations, and changes in commodity, equity and debt securities prices. Market risk represents the risk of a change in the value of a financial instrument, derivative or nonderivative, caused by fluctuations in interest rates, currency exchange rates, and commodity, equity and debt securities prices. Monsanto handles market risk in accordance with established policies by engaging in various derivative transactions. Such transactions are not entered into for trading purposes.
See Note 2 — Significant Accounting Policies, Note 15 — Fair Value Measurements —and Note 16 — Financial Instruments — to the consolidated financial statements for further details regarding the accounting and disclosure of our derivative instruments and hedging activities.
The sensitivity analysis discussed below presents the hypothetical change in fair value of those financial instruments held by the company as of Aug. 31, 2010, that are sensitive to changes in interest rates, currency exchange rates, and commodity and equity and debt securities prices. Actual changes may prove to be greater or less than those hypothesized.
Changes in Interest Rates: Monsanto’s interest-rate risk exposure pertains primarily to the debt portfolio. To the extent that we have cash available for investment to ensure liquidity, we will invest that cash only in short-term instruments. Most of our debt as of Aug. 31, 2010, consisted of fixed-rate long-term obligations.
Market risk with respect to interest rates is estimated as the potential change in fair value resulting from an immediate hypothetical 1 percentage point parallel shift in the yield curve. The fair values of the company’s investments and loans are based on quoted market prices or discounted future cash flows. As the carrying amounts on short-term loans and investments maturing in less than 360 days and the carrying amounts of variable-rate medium-term notes approximate their respective fair values, a 1 percentage point change in the interest rates would not result in a material change in the fair value of our debt and investments portfolio.

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On Aug. 14, 2002, Monsanto issued $600 million of 73/8% Senior Notes, and on Aug. 23, 2002, the aggregate principal amount of the outstanding notes was increased to $800 million. In August 2005, the company exchanged $314 million of new 51/2% Senior Notes due 2025 for $314 million of the company’s outstanding 73/8% Senior Notes. As of Aug. 31, 2010, the fair value of the 73/8% Senior Notes was $545 million, and the fair value of the 51/2% 2025 Senior Notes was $359 million. A 1 percentage point change in the interest rates would change the fair value of the remaining 73/8% Senior Notes by approximately $10 million, and the fair value of the 51/2% 2025 Senior Notes by $40 million.
In July 2005, Monsanto issued $400 million of 51/2% Senior Notes due 2035. As of Aug. 31, 2010, the fair value of the 51/2% 2035 Senior Notes was $429 million. A 1 percentage point change in the interest rates would change the fair value of the 51/2% 2035 Senior Notes by $66 million.
In April 2008, Monsanto issued $300 million of 51/8% Senior Notes due 2018. As of Aug. 31, 2010, the fair value of the 51/8% 2018 Senior Notes was $344 million. A 1 percentage point change in the interest rates would change the fair value of the 51/8% 2018 Senior Notes by $23 million.
In April 2008, Monsanto issued $250 million of 57/8% Senior Notes due 2038. As of Aug. 31, 2010, the fair value of the 57/8% 2038 Senior Notes was $281 million. A 1 percentage point change in the interest rates would change the fair value of the 57/8% 2038 Senior Notes by $45 million.
In March 2009, Monsanto entered into forward-starting interest rate swaps with a total notional amount of $250 million. In the fourth quarter of 2010, Monsanto entered into additional forward-starting interest rate swaps with a total notional amount of $525 million. As of Aug. 31, 2010, the fair value of the forward-starting interest rate swaps was a loss of $39 million. A 1 percentage point change in interest rates would change the fair value of the forward-starting interest rate swaps by $95 million.
Foreign Currency Fluctuations: In managing foreign currency risk, Monsanto focuses on reducing the volatility in consolidated cash flow and earnings caused by fluctuations in exchange rates. We use foreign currency forward exchange contracts and foreign currency options to manage the net currency exposure, in accordance with established hedging policies. Monsanto hedges recorded commercial transaction exposures, intercompany loans, net investments in foreign subsidiaries, and forecasted transactions. The company’s significant hedged positions included the Brazilian real, the European euro, the Canadian dollar, the Romanian leu and the Australian dollar. Unfavorable currency movements of 10 percent would negatively affect the fair values of the derivatives held to hedge currency exposures by $60 million.
Changes in Commodity Prices: Monsanto uses futures contracts to protect itself against commodity price increases and uses options contracts to limit the unfavorable effect that price changes could have on these purchases. The company’s futures contracts are accounted for as cash flow hedges and are mainly in the Seeds and Genomics segment. The company’s option contracts do not qualify for hedge accounting under the provisions specified by the Derivatives and Hedging topic of the ASC. The majority of these contracts hedge the committed or future purchases of, and the carrying value of payables to growers for, soybean and corn inventories. In addition, we collect payments on certain customer accounts in grain, and enter into forward sales contracts to mitigate the commodity price exposure. A 10 percent decrease in the prices would have a negative effect on the fair value of these instruments of $30 million. We also use natural gas, diesel and ethylene swaps to manage energy input costs and raw material costs. A 10 percent decrease in price of these swaps would have a negative effect on the fair value of these instruments of $7 million.
Changes in Equity and Debt Securities Prices: The company also has investments in marketable equity and debt securities. All such investments are classified as long-term available-for-sale investments. The fair value of these investments is $33 million as of Aug. 31, 2010. These securities are listed on a stock exchange, quoted in an over-the-counter market or measured using an independent pricing source and adjusted for expected future credit losses. If the market price of the marketable equity and debt securities should decrease by 10 percent, the fair value of the equities and debt would decrease by $3 million. See Note 11 — Investments and Equity Affiliates — for further details.

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ITEM 8. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA
 
Management Report
Monsanto Company’s management is responsible for the fair presentation and consistency, in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America, of all the financial information included in this Form 10-K. Where necessary, the information reflects management’s best estimates and judgments.
Management is also responsible for establishing and maintaining an effective system of internal control over financial reporting. The purpose of this system is to provide reasonable assurance that Monsanto’s assets are safeguarded against material loss from unauthorized acquisition, use or disposition, that authorized transactions are properly recorded to permit the preparation of accurate financial information in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, that records are maintained which accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the company, and that receipts and expenditures are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the company. This system of internal control over financial reporting is supported by formal policies and procedures, including a Business Conduct program designed to encourage and assist employees in living up to high standards of integrity, as well as a Code of Ethics for Chief Executive and Senior Financial Officers. Management seeks to maintain the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting by careful personnel selection and training, division of responsibilities, establishment and communication of policies, and ongoing internal reviews and audits. See Management’s Annual Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting for Management’s conclusion of the effectiveness of Monsanto’s internal control over financial reporting as of Aug. 31, 2010.
Monsanto’s consolidated financial statements have been audited by Deloitte & Touche LLP, independent registered public accounting firm. Their audits were conducted in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States), and included a test of financial controls, tests of accounting records, and such other procedures as they considered necessary in the circumstances.
The Audit and Finance Committee, composed entirely of outside directors, meets regularly with management, with the internal auditors and with the independent registered public accounting firm to review accounting, financial reporting, auditing and internal control matters. The committee has direct and private access to the registered public accounting firm and internal auditors.
/s/ Hugh Grant
Hugh Grant
Chairman, President and Chief Executive Officer
/s/ Carl M. Casale
Carl M. Casale
Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer
Oct. 27, 2010

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Management’s Annual Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting
Management of Monsanto Company is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting as defined in Rules 13a-15(f) and 15d-15(f) under the Exchange Act. Under the supervision and with the participation of our management, including the Chief Executive Officer and the Chief Financial Officer, we conducted an evaluation of the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting based on the framework and criteria established in Internal Control — Integrated Framework, issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO).
Based on our evaluation under the COSO framework, management concluded that the company maintained effective internal control over financial reporting as of Aug. 31, 2010.
The company’s independent registered public accounting firm, Deloitte & Touche LLP, was appointed by the Audit and Finance Committee of the company’s Board of Directors, and ratified by the company’s shareowners. Deloitte & Touche LLP has audited and reported on the Consolidated Financial Statements of Monsanto Company and subsidiaries and the effectiveness of the company’s internal control over financial reporting. The reports of the independent registered public accounting firm are contained in Item 8 of this Annual Report.
/s/ Hugh Grant
Hugh Grant
Chairman, President and Chief Executive Officer
/s/ Carl M. Casale
Carl M. Casale
Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer
Oct. 27, 2010

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Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
To the Shareowners of Monsanto Company:
We have audited the internal control over financial reporting of Monsanto Company and subsidiaries (the “Company”) as of August 31, 2010, based on criteria established in Internal Control — Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission. As described in Management’s Annual Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting, the Company’s management is responsible for maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting and for its assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting, included in the accompanying Management’s Annual Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s internal control over financial reporting based on our audit.
We conducted our audit in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States). Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether effective internal control over financial reporting was maintained in all material respects. Our audit included obtaining an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, assessing the risk that a material weakness exists, testing and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of internal control based on the assessed risk, and performing such other procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. We believe that our audit provides a reasonable basis for our opinion.
A company’s internal control over financial reporting is a process designed by, or under the supervision of, the company’s principal executive and principal financial officers, or persons performing similar functions, and effected by the company’s board of directors, management, and other personnel to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. A company’s internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (1) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the company; (2) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the company; and (3) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the company’s assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.
Because of the inherent limitations of internal control over financial reporting, including the possibility of collusion or improper management override of controls, material misstatements due to error or fraud may not be prevented or detected on a timely basis. Also, projections of any evaluation of the effectiveness of the internal control over financial reporting to future periods are subject to the risk that the controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.
In our opinion, the Company maintained, in all material respects, effective internal control over financial reporting as of August 31, 2010, based on the criteria established in Internal Control — Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission.
We have also audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States), the statement of consolidated financial position as of August 31, 2010 and the related statements of consolidated operations, cash flows, and shareowners’ equity and comprehensive income for the year ended August 31, 2010, of the Company and our report dated October 27, 2010 expressed an unqualified opinion and includes an explanatory paragraph regarding the Company’s adoption of new accounting guidance for noncontrolling interest and the computation of earnings per share effective September 1, 2009 applied retrospectively.
/s/ DELOITTE & TOUCHE LLP
St. Louis, Missouri
October 27, 2010

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Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
To the Shareowners of Monsanto Company:
We have audited the accompanying statements of consolidated financial position of Monsanto Company and subsidiaries (the “Company”) as of August 31, 2010 and 2009, and the related statements of consolidated operations, cash flows, and shareowners’ equity and comprehensive income for each of the three years in the period ended August 31, 2010. These financial statements are the responsibility of the Company’s management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on these financial statements based on our audits.
We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States). Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement. An audit includes examining, on a test basis, evidence supporting the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. An audit also includes assessing the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall financial statement presentation. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.
In our opinion, such consolidated financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of Monsanto Company and subsidiaries as of August 31, 2010 and 2009, and the results of their operations and their cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended August 31, 2010, in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.
As discussed in Note 3 and Note 23 to the consolidated financial statements, the accompanying 2009 and 2008 financial statements have been retrospectively adjusted for new accounting guidance related to noncontrolling interest and the computation of earnings per share. As discussed in Note 2 and Note 15 to the consolidated financial statements, the Company prospectively adopted new accounting guidance related to fair value measurements and disclosures and income taxes effective September 1, 2008 and September 1, 2007, respectively.
We have also audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States), the Company’s internal control over financial reporting as of August 31, 2010, based on the criteria established in Internal Control—Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission and our report dated October 27, 2010 expressed an unqualified opinion on the Company’s internal control over financial reporting.
/s/ DELOITTE & TOUCHE LLP
St. Louis, Missouri
October 27, 2010

53


 

     
MONSANTO COMPANY   2010 FORM 10-K
 
Statements of Consolidated Operations

                         
    Year Ended Aug. 31,
(Dollars in millions, except per share amounts)   2010   2009   2008
 
Net Sales
  $ 10,502     $ 11,724     $ 11,365  
Cost of goods sold
    5,416       4,962       5,188  
 
Gross Profit
    5,086       6,762       6,177  
Operating Expenses:
                       
Selling, general and administrative expenses
    2,064       2,037       2,312  
Research and development expenses
    1,205       1,098       980  
Acquired in-process research and development
          163       164  
Restructuring charges, net
    210       361        
 
Total Operating Expenses
    3,479       3,659       3,456  
Income from Operations
    1,607       3,103       2,721  
Interest expense
    162       129       110  
Interest income
    (56 )     (71 )     (132 )
Solutia-related income, net
                (187 )
Other expense, net
    7       78       4  
 
Income from Continuing Operations Before Income Taxes
    1,494       2,967       2,926  
Income tax provision
    370       845       899  
 
Income from Continuing Operations Including Portion Attributable to Noncontrolling Interest
    1,124       2,122       2,027  
 
Discontinued Operations:
                       
Income from operations of discontinued businesses
    4       19       20  
Income tax provision
          8       3  
 
Income on Discontinued Operations
    4       11       17  
 
Net Income
    1,128       2,133       2,044  
 
Less: Net income attributable to noncontrolling interest
    19       24       20  
 
Net Income Attributable to Monsanto Company
  $ 1,109     $ 2,109     $ 2,024  
 
Amounts Attributable to Monsanto Company:
                       
Income from continuing operations
  $ 1,105     $ 2,098     $ 2,007  
Income on discontinued operations
    4       11       17  
 
Net Income Attributable to Monsanto Company
  $ 1,109     $ 2,109     $ 2,024  
 
Basic Earnings per Share Attributable to Monsanto Company:
                       
Income from continuing operations
  $ 2.03     $ 3.83     $ 3.66  
Income on discontinued operations
    0.01       0.02       0.03  
 
Net Income Attributable to Monsanto Company
  $ 2.04     $ 3.85     $ 3.69  
 
Diluted Earnings per Share Attributable to Monsanto Company:
                       
Income from continuing operations
  $ 2.01     $ 3.78     $ 3.59  
Income on discontinued operations
          0.02       0.03  
 
Net Income Attributable to Monsanto Company
  $ 2.01     $ 3.80     $ 3.62  
 
Weighted Average Shares Outstanding:
                       
Basic
    543.7       547.1       548.9  
Diluted
    550.8       555.6       559.7  
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.

