These excerpts taken from the NYX 10-K filed Feb 27, 2009.
UNITED STATESSTYLE="margin-top:0px;margin-bottom:0px" ALIGN="center">SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
SIZE="3">Washington, D.C. 20549
We offer our listed companies in the United States a comprehensive suite of services to increase their visibility with existing and prospective investors, to expand their capital market intelligence and to provide educational services and best practices solutions. These services leverage web-based technology, unique
analytics and NYSE-sponsored programs. For example, the NYSE sponsors virtual forums, as well as domestic and international conferences, to provide issuers access to global institutional and retail investors. In 2008, we expanded the products and services we provide to our issuers. These services include the NYSE Market Access Center (MAC), MAC Alerts and MAC Capital Markets desk. The NYSE MAC is a comprehensive investor relations and market intelligence service for senior executives at NYSE-listed companies. The NYSE MAC, which offers an electronic alerts system and a team of NYSE-based market professionals, is designed to provide timely access to market-moving information such as analysts rating changes, earnings announcements, companies added or deleted from major indexes, and pre- and post- market trading activity. Additionally, NYSEnet, a password-protected website for senior executives, provides data relating to proprietary trading, institutional ownership and market activity. A market focus report is delivered to issuers at the beginning, middle and end of each day to provide a summary of daily trading activity. The NYSE has also developed eGovDirect.com, an interactive, web-based tool that helps listed companies meet their NYSE governance and compliance requirements efficiently and economically. We also entered into partnership agreements with Thomson and Ipreo to provide stockholder information and web hosting offerings to our customers. Additionally, in connection with listings, we on occasion commit to provide advertising, investor education and other services to issuers. We expect to continue to invest in products and services for the benefit of our listed companies.
In 2008, we adopted new initial listing standards on the NYSE. These standards were designed to capture a larger percentage of qualified issuers and attract more emerging growth companies as a competitive alternative to Nasdaq, particularly with respect to technology companies. Growth companies will be able to leverage many of the unique and innovative benefits that are provided to NYSE-listed companies, including an affiliation with one of the worlds leading brands, a dedicated liquidity provider, exceptional market quality and a wide range of value-added products and services.
In the United States, we provide two types of market data products and services: core data products, or those governed by NMS plans, and non-core, or proprietary data products.
Core Data Products. The SEC requires securities markets to join together in consolidating their bids, offers and last sale prices for each security, and to provide this information to the public on an integrated basis. We work with other markets to make our U.S. market data available, on a consolidated basis, on what is often referred to as the consolidated tape. The data resulting from the consolidated tape is also referred to as core data. This intermarket cooperative effort provides the investing public with the reported transaction prices and the best bid and offer for each security, regardless of the market from which a quote is reported or on which market a trade takes place.
Last sale prices and quotes in NYSE-listed securities are disseminated through Tape A, which provides the majority of our market data revenues. We also receive a share of the revenues from Tape B and Tape C, which represent data related to trading of securities (including ETPs) that are listed on NYSE Amex and other regional exchanges, and Nasdaq, respectively. Over the past two decades, we have expanded our market data business by accessing new customers, in particular nonprofessional subscribers and cable television audiences.
Non-Core Data Products. We make certain market data available independently of other markets, which is known as non-core or proprietary data. We package this type of market data as trading products (such as NYSE OpenBook, through which the NYSE makes available all limit orders) and analytic products (such as TAQ Data, NYSE Broker Volume and a variety of other databases that are made available other than in real-time and that are generally used by analytic traders, researchers and academics). These products are proprietary to us, and we do not share the revenues that they generate with other markets.
Revenues for our proprietary data products have grown over the last few years, driven in large part by the success of NYSE OpenBook, which the NYSE introduced in 2002. The advent of trading in penny increments and the increased use of black box trading tools accelerated the success of NYSE OpenBook.
In June 2008, NYSE introduced NYSE Real-Time Reference Prices, a data product that enables Internet and media organizations to buy real-time, last sale prices from the NYSE and provide it broadly and free of charge to the public. Google Finance and CNBC were the first organizations to make the product available to the public. In November 2008, NYSE Arca last sale prices were made available through this product.
