Nokia 20-F 2014
As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on April 30, 2014.
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE
SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2013
Commission file number 1-13202
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)
Republic of Finland
(Jurisdiction of incorporation)
Karakaari 7, P.O. Box 226, FI-02610 NOKIA GROUP, Espoo, Finland
(Address of principal executive offices)
Riikka Tieaho, Vice President, Corporate Legal, Telephone: +358 (0) 10 44 88 000, Facsimile: +358 (0) 7 1803-8503, Karakaari 7, P.O. Box 226, FI-02610 NOKIA GROUP, Espoo, Finland
(Name, Telephone, E-mail and/or Facsimile number and Address of Company Contact Person)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (the Exchange Act):
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Exchange Act: None
Securities for which there is a reporting obligation pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act: 5.375% Notes due 2019 and 6.625% Notes due 2039.
Indicate the number of outstanding shares of each of the registrants classes of capital or common stock as of the close of the period covered by the annual report. Shares: 3 744 956 052.
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes x No ¨
If this report is an annual or transition report, indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act. Yes ¨ No x
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes x No ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of large accelerated filer, accelerated filer and smaller reporting company in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
Indicate by check mark which basis of accounting the registrant has used to prepare the financial statements included in this filing: U.S. GAAP ¨
International Financial Reporting Standards as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board x Other ¨
If Other has been checked in response to the previous question, indicate by check mark which financial statement item the registrant has elected to follow. Item 17 ¨ Item 18 ¨
If this is an annual report, indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes ¨ No x
TABLE OF CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION AND USE OF CERTAIN TERMS
Nokia Corporation is a public limited liability company incorporated under the laws of the Republic of Finland. In this document, any reference to we, us, the Group or Nokia means Nokia Corporation and its subsidiaries on a consolidated basis and which refers generally to Nokias continuing operations, except where we make clear that the term means Nokia Corporation or a particular subsidiary or business segment only or the discontinued operations, and except that references to our shares, matters relating to our shares or matters of corporate governance refer to the shares and corporate governance of Nokia Corporation.
In this document, Sale of the D&S Business refers to the transaction announced on September 3, 2013 and closed on April 25, 2014 where Nokia sold substantially all of Nokias Devices & Services business D&S Business to Microsoft pursuant to the Stock and Asset Purchase Agreement, dated as of September 2, 2013, between Nokia and Microsoft International Holdings B.V. (referred to in this document as the D&S Purchase Agreement).
We have three businesses: Networks, HERE, and Technologies, and four operating and reportable segments for financial reporting purposes: Mobile Broadband and Global Services within Networks, HERE, and Technologies. Below is a description of our four reportable segments. Mobile Broadband provides mobile operators with radio and core network software together with the hardware needed to deliver mobile voice and data services. Global Services provides mobile operators with a broad range of services, including network implementation, care, managed services, network planning and optimization as well as systems integration. HERE focuses on the development of location intelligence, location-based services and local commerce. Technologies is built on Nokias Chief Technology Office and intellectual property rights and licensing activities. Networks also contains Networks Other, which includes net sales and related cost of sales and operating expenses of non-core businesses, as well as the Optical Networks business until May 6, 2013, when its divestment was completed. It also includes restructuring and associated charges for Networks business. Additionally, as a result of the Sale of the D&S Business, we report certain separate information for Discontinued Operations.
On August 7, 2013, Nokia completed the acquisition of Siemens stake in Nokia Siemens Networks, which was a joint venture between Nokia and Siemens, and renamed the company Nokia Solutions and Networks, also referred to as NSN. After the closing of the Sale of the D&S Business, NSN was renamed Networks. Networks was consolidated by Nokia prior to this transaction. Beginning in the third quarter of 2013, Nokia has reported financial information for the two operating and reportable segments within Networks: Mobile Broadband and Global Services. Beginning in the fourth quarter of 2013, the Devices & Services business has been reported as Discontinued Operations. To reflect these changes, historical results information for past periods has been regrouped for historical comparative purposes. As is customary, certain judgments have been made when regrouping historical results information and allocating items in the regrouped results. When presenting financial information as at December 31, 2013 and related comparative information for previous periods, we generally refer to the names of the businesses and reportable segments as they were named at December 31, 2013. However, the terms Networks and Nokia Solutions and Networks, or NSN, as well as Technologies and Advanced Technologies can be used interchangeably in this annual report.
Nokia Corporation has published its consolidated financial statements in euro for periods beginning on or after January 1, 1999. In this annual report on Form 20-F, references to EUR, euro or are to the common currency of the European Economic and Monetary Union, or EMU, and references to dollars, US dollars, USD or $ are to the currency of the United States. Solely for the convenience of the reader, this annual report contains conversions of selected euro amounts into US dollars at specified rates, or, if not so specified, at the rate of 1.3779 US dollars per euro, which was the noon buying rate in New York City for cable transfers in euro as certified for customs purposes by the
Federal Reserve Bank of New York on December 31, 2013. No representation is made that the amounts have been, could have been or could be converted into US dollars at the rates indicated or at any other rates.