54


 

     
MONSANTO COMPANY   2010 FORM 10-K

Statements of Consolidated Financial Position

                 
    As of Aug. 31,
(Dollars in millions, except share amounts)   2010   2009
 
Assets
               
Current Assets:
               
Cash and cash equivalents
  $ 1,485     $ 1,956  
Trade receivables, net
    1,590       1,556  
Miscellaneous receivables
    717       654  
Deferred tax assets
    511       662  
Inventory, net
    2,739       2,934  
Other current assets
    80       121  
 
Total Current Assets
    7,122       7,883  
Total property, plant and equipment
    8,068       7,158  
Less accumulated depreciation
    3,841       3,549  
 
Property, Plant and Equipment, Net
    4,227       3,609  
Goodwill
    3,204       3,218  
Other Intangible Assets, Net
    1,263       1,371  
Noncurrent Deferred Tax Assets
    1,014       743  
Long-Term Receivables, Net
    513       557  
Other Assets
    524       496  
 
Total Assets
  $ 17,867     $ 17,877  
 
Liabilities and Shareowners’ Equity
               
Current Liabilities:
               
Short-term debt, including current portion of long-term debt
  $ 241     $ 79  
Accounts payable
    752       676  
Income taxes payable
    66       79  
Accrued compensation and benefits
    179       263  
Accrued marketing programs
    839       934  
Deferred revenues
    219       219  
Grower production accruals
    130       139  
Dividends payable
    151       145  
Customer payable
    83       307  
Restructuring reserves
    197       286  
Miscellaneous short-term accruals
    684       629  
 
Total Current Liabilities
    3,541       3,756  
Long-Term Debt
    1,862       1,724  
Postretirement Liabilities
    920       793  
Long-Term Deferred Revenue
    395       488  
Noncurrent Deferred Tax Liabilities
    137       153  
Long-Term Portion of Environmental and Litigation Liabilities
    188       197  
Other Liabilities
    681       641  
Shareowners’ Equity:
               
Common stock (authorized: 1,500,000,000 shares, par value $0.01)
Issued 588,439,202 and 585,557,964 shares, respectively
Outstanding 540,376,499 and 545,407,427 shares, respectively
    6       6  
Treasury stock 48,062,703 and 40,150,537 shares, respectively, at cost
    (2,110 )     (1,577 )
Additional contributed capital
    9,896       9,695  
Retained earnings
    3,208       2,682  
Accumulated other comprehensive loss
    (897 )     (744 )
Reserve for ESOP debt retirement
    (4 )     (6 )
 
Total Monsanto Company Shareowners’ Equity
    10,099       10,056  
 
Noncontrolling Interest
    44       69  
 
Total Shareowners’ Equity
    10,143       10,125  
 
Total Liabilities and Shareowners’ Equity
  $ 17,867     $ 17,877  
 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.

55


 

     
MONSANTO COMPANY   2010 FORM 10-K

Statements of Consolidated Cash Flows

                         
    Year Ended Aug. 31,
(Dollars in millions)   2010   2009   2008
 
Operating Activities:
                       
Net Income
  $ 1,128     $ 2,133     $ 2,044  
Adjustments to reconcile cash provided by operating activities:
                       
Items that did not require (provide) cash:
                       
Depreciation and amortization
    602       548       573  
Bad-debt expense
    58       49       57  
Receipt of securities from Solutia settlement
                (38 )
Stock-based compensation expense
    102       116       90  
Excess tax benefits from stock-based compensation
    (43 )     (35 )     (198 )
Deferred income taxes
    10       264       47  
Restructuring charges, net
    210       361        
Equity affiliate income, net
    (29 )     (22 )     (2 )
Acquired in-process research and development
          163       164  
Net gain on sales of a business or other assets
    (3 )     (66 )      
Other items
    65       (25 )     25  
Changes in assets and liabilities that provided (required) cash, net of acquisitions:
                       
Trade receivables, net
    (22 )     526       (318 )
Inventory, net
    213       (638 )     (691 )
Deferred revenues
    (89 )     (700 )     492  
Accounts payable and other accrued liabilities
    (438 )     (327 )     889  
Restructuring cash payments
    (263 )            
Pension contributions
    (134 )     (187 )     (120 )
Net investment hedge settlement
    (4 )     35       (124 )
Other items
    35       51       (53 )
 
Net Cash Provided by Operating Activities
    1,398       2,246       2,837  
 
Cash Flows Required by Investing Activities:
                       
Purchases of short-term investments
                (132 )
Maturities of short-term investments
          132       59  
Capital expenditures
    (755 )     (916 )     (918 )
Acquisition of businesses, net of cash acquired
    (57 )     (329 )     (1,022 )
Purchases of long-term debt and equity securities
    (39 )     (7 )     (78 )
Technology and other investments
    (33 )     (72 )     (41 )
Proceeds from divestiture of a business
          300        
Other investments and property disposal proceeds
    50       169       90  
 
Net Cash Required by Investing Activities
    (834 )     (723 )     (2,042 )
 
Cash Flows Required by Financing Activities:
                       
Net change in financing with less than 90-day maturities
    48       (142 )     92  
Short-term debt proceeds
    75       75        
Short-term debt reductions
    (101 )     (45 )     (10 )
Long-term debt proceeds
                546  
Long-term debt reductions
    (4 )     (71 )     (254 )
Payments on other financing
    (1 )     (6 )     (3 )
Debt issuance costs
                (5 )
Treasury stock purchases
    (532 )     (398 )     (361 )
Stock option exercises
    56       39       114  
Excess tax benefits from stock-based compensation
    43       35       198  
Dividend payments
    (577 )     (552 )     (419 )
Dividend payments to noncontrolling interests
    (45 )     (10 )     (23 )
 
Net Cash Required by Financing Activities
    (1,038 )     (1,075 )     (125 )
 
Effect of Exchange Rate Changes on Cash and Cash Equivalents
    3       (105 )     77  
 
Net (Decrease) Increase in Cash and Cash Equivalents
    (471 )     343       747  
Cash and Cash Equivalents at Beginning of Period
    1,956       1,613       866  
 
Cash and Cash Equivalents at End of Period
  $ 1,485     $ 1,956     $ 1,613  
 
See Note 24 — Supplemental Cash Flow Information — for further details.
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.

56


 

     
MONSANTO COMPANY   2010 FORM 10-K

Statements of Consolidated Shareowners’ Equity and Comprehensive Income

                                                                 
    Monsanto Shareowners
       
                                    Accumulated                
                    Additional           Other           Non-    
    Common   Treasury   Contributed   Retained   Comprehensive   Reserve for   Controlling    
(Dollars in millions, except per share data)   Stock   Stock   Capital   Earnings   (Loss)(1)   ESOP Debt   Interest   Total
 
Balance as of Sept. 1, 2007
  $ 6     $ (814 )   $ 9,106     $ (405 )   $ (377 )   $ (13 )   $ 55     $ 7,558  
Net income
                      2,024                   20       2,044  
Foreign currency translation
                            346             (1 )     345  
Postretirement benefit plan activity, net of tax of $(44)
                            (99 )                 (99 )
Unrealized net losses on investment holdings, net of tax of $(4)
                            (5 )                 (5 )
Unrealized net derivative gains, net of tax of $31
                            53                   53  
Realized net derivative losses, net of tax of $(3)
                            4                   4  
                                                     
Comprehensive income for 2008
                                                    19       2,342  
Treasury stock purchases
          (363 )                                   (363 )
Restricted stock withholding
                (11 )                             (11 )
Issuance of shares under employee stock plans
                114                               114  
Excess tax benefits from stock-based compensation
                198                               198  
Stock-based compensation expense
                88                               88  
Cash dividends of $0.83 per common share
                      (456 )                       (456 )
Dividend payments to noncontrolling interest
                                        (23 )     (23 )
Allocation of ESOP shares, net of dividends received
                                  3             3  
Adjustment related to changes to the income tax topic of the ASC
                      (25 )                       (25 )
Purchase of noncontrolling interest
                                        (14 )     (14 )
 
Balance as of Aug. 31, 2008
  $ 6     $ (1,177 )   $ 9,495     $ 1,138     $ (78 )   $ (10 )   $ 37     $ 9,411  
Net income
                      2,109                   24       2,133  
Foreign currency translation
                            (333 )           (5 )     (338 )
Postretirement benefit plan activity, net of tax of $(119)
                            (189 )                 (189 )
Unrealized net derivative losses, net of tax of $(70)
                            (81 )                 (81 )
Realized net derivative gains, net of tax of $(25)
                            (63 )                 (63 )
                                                     
Comprehensive income for 2009
                                                    19       1,462  
Treasury stock purchases
          (400 )                                   (400 )
Restricted stock withholding
                (7 )                             (7 )
Issuance of shares under employee stock plans
                39                               39  
Excess tax benefits from stock-based compensation
                35                               35  
Stock-based compensation expense
                133                               133  
Cash dividends of $1.04 per common share
                      (565 )                       (565 )
Dividend payments to noncontrolling interest
                                        (10 )     (10 )
Allocation of ESOP shares, net of dividends received
                                  4             4  
Donation of noncontrolling interest
                                        28       28  
Purchase of noncontrolling interest
                                        (5 )     (5 )
 
Balance as of Aug. 31, 2009
  $ 6     $ (1,577 )   $ 9,695     $ 2,682     $ (744 )   $ (6 )   $ 69     $ 10,125  
 
(1)   See Note 22 — Accumulated Other Comprehensive Loss — for further details of the components of accumulated other comprehensive loss.
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.

57


 

     
MONSANTO COMPANY   2010 FORM 10-K

Statements of Consolidated Shareowners’ Equity and Comprehensive Income (continued)

                                                                 
    Monsanto Shareowners
       
                                    Accumulated                
                    Additional           Other           Non-    
    Common   Treasury   Contributed   Retained   Comprehensive   Reserve for   Controlling    
(Dollars in millions, except per share data)   Stock   Stock   Capital   Earnings   (Loss)(1)   ESOP Debt   Interest   Total
 
Balance as of Aug. 31, 2009
  $ 6     $ (1,577 )   $ 9,695     $ 2,682     $ (744 )   $ (6 )   $ 69     $ 10,125  
Net income
                      1,109                   19       1,128  
Foreign currency translation
                            (99 )           (1 )     (100 )
Postretirement benefit plan activity, net of tax of $(75)
                            (113 )                 (113 )
Unrealized net losses on investment holdings, net of tax of $(2)
                            (4 )                 (4 )
Realized net losses on investment holdings, net of tax of $6
                            10                   10  
Unrealized net derivative gains, net of tax of $(7)
                            5                   5  
Realized net derivative losses, net of tax of $39
                            48                   48  
                                                     
Comprehensive income for 2010
                                                    18       974  
Treasury stock purchases
          (533 )                                   (533 )
Restricted stock withholding
                (6 )                             (6 )
Issuance of shares under employee stock plans
                56                               56  
Excess tax benefits from stock-based compensation
                43                               43  
Stock-based compensation expense
                108                               108  
Cash dividends of $1.08 per common share
                      (583 )                       (583 )
Dividend payments to noncontrolling interest
                                        (45 )     (45 )
Allocation of ESOP shares, net of dividends received
                                  2             2  
Donation of noncontrolling interest
                                        2       2  
 
Balance as of Aug. 31, 2010
  $ 6     $ (2,110 )   $ 9,896     $ 3,208     $ (897 )   $ (4 )   $ 44     $ 10,143  
 
(1)   See Note 22 — Accumulated Other Comprehensive Loss — for further details of the components of accumulated other comprehensive loss.
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.

