Navios Maritime Holdings 20-F 2006
Documents found in this filing:
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2005
For the transition period from to
Commission file number
Navios Maritime Holdings Inc.
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)
Republic of Marshall
85 Akti Miouli Street
(Address of principal executive offices)
Indicate the number of outstanding shares of each of the issuer’s classes of capital or common stock as of the close of the period covered by the annual report: 44,239,319 as of December 31, 2005.
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes No
If this report is an annual or transition report, indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or (15)(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. Yes No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter periods that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such reporting requirements for the past 90 days. Yes No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, or a non-accelerated filer. See definition of ‘‘accelerated filer and large accelerated filer’’ in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
Large Accelerated Filer Accelerated Filer Non-Accelerated Filer
Indicate by check mark which financial statement item the registrant has elected to follow. Item 17 Item 18
If this is an annual report, indicate by check mark wheter the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes No
TABLE OF CONTENTS
FORWARD LOOKING STATEMENTS
Navios Maritime Holdings Inc., or the Company, desires to take advantage of the safe harbor provisions of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 and is including this cautionary statement in connection with this safe harbor legislation. This document and any other written or oral statements made by us or on our behalf may include forward-looking statements, which reflect our current views with respect to future events and financial performance. The words ‘‘believe’’, ‘‘expect’’, ‘‘anticipate’’, ‘‘intends’’, ‘‘estimate’’, ‘‘forecast’’, ‘‘project’’, ‘‘plan’’, ‘‘potential’’, ‘‘will’’, ‘‘may’’, ‘‘should’’, ‘‘expect’’ and similar expressions identify forward-looking statements.
Please note in this annual report, ‘‘we’’, ‘‘us’’, ‘‘our’’, ‘‘the Company’’, all refer to Navios Maritime Holdings Inc. and its subsidiaries.
The forward-looking statements in this document are based upon various assumptions, many of which are based, in turn, upon further assumptions, including without limitation, management’s examination of historical operating trends, data contained in our records and other data available from third parties. Although we believe that these assumptions were reasonable when made, because these assumptions are inherently subject to significant uncertainties and contingencies which are difficult or impossible to predict and are beyond our control, we cannot assure you that we will achieve or accomplish these expectations, beliefs or projections.
In addition to these important factors and matters discussed elsewhere herein, important factors that, in our view, could cause actual results to differ materially from those discussed in the forward-looking statements include the strength of world economies, fluctuations in currencies and interest rates, general market conditions, including fluctuations in charter hire rates and vessel values, changes in demand in the dry-bulk shipping industry, changes in the Company’s operating expenses, including bunker prices, drydocking and insurance costs, changes in governmental rules and regulations or actions taken by regulatory authorities, potential liability from pending or future litigation, general domestic and international political conditions, potential disruption of shipping routes due to accidents or political events, and other important factors described from time to time in the reports filed by the Company with the Securities and Exchange Commission.
A. Selected Financial Data
The Navios historical successor information is derived from the audited consolidated financial statements of Navios as of December 31, 2005 and for the period from August 26, 2005 to December 31, 2005. The Navios historical predecessor information is derived from the audited consolidated financial statements as of December 31, 2004 and for the period from January 1, 2005 to August 25, 2005 and for each of the two years in the period ended December 31, 2004 included elsewhere in this document. Navios' balance sheet data as of December 31, 2003, 2002 and 2001, and the historical information for the two years ended December 31, 2002 are derived from the financial statements which are not included in this document. The purchase of the net assets of Navios by ISE, through the purchase of all of its outstanding shares of common stock, and the subsequent downstream merger of ISE with and into Navios took place on August 25, 2005. On December 11, 2002, Navios Corporation completed a business combination with Anemos Maritime
Holdings Inc. (Anemos) and Anemos was considered the accounting acquirer in the business combination. The financial statements for the two year period January 1, 2001 to December 31, 2002 include the accounts of Anemos and its wholly-owned subsidiaries for the full year and Navios Corporation for December 11, 2002 through December 31, 2002. The information is only a summary and should be read in conjunction with the historical consolidated financial statements and related notes, to the extent contained elsewhere herein.
The historical successor and predecessor results included below and elsewhere in this document are not necessarily indicative of the future performance of Navios.
B. Capitalization and Indebtedness
C. Reasons for the Offer and Use of Proceeds
D. Risk Factors
Some of the following risks relate principally to the industry in which we operate and our business in general. Other risks relate principally to the securities market and ownership of our common stock. You should carefully consider each of the following risks together with the other information in and incorporated into this Annual Report when evaluating the Company's business and its prospects. The risks and uncertainties described below are not the only ones the Company faces. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to the Company or that the Company currently considers immaterial may also impair the Company's business operations. If any of the following risks relating to our business and operations actually occur, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected, and in that case, the trading price of our common stock could decline, you may lose all or part of your investment.
Risks Associated with the Shipping Industry
The cyclical nature of the international dry bulk shipping industry may lead to decreases in charter rates, which may reduce Navios' revenue and earnings
The shipping business, including the dry cargo market, is cyclical in varying degrees, experiencing fluctuations in charter rates, profitability and, consequently, vessel values. For example, at various times during 2004, charter rates for the international dry bulk shipping industry reached historic highs. Navios anticipates that the future demand for its dry bulk carriers and dry bulk charter rates will be dependent upon continued demand for imported commodities, economic growth in China and the rest of the world, seasonal and regional changes in demand, and changes to the capacity of the world fleet. The capacity of the world fleet seems likely to increase, and there can be no assurance that economic growth will continue. Adverse economic, political, social or other developments could decrease demand and growth in the shipping industry and thereby reduce revenue and earnings. Fluctuations, and the demand for vessels, in general, have been influenced by, among other factors:
An economic slowdown in the Asia Pacific region could reduce demand for shipping services and decrease shipping rates, thus decreasing Navios' revenues and earnings
Currently, China, Japan and other Pacific Asian economies are the main driving force behind the increase in seaborne dry bulk trades and the demand for dry bulk carriers. Demand from such economies has driven increased rates and vessel values. Conversely, a negative change in economic conditions in any Asian Pacific country, but particularly in China or Japan, may have an adverse effect on Navios' business, financial position, earnings and profitability, as well as Navios' future prospects,
by reducing such demand and the resultant rates. In particular, in recent years, China has been one of the world's fastest growing economies in terms of gross domestic product. Navios cannot assure that such growth will be sustained or that the Chinese economy will not experience a decline from current levels in the future. Navios' results of operations, as well as its future prospects, would likely be adversely affected by an economic downturn in any of these countries as such downturn would likely translate into reduced demand for shipping services and lower shipping rates industry wide and decrease revenue and earnings for Navios.
Servicing debt could limit funds available for other purposes, such as working capital and the payment of dividends
Navios will use cash to pay the principal and interest on its debt. These payments limit funds otherwise available for working capital, capital expenditures and other purposes. As a result of these obligations, Navios' current liabilities now exceed its current assets. This limits the working capital available to grow the business. Navios may need to take on additional debt as it expands the Navios fleet, which could increase its ratio of debt to equity. The need to service its debt may limit funds available for other purposes, including distributing cash to its stockholders, and its inability to service debt could lead to acceleration of its debt and foreclosure on the Navios’ owned vessels.
The market values of Navios' vessels, which are at historically high levels, may decrease, which could cause it to breach covenants in its credit facility which could reduce earnings and revenues as a result of potential foreclosures
Factors that influence vessel values include:
If the market values of Navios' owned vessels decrease, Navios may breach some of the covenants contained in the financing agreements relating to its indebtedness. If Navios does breach such covenants and is unable to remedy any relevant breach, its lenders could accelerate its debt and foreclose on the collateral, including Navios' vessels. Any loss of vessels would significantly decrease the ability of Navios to generate revenue and income. In addition, if the book value of a vessel is impaired due to unfavorable market conditions, or a vessel is sold at a price below its book value, Navios would incur a loss that would reduce earnings.
Navios may employ vessels on the spot market and thus expose itself to risk of losses based on short term decreases in shipping rates
Navios periodically employs its vessels on a spot basis. The spot charter market is highly competitive and freight rates within this market are highly volatile, while longer-term time charters provide income at pre-determined rates over more extended periods of time. There can be no assurance that Navios will be successful in keeping its vessels fully employed in these short-term markets, or that future spot rates will be sufficient to enable such vessels to be operated profitably. A significant decrease in spot market charter rates or the inability of Navios to fully employ its vessels by taking advantage of the spot market would result in a reduction of the incremental revenue received from spot chartering and adversely affect results of operations, including Navios' profitability and cash flows, with the result that its ability to pay debt service and dividends could be impaired.