Our principal executive office is located at Karakaari 7, P.O. Box 226, FI-02610 Nokia Group, Espoo, Finland and our telephone number is Tel. +358 (0) 10 44 88 000.
Nokia Corporation furnishes Citibank, N.A., as Depositary, with consolidated financial statements and a related audit opinion of our independent auditors annually. These financial statements are prepared on the basis of International Financial Reporting Standards as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board and in conformity with International Financial Reporting Standards as adopted by the European Union (IFRS). In accordance with the rules and regulations of the US Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, we do not provide a reconciliation of net income and shareholders equity in our consolidated financial statements to accounting principles generally accepted in the United States, or US GAAP. We also furnish the Depositary with quarterly reports containing unaudited financial information prepared on the basis of IFRS, as well as all notices of shareholders meetings and other reports and communications that are made available generally to our shareholders. The Depositary makes these notices, reports and communications available for inspection by record holders of American Depositary Receipts, or ADRs, evidencing American Depositary Shares, or ADSs (one ADS represents one share), and distributes to all record holders of ADRs notices of shareholders meetings received by the Depositary.
In addition to the materials delivered to holders of ADRs by the Depositary, holders can access our consolidated financial statements, and other information included in our annual reports and proxy materials, at www.nokia.com. This annual report on Form 20-F is also available at www.nokia.com as well as on Citibanks website at http://citibank.ar.wilink.com (enter Nokia in the Company Name Search). Holders may also request a hard copy of this annual report by calling the toll-free number 1-877-NOKIA-ADR (1-877-665-4223), or by directing a written request to Citibank, N.A., Shareholder Services, PO Box 43124, Providence, RI 02940-5140, or by calling Nokia Investor Relations at +1-408-663-5685. With each annual distribution of our proxy materials, we offer our record holders of ADRs the option of receiving all of these documents electronically in the future.
It should be noted that Nokia and its business are exposed to various risks and uncertainties and certain statements herein that are not historical facts are forward-looking statements, including, without limitation, those regarding:
These statements are based on managements best assumptions and beliefs in light of the information currently available to it. Because they involve risks and uncertainties, actual results may differ materially from the results that we currently expect. Factors, including risks and uncertainties that could cause these differences include, but are not limited to:
as well as the risk factors specified in this annual report under Item 3D. Risk Factors. Other unknown or unpredictable factors or underlying assumptions subsequently proven to be incorrect could cause actual results to differ materially from those in the forward-looking statements. Nokia does not undertake any obligation to publicly update or revise forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except to the extent legally required.
3A. Selected Financial Data
The financial data set forth below at December 31, 2012 and 2013 and for each of the years in the three-year period ended December 31, 2013 has been derived from our audited consolidated financial statements included in Item 18 of this annual report. Financial data at December 31, 2009, 2010, and 2011 and for each of the years in the two-year period ended December 31, 2010 have been derived from our previously published audited consolidated financial statements not included in this annual report.
The financial data at December 31, 2012 and 2013 and for each of the years in the three-year period ended December 31, 2013 should be read in conjunction with, and are qualified in their entirety by reference to, our audited consolidated financial statements.
The audited consolidated financial statements from which the selected consolidated financial data set forth below have been derived were prepared in accordance with IFRS.
Distribution of Earnings
We distribute retained earnings, if any, within the limits set by the Finnish Companies Act. We make and calculate the distribution, if any, either in the form of cash dividends, share buy-backs, or in some other form or a combination of these. There is no specific formula by which the amount of a distribution is determined, although some limits set by law are discussed below. The timing and amount of future distributions of retained earnings, if any, will depend on our future results and financial condition.
Under the Finnish Companies Act, we may distribute retained earnings on our shares only upon a shareholders resolution and subject to limited exceptions in the amount proposed by our Board of Directors. The amount of any distribution is limited to the amount of distributable earnings of the parent company pursuant to the last accounts approved by our shareholders, taking into account the material changes in the financial situation of the company after the end of the last financial period and a statutory requirement that the distribution of earnings must not result in insolvency of the company. Subject to exceptions relating to the right of minority shareholders to request a certain minimum distribution, the distribution may not exceed the amount proposed by the Board of Directors.
Under the Finnish Companies Act, Nokia Corporation may repurchase its own shares pursuant to either a shareholders resolution or an authorization to the Board of Directors approved by the companys shareholders. The authorization may amount to a maximum of 10% of all the shares of the company, and its maximum duration is 18 months. The Board of Directors has been regularly authorized by our shareholders at the Annual General Meetings to repurchase Nokias own shares, and during the past three years the authorization covered 360 million shares in 2011, 360 million shares in 2012 and 370 million shares in 2013. The amount authorized each year has been at or slightly under the maximum limit provided by the Finnish Companies Act. Nokia has not repurchased any of its own shares since September 2008.