58


 

     
MONSANTO COMPANY   2010 FORM 10-K

NOTES TO THE CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

NOTE 1. BACKGROUND AND BASIS OF PRESENTATION

Monsanto Company, along with its subsidiaries, is a leading global provider of agricultural products for farmers. Monsanto’s seeds, biotechnology trait products, and herbicides provide farmers with solutions that improve productivity, reduce the costs of farming, and produce better foods for consumers and better feed for animals.
Monsanto manages its business in two segments: Seeds and Genomics and Agricultural Productivity. Through the Seeds and Genomics segment, Monsanto produces leading seed brands, including DEKALB, Asgrow, Deltapine, Seminis and De Ruiter, and Monsanto develops biotechnology traits that assist farmers in controlling insects and weeds. Monsanto also provides other seed companies with genetic material and biotechnology traits for their seed brands. Through the Agricultural Productivity segment, the company manufactures Roundup brand herbicides and other herbicides and provides lawn-and-garden herbicide products for the residential market. See Note 26 — Segment and Geographic Data — for further details.
In the fourth quarter of 2008, the company announced plans to divest its animal agricultural products business, which focused on dairy cow productivity (the Dairy business). This transaction was consummated on Oct. 1, 2008. As a result, financial data for this business has been presented as discontinued operations. The financial statements have been prepared in compliance with the provisions of the Property, Plant and Equipment topic of the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) Accounting Standards Codification (ASC). Accordingly, for all periods presented herein, the Statements of Consolidated Operations and Consolidated Financial Position have been conformed to this presentation. The Dairy business was previously reported as part of the Agricultural Productivity segment. See Note 29 — Discontinued Operations — for further details.
Monsanto includes the operations, assets and liabilities that were previously the agricultural business of Pharmacia Corporation (Pharmacia), which is now a subsidiary of Pfizer Inc. Monsanto was incorporated as a subsidiary of Pharmacia in February 2000. On Sept. 1, 2000, the assets and liabilities of the agricultural business were transferred from Pharmacia to Monsanto, pursuant to the terms of a separation agreement dated as of that date (the Separation Agreement), from which time the consolidated financial statements reflect the results of operations, financial position, and cash flows of the company as a separate entity responsible for procuring or providing the services and financing previously provided by Pharmacia. In October 2000, Monsanto sold approximately 15 percent of its common stock at $10 per share in an initial public offering. On Aug. 13, 2002, Pharmacia completed a spinoff of Monsanto by distributing its entire ownership interest via a tax-free dividend to Pharmacia’s shareowners.
Unless otherwise indicated, “Monsanto” and “the company” are used interchangeably to refer to Monsanto Company or to Monsanto Company and its consolidated subsidiaries, as appropriate to the context.
NOTE 2. SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES

Basis of Consolidation
The consolidated financial statements are presented in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States. These statements pertain to Monsanto and its controlled subsidiaries. Intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation. Investments in other companies in which Monsanto has the ability to exercise significant influence (generally through an ownership interest greater than 20 percent) are included in the other assets item in the Statements of Consolidated Financial Position. The company records income attributable to noncontrolling interest in the Statements of Consolidated Operations for any non-owned portion of consolidated subsidiaries. Noncontrolling interest is recorded within the equity section but separate from Monsanto’s equity in the Statements of Consolidated Financial Position.
Arrangements with other business enterprises are also evaluated, and those in which Monsanto is determined to have controlling financial interest are consolidated. In January 2003, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) issued an interpretation with an amendment in December 2003. The amended interpretation addresses the consolidation of business enterprises to which the usual condition of consolidation (ownership of a majority voting interest) does not apply. This

59


 

     
MONSANTO COMPANY   2010 FORM 10-K

NOTES TO THE CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (continued)

interpretation focuses on controlling financial interests that may be achieved through arrangements that do not involve voting interests. It concludes that, in the absence of clear control through voting interests, a company’s exposure (variable interest) to the economic risks and potential rewards from the variable interest entity’s assets and activities is the best evidence of control. If an enterprise holds a majority of the variable interests of an entity, it would be considered the primary beneficiary. The primary beneficiary is required to consolidate the assets, liabilities and results of operations of the variable interest entity in its financial statements.
Upon evaluating its relationships with two entities, Monsanto has determined that even though the entities are variable interest entities and Monsanto holds variable interests in the entities, these entities are not required to be consolidated in the company’s financial statements pursuant to the Consolidations topic of the ASC because either the entity is exempt from the scope of the guidance or Monsanto is not the primary beneficiary. During 2010, Monsanto began participating in a revolving financing program in Brazil that allows the company to transfer a limited amount of customer receivables to a qualified special-purpose entity. See Note 7 — Customer Financing Programs — for a description of this program, which is the first such entity. The second entity is a biotechnology company focused on plant gene research, development, and commercialization in which Monsanto had a 16 percent equity investment as of Aug. 31, 2010. Monsanto had an agreement in place under which Monsanto made payments for research services and receives rights to intellectual property developed within funded research. The entity reported total assets of $48 million and total liabilities of $7 million as of Aug. 31, 2010, and revenues of $17 million for the 12 months ended Aug. 31, 2010. As of Aug. 31, 2010, Monsanto’s estimate of maximum exposure to loss as a result of its relationships with this entity was approximately $15 million, which represents Monsanto’s equity investment in this entity. There were no other commitments to this entity as of Aug. 31, 2010. In 2009, Monsanto held a variable interest in an additional entity, a joint venture which packages and sells seeds, with a focus on corn and sunflower seeds, and also sells and distributes agricultural chemical products. This entity was acquired in 2010 and has been consolidated since the date of the acquisition.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States requires management to make certain estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes. Estimates are adjusted to reflect actual experience when necessary. Significant estimates and assumptions affect many items in the financial statements. These include allowance for doubtful trade receivables, sales returns and allowances, inventory obsolescence, income tax liabilities and assets and related valuation allowances, asset impairments, valuations of goodwill and other intangible assets, employee benefit plan liabilities, value of equity-based awards, marketing program liabilities, grower accruals (an estimate of amounts payable to farmers who grow seed for Monsanto), restructuring reserves, self-insurance reserves, environmental reserves, deferred revenue, contingencies, litigation, incentives, and the allocation of corporate costs to segments. Significant estimates and assumptions are also used to establish the fair value and useful lives of depreciable tangible and certain intangible assets. Actual results may differ from those estimates and assumptions, and such results may affect income, financial position, or cash flows.
Revenue Recognition
The company derives most of its revenue from three main sources: sales of branded conventional seed and branded seed with biotechnology traits; royalties and license revenues from licensed biotechnology traits and genetic material; and sales of agricultural chemical products.
Revenues from all branded seed sales are recognized when the title to the products is transferred. When the right of return exists in the company’s seed business, sales revenues are reduced at the time of sale to reflect expected returns. In order to estimate the expected returns, management analyzes historical returns, economic trends, market conditions, and changes in customer demand.
Revenues for agricultural chemical products are recognized when title to the products is transferred. The company recognizes revenue on products it sells to distributors when, according to the terms of the sales agreements, delivery has occurred, performance is complete, no right of return exists, and pricing is fixed or determinable at the time of sale.

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There are several additional conditions for recognition of revenue including that the collection of sales proceeds must be reasonably assured based on historical experience and current market conditions and that there must be no further performance obligations under the sale or the royalty or license agreement.
Monsanto follows the Revenue Recognition topic of the ASC. The Revenue Recognition topic of the ASC primarily affects Monsanto’s recognition of license revenues from biotechnology traits sold through third-party seed companies. Trait royalties and license revenues are recorded when earned, usually when the third-party seed companies sell their seeds containing Monsanto traits to growers.
To reduce credit exposure in Latin America, Monsanto collects payments on certain customer accounts in grain. Monsanto does not take physical custody of the grain or assume the associated inventory risk and therefore does not record revenue or the related cost of sales for the grain. Such payments in grain are negotiated at or near the time Monsanto’s products are sold to the customers and are valued at the prevailing grain commodity prices. By entering into forward sales contracts with grain merchants, Monsanto mitigates the commodity price exposure from the time a contract is signed with a customer until the time a grain merchant collects the grain from the customer on Monsanto’s behalf. The grain merchant converts the grain to cash for Monsanto. These forward sales contracts do not qualify for hedge accounting under the Derivatives and Hedging topic of the ASC. Accordingly, the gain or loss on these derivatives is recognized in current earnings.
Shipping and Handling Costs
Following the guidance of the Revenue Recognition topic of the ASC, Monsanto records outward freight, purchasing and receiving costs, inspection costs, warehousing costs, internal transfer costs, and other costs of the company’s distribution network in cost of goods sold.
Marketing and Advertising Costs
Promotional and advertising costs are expensed as incurred and are included in selling, general and administrative expenses in the Statements of Consolidated Operations. Accrued marketing program costs are recorded in accordance with the Revenue Recognition topic of the ASC, based on specific performance criteria met by our customers, such as purchase volumes, promptness of payment, and market share increases. The company introduced marketing programs that provide certain customers price protection consideration if standard published prices fall lower than the price the distributor paid on eligible products. The associated cost of marketing programs is recorded in net sales in the Statements of Consolidated Operations. As actual expenses are not known at the time of the sale, an estimate based on the best available information (such as historical experience and market research) is used as a basis for the liability. Management analyzes and reviews the marketing program balances on a quarterly basis and adjustments are recorded as appropriate. Under certain marketing programs, product performance and variations in weather can result in free product to customers. The associated cost of this free product is recognized as cost of goods sold in the Statements of Consolidated Operations.
Research and Development Costs
The company accounts for research and development (R&D) costs in accordance with the Research and Development topic of the ASC. Under the Research and Development topic of the ASC, all R&D costs must be charged to expense as incurred. Accordingly, internal R&D costs are expensed as incurred. Third-party R&D costs are expensed when the contracted work has been performed or as milestone results are achieved. For acquisitions that occurred in 2009 and 2008, in-process R&D (IPR&D) costs with no alternative future uses are expensed in the period acquired. As a result of adopting the provisions of a new accounting standard related to business combinations issued by the FASB, for acquisitions completed after Sept. 1, 2009, acquired IPR&D costs without alternative uses will be recorded on the Statements of Consolidated Financial Position as indefinite-lived intangible assets. The costs of purchased IPR&D that have alternative future uses are capitalized and amortized over the estimated useful life of the asset. The costs associated with equipment or facilities acquired or constructed for R&D activities that have alternative future uses are capitalized and depreciated on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful life of the asset. The amortization and depreciation for such capitalized assets are charged to R&D expenses. In fiscal year 2007, Monsanto and BASF announced a long-term joint R&D and commercialization collaboration in plant technology that will focus on high-yielding crops and crops that are tolerant to adverse conditions. The collaboration resulted in shared R&D costs. Only Monsanto’s portion has been included in research and development expenses in the Statements of Consolidated Operations.