Maritime claimants could arrest Navios' vessels, which could interrupt its cash flow
Crew members, suppliers of goods and services to a vessel, shippers of cargo, and other parties may be entitled to a maritime lien against a vessel for unsatisfied debts, claims or damages against such vessel. In many jurisdictions, a maritime lien holder may enforce its lien by arresting a vessel through foreclosure proceedings. The arrest or attachment of one or more of Navios' vessels could interrupt its cash flow and require it to pay large sums of funds to have the arrest lifted. Navios is not currently aware of the existence of any such maritime lien on its vessels.
In addition, in some jurisdictions, such as South Africa, under the ‘‘sister ship’’ theory of liability, a claimant may arrest both the vessel which is subject to the claimant's maritime lien and any ‘‘associated’’ vessel, which is any vessel owned or controlled by the same owner. Claimants could try to assert ‘‘sister ship’’ liability against one vessel in Navios' fleet for claims relating to another ship in the fleet.
A failure to pass inspection by classification societies could result in one or more vessels being unemployable unless and until they pass inspection, resulting in a loss of revenues from such vessels for that period and a corresponding decrease in earnings
The hull and machinery of every commercial vessel must be classed by a classification society authorized by its country of registry. The classification society certifies that a vessel is safe and seaworthy in accordance with the applicable rules and regulations of the country of registry of the vessel and the United Nations Safety of Life at Sea Convention. Navios' owned fleet is currently enrolled with Lloyd's Register of Shipping, the American Bureau of Shipping, Nippon Kaiji Kiokai and Bereau Veritas.
A vessel must undergo Annual Surveys, Intermediate Surveys and Special Surveys. In lieu of a Special Survey, a vessel's machinery may be on a continuous survey cycle, under which the machinery would be surveyed periodically over a five-year period. Navios' vessels are on Special Survey cycles for hull inspection and continuous survey cycles for machinery inspection. Every vessel is also required to be drydocked every two to three years for inspection of the underwater parts of such vessel.
If any vessel fails any Annual Survey, Intermediate Survey, or Special Survey, the vessel may be unable to trade between ports and, therefore, would be unemployable, potentially causing a negative impact on Navios' revenues due to the loss of revenues from such vessel until it was able to trade again.
Navios is subject to environmental laws that could require significant expenditures both to maintain compliance with such laws and to pay for any uninsured environmental liabilities resulting from a spill or other environmental disaster
The shipping business and vessel operation are materially affected by government regulation in the form of international conventions, national, state, and local laws, and regulations in force in the jurisdictions in which vessels operate, as well as in the country or countries of their registration. Because such conventions, laws, and regulations are often revised, Navios cannot predict the ultimate cost of complying with such conventions, laws, and regulations, or the impact thereof on the resale price or useful life of Navios' vessels. Additional conventions, laws, and regulations may be adopted which could limit Navios' ability to do business or increase the cost of its doing business, which may materially adversely affect its operations, as well as the shipping industry generally. Navios is required by various governmental and quasi-governmental agencies to obtain certain permits, licenses, and certificates with respect to its operations.
The operation of vessels is also affected by the requirements set forth in the International Safety Management, or ISM Code. The ISM Code requires shipowners and bareboat charterers to develop and maintain an extensive ‘‘Safety Management System’’ that includes the adoption of a safety and environmental protection policy setting forth instructions and procedures for safe vessel operation and describing procedures for dealing with emergencies. The failure of a shipowner or bareboat charterer to comply with the ISM Code may subject such party to increased liability, may decrease available
insurance coverage for the affected vessels, and may result in a denial of access to, or detention in, certain ports. Currently, each of the vessels in Navios' owned fleet is ISM Code-certified. However, there can be no assurance that such certification will be maintained indefinitely.
Although the United States is not a party thereto, many countries have ratified and follow the liability scheme adopted by the International Maritime Organization, or IMO, and set out in the International Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage, 1969, as amended, or the CLC, and the Convention for the Establishment of an International Fund for Oil Pollution of 1971, as amended. Under these conventions, a vessel's registered owner is strictly liable for pollution damage caused on the territorial waters of a contracting state by discharge of persistent oil, subject to certain defenses. Many of the countries that have ratified the CLC have increased the liability limits through a 1992 Protocol to the CLC. The liability limits in the countries that have ratified this Protocol are currently approximately $4 million, plus approximately $566 per gross registered ton above 5,000 gross tons, with an approximate maximum of $80.5 million per vessel and an exact amount tied to a unit of account which varies according to a basket of currencies. The right to limit liability is forfeited under the CLC where the spill is caused by the owner's actual fault or privity and, under the 1992 Protocol, where the spill is caused by the owner's intentional or reckless conduct. Vessels trading to contracting states must provide evidence of insurance covering the limited liability of the owner. In jurisdictions where the CLC has not been adopted, various legislative schemes or common law govern, and liability is imposed either on the basis of fault or in a manner similar to the CLC.
Navios currently maintains, for each of its owned vessels, pollution liability coverage insurance in the amount of $1.0 billion per incident. If the damages from a catastrophic incident exceed this insurance coverage, it would severely hurt its cash flow and profitability and financial position.
The United States Oil Pollution Act of 1990, or OPA, established an extensive regulatory and liability regime for the protection and cleanup of the environment from oil spills. OPA affects all owners and operators whose vessels trade in the United States, its territories and possessions or whose vessels operate in United States waters, which includes the United States' territorial sea and its 200 nautical mile exclusive economic zone.
Under OPA, vessel owners, operators and bareboat charterers are ‘‘responsible parties’’ and are jointly, severally and strictly liable (unless the spill results solely from the act or omission of a third party, an act of God or an act of war) for all containment and clean-up costs and other damages arising from discharges or threatened discharges of oil from their vessels, including bunkers (fuel).
The European Union has introduced and is considering legislation that will affect the operation of vessels and the liability of owners for oil pollution. It is difficult to predict what legislation, if any, may be promulgated by the European Union or any other country or authority. Any such legislation could require significant expenditures to continue to operate vessels and such expenses could negatively impact cash flows and net income.
Navios is subject to vessel security regulations and will incur costs to comply with recently adopted regulations and may be subject to costs to comply with similar regulations which may be adopted in the future in response to terrorism
Since the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, there have been a variety of initiatives intended to enhance vessel security. On November 25, 2002, the Maritime Transportation Security Act of 2002, or MTSA, came into effect. To implement certain portions of the MTSA, in July 2003, the US Coast Guard issued regulations requiring the implementation of certain security requirements aboard vessels operating in waters subject to the jurisdiction of the United States. Similarly, in December 2002, amendments to the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea, or SOLAS, created a new chapter of the convention dealing specifically with maritime security. The new chapter went into effect in July 2004, and imposes various detailed security obligations on vessels and port authorities, most of which are contained in the newly created ISPS Code. Among the various requirements are:
The US Coast Guard regulations, intended to be aligned with international maritime security standards, exempt non-US vessels from MTSA vessel security measures, provided such vessels have on board, by July 1, 2004, a valid International Ship Security Certificate (ISSC) that attests to the vessel's compliance with SOLAS security requirements and the ISPS Code. Navios will implement the various security measures addressed by the MTSA, SOLAS and the ISPS Code and take measures to ensure that its vessels attain compliance with all applicable security requirements within the prescribed time periods. Although management does not believe these additional requirements will have a material financial impact on Navios' operations, there can be no assurance that there will not be an interruption in operations to bring vessels into compliance with the applicable requirements and any such interruption could cause a decrease in revenues.
Governments could requisition Navios' vessels during a period of war or emergency, resulting in loss of revenues and earnings from such requisitioned vessels
A government could requisition title or seize Navios' vessels during a war or national emergency. Requisition of title occurs when a government takes a vessel and becomes the owner. A government could also requisition Navios' vessels for hire, which would result in the government's taking control of a vessel and effectively becoming the charterer at a dictated charter rate. Requisition of one or more of Navios' vessels would have a substantial negative effect on Navios as Navios would potentially lose all revenues and earnings from the requisitioned vessels and permanently lose the vessels. Such losses might be partially offset if the requisitioning government compensated Navios for the requisition.
The operation of ocean-going vessels entails the possibility of marine disasters including damage or destruction of the vessel due to accident, the loss of a vessel due to piracy or terrorism, damage or destruction of cargo and similar events that may cause a loss of revenue from affected vessels and damage Navios' business reputation, which may in turn, lead to loss of business
The operation of ocean-going vessels entails certain inherent risks that may adversely affect Navios' business and reputation, including:
Any of these circumstances or events could substantially increase Navios' costs, as for example, the costs of replacing a vessel or cleaning up a spill or lower its revenues by taking vessels out of operation permanently or for periods of time. The involvement of Navios' vessels in a disaster or delays in delivery or damages or loss of cargo may harm its reputation as a safe and reliable vessel operator and cause it to lose business.