On April 29, 2014, we announced that the Board of Directors will propose that the Annual General Meeting convening on June 17, 2014 authorize the Board to resolve to repurchase a maximum of 370 million Nokia shares. The proposed maximum number of shares that may be repurchased corresponds to less than 10% of all the shares of the company. The shares may be repurchased under the proposed authorization in order to optimize the capital structure of the Company and are expected to be cancelled. In addition, shares may be repurchased in order to finance or carry out acquisitions or other arrangements, to settle the Companys equity-based incentive plans, or to be transferred for other purposes. The shares may be repurchased either through a tender offer made to all shareholders on equal terms, or in marketplaces by repurchasing the shares in another proportion than that of the current shareholders. The authorization would be effective until December 17, 2015 and terminate the current authorization for repurchasing of the companys shares resolved at the Annual General Meeting on May 7, 2013.
On April 29, 2014, we announced that the Board of Directors will propose for shareholders approval at the Annual General Meeting convening on June 17, 2014 in total a dividend of EUR 0.37 per share in respect of 2013. Comprises of a planned ordinary dividend for 2013 of EUR 0.11 per share and a special dividend of EUR 0.26 per share. Additionally, we announced plans for an ordinary dividend for 2014 of at least EUR 0.11 per share, subject to shareholder approval in 2015.
The table below sets forth the amounts of total cash dividends per share and per ADS paid in respect of each fiscal year indicated. For the purposes of showing the US dollar amounts per ADS for 2008 through 2012, the dividend per share amounts have been translated into US dollars at the noon buying rate in New York City for cable transfers in euro as certified for customs purposes by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York on the respective dividend payment dates.
We make our cash dividend payments in euro. As a result, exchange rate fluctuations will affect the US dollar amount received by holders of ADSs on conversion of these dividends. Moreover, fluctuations in the exchange rates between the euro and the US dollar will affect the dollar equivalent of the euro price of the shares on NASDAQ OMX Helsinki and, as a result, are likely to affect the market price of the ADSs in the United States. See also Item 3D. Risk FactorsOur net sales, costs and results of operations, as well as the US dollar value of our dividends and market price of our ADSs, are affected by exchange rate fluctuations, particularly between the euro, which is our reporting currency, and the US dollar, the Japanese yen and the Chinese yuan, as well as certain other currencies.
Planned EUR 5 billion capital structure optimization program
In conjunction with announcing our new strategy on April 29, 2014, we announced a planned EUR 5 billion capital structure optimization program. For a more detailed discussion of this planned EUR 5 billion capital optimization program, see Item 5B. Liquidity and Capital Resources.
Exchange Rate Data
The following table sets forth information concerning the noon buying rate for the years 2009 through 2013 and for each of the months in the six-month period ended March 31, 2014, expressed in US dollars per euro. The average rate for a year means the average of the exchange rates on the last day of each month during a year. The average rate for a month means the average of the daily exchange rates during that month.
On April 25, 2014, the noon buying rate was USD 1.3838 per EUR 1.00.
3D. Risk Factors
Set forth below is a description of risk factors that could affect Nokia. There may be, however, additional risks unknown to Nokia and other risks currently believed to be immaterial that could turn out to be material. These risks, either individually or together, could adversely affect our business, sales, profitability, results of operations, financial condition, liquidity, market share, brand, reputation and share price from time to time. Unless otherwise indicated or the context otherwise provides, references in these risk factors to Nokia, we, us and our mean Nokias consolidated operating segments and refer to Nokias continuing operations and businesses.
Nokia has announced a new strategy which is subject to various risks and uncertainties, including that Nokia may not be able to sustain or improve the operational and financial performance of its continuing businesses or that Nokia may not be able to correctly identify business opportunities or successfully pursue new business opportunities.
Nokia announced a new strategy on April 29, 2014 after the Nokia Board of Directors conducted a strategic evaluation of the company and its continuing businesses. See Item 4. Information on the Company for a more information on the new strategy and Nokias continuing businesses. This strategy,
including continued investment into our continuing businesses or new business opportunities that we may pursue, may not deliver a return on investment as planned, or at all. Our ability to achieve our new strategic goals and targets is subject to uncertainties and contingencies, some of which are beyond our control, and no assurance can be given that we will be able to achieve these goals or targets.
The Sale of the D&S Business is a significant transaction to Nokia. The Devices & Services business, generated, over the long-term, a significant portion of our profits and cash, as well as net sales. The operations that were transferred to Microsoft generated EUR 15.1 billion, or approximately 50%, of Nokias net sales for the full year 2012 and EUR 10.7 billion, or approximately 46%, of Nokias net sales for the full year 2013. Accordingly, the Sale of the D&S Business is expected to reduce our net sales significantly compared to historical levels. There can be no assurances that Nokias new strategic and operational focus will succeed in replacing or improving upon the historical contribution of the Devices & Services business to our consolidated results of operations. In addition, the Sale of the D&S Business may lead to us having a less diversified portfolio of businesses and may lead to reduced bargaining power with counterparties or reduced relevance in the overall technology sector and, most specifically in the industries we operate.