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Income Taxes
Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the expected tax consequences of temporary differences between the tax bases of assets and liabilities and their reported amounts. Management regularly assesses the likelihood that deferred tax assets will be recovered from future taxable income, and to the extent management believes that it is more likely than not that a deferred tax asset will not be realized, a valuation allowance is established. When a valuation allowance is established, increased or decreased, an income tax charge or benefit is included in the consolidated financial statements and net deferred tax assets are adjusted accordingly. The net deferred tax assets as of Aug. 31, 2010, represent the estimated future tax benefits to be received from taxing authorities or future reductions of taxes payable.
On Sept. 1, 2007, Monsanto adopted the updated provisions of the Income Taxes topic of the ASC. Under this topic of the ASC, in order to recognize an uncertain tax benefit, the taxpayer must be more likely than not of sustaining the position, and the measurement of the benefit is calculated as the largest amount that is more than 50 percent likely to be realized upon resolution of the benefit. Tax authorities regularly examine the company’s returns in the jurisdictions in which Monsanto does business. Management regularly assesses the tax risk of the company’s return filing positions and believes its accruals for uncertain tax benefits are adequate as of Aug. 31, 2010, and Aug. 31, 2009.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
All highly liquid investments (defined as investments with a maturity of three months or less when purchased) are considered cash equivalents.
Accounts Receivable
The company provides an allowance for doubtful trade receivables equal to the estimated uncollectible amounts. That estimate is based on historical collection experience, current economic and market conditions, and a review of the current status of each customer’s trade accounts receivable.
Long-Term Investments
Monsanto has long-term investments in equity securities, which are categorized as available-for-sale. They are classified as other assets in the Statements of Consolidated Financial Position, and they are carried at fair value, with unrealized gains and losses reported in the Statements of Consolidated Shareowners’ Equity and Comprehensive Income in accumulated other comprehensive income (loss). If Monsanto believes that an other-than-temporary impairment exists, the investment in question is written down to market value in accordance with the Investments topic of the ASC. The write-down is recorded in the Statements of Consolidated Operations as an impairment of securities. Monsanto has other long-term investments in equity securities for which market values are not readily available. These other securities and investments are carried at cost, and they are reviewed regularly to evaluate whether they have experienced a decline in fair value.
Fair Values of Assets and Liabilities
The recorded amounts of cash, trade receivables, miscellaneous receivables, third-party guarantees, accounts payable, grower accruals, accrued marketing programs, miscellaneous short-term accruals, and short-term debt approximate their fair values. For financial assets and liabilities, fair values are based on quoted market prices, estimates from brokers, and other appropriate valuation techniques. See Note 15 — Fair Value Measurements — and Note 16 — Financial Instruments — for further details, including management’s responsibilities for determining these fair values. The fair value estimates do not necessarily reflect the values that could be realized in the current market on any one day.
Inventory Valuation
Inventories are stated at the lower of cost or market, and the inventory reserve reduces the cost basis of inventory. Inventories are valued as follows:
Seeds and Genomics: Actual cost is used to value raw materials such as treatment chemicals and packaging, as well as goods in process. Costs for substantially all finished goods, which include the cost of carryover crops from the previous year, are valued at weighted-average actual cost. Weighted-average actual cost includes field growing and harvesting costs, plant conditioning and packaging costs, and manufacturing overhead costs.

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Agricultural Productivity: Actual cost is used to value raw materials and supplies. Standard cost, which approximates actual cost, is used to value finished goods and goods in process. Variances, exclusive of abnormally low volume and operating performance, are capitalized into inventory. Standard cost includes direct labor and raw materials, and manufacturing overhead based on normal capacity. The cost of the Agricultural Productivity segment inventories in the United States (approximately 14 percent as of both Aug. 31, 2010, and Aug. 31, 2009) is determined by using the last-in, first-out (LIFO) method, which generally reflects the effects of inflation or deflation on cost of goods sold sooner than other inventory cost methods. The cost of inventories outside of the United States, as well as supplies inventories in the United States, is determined by using the first-in, first-out (FIFO) method; FIFO is used outside of the United States because the requirements in the countries where Monsanto maintains inventories generally do not allow the use of the LIFO method. Inventories at FIFO approximate current cost.
In accordance with the Inventory topic of the ASC, Monsanto records abnormal amounts of idle facility expense, freight, handling costs and wasted material (spoilage) as current period charges and allocates fixed production overhead to the costs of conversion based on the normal capacity of the production facilities.
Goodwill
Monsanto follows the guidance of the Business Combinations topic of the ASC, in recording the goodwill arising from a business combination as the excess of purchase price and related costs over the fair value of identifiable assets acquired and liabilities assumed.
Under the Intangibles – Goodwill and Other topic of the ASC, goodwill is not amortized and is subject to annual impairment tests. A fair-value-based test is applied at the reporting unit level, which is generally at or one level below the operating segment level. The test compares the fair value of the company’s reporting units to the carrying value of those reporting units. This test requires various judgments and estimates. The fair value of goodwill is determined using an estimate of future cash flows of the reporting unit and a risk-adjusted discount rate to compute a net present value of future cash flows. An adjustment to goodwill will be recorded for any goodwill that is determined to be impaired. Impairment of goodwill is measured as the excess of the carrying amount of goodwill over the fair values of recognized and unrecognized assets and liabilities of the reporting unit. Goodwill is tested for impairment at least annually, or more frequently if events or circumstances indicate it might be impaired. Goodwill was last tested for impairment as of March 1, 2010. See Note 10 — Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets — for further discussion of the annual impairment test.
Other Intangible Assets
Other intangible assets consist primarily of acquired seed germplasm, acquired intellectual property, trademarks and customer relationships. Seed germplasm is the genetic material used in new seed varieties. Germplasm is amortized on a straight-line basis over useful lives ranging from five years for completed technology germplasm to a maximum of 30 years for certain core technology germplasm. Completed technology germplasm consists of seed hybrids and varieties that are commercially available. Core technology germplasm is the collective germplasm of inbred and hybrid seeds and has a longer useful life as it is used to develop new seed hybrids and varieties. Acquired intellectual property includes intangible assets related to acquisitions and licenses through which Monsanto has acquired the rights to various research and discovery technologies. These encompass intangible assets such as enabling processes and data libraries necessary to support the integrated genomics and biotechnology platforms. These intangible assets have alternative future uses and are amortized over useful lives ranging from three to 10 years. The useful lives of acquired germplasm and acquired intellectual property are determined based on consideration of several factors including the nature of the asset, its expected use, length of licensing agreement or patent and the period over which benefits are expected to be received from the use of the asset.
Monsanto has a broad portfolio of trademarks and patents, including trademarks for Roundup (for herbicide products); Roundup Ready, Bollgard, Bollgard II, YieldGard, YieldGard VT, Roundup Ready 2 Yield and SmartStax (for traits); DEKALB, Asgrow, Deltapine and Vistive (for agricultural seeds); Seminis and De Ruiter (for vegetable seeds); and patents for our insect-protection traits, formulations used to make our herbicides and various manufacturing processes. The amortization period for trademarks and patents ranges from two to 30 years. Trademarks are amortized on a straight-line basis over their useful lives. The useful life of a trademark is determined based on the estimated market-life of the associated company, brand or product. Patents are amortized on a straight-line basis over the period in which the patent is legally protected, the period

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over which benefits are expected to be received, or the estimated market-life of the product with which the patent is associated, whichever is shorter.
In conjunction with acquisitions, Monsanto obtains access to the distribution channels and customer relationships of the acquired companies. These relationships are expected to provide economic benefits to Monsanto. The amortization period for customer relationships ranges from three to 20 years, and amortization is recognized on a straight-line basis over these periods. The amortization period of customer relationships represents management’s best estimate of the expected usage or consumption of the economic benefits of the acquired assets, which is based on the company’s historical experience of customer attrition rates.
In accordance with the Intangibles – Goodwill and Other topic of the ASC, all amortizable intangible assets are assessed for impairment whenever events indicate a possible loss. Such an assessment involves estimating undiscounted cash flows over the remaining useful life of the intangible. If the review indicates that undiscounted cash flows are less than the recorded value of the intangible asset, the carrying amount of the intangible is reduced by the estimated cash-flow shortfall on a discounted basis, and a corresponding loss is charged to the Statement of Consolidated Operations. See Note 10 — Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets — for further discussion of Monsanto’s intangible assets.
Property, Plant and Equipment
Property, plant and equipment is recorded at cost. Additions and improvements are capitalized; these include all material, labor, and engineering costs to design, install or improve the asset and interest costs on construction projects. Such costs are not depreciated until the assets are placed in service. Routine repairs and maintenance are expensed as incurred. The cost of plant and equipment is depreciated using the straight-line method over the estimated useful life of the asset — weighted-average periods of approximately 25 years for buildings, 10 years for machinery and equipment and seven years for software. In compliance with the Property, Plant and Equipment topic of the ASC, long-lived assets are reviewed for impairment whenever in management’s judgment conditions indicate a possible loss. Such impairment tests compare estimated undiscounted cash flows to the recorded value of the asset. If an impairment is indicated, the asset is written down to its fair value or, if fair value is not readily determinable, to an estimated fair value based on discounted cash flows. Based on recent changes in the Roundup business, Monsanto performed an impairment test on the long-lived assets in the Roundup and other glyphosate-based products reporting unit’s asset group. The test indicated no impairment during fiscal year 2010.
Monsanto follows the Asset Retirement and Environmental Obligations topic of the ASC, which addresses financial accounting for and reporting of costs and obligations associated with the retirement of tangible long-lived assets. Monsanto has asset retirement obligations with carrying amounts totaling $65 million and $61 million as of Aug. 31, 2010, and Aug. 31, 2009, respectively, primarily relating to its manufacturing facilities. The change in carrying value as of Aug. 31, 2010, consisted of $7 million for accretion expense offset by $3 million in decreased costs.
Environmental Remediation Liabilities
Monsanto follows the Asset Retirement and Environmental Obligations topic of the ASC, which provides guidance for recognizing, measuring and disclosing environmental remediation liabilities. Monsanto accrues these costs in the period when responsibility is established and when such costs are probable and reasonably estimable based on current law and existing technology. Postclosure and remediation costs for hazardous waste sites and other waste facilities at operating locations are accrued over the estimated life of the facility, as part of its anticipated closure cost.
Litigation and Other Contingencies
Monsanto is involved in various intellectual property, biotechnology, tort, contract, antitrust, employee benefit, environmental and other litigation, claims and legal proceedings; environmental remediation; and government investigations (see Note 25 — Commitments and Contingencies). Management routinely assesses the likelihood of adverse judgments or outcomes to those matters, as well as ranges of probable losses, to the extent losses are reasonably estimable. In accordance with the Contingencies topic of the ASC, accruals for such contingencies are recorded to the extent that management concludes their occurrence is probable and the financial impact, should an adverse outcome occur, is reasonably estimable. Disclosure for specific legal contingencies is provided if the likelihood of occurrence is at least reasonably possible and the exposure is considered material to the consolidated financial statements. In making determinations of likely outcomes of

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litigation matters, management considers many factors. These factors include, but are not limited to, past experience, scientific and other evidence, interpretation of relevant laws or regulations and the specifics and status of each matter. If the assessment of the various factors changes, the estimates may change. That may result in the recording of an accrual or a change in a previously recorded accrual. Predicting the outcome of claims and litigation and estimating related costs and exposure involves substantial uncertainties that could cause actual costs to vary materially from estimates and accruals.
Guarantees
Monsanto is subject to various commitments under contractual and other commercial obligations. The company recognizes liabilities for contingencies and commitments under the Guarantees topic of the ASC. For additional information on the company’s commitments and other contractual and commercial obligations, see Note 25 — Commitments and Contingencies.
Foreign Currency Translation
The financial statements for most of Monsanto’s ex-U.S. operations are translated to U.S. dollars at current exchange rates. For assets and liabilities, the year-end rate is used. For revenues, expenses, gains and losses, the average rate for the period is used. Unrealized currency adjustments in the Statements of Consolidated Financial Position are accumulated in equity as a component of accumulated other comprehensive loss. The financial statements of ex-U.S. operations in highly inflationary economies are translated at either current or historical exchange rates at the time they are deemed highly inflationary, in accordance with the Foreign Currency Matters topic of the ASC. These currency adjustments are included in net income. Based on the Consumer Price Index (CPI), Monsanto designated Venezuela as a hyperinflationary country effective June 1, 2009.
Significant translation exposures include the Brazilian real, the European euro, the Canadian dollar, the Romanian leu and the Australian dollar. Currency restrictions are not expected to have a significant effect on Monsanto’s cash flow, liquidity, or capital resources.
Derivatives and Other Financial Instruments
Monsanto uses financial derivative instruments to limit its exposure to changes in foreign currency exchange rates, commodity prices, and interest rates. Monsanto does not use financial derivative instruments for the purpose of speculating in foreign currencies, commodities or interest rates. Monsanto continually monitors its underlying market risk exposures and believes that it can modify or adapt its hedging strategies as needed.
In accordance with the Derivatives and Hedging topic of the ASC, all derivatives, whether designated for hedging relationships or not, are recognized in the Statements of Consolidated Financial Position at their fair value. At the time a derivative contract is entered into, Monsanto designates each derivative as: (1) a hedge of the fair value of a recognized asset or liability (a fair-value hedge), (2) a hedge of a forecasted transaction or of the variability of cash flows that are to be received or paid in connection with a recognized asset or liability (a cash-flow hedge), (3) a foreign-currency fair-value or cash-flow hedge (a foreign-currency hedge), (4) a foreign-currency hedge of the net investment in a foreign subsidiary, or (5) a derivative that does not qualify for hedge accounting treatment.
Changes in the fair value of a derivative that is highly effective, and that is designated as and qualifies as a fair-value hedge, along with changes in the fair value of the hedged asset or liability that are attributable to the hedged risk, are recorded currently in net income. Changes in the fair value of a derivative that is highly effective, and that is designated as and qualifies as a cash-flow hedge, to the extent that the hedge is effective, are recorded in accumulated other comprehensive loss, until net income is affected by the variability from cash flows of the hedged item. Any hedge ineffectiveness is included in current-period net income. Changes in the fair value of a derivative that is highly effective, and that is designated as and qualifies as a foreign-currency hedge, are recorded either in current-period earnings or in accumulated other comprehensive loss, depending on whether the hedging relationship satisfies the criteria for a fair-value or cash-flow hedge. Changes in the fair value of a derivative that is highly effective, and that is designated as a foreign-currency hedge of the net investment in a foreign subsidiary, are recorded in the accumulated foreign currency translation. Changes in the fair value of derivative instruments not designated as hedges are reported currently in earnings.