Certain of Navios' directors, officers, and principal stockholders are affiliated with entities engaged in business activities similar to those conducted by Navios which may compete directly with Navios causing such persons to have a conflict of interest
Some of Navios' directors, officers and principal stockholders have an affiliation with entities that have similar business activities to those conducted by Navios. These other affiliations and business activities may give rise to certain conflicts of interest in the course of such individuals' affiliation with Navios. Although Navios does not prevent its directors, officers and principal stockholders from
having such affiliations, Navios uses its best efforts to cause such individuals to comply with all applicable laws and regulations in addressing such conflicts of interest. The officers and employee directors of Navios devote their full time and attention to the ongoing operations of Navios and the non-employee directors of Navios devote such time as is necessary and required to satisfy their duties as a director of a public company.
Trading and complementary hedging activities in freight, tonnage and Forward Freight Agreements (FFAs) subject it to trading risks and Navios may suffer trading losses that reduce earnings
Due to dry bulk shipping market volatility, success in this industry requires constant adjustment of the balance between chartering out vessels for long periods of time and trading them on a spot basis. For example, a long-term contract to charter a vessel might lock Navios into a profitable or unprofitable situation depending on the direction of freight rates over the term of the contract. Navios seeks to manage and mitigate that risk through trading and complementary hedging activities in freight, tonnage and forward freight agreements, or FFAs. However, there is no assurance that Navios will be able at all times to successfully protect itself from volatility in the shipping market. Navios may not successfully mitigate its risks, leaving it exposed to unprofitable contracts and may suffer trading losses that reduce earnings.
Navios is subject to certain credit risks with respect to its counterparties on contracts and failure of such counterparties to meet their obligations could cause it to suffer losses on such contracts decreasing revenues and earnings
Navios charters out its vessels to other parties, who pay Navios a daily rate of hire. Navios also enters into Contracts of Affreightment (COAs) pursuant to which Navios agrees to carry cargoes, typically for industrial customers, who export or import dry bulk cargoes. Additionally, Navios enters into FFAs. Navios also enters into spot market voyage contracts, where Navios is paid a rate per ton to carry a specified cargo from point A to point B. All of these contracts subject Navios to counterparty credit risk. As a result, Navios is subject to credit risks at various levels, including with charterers, cargo interests, or terminal customers. If the counterparties fail to meet their obligations, Navios could suffer losses on such contracts which would decrease revenues and earnings.
Navios is subject to certain operating risks, including vessel breakdown or accident, that could result in a loss of revenue from the affected vessels leading to a reduction in revenues and earnings
Navios' exposure to operating risks of vessel breakdown and accidents mainly arises in the context of its 16 owned vessels. The rest of its core fleet is chartered-in under time charters and, as a result, most operating risks relating to these time chartered vessels reside with their head owners. If Navios pays hire on a chartered-in vessel at a lower rate than the rate of hire it receives from a sub-charterer to whom Navios has chartered out the vessel, a breakdown or loss of the vessel due to an operating risk suffered by the head owner will, in all likelihood, result in Navios' loss of the positive spread between the two rates of hire. Although Navios will have in force a time charterer's interest policy to cover it against the loss of such spread through the sinking or other similar loss of a chartered-in vessel, Navios cannot assure you that it will be covered under all circumstances. In addition, Navios is party to long-term contracts with four commodity houses, ADM, Multigranos, Louis Dreyfus and Gargill that will cover a substantial portion of its silo capacity in the Uruguayan terminal for the next several years, and the loss of or a material change to such contracts could have an adverse effect on Navios' financial condition and results of operations. Breakdowns or accidents involving Navios' vessels and losses relating to chartered vessels which are not covered by their insurance would result in a loss of revenue from the affected vessels leading to a reduction in revenues and earnings.
Although Navios has longstanding relationships with certain Japanese shipowners who provide it access to very competitive contracts, Navios cannot assure you that it will always be able to maintain such relationships or that such contracts will continue to be available in the future
Navios has long-standing relationships with certain Japanese shipowners that give it access to time charters that are currently at very competitive rates and which, in some cases, include options to
purchase the vessels at attractive prices relative to the current market. Although Navios has no indication that it may not have such access in the future, Navios cannot assure you that it will have such relationships indefinitely. In addition, there is no assurance that Japanese shipowners will generally make contracts available on the same or substantially similar terms in the future.
Navios may require additional financing for exercise of vessel purchase options which could dilute existing stockholders
In the future, Navios may be required to make substantial cash outlays to exercise options to acquire vessels and it will need additional financing to cover all or a portion of the purchase prices. Navios intends to cover the cost of exercising such options with new debt collateralized by the vessels to be acquired, but there can be no assurance that Navios will generate sufficient cash or that debt financing will be available. Moreover, the covenants in Navios' senior secured credit facility may make it more difficult to obtain such financing by imposing restrictions on what Navios can offer as collateral. Additional financings, if any, through the issuance of securities would dilute existing stockholders.
Navios expects to grow its fleet which could increase expenses and losses
Navios expects to grow its fleet, either through sales and purchases or the increase of the number of chartered vessels. The addition of these vessels to the Navios fleet will impose significant additional responsibilities on its management and staff, and may require it to increase the number of its personnel. Navios will also have to increase its customer base to provide continued employment for the new vessels. Navios' growth will depend on:
Growing any business by acquisition presents numerous risks such as undisclosed liabilities and obligations, difficulty experienced in obtaining additional qualified personnel, and managing relationships with customers and suppliers and integrating newly acquired operations into existing infrastructures. Navios cannot give any assurance that it will be successful in executing its growth plans or that it will not incur significant expenses and losses in connection therewith.
As Navios expands its business, Navios will need to improve its operations and financial systems, staff, and crew; if it cannot improve these systems or recruit suitable employees, it may not effectively control its operations
Navios' initial operating and financial systems may not be adequate as it implements its plan to expand, and its attempts to improve these systems may be ineffective. If Navios is unable to operate its financial and operations systems effectively or to recruit suitable employees as it expands its operations, it may be unable to effectively control and manage the substantially larger operation. Although it is impossible to predict what errors might occur as the result of inadequate controls, it is the case that it is harder to oversee a sizable operation than a small one and, accordingly, more likely that errors will occur as operations grow and that additional management infrastructure and systems will be required to attempt to avoid such errors.
Vessels may suffer damage and Navios may face unexpected drydocking costs, which could affect its cash flow and financial condition
If Navios' owned vessels suffer damage, they may need to be repaired at Navios' cost at a drydocking facility. The costs of drydock repairs are unpredictable and can be substantial. Navios may
have to pay drydocking costs that insurance does not cover. The loss of earnings while these vessels are being repaired and repositioned, as well as the actual cost of these repairs, could decrease its revenues and earnings substantially, particularly if a number of vessels are damaged or drydocked at the same time.
The shipping industry has inherent operational risks that may not be adequately covered by Navios' insurance
Navios has insurance for its fleet against risks commonly insured against by vessel owners and operators, including hull and machinery insurance, war risks insurance and protection and indemnity insurance (which include environmental damage and pollution insurance). Navios can give no assurance that it will be adequately insured against all risks or that its insurers will pay a particular claim. Even if its insurance coverage is adequate to cover its losses, Navios may not be able to timely obtain a replacement vessel in the event of a loss. Furthermore, in the future, Navios may not be able to obtain adequate insurance coverage at reasonable rates for its fleet. Navios may also be subject to calls, or premiums, in amounts based not only on its own claim records but also the claim records of all other members of the protection and indemnity associations through which Navios receives indemnity insurance coverage for tort liability. Navios' insurance policies also contain deductibles, limitations and exclusions which, although management believes are standard in the shipping industry, may nevertheless increase its costs.
Navios' loan agreement contains restrictive covenants that may limit its liquidity and corporate activities
Navios' loan agreements impose on Navios certain operating and financial restrictions. These restrictions may limit Navios' ability to:
Therefore, Navios will need to seek permission from its lender in order to engage in some corporate actions. Navios' lender's interests may be different from those of Navios, and Navios cannot guarantee that it will be able to obtain its lender's permission when needed. This may prevent Navios from taking actions that are in its best interest.
Navios' loan agreement imposes certain conditions on the payment of dividends
Navios is party to a senior secured credit facility with an institutional lender, HSH Nordbank AG for the purpose to finance the Navios acquisition by ISE, the acquisition of four panamax vessels and of the acquisition of vessels through the exercise of options. The terms of the new credit facility contain a number of financial covenants and general covenants that require Navios, among other things, to maintain a certain solvency ratio and minimum equity amounts. Navios may not be permitted to pay dividends under the new credit facility in excess of certain amounts or if it is in default of any of these loan covenants.