NYSE Arca also makes certain market data available independent of other markets. Through ArcaVision, NYSE Arca provides listed companies, traders and investors with a tailored and customizable means to view detailed market data on particular stocks and market trends. Another data product, ArcaBook, displays the limit order book of securities traded on NYSE Arca in real time.
The pricing for U.S. market data products must be approved by the SEC on the basis of whether prices are fair, reasonable and non-discriminatory. In December 2008, the SEC issued an order permitting U.S. exchanges to make their proprietary information products more readily available to the market in response to the demands of customers.
In the United States, we face significant competition with respect to cash trading and derivatives trading, and this competition is expected to intensify in the future. Our current and prospective competitors include regulated markets, electronic communication networks and other alternative trading systems, market makers and other execution venues. We also face growing competition from large brokers and customers that may assume the role of principal and act as counterparty to orders originating from retail customers, or by matching their respective order flows through bilateral trading arrangements. We compete with such market participants in a variety of ways, including the cost, quality and speed of trade execution, liquidity, the functionality, ease of use and performance of trading systems, the range of products and services offered to trading participants and listed companies, technological innovation and reputation.
We also face intense price competition. Our competitors have and may continue to seek to increase their share of trading by reducing their transaction fees, by offering larger liquidity payments, or by offering other forms of financial incentives. As a result, we could lose a substantial percentage of our share of trading if we are unable to price transactions in a competitive manner, or our profit margins could decline if we reduce or otherwise alter our transaction pricing.
Derivatives. NYSE Liffe US, NYSE Arca and NYSE Amex face considerable competition in derivatives trading. Their principal U.S. competitors are the CME Group Inc., Chicago Board Options Exchange (CBOE), the International Securities Exchange, BATS, the Boston Options Exchange and the Nasdaq OMX. The CBOE recently announced that it expects to complete its demutualization shortly, which it believes will enhance its ability to compete more effectively.
NYSE Liffe US also experiences substantial competition in its futures business. Its primary competitors include the incumbent exchange groups, IntercontinentalExchange and the CME Group Inc., which acquired NYMEX in 2008, as well as start-ups such as ELX Futures, L.P., backed by a consortium of banks and other market participants.
Our principal competitor for listings in the United States is Nasdaq OMX. The U.S. capital markets face competition for foreign issuer listings from a number of stock exchanges outside the United States, including London Stock Exchange plc, Deutsche Börse Group and exchanges in Tokyo, Hong Kong, Toronto, Singapore and Australia. As other liquidity venues seek exchange status, we may face more competition for listings. The legal and regulatory environment in the United States may make it difficult for us to compete with non-U.S. securities exchanges for the secondary listings of non-U.S. companies and primary listings of U.S. companies.
FACE="Times New Roman" SIZE="2">In the United States, we face significant competition with respect to cash trading and derivatives trading, and this competition is expected to intensify in the future. Our current and prospective competitors include
fees, by offering larger liquidity payments, or by offering other forms of financial incentives. As a result, we could lose a substantial percentage of our share of trading if we are unable to price transactions in a competitive manner, or our
profit margins could decline if we reduce or otherwise alter our transaction pricing.
Derivatives. NYSE Liffe US, NYSE Arca and
IntercontinentalExchange and the CME Group Inc., which acquired NYMEX in 2008, as well as start-ups such as ELX Futures, L.P., backed by a consortium of banks and other market participants. STYLE="margin-top:18px;margin-bottom:0px; margin-left:4%">Europe
In Europe, we face
notably Eurex, which is the derivatives platform operated by Deutsche Börse, the CME Group Inc. and the OTC markets. We expect that NYSE Liffe will be subject to intense competition with respect to its CDS clearing activities. Several
competitors, including the CME Group Inc. and Citadel Investment Group and Eurex have announced that they intend to start, and the Intercontinental Exchange has started, providing centralized clearing of CDS. Our Bluenext joint venture competes with
a number of international derivatives exchanges, including the European Climate Exchange, Eurex and the CME Group Inc., in the trading of CO2
emission allowances, and Nasdaq OMX recently announced that it intends to expand into energy and carbon derivatives.