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Monsanto formally and contemporaneously documents all relationships between hedging instruments and hedged items, as well as its risk-management objective and its strategy for undertaking various hedge transactions. This includes linking all derivatives that are designated as fair-value, cash-flow, or foreign-currency hedges either to specific assets and liabilities on the Statements of Consolidated Financial Position, or to firm commitments or forecasted transactions. Monsanto formally assesses a hedge at its inception and on an ongoing basis thereafter to determine whether the hedging relationship between the derivative and the hedged item is still highly effective, and whether it is expected to remain highly effective in future periods, in offsetting changes in fair value or cash flows. When derivatives cease to be highly effective hedges, Monsanto discontinues hedge accounting prospectively.
Pension and Postretirement Plans
Monsanto has various defined benefit and postretirement plans. Monsanto generally amortizes unrecognized actuarial gains and losses on a straight-line basis over the remaining estimated service life of participants. The measurement date is August 31. See Note 17 — Postretirement Benefits – Pensions and Note 18 — Postretirement Benefits – Health Care and Other Postemployment Benefits — for a full description of these plans and the accounting and funding policies.
Stock-Based Compensation
In accordance with the Compensation – Stock Compensation topic of the ASC, Monsanto measures and recognizes compensation expense for all share-based payment awards made to employees and directors based on estimated fair values. See Note 20 — Stock-Based Compensation Plans — for further details.
NOTE 3. NEW ACCOUNTING STANDARDS

In July 2010, the FASB issued a new update that requires enhanced disclosures regarding credit quality and the related allowance for credit losses of financing receivables. The new disclosures will require additional information for nonaccrual and past due accounts, the allowance for credit losses, impaired loans, credit quality, and account modifications. Accordingly, Monsanto will include the new disclosure requirements as of the end of the reporting period beginning in second quarter 2011, and the disclosures related to activities during the reporting period beginning in the third quarter 2011. The company is currently evaluating the disclosure impact of including this update on the consolidated financial statements.
In January 2010, the FASB issued an amendment to the Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures topic of the ASC. This amendment requires disclosures about transfers into and out of Levels 1 and 2 and separate disclosures about purchases, sales, issuances, and settlements relating to Level 3 measurements. It also clarifies existing fair value disclosures about the level of disaggregation and about inputs and valuation techniques used to measure fair value. This amendment is effective for periods beginning after Dec. 15, 2009, except for the requirement to provide the Level 3 activity of purchases, sales, issuances, and settlements, which will be effective for fiscal years beginning after Dec. 15, 2010, and for interim periods within those fiscal years. Accordingly, Monsanto prospectively adopted this amendment in third quarter 2010, except for the additional Level 3 requirements which will be adopted in fiscal year 2011. See Note 15 — Fair Value Measurements for the new disclosures. The company is currently evaluating the disclosure impact of adopting the additional Level 3 requirements of the standard on the consolidated financial statements.
In June 2009, the FASB issued its ASC Topic 105, Generally Accepted Accounting Principles, which became the single source of authoritative U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) (other than rules and interpretive releases of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission). The ASC is topically based with topics organized by ASC number and updated with Accounting Standards Updates (ASUs). ASUs replace accounting guidance that historically was issued as FASB Statements of Financial Accounting Standards (SFAS), FASB Interpretations (FIN), FASB Staff Positions (FSP), Emerging Issues Task Force (EITF) Issues or other types of accounting standards. The ASC became effective Nov. 30, 2009, for Monsanto and disclosures within this Annual Report on Form 10-K have been updated to reflect the change. The ASC does not change GAAP and did not impact the company’s consolidated financial statements.

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In June 2009, the FASB issued a standard that requires an analysis to determine whether a variable interest gives the entity a controlling financial interest in a variable interest entity. This statement requires an ongoing reassessment and eliminates the quantitative approach previously required for determining whether an entity is the primary beneficiary. This standard is effective for fiscal years beginning after Nov. 15, 2009. Accordingly, Monsanto will adopt this standard in fiscal year 2011. The company is currently evaluating the impact of adoption on the consolidated financial statements.
In June 2009, the FASB issued a standard that removes the concept of a qualifying special-purpose entity (QSPE) from GAAP and removes the exception from applying consolidation principles to a QSPE. This standard also clarifies the requirements for isolation and limitations on portions of financial assets that are eligible for sale accounting. This standard is effective for fiscal years beginning after Nov. 15, 2009. Accordingly, Monsanto will adopt this standard in fiscal year 2011. The company is currently evaluating the impact of adoption on its QSPE related to a Brazilian financing program, other financing programs and on the consolidated financial statements.
In December 2008, the FASB issued a standard that provides additional guidance regarding disclosures about plan assets of defined benefit pension or other postretirement plans. This standard is effective for financial statements issued for fiscal years ending after Dec. 15, 2009. Accordingly, Monsanto adopted this standard as of Aug. 31, 2010. See Note 17 — Postretirement Benefits — Pensions — for the disclosures required by this standard.
In February 2008, the FASB issued a standard that delayed the effective date of the new guidance regarding fair value measurement and disclosure for nonfinancial assets and liabilities to fiscal years beginning after Nov. 15, 2008. Accordingly, Monsanto adopted in fiscal year 2010 the additional requirements of the Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures topic of the ASC that were deferred by this standard. The adoption of this standard did not have an impact on the company’s consolidated financial statements. See Note 15 — Fair Value Measurements — for additional discussion regarding fair value measurements.
In December 2007, the FASB issued a standard that requires an entity to clearly identify and present its ownership interests in subsidiaries held by parties other than the entity in the consolidated financial statements within the equity section but separate from the entity’s equity. It also requires the amount of consolidated net income attributable to the parent and to the noncontrolling interest be clearly identified and presented on the face of the Statements of Consolidated Operations; changes in ownership interest be accounted for similarly, as equity transactions; and when a subsidiary is deconsolidated, any retained noncontrolling equity investment in the former subsidiary and the gain or loss on the deconsolidation of the subsidiary be measured at fair value. This statement is effective for financial statements issued for fiscal years beginning after Dec. 15, 2008. The provisions of the standard related to accounting for changes in ownership are to be applied prospectively, except for the presentation and disclosure requirements, which are to be applied retrospectively. Monsanto adopted this standard on Sept. 1, 2009, and the presentation and disclosure requirements of this standard were applied retrospectively to all periods presented. The adoption of this standard did not have a material impact on the consolidated financial statements, other than the following changes in presentation of noncontrolling interests:
    Consolidated net income was recast to include net income attributable to both the company and noncontrolling interests in the Statements of Consolidated Operations.
 
    Noncontrolling interests were reclassified from other liabilities to equity, separate from the parent’s shareowners’ equity, in the Statements of Consolidated Financial Position.
 
    The Statements of Consolidated Cash Flows now begin with net income (including noncontrolling interests) instead of net income attributable to Monsanto Company, with net income from noncontrolling interests (previously, minority interests) no longer a reconciling item in arriving at net cash provided by operating activities, and the Statements of Consolidated Cash Flows were recast to include dividend payments to noncontrolling interests.
 
    Statements of Consolidated Shareowners’ Equity and Comprehensive Income have been combined and were recast to include noncontrolling interests.

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NOTE 4. BUSINESS COMBINATIONS

Effective Sept. 1, 2009, Monsanto adopted the new guidance in the Business Combinations topic of the ASC for acquisitions subsequent to that date.
2010 Acquisitions: In April 2010, Monsanto acquired a corn and soybean processing plant located in Paine, Chile, from Anasac, a Santiago-based company that provides seed processing services. The acquisition of this plant, which qualifies as a business under the Business Combinations topic of the ASC, allows Monsanto to reduce tolling in Chile, while increasing production supply. Acquisition costs were less than $1 million in fiscal year 2010, and classified as selling, general, and administrative expenses. The total cash paid and the fair value of the acquisition were $34 million, and it was primarily allocated to fixed assets, goodwill, and intangibles. The primary items that generated goodwill were the premiums paid by the company for the right to control the business acquired and the value of the acquired assembled workforce. The goodwill is not deductible for tax purposes.
In October 2009, Monsanto acquired the remaining 51 percent equity interest in Seminium, S.A. (Seminium), a leading Argentinean corn seed company. Acquisition costs were less than $1 million in fiscal year 2010, and classified as selling, general and administrative expenses. The total fair value of Seminium was $36 million, and it was primarily allocated to inventory, fixed assets, intangibles, and goodwill. This fair value includes $20 million of cash paid (net of cash acquired) and $16 million for the fair value of Monsanto’s 49 percent equity interest in Seminium held prior to the acquisition. The primary items that generated goodwill were the premiums paid by the company for the right to control the business acquired and the value of the acquired assembled workforce. The goodwill is not deductible for tax purposes. Income of approximately $12 million was recognized from the re-measurement to fair value of Monsanto’s previous equity interest in Seminium and is included in other expense, net, in the Statements of Consolidated Operations for fiscal year 2010.
For the fiscal year 2010 acquisitions described above, the business operations and employees of the acquired entities were included in the Seeds and Genomics segment results upon acquisition. These acquisitions were accounted for as business combinations. Accordingly, the assets and liabilities of the acquired entities were recorded at their estimated fair values at the dates of the acquisitions. The measurement period for purchase price allocations ends as soon as information on the facts and circumstances becomes available, but does not exceed 12 months. If new information is obtained about facts and circumstances that existed as of the acquisition date that, if known, would have affected the measurement of the amounts recognized for assets acquired and liabilities assumed, Monsanto will retrospectively adjust the amounts recognized as of the acquisition date. The preliminary purchase price allocations are summarized in the following table:
         
 
    Aggregate
(Dollars in millions)   Acquisitions
 
Current Assets
  $ 51  
Property, Plant and Equipment
    25  
Goodwill
    20  
Other Intangible Assets
    28  
 
Total Assets Acquired
    124  
 
Current Liabilities
    38  
Other Liabilities
    7  
 
Total Liabilities Assumed
    45  
 
Net Assets Acquired
  $ 79  
 
 
       
Supplemental Information:
       
Net assets acquired
  $ 79  
Cash acquired
    3  
 
Cash paid, net of cash acquired
  $ 76  
 
For these acquisitions, the primary items that generated the goodwill were the premiums paid by the company for the right to control the businesses acquired and the value of the acquired assembled workforce. The goodwill is not deductible for tax purposes. Pro forma information related to these acquisitions is not presented because the impact of these acquisitions, either individually or in the aggregate, on the company’s consolidated results of operations is not considered to be significant.