We operate in fast-paced and innovative industries. Our business may require significant investment to innovate and grow successfully. Such investment may include research and development, licensing arrangements, acquiring businesses and technologies, recruiting specialized expertise and partnering with third parties. Those investments may not, however, result in technologies, products or services that achieve or retain broad or timely market acceptance or are preferred by our customers and consumers. As such, the investments may not be profitable or achieve the target rates of return. There can be no assurance that we will be able to identify and understand the key market trends and user segments to enable us to address customers and consumers expanding needs in order to bring new innovative and competitive products and services to market in a timely manner. If we are unable to anticipate and respond with speed to these key market trends, or to actively drive future trends, through our product development processes, we may not achieve the intended goals of our new strategy, which may materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We may invest in certain new technologies, including investment in market exploration into connectivity capable of handling very large numbers of devices and exponential increases in data traffic, location services that seamlessly bridge between the real and virtual worlds and innovation, including in sensing, radio and low power technologies. Additionally, we continuously seek new business and monetization models. Certain of our competitors have significant resources to invest in market exploration and seek new monetization models or drive industry development and capture value in areas where we are not competitive. Those areas can be, for instance, monetization models linked to the use of advertising, large amounts of consumer data, large connected communities, home entertainment services and alternative payment mechanisms. We may not be able to invest our own resources to compete in these areas, which may in the future prove a competitive disadvantage for us. If we fail in these aspects of our strategy, we may not realize a return on our investments or may incur operating losses and impair our competitiveness for the longer term. We have also made, and may make in the future, these investments through acquisitions. We may, however, fail to successfully complete planned acquisitions or integrate the acquired businesses or assets or retain and motivate their key employees.
In addition to the risks set out above, we may not realize the intended benefits of our new strategy for a number of reasons, including but not limited to:
Networks strategy focuses on mobile broadband and accordingly its sales and profitability depend on its success in the mobile broadband infrastructure and related services market. Networks may fail to execute its strategy or to effectively and profitably adapt its business and operations in a timely manner to the increasingly diverse solution needs of its customers in that market or technological developments.
In line with its strategy, Networks focuses on mobile broadband. Networks has recently evolved this strategy further around end-to-end mobile broadband leadership, services growth, and quality and execution. Accordingly, if Networks is not successful in implementation of its strategy and achieving the desired outcomes in a timely manner or if the mobile broadband infrastructure and related services market fails to develop in the manner currently anticipated by us, or if there are unfavorable variations in Networks product and service mix towards lower margin products or services, Networks business, results of operations, particularly profitability, and financial condition could be materially adversely effected. Networks success with its focus on mobile broadband infrastructure and related services is subject to risks and uncertainties, including:
Networks faces intense competition and may fail to effectively and profitably invest in new competitive high-quality products, services, upgrades and technologies and to bring them to market in a timely manner.
The mobile broadband infrastructure and related services market is characterized by rapidly changing technologies, frequent new solutions requirements and product feature introductions and evolving industry standards.
Networks business performance depends to a significant extent on the timely and successful introduction of new products, services and upgrades of current products to meet the evolving requirements of its customers, to comply with emerging industry standards and to address competing technological and product developments carried out by its competitors. The research and development of new and innovative, technologically advanced products, including the introduction of new radio frequency technologies, as well as upgrades to current products and new generations of technologies, is a complex and uncertain process requiring high levels of innovation and investment, as well as accurate anticipation of technology and market trends. Networks may focus its resources on products and technologies that do not become widely accepted or ultimately prove not to be viable. Networks results of operation will depend to a significant extent on its ability in following areas:
The participants in the mobile broadband infrastructure and related services market compete with each other on the basis of product offerings, technical capabilities, quality, service and price. The competitive environment in this market continues to be intense and is characterized by maturing of industry technology, equipment price erosion and intense price competition. Moreover, mobile operators cost reductions, network sharing and the industry consolidation among the operators are reducing the amount of available business, resulting in further intense competition and pressure on pricing and profitability.
Networks competes with companies that have larger scale, affording such companies more flexibility on pricing, likewise Networks competes with companies that may have stronger customer finance possibilities due to internal policies or governmental support, such as in the form of trade guarantees, allowing them to offer products and services at very low prices or with attractive financing terms. Networks key competitors have large scale, and industry consolidation could result in even larger scale entities, impairing Networks competitive position. Networks also continues to face intense competition from competitors, including from China, which endeavor to gain further market share and broaden their presence in new areas of network infrastructure and related services business. Competition for new customers, as well as for new infrastructure deployment is particularly intense and focused on price and contract terms in favor of the customers. In addition, new competitors may enter the industry as a result of acquisitions or shifts in technology. For example, the virtualization of core and radio networks and the convergence of information technology and telecommunications may lower the barriers of entry for IT companies to the traditional telecommunications industry. Further, these developments may enable more generic IT and IP hardware to be used in telecommunications
networks leading to further price pressure. If Networks cannot respond successfully to the competitive challenges in the mobile broadband infrastructure and related services market, our business and results of operations, particularly profitability, and financial condition may be materially adversely affected.