U.S. federal securities laws have established a two-tiered system for the regulation of securities markets and market participants. The first tier consists of the SEC, which has primary responsibility for enforcing federal securities laws and regulations and is subject to Congressional oversight. The second tier consists of the regulatory responsibilities of self-regulatory organizations (SROs), over their members. SROs are non-governmental entities that are registered with, and regulated by, the SEC.
Securities industry SROs are an essential component of the regulatory scheme of the Exchange Act for providing fair and orderly markets and protecting investors. To be a registered national securities exchange, an exchange must be able to carry out, and comply with, the purposes of the Exchange Act and the rules and regulations under the Exchange Act. In addition, as an SRO, an exchange must be able to enforce compliance by its members, and individuals associated with its members, with the provisions of the Exchange Act, the rules and regulations under the Exchange Act and its own rules.
Broker-dealers must also register with the SEC, and members must register with an SRO, submit to federal and SRO regulation, and perform various compliance and reporting functions.
Three subsidiaries, NYSE, NYSE Arca, Inc. and NYSE Amex, as SROs, are registered with, and subject to oversight by, the SEC. Accordingly, our U.S. securities exchanges are regulated by the SEC and, in turn, are the regulators of their members. The regulatory functions of our U.S. securities exchanges are performed by NYSE Regulation, acting through its own staff and, for certain functions, utilizing staff of Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. or FINRA (formerly known as National Association of Securities Dealers, Inc., or NASD) pursuant to an agreement.
The operations of our new U.S. futures exchange, NYSE Liffe US, are subject to extensive regulation by the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC) under the Commodity Exchange Act (CEA). The CEA generally requires that futures trading conducted in the United States be conducted on a commodity exchange designated as a contract market by the CFTC, subject to limited exceptions. It also establishes non-financial criteria for an exchange to be designated to list futures and options contracts. Designation as a contract market for the trading of specified futures contracts is non-exclusive. This means that the CFTC may designate additional exchanges as contract markets for trading in the same or similar contracts. As a DCM, NYSE Liffe US is an SRO that has instituted detailed rules and procedures to comply with the core principles applicable to it under the CEA. NYSE Liffe US also has surveillance and compliance operations and procedures performed in part by the National Futures Association, as NYSE Liffe USs compliance service provider, to monitor and enforce compliance with its rules, and we expect that NYSE Liffe US will be periodically reviewed by the CFTC with respect to the fulfillment of NYSE Liffe USs self-regulatory programs in these areas.
These excerpts taken from the NYX 10-K filed Mar 25, 2008.
In the United States, these include New York Stock Exchange, NYSE, The Big Board, NYSE Composite Index, The World Puts Its Stock In Us, Archipelago, ArcaEx, Archipelago Exchange, Pacific Exchange, and images of the NYSE Trading Floor and building façade. Registration applications for other marks are pending in the United States and in other countries.
In addition, we own a number of registered U.S. trademarks or service marks that are used in our operations and we have a number of applications pending. We also hold the rights to a number of patents and have made a number of patent applications. However, we do not engage in any material licensing of these patents nor are these patents, individually or in the aggregate, material to our business.
We also own the copyright to a variety of material. Those copyrights, some of which are registered, include printed and online publications, web sites, advertisements, educational material, graphic presentations and other literature, both textual and electronic.
SIZE="2">In the United States, these include New York Stock Exchange, NYSE, The Big Board, NYSE Composite Index, The World Puts Its Stock In Us, Archipelago, ArcaEx,
We also hold the rights to a number of patents and have made a number of patent applications. However, we do not engage in any material licensing of these patents nor are these patents, individually or in the aggregate, material to our business.
We also own the copyright to a variety of material. Those copyrights, some of which are registered, include printed and online
We regard substantial elements of Euronexts brands, logos, products and market data to be proprietary. We attempt to protect these
Euronext®, NYSE Alternext®, Eurolist by Euronext®, AEXFACE="Times New Roman" SIZE="1">®, BEL 20®, CAC 40®, PSI 20SIZE="1">®, NextCAC 70®, LIFFE® and LIFFE CONNECT®