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MONSANTO COMPANY   2010 FORM 10-K

NOTES TO THE CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (continued)

The following table presents details of the acquired identifiable intangible assets:
                         
 
    Weighted-        
    Average Life   Useful Life   Aggregate
(Dollars in millions)   (Years)   (Years)   Acquisitions
 
Acquired Germplasm
    5       5     $ 3  
Trademarks
    8       8       5  
Customer Relationships
    10       10       8  
Other
    1       1-5       12  
 
Other Intangible Assets
                  $ 28  
 
2009 Acquisitions: In July 2009, Monsanto acquired the assets of WestBred, LLC, a Montana-based company that specializes in wheat germplasm, for $49 million (net of cash acquired), inclusive of transaction costs of $4 million. The acquisition will bolster the future growth of Monsanto’s seeds and traits platform.
In December 2008, Monsanto acquired 100 percent of the outstanding stock of Aly Participacoes Ltda. (Aly), which operates two sugarcane breeding and technology companies, CanaVialis S.A. and Alellyx S.A., both of which are based in Brazil, for $264 million (net of cash acquired), inclusive of transaction costs of less than $1 million.
All fiscal year 2009 acquisitions described above were included within Seeds and Genomics segment from their respective dates of acquisition. The purchase price allocations are summarized in the following table:
         
 
    Aggregate
(Dollars in millions)   Acquisitions
 
Current Assets
  $ 2  
Property, Plant and Equipment
    6  
Goodwill
    131  
Other Intangible Assets
    33  
Acquired In-process Research and Development
    163  
Other Assets
     
 
Total Assets Acquired
    335  
 
Current Liabilities
    10  
Other Liabilities
    2  
 
Total Liabilities Assumed
    12  
 
Net Assets Acquired
  $ 323  
 
 
       
Supplemental Information:
       
Net assets acquired
  $ 323  
Cash acquired
     
 
Cash paid, net of cash acquired
  $ 323  
 
A charge of $163 million was recorded in R&D expenses in fiscal year 2009 for the write-off of acquired IPR&D related to 2009 acquisitions. Of the $163 million, $162 million is related to the write-off of acquired IPR&D from Aly. The Income Approach valuation method was used to determine the fair value of the research projects. In developing assumptions for the valuation model, Monsanto used historical expense of Aly and other comparable data to estimate expected pricing, margins and expense levels. Management believed that the technological feasibility of the IPR&D was not established and that the research had no alternative future uses. Accordingly, the amount allocated to IPR&D was expensed immediately, in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. The significant assumptions used to determine the fair value of

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MONSANTO COMPANY   2010 FORM 10-K

NOTES TO THE CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (continued)

IPR&D related to the Aly acquisition were as follows:
         
 
(Dollars in millions)        
 
Weighted Average Discount Rate
    17%
Expected Costs to Complete (undiscounted)
    $166
Expected Years of Product Launches
    2010 - 2019
 
In 2009, Monsanto paid approximately $5 million of contingent consideration related to fiscal year 2007 regional U.S. seed company acquisitions.
2008 Acquisitions: In June 2008, Monsanto acquired 100 percent of the outstanding stock of De Ruiter Seeds Group, B.V., and a related company (De Ruiter) for approximately $756 million (net of cash acquired), inclusive of transaction costs of $3 million. De Ruiter is a leading protected-culture vegetable seeds company based in the Netherlands with operations worldwide. Monsanto consummated the transaction with existing cash after receiving approvals from the appropriate regulatory authorities.
In July 2008, Monsanto acquired Marmot, S.A., which operates Semillas Cristiani Burkard, a privately held seed company headquartered in Guatemala City, Guatemala, for $135 million (net of cash acquired), inclusive of transaction costs of $3 million. The acquisition will build on Monsanto’s corn business leadership and enable Monsanto to offer farmers in Central America broader access to high-yielding corn seed varieties. Monsanto consummated the transaction with existing cash.
In September 2007, Monsanto acquired 100 percent of the outstanding stock of Agroeste Sementes (Agroeste), a leading Brazilian corn seed company, for approximately $91 million (net of cash acquired), inclusive of transaction costs of approximately $1 million. Agroeste focuses on hybrid corn seed production and serves farmers throughout Brazil. Monsanto consummated the transaction with cash.
In fiscal year 2008, Monsanto completed other acquisitions for approximately $18 million, inclusive of transaction costs of $2 million, and the financial results of these businesses were included in the company’s consolidated financial statements from the respective dates of acquisition.
All fiscal year 2008 acquisitions described above were included within the Seeds and Genomics segment from their respective dates of acquisition. The purchase price allocations are summarized in the following table:
                         
 
            All Other   Aggregate
(Dollars in millions)   De Ruiter   Acquisitions   Acquisitions
 
Current Assets
  $ 161     $ 105     $ 266  
Property, Plant and Equipment
    102       41       143  
Goodwill
    288       190       478  
Other Intangible Assets
    303       70       373  
Acquired In-process Research and Development
    161       2       163  
Other Assets
    13       11       24  
 
Total Assets Acquired
    1,028       419       1,447  
 
Current Liabilities
    89       71       160  
Other Liabilities
    153       83       236  
 
Total Liabilities Assumed
    242       154       396  
 
Net Assets Acquired
  $ 786     $ 265     $ 1,051  
 
 
Supplemental Information:
                       
Net assets acquired
  $ 786     $ 265     $ 1,051  
Cash acquired
    28       21       49  
 
Cash paid, net of cash acquired
  $ 758     $ 244     $ 1,002  
 
In fiscal year 2008, a charge of approximately $164 million was recorded in R&D expenses for the write-off of acquired IPR&D related to 2008 acquisitions and finalizing the purchase price allocations for 2007 acquisitions. Of the $164 million,

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MONSANTO COMPANY   2010 FORM 10-K

NOTES TO THE CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (continued)

$161 million related to the write-off of acquired IPR&D associated with plant breeding acquired in the De Ruiter acquisition. The Income Approach valuation method was used to determine the fair value of the research projects. In developing assumptions for the valuation model, Monsanto used data from comparable commercialized hybrids from De Ruiter and hybrids marketed by Monsanto’s current protected-culture vegetable business to estimate expected pricing, margins and expense levels. Management believed that the technological feasibility of the IPR&D projects was not established and that the research had no alternative future uses. Accordingly, the amounts allocated to IPR&D were expensed immediately, in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. The significant assumptions used to determine the fair value of IPR&D related to the De Ruiter acquisition were as follows:
         
 
(Dollars in millions)        
 
Weighted Average Discount Rate
    12%
Expected Costs to Complete (undiscounted)
    $142
Expected Years of Product Launches
    2009 - 2014
 
For fiscal year 2008 acquisitions, as of the acquisition dates, management began to assess and formulate plans to restructure the acquired entities in accordance with business combination accounting guidance. These activities primarily include the potential closure of certain acquired subsidiaries. Through Aug. 31, 2010, estimated costs of $16 million had been recognized as short-term liabilities, and $16 million had been charged against those liabilities, primarily related to payments for employee terminations and entity consolidation.
NOTE 5. RESTRUCTURING

Restructuring charges were recorded in the Statements of Consolidated Operations as follows:
                 
 
    Year Ended
Aug. 31,
(Dollars in millions)   2010   2009
 
Costs of Goods Sold(1)
  $ (114 )   $ (45 )
Restructuring Charges, Net(1)(2)
    (210 )     (361 )
 
Loss from Continuing Operations Before Income Taxes
    (324 )     (406 )
Income Tax Benefit
    100       116  
 
Net Loss
  $ (224 )   $ (290 )
 
(1)   For the fiscal year ended 2010, the $114 million of restructuring charges recorded in costs of goods sold were split by segment as follows: $13 million in Agricultural Productivity and $101 million in Seeds and Genomics. For the fiscal year ended 2009, the $45 million of restructuring charges recorded in cost of goods sold were split by segment as follows: $1 million in Agricultural Productivity and $44 million in Seeds and Genomics. For the fiscal year ended 2010, the $210 million of restructuring charges recorded in restructuring charges, net, were split by segment as follows: $79 million in Agricultural Productivity and $131 million in Seeds and Genomics. For the fiscal year ended 2009, the $361 million of restructuring charges were split by segment as follows: $113 million in Agricultural Productivity and $248 million in Seeds and Genomics.
 
(2)   The restructuring charges for the fiscal year ended 2010 include reversals of $32 million related to the 2009 Restructuring Plan. The reversals are primarily related to severance as positions originally included in the plan were eliminated through attrition.
On June 23, 2009, the company’s Board of Directors approved a restructuring plan (2009 Restructuring Plan) to take future actions to reduce costs in light of the changing market supply environment for glyphosate. These actions are designed to enable Monsanto to stabilize the Roundup business and allow it to deliver optimal gross profit and a sustainable level of operating cash in the coming years, while better aligning spending and working capital needs. The company also announced that it will take steps to better align the resources of its global seeds and traits business. These actions include certain product and brand rationalization within the seed businesses. On Sept. 9, 2009, the company committed to take additional actions related to the previously announced restructuring plan. Furthermore, while implementing the plan, the company identified additional opportunities to better align the company’s resources, and on Aug. 26, 2010, committed to take additional actions. The plan is expected to be completed by the end of the first quarter in fiscal year 2011, and substantially all payments will be made by the end of the second quarter in fiscal year 2011.

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MONSANTO COMPANY   2010 FORM 10-K

NOTES TO THE CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (continued)

The following table displays the pretax charges of $324 million and $406 million incurred by segment under the 2009 Restructuring Plan for the fiscal years ended 2010 and 2009, respectively, as well as the cumulative pretax charges of $730 million under the 2009 Restructuring Plan.
                                                 
 
    Year Ended Aug. 31, 2010
  Year Ended Aug. 31, 2009
    Seeds and   Agricultural           Seeds and   Agricultural    
(Dollars in millions)   Genomics   Productivity   Total   Genomics   Productivity   Total
 
   
Work Force Reductions
  $ 85     $ 47     $ 132     $ 175     $ 63     $ 238  
Facility Closures / Exit Costs
    46       31       77       3       47       50  
Asset Impairments
                                               
Property, plant and equipment
    8       1       9       31       4       35  
Inventory
    93       13       106       24             24  
Other intangible assets
                      59             59  
 
   
Total Restructuring Charges, Net
  $ 232     $ 92     $ 324     $ 292     $ 114     $ 406  
 
   
                         
 
    Cumulative Amount through Aug. 31, 2010
    Seeds and   Agricultural    
(Dollars in millions)   Genomics   Productivity   Total
 
Work Force Reductions
  $ 260     $ 110     $ 370  
Facility Closures / Exit Costs
    49       78       127  
Asset Impairments
                       
Property, plant and equipment
    39       5       44  
Inventory
    117       13       130  
Other intangible assets
    59             59  
 
Total Restructuring Charges, Net
  $ 524     $ 206     $ 730  
 
The company’s written human resource policies are indicative of an ongoing benefit arrangement with respect to severance packages. Benefits paid pursuant to an ongoing benefit arrangement are specifically excluded from the Exit or Disposal Cost Obligations topic of the ASC, therefore severance charges incurred in connection with the 2009 Restructuring Plan are accounted for when probable and estimable as required under the Compensation – Nonretirement Postemployment Benefits topic of the ASC. In addition, when the decision to commit to a restructuring plan requires an asset impairment review, Monsanto evaluates such impairment issues under the Property, Plant and Equipment topic of the ASC. Certain asset impairment charges were recorded in the fourth quarters of 2010 and 2009 related to the decisions to shut down facilities under the 2009 Restructuring Plan as the future cash flows for these facilities were insufficient to recover the net book value of the related long-lived assets.
In fiscal year 2010, pretax restructuring charges of $324 million were recorded. The $132 million in work force reductions was related primarily to Europe and the United States. The facility closures/exit costs of $77 million were related primarily to the finalization of the termination of a chemical supply contract in the United States and worldwide entity consolidation costs. In asset impairments, inventory impairments of $106 million recorded in cost of goods sold were related to discontinued products worldwide. In fiscal year 2009, pretax restructuring charges of $406 million were recorded. The $238 million in work force reductions related to site closures and downsizing primarily in the United States and Europe. The facility closures/exit costs of $50 million related primarily to the termination of a chemical supply contract in the United States and the termination of chemical distributor contracts in Central America. In asset impairments, property, plant, and equipment impairments of $35 million related to certain manufacturing and technology breeding facilities in the United States, Europe, and Central America that were closed in fiscal year 2010. Inventory impairments of $24 million were also recorded for discontinued seed products in the United States and Europe. Other intangible impairments of $59 million related to the discontinuation of certain seed brands, which included $18 million related to the write-off of intellectual property for technology that the company elected to no longer pursue. Of the $118 million total asset impairments in fiscal year 2009, $45 million was recorded in cost of goods sold and the remainder in restructuring charges.

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MONSANTO COMPANY   2010 FORM 10-K

NOTES TO THE CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (continued)

The following table summarizes the activities related to the company’s 2009 Restructuring Plan. See Note 4 — Business Combinations — for restructuring reserves related to acquisitions.
                                 
 
    Work Force   Facility Closures /   Asset    
(Dollars in millions)   Reductions   Exit Costs   Impairments   Total
 
Restructuring charges recognized in fourth quarter 2009
  $ 238     $ 50     $ 118     $ 406  
Cash payments
    (7 )                 (7 )
Asset impairments and write-offs
                (118 )     (118 )
Acceleration of stock-based compensation expense in additional contributed capital
    (15 )                 (15 )
 
Ending Liability as of Aug. 31, 2009
  $ 216     $ 50     $     $ 266  
Restructuring charges recognized in fiscal year 2010
    132       77       115       324  
Cash payments
    (180 )     (83 )           (263 )
Asset impairments and write-offs
                (115 )     (115 )
Acceleration of stock-based compensation expense in additional contributed capital
    (4 )                 (4 )
Foreign currency impact
    (11 )                 (11 )
 
Ending Liability as of Aug. 31, 2010
  $ 153     $ 44     $     $ 197  
 
NOTE 6. RECEIVABLES

The following table displays a roll forward of the allowance for doubtful trade receivables for fiscal years 2008, 2009 and 2010.
         