Because Navios generates all of its revenues in US dollars but incurs a portion of its expenses in other currencies, exchange rate fluctuations could cause it to suffer exchange rate losses thereby increasing expenses and reducing income
Navios engages in worldwide commerce with a variety of entities. Although, its operations may expose it to certain levels of foreign currency risk, its transactions are predominantly US dollar denominated. Additionally, Navios’ wholly-owned Uruguayan subsidiary transacts a nominal amount of its operations in Uruguayan pesos, whereas Navios’ wholly-owned vessel subsidiaries and the vessel management subsidiary transact a nominal amount of their operations in Euros; however, all of the subsidiaries' primary cash flows are US dollar denominated. In 2005 approximately 6% of Navios expenses were incurred in currencies other than US dollars. Transactions in currencies other than the functional currency are translated at the exchange rate in effect at the date of each transaction. Expenses incurred in foreign currencies against which the US dollar falls in value can increase, decreasing Navios' income. For example, in the year ended 2005, the value of the US dollar declined by approximately 13% as compared to the Euro. Navios, as part of its overall risk management policy, attempts to hedge these risks in exchange rate fluctuations. Navios may not always be successful in such hedging activities and, as a result, its operating results could suffer as a result of un-hedged losses incurred as a result of exchange rate fluctuations.
Navios' operations expose it to global political risks, such as wars and political instability, that may interfere with the operation of its vessels causing a decrease in revenues from such vessels
Navios is an international company and primarily conducts its operations outside the United States. Changing economic, political and governmental conditions in the countries where Navios is engaged in business or where its vessels are registered will affect it. In the past, political conflicts, particularly in the Persian Gulf, resulted in attacks on vessels, mining of waterways and other efforts to disrupt shipping in the area. For example, in October 2002, the vessel Limburg was attacked by terrorists in Yemen. Acts of terrorism and piracy have also affected vessels trading in regions such as the South China Sea. Following the terrorist attack in New York City on September 11, 2001, and the military response of the United States, the likelihood of future acts of terrorism may increase, and Navios' vessels may face higher risks of being attacked in the Middle East region and interruption of operations causing a decrease in revenues and earnings. In addition, future hostilities or other political instability in regions where Navios' vessels trade could affect its trade patterns and adversely affect its operations by causing delays in shipping on certain routes or making shipping impossible on such routes and thereby causing a decrease in revenues and earnings.
Navios is incorporated in the Republic of the Marshall Islands, which does not have a well-developed body of corporate law
Navios' corporate affairs are governed by its amended and restated articles of incorporation and by-laws and by the Marshall Islands Business Corporations Act, or BCA. The provisions of the BCA resemble provisions of the corporation laws of a number of states in the United States. However, there have been few judicial cases in the Republic of the Marshall Islands interpreting the BCA. The rights and fiduciary responsibilities of directors under the law of the Republic of the Marshall Islands are not as clearly established as the rights and fiduciary responsibilities of directors under statutes or judicial precedent in existence in certain United States jurisdictions. Shareholder rights may differ as well. While the BCA does specifically incorporate the non-statutory law, or judicial case law, of the State of Delaware and other states with substantially similar legislative provisions, our public stockholders may have more difficulty in protecting their interests in the face of actions by the management, directors or controlling shareholders than would shareholders of a corporation incorporated in the State of Delaware.
Navios, and certain of its officers and directors, may be difficult to serve with process as Navios is incorporated in the Republic of the Marshall Islands and such persons may reside outside of the US
Navios is a corporation organized under the laws of the Republic of the Marshall Islands. Several of our directors and officers are residents of Greece or other non-US jurisdictions. Substantial
portions of the assets of these persons and of Navios are located in the Republic of the Marshall Islands, Greece or other non-US jurisdictions. Thus, it may not be possible for investors to affect service of process upon Navios, or its non-US directors or officers or to enforce any judgment obtained against these persons in US courts. Also, it may not be possible to enforce US securities laws or judgments obtained in US courts against these persons in a non-US jurisdiction.
Being a foreign private issuer exempts us from certain Securities and Exchange Commission requirements.
We are a foreign private issuer within the meaning of rules promulgated under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (the ‘‘Exchange Act’’). As such, we are exempt from certain provisions applicable to United States public companies including:
Because of these exemptions, investors are not afforded the same protections or information generally available to investors holding shares in public companies organized in the United States.
A. History and Development of the Company
The Company's head office and principal place of business is located at 85 Akti Miouli Street, Piraeus, Greece 185 38, and its telephone number is (011) +30-210-4595000. The Company is incorporated under the laws of the Republic of Marshall Islands. Trust Company of the Marshall Islands, Inc. serves as the Company's agent for service of process and the Corporation's registered address and telephone number, as well as address and telephone number of its agent for service of process, is Trust Company Complex, Ajeltake Island, P.O. Box 1405, Majuro, Marshall Islands MH96960.
On December 11, 2002, the shareholders of Anemos Maritime Holdings Inc. (‘‘Anemos’’) and Navios Corporation each contributed their respective interests for shares of a newly created entity named Nautilus Maritime Holdings, Inc. (‘‘Nautilus’’), a Marshall Islands corporation. For accounting purposes, Anemos was considered as the acquirer. During 2003, Nautilus changed its name to Navios Maritime Holdings Inc.
On August 25, 2005, pursuant to a Stock Purchase Agreement dated February 28, 2005, as amended, by and among International Shipping Enterprises, Inc. (‘‘ISE’’), Navios Maritime Holdings Inc. (‘‘Navios’’ or the ‘‘Company’’) and all the shareholders of Navios, ISE acquired Navios through the purchase of all of the outstanding shares of common stock. As a result of this acquisition, Navios became a wholly-owned subsidiary of ISE. In addition, on August 25, 2005, simultaneously with the acquisition of Navios, ISE effected a reincorporation from the State of Delaware to the Republic of the Marshall Islands through a downstream merger with and into its newly acquired wholly-owned subsidiary, whose name was and continued to be Navios Maritime Holdings Inc. As a result of the reincorporation, ISE transitioned from a shell company to an operating business and the operations of Navios became those of a publicly traded company. The Company reports to the Security Exchange Commission under the rules of Foreign Private Issuers.
The purpose of the business combination was to create a leading international maritime enterprise focused on the: (i) transportation and handling of bulk cargoes through the ownership, operation and trading of vessels, (ii) forward freight agreements ‘‘FFAs’’ and (iii) ownership and operation of port and transfer station terminals. The Company operates a fleet of owned Ultra Handymax and Panamax vessels and a fleet of time chartered Panamax and Ultra Handymax vessels that are employed to provide worldwide transportation of bulk commodities. The Company actively engages in assessing risk associated with fluctuating future freight rates, fuel prices and foreign exchange and, where appropriate, will actively hedge identified economic risk with appropriate derivative instruments. Such economic hedges do not always qualify for accounting hedge treatment, and, as such, the usage of such derivatives could lead to material fluctuations in the Company's reported results from operations on a period-to-period basis.
To the knowledge of management of the Company, there have been no indications of any public takeover offers by third parties in respect of its shares or by the Company in respect of other companies' shares during the fiscal years 2005 and 2006.
For information concerning the Company's capital expenditures and methods of financing, see ‘‘Operating and Financial Review and Prospects.’’
B. Business overview
Navios is a vertically integrated global seaborne shipping company, specializing in the worldwide carriage, trading, storing, and other related logistics of international dry bulk cargo transportation. For over 50 years, Navios has worked with raw materials producers, agricultural traders and exporters, industrial end-users, shipowners, and charterers and, more recently, acquired an in-house technical ship management expertise. Navios' core fleet, the average age of which is approximately 4.4 years, consists of a total of 32 vessels, aggregating approximately 2.1 million deadweight tons or dwt. Navios owns ten modern Ultra-Handymax (50,000-55,000 dwt) and six Panamax (70,000-83,000 dwt) vessels and operates 16 Panamax (70,000-83,000 dwt) and Ultra-Handymax (50,000-55,000 dwt) vessels under long-term time charters, nine of which are currently in operation, with the remaining seven scheduled for delivery on various dates up to May 2008. Navios has options, many of which are ‘‘in the money’’, to acquire nine of the 16 time chartered vessels. The owned vessels have a substantial net asset value, and the vessels controlled under charters are at rates below the current market. Operationally, Navios has, at various times over the last three years, deployed over 50 vessels at any one time, including its core fleet.
Navios also owns and operates the largest bulk transfer and storage port facility in Uruguay. While a relatively small portion of Navios' overall enterprise, management believes that this terminal is a stable business with strong growth and integration prospects.
Navios' strategy and business model involves the following:
In addition, Navios attempts, through selecting COAs on what would normally be backhaul or ballast legs, to enhance vessel utilization and, hence, profitability. The cargoes are in such cases used to position vessels at or near major loading areas (such as the US Gulf) where spot cargoes can readily be obtained. This reduces ballast time to be reduced as a percentage of the round voyage. This strategy is referred to as triangulation.