Networks failure to effectively and profitably invest in new competitive products, services, upgrades and technologies and bring them to market in a timely manner could result in a loss of net sales and market share and could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, particularly profitability, and financial condition. Networks needs to introduce products and services in a cost-efficient and timely manner and to manage proactively the costs and cost development related to its portfolio of products and services, including component sourcing, manufacturing, logistics and other operations. Currency fluctuations may also have an adverse impact on Networks ability to manage its costs. If Networks fails to maintain or improve its market position and scale compared to our competitors across the range of our products and services, as well as leverage our scale to the fullest extent, or if it is unable to develop or otherwise acquire software, cost competitively in comparison to our competitors, or if its costs increase relative to those of our competitors due to currency fluctuations, this could materially adversely affect our competitive position, business and results of operations, particularly our profitability.
Networks products are highly complex, and defects in their design, manufacture and associated hardware, software and content have occurred and may occur in the future. Defects and other quality issues may result from, among other things, failures in our own product and service creation and deliveries as well as manufacturing processes, failures of our suppliers to comply with our supplier requirements, or failures in products and services created jointly with collaboration partners or other third parties where the development and manufacturing process is not fully in our control. Quality issues may cause for instance delays in deliveries, liabilities for network outages, additional repair, product replacement or warranty costs to us, and harm our reputation and our ability to sustain or obtain business with our current and potential customers. With respect to our services, quality issues may relate to the challenges in having the services fully operational at the time they are made available to our customers and maintaining them on an ongoing basis. We make provisions to cover our estimated warranty costs for our products. We believe our provisions are appropriate, although the ultimate outcome may differ from the provisions that are provided for, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, particularly profitability and financial condition.
Our intellectual property (IP) portfolio includes various patented standardized or proprietary technologies on which our products and services depend and we also use our IP portfolio for revenue generation. Third parties may use without a license and unlawfully infringe our IP or commence actions seeking to establish the invalidity of the intellectual property rights of these technologies, or we may not be able to sufficiently invent new relevant technologies, products and services to develop and maintain our IP portfolio, maintain the existing sources of intellectual property related revenue or establish new sources.
Our products and services include numerous patented standardized or proprietary technologies. We invest significantly in research and development in our businesses to develop new relevant technologies, products and services. For instance in 2013 our research and development spend through our three continuing businesses amounted to approximately EUR 2.5 billion. Our research and development activities have led to us having one of the industrys strongest IP portfolios in Technologies and a strong portfolio in Networks that our products and services depend on and we also generate revenue by licensing the portfolios. The continued strength of our portfolios depends on our ability to create new relevant technologies, products and services through our research and development activities. If we fail in creating technologies, products and services that are granted protection by intellectual property rights or if the technologies, products and services do not become
relevant and therefore attractive to licensees, the strength of our IP portfolios would reduce, which could adversely affect our ability to use our IP portfolios for revenue generation.
We retained our entire patent portfolio upon the Sale of the D&S Business. In the past parts of our IP creation has been driven by the innovation in D&S Business. As we no longer own this business, this may lead to a reduced level of IP creation or a reduction in the relevance of Nokias IP to the technology sector. Nokia may also have a diminished ability to influence industry trends and technology selections, reducing the relevance of our IP portfolio.
Despite the steps that we have taken to protect our technology investment with intellectual property rights, we cannot be certain that any rights or pending applications will be granted or that the rights granted in connection with any future patents or other intellectual property rights will be sufficiently broad to protect our technology. Third parties may infringe our intellectual property relating to our proprietary technologies or by ignoring their obligation to seek a license under our standard essential patents or by seeking to pay less than reasonable license fees.
Any patents or other intellectual property rights that are granted to us may be challenged, invalidated or circumvented, and any right granted under our patents may not provide competitive advantages for us. Our ability to protect our IP is dependent on regulatory developments in various jurisdictions and the implementation of the regulations by administrative bodies. As such, regulatory developments or applications of regulations may adversely affect our ability to protect our IP or create IP related revenue.
IP related disputes and litigation are common in the technology industry and are often used to enforce the patents and seek licensing fees. Other companies have commenced and may continue to commence actions seeking to establish the invalidity of our intellectual property, for example, patent rights. In the event that one or more of our patents are challenged, a court may invalidate the patent or determine that the patent is not enforceable, which could harm our competitive position. The outcome of court proceedings is difficult to predict and as such our ability to use intellectual property for revenue generation is at times dependent on favorable court rulings. In addition, if any of our key patents are invalidated, or if the scope of the claims in any of these patents is limited by a court decision, we could be prevented from using such patents as a basis for product differentiation or from licensing the invalidated or limited portion of our intellectual property rights. Even if such a patent challenge is not successful, it could be expensive and time-consuming, divert attention of our management and technical personnel from our business and harm our reputation. Any diminution of the protection that our own intellectual property rights enjoy could cause us to lose some of the benefits of our investments in research and development. Additionally, our IP related revenue could be negatively affected if we were unable to successfully maintain or broaden the scope of licensees or contribute to future innovations and creation of IP.