 
(Dollars in millions)        
 
Balance Sept. 1, 2007
  $ 217  
Additions — charged to expense
    42  
Other(1)
    (41 )
 
Balance Aug. 31, 2008
  $ 218  
Additions — charged to expense
    23  
Other(1)
    (79 )
 
Balance Aug. 31, 2009
  $ 162  
Additions — charged to expense
    51  
Other(1)
    (70 )
 
Balance Aug. 31, 2010
  $ 143  
 
(1)   Includes reclassifications to long-term, write-offs, and foreign currency translation adjustments.

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MONSANTO COMPANY   2010 FORM 10-K

NOTES TO THE CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (continued)

The following table displays a roll forward of the allowance for doubtful long-term receivables for fiscal years 2008, 2009 and 2010.
         
 
(Dollars in millions)        
 
Balance Sept. 1, 2007
  $ 131  
Additions — charged to expense
    15  
Other(1)
    33  
 
Balance Aug. 31, 2008
  $ 179  
Additions — charged to expense
    26  
Other(1)
    (33 )
 
Balance Aug. 31, 2009
  $ 172  
Additions — charged to expense
    7  
Other(1)
    47  
 
Balance Aug. 31, 2010
  $ 226  
 
(1)   Includes reclassifications from current, write-offs, and foreign currency translation adjustments.
NOTE 7. CUSTOMER FINANCING PROGRAMS

Monsanto previously established a revolving financing program to provide financing of up to $250 million to selected customers in the United States through a third-party specialty lender. The program was terminated in the third quarter of fiscal year 2009. Under the financing program, Monsanto originated customer loans on behalf of the lender, which was a special-purpose entity (SPE) that Monsanto consolidated, pursuant to Monsanto’s credit and other underwriting guidelines as approved by the lender. Under the program, Monsanto serviced the loans and provided a first-loss guarantee of up to $130 million. Following origination, the lender transferred the loans to multiseller commercial paper conduits through a nonconsolidated QSPE. Monsanto accounted for this transaction as a sale, in accordance with the Transfers and Servicing topic of the ASC.
Monsanto had no ownership interest in the lender, the QSPE, or in the loans. However, because Monsanto substantively originated the loans through the SPE (which it consolidated) and partially guaranteed and serviced the loans, Monsanto accounted for the program as if it were the originator of the loans and the transferor selling the loans to the QSPE. Because QSPEs are excluded from the current guidance within the Consolidation topic of the ASC, and Monsanto did not have the unilateral right to liquidate the QSPE, the consolidation guidance did not have an effect on Monsanto’s accounting for the U.S. customer financing program.
Monsanto accounted for the guarantee in accordance with the Guarantees topic of the ASC, which requires that a guarantor recognize, at the inception of the guarantee, a liability for the fair value of the guarantee obligation undertaken. Monsanto recorded its guarantee liability at a value that approximated fair value (except that it did not discount credit losses because of the short-term nature of the loans), primarily driven by expected future credit losses. Monsanto did not recognize any servicing asset or liability because the servicing fee was considered adequate compensation for the servicing activities. Servicing activities, including discounts on the sale of customer receivables, resulted in income of $1 million for 2009 and expense of $2 million for 2008.
Proceeds from customer loans sold through the financing program totaled $130 million for fiscal year 2009 and $66 million for fiscal year 2008. These proceeds are included in net cash provided by operating activities in the Statement of Consolidated Cash Flows. There were no loan balances outstanding as of Aug. 31, 2010, or Aug. 31, 2009.
During the second quarter 2010, Monsanto began participating in a revolving financing program in Brazil. The program allows Monsanto to transfer up to 1 billion Brazilian reais (approximately $550 million) in customer receivables to a QSPE. Third parties, primarily investment funds, hold an 88 percent senior interest in the QSPE, and Monsanto holds the remaining 12 percent subordinate interest. Because QSPEs are excluded from the scope of the current guidance within the Consolidation

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NOTES TO THE CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (continued)

topic of the ASC, and Monsanto does not have the unilateral right to liquidate the QSPE, the consolidation guidance does not have an effect on Monsanto’s accounting for this customer financing program.
Monsanto’s investment in the QSPE was $10 million as of Aug. 31, 2010. It is included in other assets in the Statements of Consolidated Financial Position and is classified as a debt security. Interest earned on Monsanto’s investment in the QSPE was $2 million for the year ended Aug. 31, 2010, and is included in interest income on the Statements of Consolidated Operations.
Under the financing program, Monsanto’s transfer of select customer receivables to the QSPE is accounted for as a sale, in accordance with the Transfers and Servicing topic of the ASC. Monsanto does not service the receivables. However, under the QSPE, a recourse provision requires Monsanto to cover the first 12 percent of credit losses within the program.
Proceeds from customer receivables sold through the financing program and derecognized from the Statements of Consolidated Financial Position totaled $115 million for fiscal year 2010. These proceeds are included in net cash provided by operating activities in the Statements of Consolidated Cash Flows and are net of a loss on sale of receivables of $10 million for the year ended Aug. 31, 2010. The remaining receivable balance in the QSPE outstanding as of Aug. 31, 2010, was $48 million. Receivables are considered delinquent when payments are one day past due, but the provisions on the financing program for nonperformance start on the 15th day past due. If a customer fails to pay an obligation when it is due, the provisions for bad debt on the program will be accounted for as an expense by the QSPE, and the investment on Monsanto’s Statements of Consolidated Financial Position will be decreased. As of Aug. 31, 2010, there were $3 million of receivables sold through this financing program that were delinquent. Based on the company’s historical collection experience with these customers and a current assessment of credit exposure, Monsanto recorded its recourse provision at $5 million as of Aug. 31, 2010. Adverse changes in the actual loss rate would decrease Monsanto’s investment asset. The maximum potential amount of future payments under the recourse provision was $15 million as of Aug. 31, 2010. If Monsanto is called upon to make payments under the recourse provision, it would have the benefit under the financing program of any amounts subsequently collected from the customer.
In August 2009, Monsanto entered into an agreement in the United States to sell customer receivables up to a maximum of $500 million and to service such accounts. These receivables qualify for sales treatment under the Transfers and Servicing topic of the ASC and accordingly, the proceeds are included in net cash provided by operating activities in the Statements of Consolidated Cash Flows. The gross amount of receivables sold totaled $221 million and $319 million for fiscal years 2010 and 2009, respectively. The agreement includes recourse provisions and, so a liability was established at the time of sale that approximates fair value based upon the company’s historical collection experience with such receivables and a current assessment of credit exposure. The recourse liability recorded by Monsanto was $2 million as of Aug. 31, 2010, and Aug. 31, 2009. The maximum potential amount of future payments under the recourse provisions of the agreement was $9 million as of Aug. 31, 2010. The outstanding balance of the receivables sold was $223 million and $319 million as of Aug. 31, 2010, and Aug. 31, 2009, respectively. There were delinquent loans of $3 million as of Aug. 31, 2010. There were no delinquent loans as of Aug. 31, 2009.
Monsanto also sells accounts receivable in the United States, European regions and Argentina, both with and without recourse. These sales qualify for sales treatment under the Transfers and Servicing topic of the ASC and accordingly, the proceeds are included in net cash provided by operating activities in the Statements of Consolidated Cash Flows. The gross amounts of receivables sold totaled $112 million, $72 million and $48 million for fiscal years 2010, 2009 and 2008, respectively. The liability for the guarantees for sales with recourse is recorded at an amount that approximates fair value, based on the company’s historical collection experience for the customers associated with the sale of the receivables and a current assessment of credit exposure. The liability recorded by Monsanto was less than $1 million as of Aug. 31, 2010, and Aug. 31, 2009. The maximum potential amount of future payments under the recourse provisions of the agreements was $58 million as of Aug. 31, 2010. The outstanding balance of the receivables sold was $91 million and $57 million as of Aug. 31, 2010, and Aug. 31, 2009, respectively. There were no delinquent loans as of Aug. 31, 2010, or Aug. 31, 2009.
Monsanto has additional agreements with lenders to establish programs that provide financing of up to 550 million Brazilian reais (approximately $300 million) for selected customers in Brazil. Monsanto provides a guarantee of the loans in the event

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NOTES TO THE CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (continued)

of customer default. The term of the guarantee is equivalent to the term of the bank loans. The liability for the guarantees is recorded at an amount that approximates fair value, based on the company’s historical collection experience with customers that participate in the program and a current assessment of credit exposure. The guarantee liability recorded by Monsanto was $3 million and $6 million as of Aug. 31, 2010, and Aug. 31, 2009, respectively. If performance is required under the guarantee, Monsanto may retain amounts that are subsequently collected from customers. The maximum potential amount of future payments under the guarantee was $100 million as of Aug. 31, 2010. The loan balance outstanding for these programs was $100 million and $160 million as of Aug. 31, 2010, and Aug. 31, 2009, respectively. There were delinquent loans of $2 million as of Aug. 31, 2010, and Aug. 31, 2009.
Monsanto also has similar agreements with banks that provide financing to its customers in the United States, Brazil, Europe and Argentina. Under these programs, Monsanto provides a guarantee of the loans in the event of customer default. The terms of the guarantees are equivalent to the terms of the bank loans. The liability for the guarantees is recorded at an amount that approximates fair value, based on the company’s historical collection experience with customers that participate in the program and a current assessment of credit exposure. The guarantee liability recorded by Monsanto was $2 million and $5 million as of Aug. 31, 2010, and Aug. 31, 2009, respectively. If performance is required under the guarantee, Monsanto may retain amounts that are subsequently collected from customers. The maximum potential amount of future payments under the guarantees was $29 million as of Aug. 31, 2010. The loan balance outstanding for these programs was $36 million and $48 million as of Aug. 31, 2010, and Aug. 31, 2009, respectively.
NOTE 8. INVENTORY

Components of inventory are:
                 
 
    As of Aug. 31,
(Dollars in millions)   2010   2009
 
Finished Goods
  $ 1,134     $ 1,362  
Goods In Process
    1,333       1,340  
Raw Materials and Supplies
    383       417  
 
Inventory at FIFO Cost
    2,850       3,119  
Excess of FIFO over LIFO Cost
    (111 )     (185 )
 
Total
  $ 2,739     $ 2,934  
 
During 2010, inventory quantities declined, resulting in the liquidation of LIFO inventory layers carried at lower costs than current year purchases and production. The income statement effect of such liquidation on cost of sales was a reduction of approximately $2 million.
Monsanto uses commodity futures and options contracts to hedge the price volatility of certain commodities, primarily soybeans and corn. This hedging activity is intended to reduce the commodity price risk associated with seed purchases from corn and soybean production growers.

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MONSANTO COMPANY   2010 FORM 10-K

NOTES TO THE CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (continued)

Inventory obsolescence reserves are utilized as valuation accounts and effectively establish a new cost basis. The following table displays a roll forward of the inventory obsolescence reserve for fiscal years 2008, 2009 and 2010.
         