Navios is one of relatively few major owners and operators of this type in the dry bulk market, and it is one of the most experienced. In recent years, it has further raised the commercial sophistication of its business model by using market intelligence derived from its risk management operations and, specifically, its freight derivatives hedging desk, to make more informed decisions in the management of its fleet.
Controlling approximately 2.1 million dwt in dry bulk tonnage, Navios is one of the largest independent dry bulk operators in the world. Management believes that Navios occupies a competitive position within the industry in that its reputation in the global dry bulk markets permits it to enter into at any time, and take on spot, medium, or long- term freight commitments, depending on its view of future market trends. In addition, many of the long-term charter deals that form the core of Navios' fleet were brought to the attention of Navios prior to their ever being quoted in the open market. Even in the open market, Navios' solid reputation allows it, on very short notice, to take in large amounts of tonnage on a short, medium, or long-term basis. This ability is possessed by
relatively few shipowners and operators, and is a direct consequence of Navios' market reputation for reliability in the performance of its obligations in each of its roles as a shipowner, COA operator, and charterer. Navios, therefore, has much greater flexibility than a traditional shipowner or charterer to quickly go ‘‘long’’ or ‘‘short’’ relative to the dry bulk markets.
Navios' long involvement and reputation for reliability in the Asian region have also allowed the company to develop its privileged relationships with many of the largest trading houses in Japan, such as Marubeni Corporation and Mitsui & Co. Through these institutional relationships, Navios obtains relatively low-cost, long-term charter-in deals, with options to extend time charters and options to purchase the majority of the vessels. Through its established reputation and relationships, Navios has access to opportunities not readily available to most other industry participants who lack Navios' brand recognition, credibility, and track record.
In addition to its superior and long-standing reputation and flexible business model, management believes that Navios is well positioned in the dry bulk market on the basis of the following factors:
Management intends to maintain and build on this qualitative advantage, while at the same time continuing to benefit from Navios' favorable reputation and capacity position.
Navios' Fleet. Navios operates a core fleet of vessels that represents an accumulation of embedded value in today’s and historically strong dry bulk market relative to the long-term historical average. This fleet is comprised of ten modern owned Ultra-Handymax and six owned Panamax vessels and 16 Ultra-Handymax and Panamax vessels (nine of which have purchase options that are ‘‘in the money’’) chartered in at rates well below the market.
Owned Fleet. Navios owns a fleet of ten modern Ultra-Handymax and six Panamax vessels whose technical specifications and youth distinguish them in a market where approximately 25% of the dry bulk world fleet is composed of 20+ year-old ships. With an average age of approximately 5.6 years, the owned vessels have a substantial net asset value.
Six of the owned Ultra Handymax vessels are substantially identical sister vessels (they were all built at the Sanoyas Shipyard in Japan) and, as a result, Navios has built-in economies of scale with respect to technical ship management. Further, they have been built to technical specifications that far exceed those of comparable tonnage in the marketplace today.
Four of the ten Ultra Handymax vessels each have five cranes (which is more than the industry standard), allowing for increased loading and discharging rates, thereby increasing the efficiency of vessel operations.
All owned Ultra Handymax vessels are equipped with cranes that have 30 and 35 metric tons of lifting capacity, allowing for lifting of different types of heavy cargoes, thereby increasing the vessels' trading flexibility and efficiency.
Six of the ten Ultra Handymax owned vessels have CO2 fittings throughout all cargo holds, allowing for the loading of a variety of special cargoes (such as timber and wood pulp), thereby enhancing the potential trading routes and profitability of the vessels.
Six of the ten Ultra Handymax vessels each have the tank top strengths in all holds are of 24mt/m2, also allowing for the carriage of heavy cargoes.
Long Term Fleet. In addition to the currently 16 owned vessels, Navios operates a fleet of 16 Panamax (68,000-83,000 dwt) and Ultra-Handymax (50,000-55,000 dwt) vessels under long-term time charters, having an average age of approximately two years. Of the 16 chartered vessels, nine are currently in operation and seven are scheduled for delivery at various times up to May 2008, as set forth in the following table:
Many of Navios' current long-term chartered-in vessels are chartered from shipowners with whom Navios has long-standing relationships. Navios pays these shipowners daily rates of hire for such vessels, and then charters out these vessels to other parties, who pay Navios a daily rate of hire. Navios also enters into COAs pursuant to which Navios has agreed to carry cargoes, typically for industrial customers, who export or import dry bulk cargoes. Further, Navios enters into spot market voyage contracts, where Navios is paid a rate per ton to carry a specified cargo from point A to point B.
The long-term chartered vessels are chartered-in at rates below the market, allowing Navios to charter-out those vessels at a significant spread over the daily hire it pays for the vessels to their owners. Navios can take advantage of options it has to extend the period of its long-term charters, maintaining low charter-in rates and, thus, lower overall operational expenses. Navios also has the ability to exercise its purchase options, many of which are ‘‘in the money’’, with respect to nine of the 16 chartered-in vessels.
Short Term Fleet. Navios' ‘‘short term fleet’’ is comprised of Panamax and Handymax vessels chartered-in for duration of less than 12 months. The number of short-term charters varies from time to time.
Exercise of Vessel Purchase Options
During September, October and November 2005, Navios gave notice, to the lessors of four Ultra-Handymax vessels and two Panamax vessels, of its intention to exercise the options to purchase the vessels for an agreed value of approximately $20 million each. The first of these vessels, the Navios Meridian, was delivered on November 30, 2005, the second, the Navios Mercator was delivered on December 30, 2005, the third, the Navios Arc, was delivered on February 10, 2006, the fourth, the Navios Galaxy I, was delivered on March 23, 2006 the fifth, the Navios Magellan, was delivered on March 24, 2006 and the sixth vessel, the Navios Horizon, was delivered on April 10, 2006.
The option exercise prices on these vessels are substantially below the prices that would be required to purchase vessels of similar types and ages. The aggregate cash outlay of the six vessels amounts to approximately $115 million. The purchases are financed by HSH Nordbank AG under a senior secured credit facility agreement dated December 21, 2005.
By the exercise of such options as contemplated, charter-in expenses should decrease as a percentage of revenues, but Navios would also expect to incur additional operating expenses,
depreciation and interest charges associated with the vessels. However, exercising the options is anticipated to have a favourable impact on EBITDA.
Management and Operation of the Fleet. Navios' commercial ship management is conducted out of its South Norwalk, Connecticut office. All vessel operations and the technical management of the owned vessels are conducted out of its Piraeus, Greece office. The financial risk management related to the operation of its fleet is conducted through both its South Norwalk and Piraeus offices, as explained more fully below.
Commercial Ship Management. Commercial management of Navios' fleet involves identifying and negotiating charter party employment for the vessels. Navios uses the services of a related party, Acropolis Chartering & Shipping Inc., based in Piraeus, as well as numerous third-party charter brokers, to solicit, research, and propose charters for its vessels. Charter brokers research and negotiate with different charterers and propose charters to Navios for cargoes suitable for carriage by Navios' vessels. Navios' then evaluates the employment opportunities available for each type of vessel and arranges cargo and country exclusions, bunkers, loading and discharging conditions, and demurrage.
Technical Ship Management. Navios provides, through its subsidiary, Navios ShipManagement Inc, technical ship management and maintenance services to its owned vessels. Based in Piraeus, Greece, the operation is run by experienced professionals who oversee every step of technical management, from the construction of the vessels in Japan to subsequent shipping operations throughout the life of a vessel, including the superintendence of maintenance and repairs and drydocking.
Operations. The operations department, which is located in Greece, supervises the post-fixture business of the vessels in Navios' fleet (i.e., once the vessel is chartered and being employed) by monitoring their daily positions to ensure that the terms and conditions of the charters are being fulfilled. The operations department also sends superintendents to the vessels to supervise the loading and discharging of cargoes when necessary to minimize time spent in port. The operations department also generally deals with all matters arising in relation to the daily operations of Navios' fleet that are not covered by Navios' other departments.
Financial Risk Management. Navios actively engages in assessing financial risks associated with fluctuating future freight rates, daily time charter hire rates, fuel prices, credit risks, interest rates and foreign exchange rates. Financial risk management is carried out under policies approved and guidelines established by the executive management.
Port and Terminal Operations
Overview. Navios owns and operates the largest bulk transfer and storage port terminal in Uruguay, one of the most efficient and prominent operations of its kind in South America. Situated in an international tax free trade zone in the port of Nueva Palmira at the confluence of the Parana and Uruguay rivers, the terminal operates 24 hours per day, seven days per week, and is ideally located to provide customers, consisting primarily of leading international grain and commodity houses, with a convenient and efficient outlet for the transfer and storage of a wide range of commodities originating in the Hidrovia region of Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay.