We enforce our patents against unlawful infringement and generate revenue through realizing the value of our intellectual property by entering into license agreements and through patent transactions. Patent license agreements can cover both licensees past and future sales. The portion of the income that relates to licensees past sales is not expected to have a recurring benefit and ongoing patent income from licensing is generally subject to various factors that we have little or no control over, for instance sales by the licensees. There are no assurance that our actions to generate intellectual property-related revenue will lead to favorable outcomes, such as patent license agreements on favorable terms to us or that we would be able to use our patent portfolio for revenue generation to a similar extent going forward. While we have various licensees, a significant portion of licensing revenues is generated from a limited number of licensees and as such issues as ends of contracts, licensee business performance or bankruptcies in relation to these select licensees could have a significant impact on our revenue. Due to various reasons including those that are set out above, our
intellectual property related revenue can vary considerably from time to time and there is no assurance that past levels are indicative of future levels of intellectual property related revenue.
Our HERE business includes various risks and uncertainties, including that we may be unable to maintain current sources of net sales in the vehicle segment from which our HERE business has historically derived most of its net sales from, establish a successful location-based platform, extend our location-based services across devices and operating systems or create new sources of revenue.
Our HERE business net sales are mainly derived from sales to the automotive industry, making it dependent on overall developments in that industry and HEREs ability to remain successful in that industry. Our HERE business faces intense competition from several global and local companies with different business models. For example, Google uses an advertising-based model that allows consumers and companies to use parts of its map data and related services in their products free of charge. Google is increasingly competing with our HERE business in the provision of local search and services also to the automotive industry. The success of Googles Android platform and search services from Google can provide a competitive advantage to Google when providing local search and services to the automotive industry. Additionally certain competitors are bringing novel solutions, for instance offering entertainment and information capabilities, into vehicles which can include location intelligence provided by HEREs competitors. Additionally, certain governmental and quasi-governmental agencies are making more map data with improving coverage and content, and high quality, available free of charge or at lower prices. Certain crowdsourcing efforts may also result in the availability of competing map data. Additionally, our HERE business is exposed to various risks and uncertainties, including the following:
We assess the carrying amount of goodwill annually or more frequently if events or changes in circumstances indicate that such carrying amount may not be recoverable. Additionally, we assess the carrying amount of other identifiable assets if events or changes in circumstances indicate that their carrying amounts may not be recoverable. If revenue from our HERE business does not develop as anticipated or new sources of revenue do not materialize as expected, or at all, the HERE business may not generate enough positive operating cash flow. This or other factors may lead to the decrease in value of our location-based services and commerce assets, leading to further impairments charges that may be negative to Nokia, including goodwill for our HERE business. There was no goodwill impairment charge recorded in 2013 as a result of the goodwill impairment assessment, however an adverse change in any of the key assumptions used in measuring the recoverable value of our HERE business could have resulted in goodwill impairment as the current carrying value of HERE is only slightly lower than its recoverable value. While we believe the estimated recoverable values are reasonable, actual performance in the short- and long-term could be materially different from our forecasts, which could impact future estimates of recoverable value of HERE and may result in impairment charges.
Our sales, profitability and cash flow are dependent on the development of the mobile and communications industry in numerous diverse markets, as well as on general economic conditions globally and regionally.
As we are a global company with sales in most countries of the world, our sales and profitability are dependent on general economic conditions globally and regionally. The traditional mobile communications industry has matured to varying degrees in different markets and, consequently, the industry is more vulnerable than before to the negative effects related to the deterioration in global economic conditions.
Networks sales and profitability are dependent on the development of the mobile broadband infrastructure industry in numerous diverse markets, particularly the growth of the investments made by mobile operators and services providers in network infrastructure and related services. The pace of such investments is in turn dependent on the ability of network providers and mobile operators to
increase subscriber numbers, compete with alternative business models eroding the revenue from the traditional voice, messaging and data transport services, stimulate increased usage of voice, data and value-adding services that the subscribers will pay for, and maintain their profitability in intense competition.
Negative developments in, or the general weakness of, the economy, particularly in increasing levels of unemployment in the markets in which our customers operate, may have a direct negative impact on the spending patterns of end-users. This may affect both the services they subscribe to and usage levels of such services, which may lead to mobile operators and service providers investing in the related infrastructure and services less than anticipated. Regional and country specific changes may also affect us adversely. We continue to witness political unrest in various regions where we do business, which adversely affected our sales in those markets. For instance, the recent events and instability in Ukraine and the international reaction to them may adversely affect our business or operations in Ukraine, Russia and/or related markets, including as a result of potential trade sanctions or economic uncertainly or slowdown resulting from these events.
