NVR is a leading US homebuilder. The company sold over 15,139 homes in 2006 at an average selling price of almost $400,000, significantly higher than the national median of around $210,000. The company operates in 13 states, primarily in the mid-Atlantic, where offerings range anywhere from $90,000 to over $2,600,000. Most homes are single-family detached units targeting upper-middle income level and upscale purchasers, though the company also sells condominiums and townhouses. Around 86% of the company's customers also take out their mortgage from NVR's financing segment.
The company operates in a highly cyclical industry. New home construction, home prices and new home sales volume are heavily dependent upon job growth, interest rates, and the business cycle at large. Low interest rates and high job growth bode well for homebuilding, but as the recent subprime lending crisis and depressed housing market has illustrated, things can sour quickly and the business can be difficult to predict. Key homebuilding numbers, such as housing starts and existing home sales have continued to come in weak of late. Homebuilding is highly competitive and marked by few barriers to entry, low profit margins, and high financial leverage.
Below is a breakdown of company revenue by region, along with a chart depicting the company's revenue and operating profit. Recently, the company's operating profit has been hit largely by falling home prices. As discussed below, when home prices in the company's geographic operating areas fall, the company must either write down the value of its unsold home inventory or, when it does sell the inventory, take a substantial hit to its margins. This is largely because of the lag time between constructing and then selling a new home -- if the company builds a home at $150,000 and expects to sell it at $200,000 given market prices, any change in the market value of the home erodes the originally anticipated $50,000 profit because the construction expense is largely fixed. 
The following is a table of relevant operating metrics, including the number of homes sold, average price per home and the company's stated housing inventory at year end. Note that the company has sold an increasing number of homes at a higher average selling price in each of the last three years. However, this has not kept pace with the increases in cost of construction and the effect of falling home price (or slower than anticipated home price growth).
|Inventory year end||$794||$734|
The accepted accounting principles for homebuilders can be a bit convoluted, and it is important that investors understand certain non-intuitive accounting methodologies. Here are a few notable accounting conventions for builders that may not be immediately clear to investors:
Interest rates have several critical effects on the company. In general, rising rates spell bad news for all homebuilders for several reasons:
Homebuilding is a highly cyclical business and is often a beneficiary and victim of business cycles. Demand for homes is dependent upon the strength of the job market, growth in gross and per capita GDP, the level of interest rates and the availability of mortgage financing. When growth is strong, interest rates are low, and employment is robust, potential first time homeowners and those wishing to relocate can pursue new homes more readily. Thus, more people buy homes, which drives the volume and pricing at which the company can sell its home inventory. On the other hand, high rates, high unemployment and slowing GDP growth hamper demand for new homes, in which case the company can struggle to unload existing inventory and may have to cut back on new home construction. While the company's higher-than-average income-level customers may help mitigate some macroeconomic risk, the company is still at the mercy of these key variables driving the state of the housing market in its operating regions.
As mentioned above, home prices and the level of new home construction are driven by macroeconomic variables like GDP growth, interest rates and employment. In a favorable economic environment, rising housing prices can lead to lax lending standards and, sometimes, exuberance as collateral values rise, which further fuels price increases. As has happened recently, however, home prices across the country can also experience sharp declines when this exuberance catches up to buyers and lenders. Currently, in part because of a vicious cycle fed by the subprime mortgage crisis, in which mortgage borrowers with poor credit histories or little documentation have struggled to meet payments, home prices in many areas have been in a whirlwind of decline. This, in turn, further exacerbates default rates since these borrowers cannot refinance mortgages given deterioration of collateral. The company, of course, assumes the risk of continued price declines and hampered demand in its areas of operations. If home prices stay depressed for extended periods, the company may have to write down the value of its properties or sell them off at heavily reduced gross margins or losses. Furthermore, though the average customer profile for NVR indicates that the company is likely not as directly exposed to subprime risk as some competitors, the company notes that the average loan-to-value ratio of the originations of its financing segment is relatively high.
The company is heavily dependent on the housing markets in Maryland, Virginia, West Virginia and Delaware, which together accounted for 63% of revenue in 2006. Washington, D.C. and Baltimore, MD, particularly accounted for around 52% of company revenue. This lack of geographic diversity relative to peers means that the company is more heavily exposed to the ups and downs of just a few markets. This increases the amount of volatility the company can experience in terms of home prices and construction volume. Washington, DC especially experienced tremendous growth from 2001-2005 before slowing significantly and, currently, entering a cyclical downturn.
The company competes against a highly fragmented base of other homebuilders. These companies may be national or local players and given the highly competitive nature of the industry, competition is stiff and often marked by low margins and low returns on capital. The company also competes for buyers with existing homes that have hit the market, and competes more broadly with other housing alternatives such as apartments, condominiums, and mobile homes.
Below is a table comparing metrics from several competing publicly traded homebuilders. Note that no company has anything close to a dominant national market share, and the industry generally is marked by low operating margins (and high debt to finance construction expenses).
|Company||Revenue (TTM)||Operating Margin||2006 Closings||Debt/Equity||Market Share|
|D.R. Horton (DHI)||$11,300||8%||53410||0.783||4.65%|
|Pulte Homes (PHM)||$10,750||0%||41487||0.771||3.61%|
|KB Home (KBH)||$8,980||3%||32124||0.812||2.80%|
|Beazer Homes USA (BZH)||$4,270||4%||17500||1.194||1.52%|
|Ryland Group (RYL)||$3,530||9%||15392||0.74||1.34%|
|M.D.C. Holdings (MDC)||$3,470||1%||13123||0.576||1.14%|
|Standard Pacific Lp (SPF)||$3,310||7%||10763||1.473||0.94%|
|Toll Brothers (TOL)||$4,650||16%||8601||0.642||0.75%|