 
(Dollars in millions)        
 
Balance Sept. 1, 2007
  $ 169  
Additions — charged to expense
    135  
Deductions and other(1)
    (40 )
 
Balance Aug. 31, 2008
  $ 264  
Additions — charged to expense
    196  
Deductions and other(1)
    (123 )
 
Balance Aug. 31, 2009
  $ 337  
Additions — charged to expense
    219  
Deductions and other(1)
    (224 )
 
Balance Aug. 31, 2010
  $ 332  
 
(1)   Deductions and other includes disposals and foreign currency translation adjustments.
As part of Monsanto’s 2009 Restructuring Plan, inventory impairment charges of $106 million and $24 million were recorded in fiscal year 2010 and 2009, respectively. See Note 5 — Restructuring — for additional information.
NOTE 9. PROPERTY, PLANT AND EQUIPMENT

Components of property, plant and equipment were as follows:
                 
 
    As of Aug. 31,
(Dollars in millions)   2010   2009
 
Land and Improvements
  $ 502     $ 381  
Buildings and Improvements
    1,750       1,524  
Machinery and Equipment
    4,591       4,119  
Computer Software
    531       479  
Construction In Progress and Other
    694       655  
 
Total Property, Plant and Equipment
    8,068       7,158  
Less Accumulated Depreciation
    (3,841 )     (3,549 )
 
Property, Plant and Equipment, Net
  $ 4,227     $ 3,609  
 
Gross assets acquired under capital leases of $37 million and $35 million are included primarily in machinery and equipment as of Aug. 31, 2010, and Aug. 31, 2009, respectively. See Note 14 — Debt and Other Credit Arrangements and Note 25 — Commitments and Contingencies — for related capital lease obligations.
As part of Monsanto’s 2009 Restructuring Plan, asset impairment charges of $9 million and $35 million were recorded in fiscal years 2010 and 2009, respectively. These impairment charges primarily were related to buildings and improvements and to machinery and equipment and the associated accumulated depreciation. See Note 5 — Restructuring — for additional information.
NOTE 10. GOODWILL AND OTHER INTANGIBLE ASSETS

The fiscal year 2010 and 2009 annual goodwill impairment tests were performed as of March 1, 2010 and 2009, and no indications of goodwill impairment existed as of either date. Goodwill is tested for impairment at least annually, or more

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MONSANTO COMPANY   2010 FORM 10-K

NOTES TO THE CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (continued)

frequently if events or circumstances indicate it might be impaired. There were no events or changes in circumstances indicating that goodwill might be impaired as of Aug. 31, 2010. As of fiscal year 2010, accumulated goodwill impairment charges were $2.1 billion. The charges related to Seeds and Genomics and were primarily a result of a change in the valuation method (from an undiscounted cash flow methodology to a discounted cash flow methodology) upon adoption of FASB Statement No. 142, Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets (codified in ASC 350) in 2002 as well as unanticipated delays in biotechnology acceptance and regulatory approvals.
Changes in the net carrying amount of goodwill for fiscal years 2009 and 2010, by segment, are as follows:
                         
 
    Seeds and   Agricultural    
(Dollars in millions)   Genomics   Productivity   Total
 
Balance as of Sept. 1, 2008
  $ 3,070     $ 62     $ 3,132  
Acquisition activity (see Note 4)
    110             110  
Effect of foreign currency translation adjustments and other
    (24 )           (24 )
 
Balance as of Aug. 31, 2009
  $ 3,156     $ 62     $ 3,218  
Acquisition activity (see Note 4)
    21             21  
Effect of foreign currency translation adjustments and other
    (30 )     (5 )     (35 )
 
Balance as of Aug. 31, 2010
  $ 3,147     $ 57     $ 3,204  
 
In fiscal year 2010, goodwill decreased due to the effect of foreign currency translation adjustments. This was offset by increases due to the 2010 acquisitions of Seminium and a seed processing business in Chile and the updating of the preliminary purchase price allocations for some of the 2009 acquisitions. In fiscal year 2009, a goodwill increase of $125 million was related to 2009 acquisitions, and $5 million was related to the resolution of contingent considerations for 2007 acquisitions. These increases were offset by a decrease of $20 million related to the finalization of the purchase price allocations for 2008 acquisitions. See Note 4 — Business Combinations — for further information.
Information regarding the company’s other intangible assets is as follows:
                                                 
 
    As of Aug. 31, 2010
  As of Aug. 31, 2009
    Carrying   Accumulated           Carrying   Accumulated    
(Dollars in millions)   Amount   Amortization   Net   Amount   Amortization   Net
 
   
Acquired Germplasm
  $ 1,161     $ (640 )   $ 521     $ 1,172     $ (604 )   $ 568  
Acquired Intellectual Property
    866       (649 )     217       829       (589 )     240  
Trademarks
    344       (94 )     250       345       (81 )     264  
Customer Relationships
    317       (113 )     204       317       (88 )     229  
Other
    121       (50 )     71       110       (40 )     70  
 
   
Total
  $ 2,809     $ (1,546 )   $ 1,263     $ 2,773     $ (1,402 )   $ 1,371  
 
   
The increase in acquired intellectual property during fiscal year 2010 primarily resulted from a paid-up license agreement for glyphosate manufacturing technology for $39 million. The increases in other intangible assets as of 2010, primarily resulted from the acquisitions described in Note 4 — Business Combinations. These increases were partially offset by a decrease due to the effect of foreign currency translation adjustments.
Total amortization expense of other intangible assets was $158 million in fiscal year 2010, $151 million in fiscal year 2009, and $167 million in fiscal year 2008.

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MONSANTO COMPANY   2010 FORM 10-K

NOTES TO THE CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (continued)

The estimated intangible asset amortization expense for each of the five succeeding fiscal years is as follows:
         
 
(Dollars in millions)   Amount
 
2011
  $ 153  
2012
    132  
2013
    105  
2014
    97  
2015
    86  
 
NOTE 11. INVESTMENTS AND EQUITY AFFILIATES

Investments
Short-Term Investments: There were no short-term investments as of Aug. 31, 2010, or Aug. 31, 2009.
During second quarter 2008, Monsanto received $38 million of Solutia common stock as part of the settlement of its claims against Solutia. During fourth quarter 2008, Monsanto sold the Solutia common stock and realized a loss of less than $1 million. See Note 27 — Other Expense and Solutia-Related Items— for discussion of the gain recorded in conjunction with Solutia’s emergence from bankruptcy.
Long-Term Investments: During 2010, Monsanto invested in long-term debt securities with a cost of $15 million, which are classified as available-for-sale. The investments are recorded in other assets in the Statements of Consolidated Financial Position at their fair value of $10 million as of Aug. 31, 2010. Net unrealized losses (net of deferred taxes) of $3 million are included in accumulated other comprehensive loss in shareowners’ equity related to these investments as of Aug. 31, 2010. See Note 15 — Fair Value Measurements — for further discussion related to these debt securities.
In 2009, Monsanto invested in a long-term equity security with a cost of $2 million, which is classified as available-for-sale. This investment is recorded in other assets in the Statements of Consolidated Financial Position at its fair value of $1 million and $2 million as of Aug. 31, 2010, and Aug. 31, 2009. Net unrealized losses (net of deferred taxes) of less than $1 million are included in accumulated other comprehensive loss in shareowners’ equity related to this investment as of Aug. 31, 2010.
In 2008, Monsanto invested in long-term equity securities with a cost of $33 million, which are classified as available-for-sale. As of Aug. 31, 2010, and Aug. 31, 2009, these long-term equity securities are recorded in other assets in the Statements of Consolidated Financial Position at their fair value of $22 million and $23 million, respectively. Net unrealized gains (net of deferred taxes) of $4 million and net unrealized losses (net of deferred taxes) of $6 million are included in accumulated other comprehensive loss in shareowners’ equity related to these investments as of Aug. 31, 2010, and Aug. 31, 2009. Monsanto recorded an impairment related to one of these long-term equity securities as of Aug. 31, 2010, of $16 million.
Equity Affiliates
Monsanto owns a 19 percent interest in a seed supplier that produces, conditions, and distributes corn and soybean seeds. Monsanto is accounting for this investment as an equity method investment as Monsanto has the ability to exercise significant influence over the seed supplier. As of Aug. 31, 2010, and Aug. 31, 2009, this investment is recorded in other assets in the Statements of Consolidated Financial Position at its carrying value of $65 million and $60 million, respectively. During fiscal year 2010 and 2009, Monsanto purchased $162 million and $330 million of inventory from the seed supplier and recorded sales of inventory to the seed supplier of $12 million and $9 million, respectively. As of Aug. 31, 2010, and Aug. 31, 2009, the amount payable to the seed supplier is approximately $5 million and approximately $84 million, respectively, and is recorded in accounts payable in the Statements of Consolidated Financial Position. During fiscal year 2010 and 2009, Monsanto paid the seed supplier $7 million and $5 million for inventory that will be delivered in fiscal year 2011 and 2010, respectively.

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MONSANTO COMPANY   2010 FORM 10-K

NOTES TO THE CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (continued)

Renessen LLC, Monsanto’s former joint venture with Cargill, Inc. (Cargill) which Monsanto acquired the additional 50% interest during fiscal year 2010, had developed and planned to commercialize a proprietary grain processing technology, marketed under the name Extrax. This technology separated corn into three high-value fractions: a high-starch fraction, ideal for ethanol fermentation; food-grade corn oil, valuable as a non-trans fat oil solution or for biodiesel; and a nutrient-rich meal that can be used as a corn replacement in animal feed rations. In the fourth quarter 2010, Monsanto decided to no longer pursue any Extrax projects and therefore, the remaining Renessen related intangible assets were written off to research and development expenses in the Statements of Consolidated Operations. The total impairment charge was $9 million as of Aug. 31, 2010.
In 2008, Monsanto and Cargill signed an agreement to narrow the scope of the Renessen joint venture to focus solely on the Extrax project. Other projects that were formerly under the joint venture and related intellectual property were transferred to, and are now owned by, Monsanto or Cargill. Monsanto agreed to pay $20 million to Cargill to obtain full rights to intellectual property for products that Monsanto planned to develop and commercialize. These projects were discontinued and the related intangible asset was written off as a result of the restructuring described in Note 5 — Restructuring. As of Aug. 31, 2010, Monsanto has no amounts payable to Cargill. As of Aug. 31, 2009, the amount payable to Cargill was less than $1 million and is recorded in short-term miscellaneous accruals in the Statements of Consolidated Financial Position.
During fiscal years 2010, 2009 and 2008, Monsanto performed R&D services for Renessen of less than $1 million, $1 million and $5 million, respectively, which were recovered at cost. The fair value of performing these services approximates the recovered costs. As discussed above, Monsanto acquired the remaining 50% interest it did not previously own of Renessen during 2010 and therefore, Monsanto no longer has an investment in Renessen recorded as of Aug. 31, 2010. Monsanto’s investment in Renessen, including outstanding advances, was $1 million as of Aug. 31, 2009. Equity affiliate expense from Renessen was less than $1 million in fiscal year 2010, $2 million in fiscal year 2009, and $3 million in fiscal year 2008, and represented substantially all of the equity affiliate expense.
NOTE 12. DEFERRED REVENUE

In first quarter 2008, Monsanto entered into a corn herbicide tolerance and insect control trait technologies agreement with Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc., a wholly-owned subsidiary of E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company. Among its provisions, the agreement modified certain existing corn license agreements between the parties, included provisions under which the parties agreed not to assert certain intellectual property rights against each other, and granted each party the right to use certain regulatory data of the other in order to develop additional products. As a result of the new agreement which requires fixed annual payments, the company recorded a receivable and deferred revenue of $635 million in first quarter 2008. Cumulative cash receipts will be $725 million over an eight-year period. Revenue of $79 million related to this agreement was recorded in fiscal year 2010 and 2009. As of Aug. 31, 2010, and Aug. 31, 2009, the remaining receivable balance is $470 million and $543 million, respectively. The majority of this balance is included in long-term receivables, and the current portion is included in trade receivables. As of Aug. 31, 2010, and Aug. 31, 2009, the remaining deferred revenue balance is $397 million and $476 million, respectively. The majority of this balance is included in long-term deferred revenue, and the current portion is included in deferred revenue in the Statements of Consolidated Financial Position. The interest portion of this receivable is reported in interest income and totaled $16 million and $19 million for the fiscal year ended Aug. 31, 2010, and Aug. 31, 2009, respectively.
In third quarter 2008, Monsanto and Syngenta entered into a Genuity Roundup Ready 2 Yield Soybean License Agreement. The agreement grants Syngenta access to Monsanto’s Genuity Roundup Ready 2 Yield Soybean technology in consideration of royalty payments from Syngenta, based on sales. Under this agreement Syngenta will fulfill the contractual sales volumes over a nine-year period. The minimum obligation from Syngenta over this period is $81 million. As of Aug. 31, 2010, and Aug. 31, 2009, the remaining receivable balance is $73 million and $70 million, respectively, related to the net present value of expected payments under this agreement. The majority of this balance is included in long-term receivables in the Statements of Consolidated Financial Position and the current portion is included in trade receivables. The interest portion of this receivable is reported in interest income in the Statements of Consolidated Operations and is $3 million for the fiscal year ended Aug. 31, 2010, and Aug. 31, 2009, respectively. As of Aug. 31, 2010, and Aug. 31, 2009, the remaining deferred

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MONSANTO COMPANY   2010 FORM 10-K

NOTES TO THE CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (continued)

revenue balance of $67 million and $70 million, respectively. The majority of this balance is included in long-term deferred revenue, and the current portion is included in deferred revenue in the Statements of Consolidated Financial Position.
NOTE 13. INCOME TAXES

The components of income from continuing operations before income taxes were:
                         
 
    Year Ended Aug. 31,
(Dollars in millions)   2010   2009   2008
 
United States
  $ 1,234     $ 2,182     $ 1,419  
Outside United States
    260       785       1,507  
 
Total
  $ 1,494     $ 2,967     $ 2,926  
 
The components of income tax provision from continuing operations were:
                         
 
    Year Ended Aug. 31,
(Dollars in millions)   2010   2009   2008
 
Current:
                       
U.S. federal
  $ 260