Continued difficulties, uncertainty or any deterioration in global economic conditions or a recurrence or escalation of political unrest may result in mobile network operators postponing or reducing their investment in their network infrastructure and related services. The demand for digital map information and other location-based content by automotive and mobile device manufacturers may decline in relation to any further contraction of sales in the automotive and consumer electronics industry. The demand for digital map information and other location-based content by automotive and mobile device manufacturers may decline in relation to any further contraction of sales in the automotive and consumer electronics industry. Our IP licensing business may be affected for instance as licensees may not have motivation to seek new or renew existing licensing arrangements with us or have reduced unit sales, as it is common that licensing fees are tied to unit sales.
In addition, continued difficulties, uncertainty or any deterioration in the global or relevant regional economic conditions may:
We currently believe our funding position is sufficient to meet our operating and capital expenditures in the foreseeable future. However, adverse developments in the global financial markets could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations and/or our ability to access affordable financing on terms satisfactory to us. For a more detailed discussion of our liquidity and capital resources, see Item 5B. Liquidity and Capital Resources and Note 35 of our consolidated financial statements included in Item 18 of this annual report.
Networks is dependent on a limited number of customers and large multi-year contracts and accordingly a loss of a single customer or issues related to a single contract can have a significant impact on Networks.
A large proportion of net sales that Networks generates have historically come from a limited number of customers. As consolidation among existing customers continues, it is possible that an even greater portion of Networks net sales will be attributable to a smaller number of large service providers operating in multiple markets. As part of Networks strategic focus on certain markets, the proportion of the sales to certain key customers in those markets has also grown. These developments will also increase the impact of the outcome of some individual contract tenders on Networks net sales. In addition, mobile operators are increasingly entering into network sharing arrangements, as well as joint procurement agreements, which may reduce their investments and the number of networks available for Networks to service. Further, the procurement organizations of certain large mobile operators sell consulting services to enhance the negotiation position of smaller operators towards their vendors. As a result of these trends and the intense competition in the industry, Networks may be required to provide contract terms increasingly favorable to the customer to remain competitive. Any unfavorable developments in relation to or any change in the contract terms applicable to a major customer may have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Large multi-year contracts, which are typical in the mobile broadband infrastructure and related services business, include a risk that the timing of sales and results of operations associated with those contracts will differ from what was expected. Moreover, such contracts often require the dedication of substantial amounts of working capital and other resources, which may negatively affect our cash flow, particularly in the early stages of a contract, or may require Networks to continue to sell certain products and services, or to certain markets, that would otherwise be discontinued, thereby diverting resources from developing more profitable or strategically important products and services. Any suspension, termination or non-performance by us under the contracts may have a material adverse effect on Networks because mobile operators have demanded and may continue to demand stringent contract undertakings, such as penalties for contract violations.
We may be unable to retain, motivate, develop and recruit appropriately skilled employees.
Our success is dependent on our ability to retain, motivate, develop through constant competence training and recruit appropriately skilled employees with a comprehensive understanding of our current and future businesses, technologies, software, products and services. We seek to create a corporate
culture that is motivational and encourages creativity and continuous learning as competition for skilled personnel remains intense. We have over recent years significantly reduced our workforce and introduced changes in strategies. Changes and uncertainty may cause disruption and dissatisfaction among employees, as well as fatigue due to the cumulative effect of several other reorganizations in the past few years. As a result, employee motivation, energy, focus, morale and productivity may be reduced, causing inefficiencies and other problems across the organization and leading to the loss of key personnel and the related costs in dealing with such matters. Reorganizations and strategic changes may also result in key people leaving the company or resource gaps, some of which may be only noticed after a certain period of time. If the strategic direction of Nokia or any of its businesses is perceived negatively by our employees, this may result in a heightened risk of being able to retain or recruit needed resources. Moreover, our employees may be targeted aggressively by our competitors due to our changes in strategy, and some employees may be more receptive to such offers, leading to the loss of key personnel. Accordingly, we may need to adjust our compensation and benefits policies and take other measures to attract, retain and motivate skilled personnel aligned with the changes to our mode of working and culture needed to implement new strategies successfully. This will require significant time, attention and resources of our senior management and others within the organization and may result in increased costs. We have encountered, and may encounter in the future, shortages of appropriately skilled personnel, which may hamper our ability to implement our strategies and materially harm our business and results of operations.
Relationships with employee representatives are generally managed at site level and most collective bargaining agreements have been in place for several years. Our inability to negotiate successfully with employee representatives or failures in our relationships with the representatives could result in strikes by the employees, increased operating costs as a result of higher wages or benefits paid to employees as the result of a strike or other industrial action and/or inability to implement changes to our organization and operational structure in the planned time or cost, or at all. If our employees were to engage in a strike or other work stoppage, we could experience a significant disruption of operations and/or higher ongoing labor costs.