Navios has had a lease with the Republic of Uruguay dating back to the 1950's for the land on which it operates. The lease has been extended and now expires in 2025, and may be extended for an additional 20 years at Navios' option. Navios believes the terms of the lease reflect Navios' very high-level relationships within the Republic of Uruguay. Additionally, since the Navios terminal is located in the Nueva Palmira Tax Free Zone, foreign commodities moving through the terminal is free of Uruguayan taxes. Certificates of deposit are also obtainable for commodity entering into the station facility.
There is also considerable scope for further expansion of this bulk terminal operation in Uruguay. After completion in September 2005 of Navios' latest expansion of its storage capacity through the construction of its largest grain silo, Navios' terminal port has approximately 11 acres of available river front land for future development. The increased flow of commodity products through the Nueva Palmira port has allowed Navios to steadily increase throughput. Navios is considering further expansion, as existing and new customers are increasingly demanding long-term terminal transfer and storage services. On this basis Navios intends to build a South American logistics business by acquiring and building assets complementary to its port terminal and storage facilities thus expanding the capabilities of its existing port terminal and storage facilities. Navios’ initial focus will be on the area extending from Brazil to Uruguay on the Paraguay and Parana rivers, considering the region’s growing agricultural and mineral exports, the cost effectiveness of river transport as compared to available alternatives and its existing transportation infrastructure.
Although one of the smaller countries in South America, Uruguay is regarded as one of the most stable countries in the continent. The population is almost 100% literate, with a large middle class and a well-established democracy. The banking system is modern and efficient by international standards.
Port Infrastructure. The port terminal stands out in the region because of its sophisticated design, efficiency, and multimodal operations. The Navios port terminal has specially designed storage facilities and conveying systems that provide tremendous flexibility in cargo movements that help to avoid delays to trucks, vessels and barge convoys. The port terminal offers 270,400 tons of clean and secure grain silo capacity. With ten silos (some with internal separations) available for storage, customers are assured their commodities will be naturally separated. The port terminal has the latest generation, high precision, independent weigh scales, both for discharging and loading activity.
The port terminal has two docks. The main outer dock is 240 meters long and accommodates vessels of up to 85,000 dwt loading to the maximum permitted draft of the Martin Garcia Bar and Mitre Canal. The dock has three new ship loaders capable of loading vessels at rates of up to 20,000 tons per day, depending on commodity. The inner face of this dock is equipped for discharging barge
convoys. The secondary inner dock measures 170 meters long and is dedicated to the discharge of barge convoys. This activity is carried out on both sides of the dock. The terminal is capable of discharging barge convoys at rates averaging 10,000 to 14,000 tons per day, depending on the type of barges and commodity. Fixed duty cycle cranes located on each dock carry out the discharging of barge convoys. The process is optimized through the selection of the most appropriate size and type of buckets according to the commodity to be discharged.
Port Operation. The commodities most frequently handled include grain and grain by-products, as well as some ores, sugar, and salt. The port terminal receives bulk cargoes from barges, trucks, and vessels, and either transfers them directly to dry bulk carriers or stores them in its own modern silos for later shipment.
Dedicated professionals operate the port terminal, taking pride in the quality of service and responsiveness to customer requirements. Management is attentive to commodity storage conditions seeking to maintain customer commodity separation at all times and minimize handling losses. The port terminal operates 24 hours/day, seven days/week, to provide barge and ship traffic with safe and fast turnarounds. The ability to conduct multiple operations simultaneously involving ocean vessels, barges, trucks, and grain silos further enables the port terminal to efficiently service customers' needs.
The Navios port terminal is also unique in its pricing policy by using a fixed fee structure to charge its clients. Other regional competitors charge clients a complicated fee structure, with many variable add-on charges. Navios' pricing policy provides clients with a transparent, comprehensive, and hassle-free quote that has been extremely well received by port patrons. The Uruguay port terminal operations present the additional advantage of generating revenue in US dollars, whereas the majority of its costs are in local currency.
Future Growth. The development of South American grain markets dates back to President Carter's embargo of grain against the Soviet Union in 1979. As a result of that decision, the USSR took steps to secure grain supplies from sources outside North America. By 1981, Argentina had become a significant grain exporter to the USSR, and Brazil quickly followed. The intervening decade saw the development of grain exports markets from these two countries as successive local governments recognized the significant benefits of US dollar income. In the 1990s, Paraguay began to export small quantities of grain and, more recently, Bolivia has expanded its grain exports; the significance of grain exports from these two countries is that both are land-locked. The table below highlights the gradual development of export volumes through the Navios facility in Nueva Palmira, and Navios believes this growth will continue as both countries continue to drive for larger hard currency income.
Navios Uruguay Annual Throughput Volumes
Navios is currently in negotiations with significant existing and new customers, who have expressed high levels of interest in entering in long-term business relationships with the company based on the growing Uruguay grain market.
Navios Uruguay Export Market. Over the past few years, Uruguay has begun to develop its grain exports that, historically, were very small because land was allocated to cattle and sheep farming. The rapid rise in Uruguayan exports is apparent from the chart below. Most importantly for the Navios port terminal, the natural growth area for grain in Uruguay is in the western region of the country on land that is located in close proximity to Nueva Palmira.
Uruguay Grain Exports
In 2004, Navios completed construction of four new cylindrical silos designed specifically to receive Uruguayan commodities. Before these silos had been completed, local exporters had booked their total capacity for a period of three years. This was the first time in the terminal's history that additional silo capacity was booked before completion of construction. As a result of yet further significant new customer demand from companies such as Cargill, Bunge, and Louis Dreyfus, as well as from a number of smaller local grain merchandisers, Navios constructed a new 75,000 ton silo that is the largest in Uruguay and was completed in September 2005. This additional silo added
approximately 35% to the terminal's existing storage capacity and is serving the increased exports of Uruguayan soybeans. The total investment for this project included the new silo, as well as two new truck un-loaders, and new truck weigh scales. Of traditional horizontal, concrete construction, the silo design incorporated wall separations, mechanical air ventilation systems as well as a sensitive temperature monitoring equipment.
The international dry bulk shipping industry is highly fragmented and, as a result, there are numerous charterers. The charterers for Navios' core fleet come from leading enterprises that mainly carry iron ore, coal, and grain cargoes. Navios' assessment of a charterer's financial condition and reliability is an important factor in negotiating employment of its vessels. Navios generally charters its vessels to major trading houses (including commodities traders), major producers and government-owned entities rather than to more speculative or undercapitalized entities. Navios' customers under charter parties, COAs, and its counterparties under FFAs, include national, regional and international companies, such as Cargill International SA, COSCO Bulk Carriers Ltd., Dampskipsskelskapet Norden, Glencore International A.G., Furness Withy Pty. Ltd., Louis Dreyfus Corp., Mitsui O.S.K. Lines Ltd., Rudolf A. Oetker, Sinochart and Taiwan Maritime Transportation Corp. During the year ended December 31, 2005, for both the successor and predecessor periods, none of such customers accounted for more than 10% of revenues, except for Dampskipsskelskapet Norden and Mitsui O.S.K. Lines Ltd. that accounted for 14.8% and 11.9% of revenues, respectively. During the year ended December 31, 2004, none of such customers accounted for more than 10% of revenues, with the exception of Taiwan Maritime Transportation Corp. that accounted for 15.92% of revenues. During 2003, none of Navios' customers or counterparties accounted for more than 10% of Navios' total revenues, with the exception of Cargill International S.A. that accounted for 29.4%.
Navios' port terminal at Nueva Palmira, Uruguay conducts business with customers engaged in the international sales of agricultural commodities, which book portions of the port terminal's silo capacity and transship cargoes through the terminal. In 2005, the two largest customers of the port terminal were Agrograin SA, a subsidiary of the Archer Daniels Midland group, which accounted for 40.4% of the port terminal's revenue, and Multigranos SA which accounted for 14.7% of the port terminal’s revenue. These two customers were also the largest two sources of revenue for the port terminal in 2004 accounting for the following respective percentages of its total revenues in that year: Agrograin SA (46.4%) and Multigranos (14.1%).
The dry bulk shipping markets are extensive, diversiﬁed, competitive, and highly fragmented, divided among approximately 1,500 independent drybulk carrier owners. The world’s active drybulk ﬂeet consists of approximately 6,239 vessels, aggregating some 349.8 million dwt. As a general principle, the smaller the cargo carrying capacity of a drybulk carrier, the more fragmented is its market, both with regard to charterers and vessel owners/operators. Even among the larger drybulk owners and operators, whose vessels are mainly in the larger sizes, only three companies have fleets of 100 vessels or more: the Chinese Government (directly and through China Ocean Shipping and China Shipping Group) and the two largest Japanese shipping companies, Mitsui OSK Lines and Nippon Yusen Kaisha. There are no more than 30 owners with fleets of between 20 and 100 vessels. However, vessel ownership is not the only determinant of ﬂeet control. Many owners of bulk carriers charter their vessels out for extended periods, not just to end users (owners of cargo), but also to other owner/operators and to tonnage pools. Such operators may, at any given time, control a ﬂeet many times the size of their owned tonnage. Navios is one such operator; others include CCM (Ceres Hellenic/Coeclerici), Bocimar, Zodiac Maritime, Louis-Dreyfus/Cetragpa, Cobelfret and Torvald Klaveness.
Governmental and Other Regulations
Governmental Regulation. Government regulation significantly affects the ownership and operation of vessels. These regulations include international conventions, national, state, and local laws, and regulations in force in the countries in which vessels may operate or are registered. A variety of governmental and private entities subject vessels to both scheduled and unscheduled inspections. These entities include the local port authorities (US Coast Guard, harbor master or equivalent), classification societies, flag state administration (country of registry), and charterers, particularly terminal operators. Certain of these entities require vessel owners to obtain permits, licenses, and certificates for the operation of their vessels. Failure to maintain necessary permits or approvals could require a vessel owner to incur substantial costs or temporarily suspend operation of one or more of its vessels.
We believe that the heightened level of environmental and quality concerns among insurance underwriters, regulators, and charterers is leading to greater inspection and safety requirements on all vessels, and may accelerate the scrapping of older vessels throughout the industry. Increasing environmental concerns have created a demand for vessels that conform to stricter environmental standards. Vessel owners are required to maintain operating standards for all vessels that will emphasize operational safety, quality maintenance, continuous training of officers and crews, and compliance with United States and international regulations.
Environmental Regulations. The International Maritime Organization, or IMO, has negotiated international conventions that impose liability for oil pollution in international waters and a signatory’s territorial waters. In September 1997, the IMO adopted Annex VI to the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, which was ratified on May 18, 2004, and became effective on May 19, 2005. Annex VI sets limits on sulfur oxide and nitrogen oxide emissions from ship exhausts and prohibits deliberate emissions of ozone depleting substances, such as chlorofluorocarbons. Annex VI also includes a global cap on the sulfur content of fuel oil and allows for special areas to be established with more stringent controls on sulfur emissions.
Under the International Safety Management Code, or ISM Code, effective since July 1998, the party with operational control of a vessel is required to develop an extensive safety management system that includes, among other things, the adoption of a safety and environmental protection policy setting forth instructions and procedures for operating its vessels safely and describing procedures for responding to emergencies. The ISM Code requires that vessel operators obtain a safety management certificate for each vessel they operate. This certificate evidences compliance by a vessel’s management with code requirements for a safety management system. No vessel can obtain a certificate unless its manager has been awarded a document of compliance, issued by the respective flag state for the vessel, under the ISM Code. Noncompliance with the ISM Code and other IMO regulations may subject a ship owner to increased liability, may lead to decreases in available insurance coverage for affected vessels, and may result in the denial of access to, or detention in, some ports. For example, the United States Coast Guard and European Union authorities have indicated that vessels not in compliance with the ISM Code will be prohibited from trading in ports in the United States and European Union.
Security Regulations. Since the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, there have been a variety of initiatives intended to enhance vessel security. On November 25, 2002, the Maritime Transportation Security Act of 2002, or MTSA, came into effect. To implement certain portions of the MTSA, in July 2003, the United States Coast Guard issued regulations requiring the implementation of certain security requirements aboard vessels operating in waters subject to the jurisdiction of the United States. Similarly, in December 2002, amendments to the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea, or SOLAS, created a new chapter of the convention dealing specifically with maritime security. The new chapter went into effect on July 1, 2004, and imposes various detailed security obligations on vessels and port authorities, most of which are contained in the newly created International Ship and Port Facilities Security, or ISPS, Code. Among the various requirements are:
The United States Coast Guard regulations, intended to be aligned with international maritime security standards, exempt non-US vessels from MTSA vessel security measures, provided such vessels have on board, by July 1, 2004, a valid International Ship Security Certificate, or ISSC, that attests to the vessel's compliance with SOLAS security requirements and the ISPS Code.
Inspection by Classification Societies. Every sea going vessel must be ‘‘classed’’ by a classification society. The classification society certifies that the vessel is ‘‘in class,’’ signifying that the vessel has been built and maintained in accordance with the rules of the classification society and complies with applicable rules and regulations of the vessel’s country of registry and the international conventions of which that country is a member. In addition, where surveys are required by international conventions and corresponding laws and ordinances of a flag state, the classification society will undertake them on application or by official order, acting on behalf of the authorities concerned.
The classification society also undertakes, on request, other surveys and checks that are required by regulations and requirements of the flag state. These surveys are subject to agreements made in each individual case or to the regulations of the country concerned. For maintenance of the class, regular and extraordinary surveys of hull, machinery, including the electrical plant, and any special equipment classed are required to be performed as follows:
Risk of Loss and Liability Insurance
General. The operation of any cargo vessel includes risks such as mechanical failure, physical damage, collision, property loss, cargo loss or damage, business interruption due to political circumstances in foreign countries, hostilities, and labor strikes. In addition, there is always an inherent possibility of marine disaster, including oil spills and other environmental mishaps, and the liabilities arising from owning and operating vessels in international trade. OPA, which imposes virtually unlimited liability upon owners, operators and demise charterers of any vessel trading in the United States exclusive economic zone for certain oil pollution accidents in the United States, has made liability insurance more expensive for ship owners and operators trading in the United States market. While management believes that Navios’ present insurance coverage is adequate, not all risks
can be insured, and there can be no guarantee that any specific claim will be paid, or that Navios will always be able to obtain adequate insurance coverage at reasonable rates.
Hull and Machinery and War Risk Insurances. Navios has marine hull and machinery and war risk insurance, which includes the risk of actual or constructive total loss, for all of the 16 owned vessels. Each of the owned vessels is covered up to at least fair market value, with a deductible for the hull and machinery insurance in amounts ranging from $75,000 to $100,000. There are no deductibles for the war risk insurance. Navios has also arranged increased value insurance for most of the owned vessels. Under the increased value insurance, in case of total loss of the vessel, Navios will be able to recover the sum insured under the increased value policy in addition to the sum insured under the hull and machinery policy. Increased value insurance also covers excess liabilities that are not recoverable in full by the hull and machinery policies by reason of under insurance.
Protection and Indemnity Insurance. Protection and indemnity insurance is provided by mutual protection and indemnity associations, or P&I Associations, which covers Navios’ third party liabilities in connection with its shipping activities. This includes third-party liability and other related expenses of injury or death of crew, passengers and other third parties, loss or damage to cargo, claims arising from collisions with other vessels, damage to other third-party property, pollution arising from oil or other substances, and salvage, to wing and other related costs, including wreck removal. Protection and indemnity insurance is a form of mutual indemnity insurance, extended by protection and indemnity mutual associations, or ‘‘clubs.’’ Subject to the ‘‘capping’’ discussed below, Navios’ coverage, except for pollution, is unlimited. Navios’ current protection and indemnity insurance coverage for pollution is $1.0 billion per vessel per incident. The 14 P&I Associations that comprise the International Group insure approximately 90% of the world’s commercial tonnage and have entered into a pooling agreement to reinsure each association’s liabilities. As a member of a P&I Association, which is a member of the International Group, Navios is subject to calls payable to the associations based on its claim records as well as the claim records of all other members of the individual associations, and members of the pool of P&I Associations comprising the International Group.
Risk management in the shipping industry involves balancing a number of factors in a cyclical and potentially volatile environment. Fundamentally, the challenge is to appropriately allocate capital to competing opportunities of owning or chartering vessels. In part, this requires a view of the overall health of the market, as well as an understanding of capital costs and return. Thus, stated simply, one may charter part of a ﬂeet as opposed to owning the entire ﬂeet to maximize risk management and economic results. This is coupled with the challenge posed by the complex logistics of ensuring that the vessels controlled by Navios are fully employed.
Navios manages risk through a number of strategies, including vessel control strategies (chartering and ownership) freight carriage and FFA trading. Navios vessel control strategies include seeking the appropriate mix of owned vessels, long and short-term chartered in vessels, coupled with purchase options, when available, and spot charters. Navios also enters into COAs, which gives Navios, subject to certain limitations, the flexibility to determine the means of getting a particular cargo to its destination. Navios’ FFA trading strategies include taking economic hedges to manage and mitigate risk on vessels that are on hire or coming off hire to protect against the risk of movement in freight market rates.
Navios is not involved in any legal proceedings which may have a significant effect on its business, financial position, and results of operations or liquidity. From time to time, Navios may be subject to legal proceedings and claims in the ordinary course of business, involving principally commercial charter party disputes. It is expected that these claims would be covered by insurance if they involve liabilities such as arise from a collision, other marine casualty, damage to cargoes, oil pollution, death or personal injuries to crew, subject to customary deductibles. Those claims, even if lacking merit, could result in the expenditure of significant financial and managerial resources.
Crewing and Shore Employees
Navios crews its vessels primarily with Greek officers, Filipino officers, Ukrainian officers and seamen. Navios’ ﬂeet manager is responsible for selecting its Greek officers, which are hired by Navios’ vessel owning subsidiaries. Navios’ Filipino officers and seamen are referred to Navios’ ﬂeet manager by Interorient Maritime Enterprises Inc. and Bright Maritime Corporation, two independent crewing agencies. Navios’ Ukrainian officers and seamen are referred to Navios’ ﬂeet manager by Elvictor Management LTD, an independent crewing agent. Navios’ Georgian officers and seaman are referred to Navios’ ﬂeet manager by Lira Maritime Ltd., an independent crewing agent. The crewing agencies handle each seaman’s training, travel, and payroll. Navios requires that all of its seamen have the qualifications and licenses required to comply with international regulations and shipping conventions.
With respect to shore side employees, Navios employs 18 employees in its South Norwalk, Connecticut office, 29 in its Piraeus, Greece office, and four employees in its Montevideo office, with an additional 79 employees working at the port facility in Nueva Palmira.
Navios currently leases the following properties:
Corporación Navios Sociedad Anonima owns the premises from which it operates in Montevideo, Uruguay. This space is approximately 112 square meters and is located at Juan Carlos Gomez 1445, Oficina 701, Montevideo 1100, Uruguay.
C. Organizational structure
Navios maintains offices in Piraeus, Greece, Norwalk, Connecticut and Montevideo, Uruguay. Navios' corporate structure is functionally organized: commercial ship management and risk management are conducted through Navios Corporation and its wholly-owned subsidiaries (out of South Norwalk and Piraeus, respectively), while the ownership and technical management of Navios' owned vessels are conducted through Navios Maritime Holdings Inc. and its wholly-owned subsidiaries (out of Piraeus). Navios owns the Nueva Palmira port and transfer facility indirectly through its Uruguayan subsidiary, Corporación Navios Sociedad Anonima, or CNSA. All of Navios' subsidiaries are wholly-owned, except for Acropolis Chartering & Shipping Inc., a charter broker that acts on behalf of both Navios and third parties and of which Navios owns 50% of the outstanding equity. The remaining 50% equity of Acropolis is owned by Mr. Stavros Liaros, Acropolis's Chief Executive Officer and a resident of Piraeus, Greece. The chart below sets forth Navios' current corporate structure following the acquisition and reincorporation (all corporations are domiciled in the Republic of the Marshall Islands, except for Acropolis, which is a Liberian corporation, CNSA, which is a Uruguayan company and Hestia Shipping Ltd, which is a Maltese corporation):
D. Property, plants and equipment
Our only material property is the owned vessels and the port terminal facilities in Uruguay. See Item 4.B above.
Item 4A. Unresolved Staff Comments
Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects
The following is a discussion of Navios Maritime Holdings Inc. as ‘‘Successor’’ to and as ‘‘Predecessor’’ of the acquisition / reincorporation discussed in the following paragraphs and in Note 3 to the Consolidated Financial Statements as of December 31, 2005, for the period from August 26, 2005 to December 31, 2005 and for the period from January 1, 2005 to August 25, 2005. Also following is a discussion of the Predecessor’s company financial condition and results of operations for the fiscal years ended December 31, 2004 and 2003. All of these financial statements have been prepared in accordance with Generally Accepted Accounting Principles in the United States of America (GAAP). You should read this section together with the consolidated financial statements including the notes to those financial statements for the years and periods mentioned above which are included in this document.
This report contains forward-looking statements made pursuant to the safe harbor provisions of the Private Securities Reform Act of 1995. These forward looking statements are based on Navios'
current expectations and observations. Included among the factors that, in our view, could cause actual results to differ materially from the forward looking statements contained in this report are changes in any of the following: (i) charter demand and/or charter rates, (ii) production or demand for the types of dry bulk products that are transported by Navios' vessels, (iii) operating costs including but not limited to changes in crew salaries, insurance, provisions, repairs, maintenance and overhead expenses, or (iv) changes in interest rates.
On August 25, 2005, pursuant to a Stock Purchase Agreement dated February 28, 2005, as amended, by and among ISE, Navios and all the shareholders of Navios, ISE acquired Navios through the purchase of all of the outstanding shares of its common stock. As a result of this acquisition, Navios became a wholly-owned subsidiary of ISE. In addition, on August 25, 2005, simultaneously with the acquisition of Navios, ISE effected a reincorporation from the State of Delaware to the Republic of the Marshall Islands through a downstream merger with and into its newly acquired wholly-owned subsidiary, whose name continued to be Navios. As a result of the reincorporation, ISE transitioned from a shell company to an operating business and the operations of Navios became those of a publicly traded company.
This transaction was recorded in two steps. In step one, ISE recorded the $594.4 million total cash purchase price, plus $14.2 million in allocable transaction costs, by allocating such cost to the assets acquired in accordance with their fair market value on the acquisition date. The excess of the purchase price over the fair value of the assets acquired was recorded as goodwill. In step two, which immediately followed, ISE effected a ‘‘downstream merger’’ with and into Navios. The assets and liabilities of ISE (which reflected the acquisition of Navios) became the assets and liabilities of Navios. The stockholders' equity of ISE became the stockholders' equity of Navios. The results of operations of Navios to August 25, 2005 are labeled as ‘‘Predecessor’’ and remain as historically reported. The results of operations from August 26, 2005 forward are labeled as ‘‘Successor'‘‘ and reflect the combined operations of Navios and ISE. The Stock Purchase Agreement required a purchase price adjustment based on an EBITDA target for the period January 1, 2005 to August 31, 2005. The $594.4 million cash purchase price reflects a preliminary price adjustment based on an EBITDA target included in the contract and was adjusted by approximately $0.6 million based on a final calculation agreed between the parties, which amount was paid before December 31, 2005.
Approximately $412.0 million of the purchase price was financed from a $514.4 million senior secured credit facility, entered into on July 12, 2005 and funded on August 25, 2005, with HSH Nordbank AG. The senior secured credit facility was assumed by Navios in connection with the acquisition and reincorporation and was restructured on December 21, 2005. See also Liquidity and Capital Resources and Note 11 to the Navios Maritime Holdings, Inc. Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information on this facility and its restructuring which occurred on December 21, 2005.
On December 31, 2005, Navios' current assets totaled $114.5 million, while current liabilities totaled $133.6 million, resulting in a negative working capital position of $19.1 million. Navios' cash forecast indicates that it will be able to generate sufficient cash during 2006 to make the required principal and interest payments on its indebtedness, provide for the normal working capital requirements of the business and remain in a positive cash position.
At the time of the August 25, 2005 acquisition, ISE's senior management anticipated implementing a strategic post-acquisition plan for the relocation of Navios' offices in the United States from South Norwalk, Connecticut to New York City and of its existing offices in Piraeus, Greece to larger offices in Piraeus to house Navios’ headquarters and the operations of its subsidiaries. Management has commissioned an internal task force to implement this plan during the first half of 2006. The cost of this relocation plan will include the cost of lease terminations, the write off of leasehold improvements at the offices vacated and severance. On January 21, 2006, the Company moved to its new offices at 85 Akti Miaouli, Piraeus Greece. As a result of this relocation, an expense
of $1.4 million has been included in the December 31, 2005 consolidated financial statements as part of the purchase accounting. Of that amount, $0.8 million remained as an accrual at December 31, 2005.
Navios is a vertically integrated global seaborne shipping company, specializing in the worldwide carriage, trading, storing, and other related logistics of international dry bulk cargo transportation. For over 50 years, Navios has cooperated with raw materials producers, agricultural traders and exporters, industrial end-users, ship-owners, and charterers. Navios also owns and operates a port/storage facility in Uruguay and has in-house ship management expertise that allows it to oversee every step of technical management of the owned fleet including the shipping operations throughout the life of the vessel and, the superintendence of maintenance, repairs and dry-docking of the operated fleet.
Following is the current ‘‘core fleet’’ employment profile, including the newbuilds to be delivered. The current ‘‘core fleet’’ consists of 32 vessels totaling 2.1 million deadweight tons. It includes (a) ten modern Ultra-Handymax (52,000-55,000 dwt) and six Panamax (70,000-83,000 dwt) vessels which the Company owns, seven Panamax (70,000-83,000 dwt) and two Ultra-Handymax vessel under long-term time charter and seven long term chartered-in vessels (two Ultra-Handymax and five Panamax) scheduled to be delivered on various dates up to May 2008. The 25 vessels in current operation aggregate approximately 1.61 million deadweight tons and have an average age of 4.4 years. Navios has currently fixed 87.6% and 24.0% of its 2006 and 2007 available days respectively.