We have operations in a number of countries and, as a result, face complex tax issues and could be obligated to pay additional taxes in various jurisdictions. Further, our actual or anticipated performance, among other factors, could reduce our ability to utilize our deferred tax assets.
We operate our business in a number of countries which involve different tax regimes and the application of rules related to taxation. Applicable taxes, value added tax (VAT) and social taxes for which we make provisions could increase significantly as a result of changes in applicable tax laws in the countries where we operate, the interpretation of those laws by local tax authorities or tax audits performed by local tax authorities. The impact of these factors is dependent on the types of revenue and mix of profit we generate in various countries; for instance, profits from sales of devices or services may have a different tax treatment.
Nokia is subject to income taxes in Finland and in numerous other jurisdictions. Our business and investments globally and especially in emerging market countries are subject to uncertainties, including unfavorable or unpredictable tax law changes (even possibly with retroactive effect), taxation treatment and regulatory proceedings including tax audits. For instance, during early 2013 Nokia became subject to a tax investigation in India, focusing on Indian tax consequences of payments made within Nokia for the supply of operating software from its parent company in Finland. Such proceedings can be lengthy, involve actions that can hinder local operations, affect unrelated parts of our business and the outcomes of such proceedings is difficult to predict. To this end, Nokia has appealed on the underlying withholding tax claim it received in 2013 to the Income Tax Tribunal, Delhi.
Negative developments or outcome in such proceedings could have adverse effects to our cash flows, income statements and to our financial position. We are required to indemnify Microsoft for certain tax liabilities, including tax liabilities of the Nokia entities acquired by Microsoft in connection with the closing of the Sale of the D&S Business or the assets acquired by Microsoft attributable to tax periods ending on or prior to the closing date of the closing of the Sale of the D&S Business or the certain pre-closing portion of any taxable period that includes the closing date of the closing of the Sale of the D&S Business or taxes imposed with respect to any asset not acquired by Microsoft.
Deferred tax assets recognized on tax losses, unused tax credits and tax deductible temporary differences are dependent on our ability to offset such items against future taxable income within the relevant tax jurisdiction. Deferred tax assets recognized on tax losses, unused tax credits and tax deductible temporary differences are based on our assumptions for future taxable earnings and these may not occur as planned, which may cause the deferred tax asset to be reduced. There can be no assurances that an unexpected reduction in deferred tax assets will not occur. Any such reduction could have an adverse effect on us. Additionally, our earnings have been and may continue to be in the future unfavorably impacted if no tax benefits are recognized for certain deferred tax items. There may also be unforeseen tax expenses that may have an unfavorable impact on us. As a result and given the inherent unpredictable nature of taxation, there can be no assurance that the estimated long-term tax rate of Nokia will remain at current levels or that cash flows regarding taxes will be stable.
We may fail to manage our manufacturing, service creation and delivery, as well as our logistics efficiently, and without interruption, or the limited number of suppliers we depend on may fail to deliver sufficient quantities of fully functional products and components or deliver timely services meeting our customers needs.
Our product manufacturing, service creation and delivery as well as our logistics are complex, require advanced and costly equipment and include outsourcing to third parties. These operations are continuously modified in an effort to improve efficiency and flexibility of our manufacturing, service creation and delivery as well as our logistics and to produce, create and distribute continuously changing volumes. We may experience difficulties in adapting our supply to meet the changing demand for our products and services, both ramping up and down production at our facilities and network implementation capabilities as needed on a timely basis; maintaining an optimal inventory level; adopting new manufacturing processes; finding the most timely way to develop the best technical solutions for new products; managing the increasingly complex manufacturing process and service creation and delivery process or achieving required efficiency and flexibility, whether we manufacture our products and create and deliver our services ourselves or outsource to third parties.
Our manufacturing operations depend on obtaining sufficient quantities of fully functional products, components, sub-assemblies, software and services on a timely basis. Our principal supply requirements for our products are for electronic components, mechanical components and software, which all have a wide range of applications in our products.
In some cases, a particular component or service may be available only from a limited number of suppliers or from a single supplier. In addition, our dependence on third-party suppliers has increased as a result of our strategic decisions to outsource certain activities. Suppliers may from time to time extend lead times, limit supplies, change their partner preferences, increase prices, have poor quality or be unable to increase supplies to meet increased demand due to capacity constraints or other factors, which could adversely affect our ability to deliver our products and services on a timely basis. For example, Networks efforts to meet its customer needs during major network roll-outs in certain markets may require sourcing large volumes of components and services from the suppliers and vendors at short notice and at the same time with its competitors. If we fail to anticipate customer
demand properly, an over-supply or under-supply of components and production or services delivery capacity could occur. In many cases, some of our competitors utilize the same contract manufacturers, component suppliers and service vendors. If they have purchased capacity or components ahead of us, this could prevent us from acquiring the needed components or services, which could limit our ability to supply our customers or increase our costs.
We also commit to certain capacity levels or component quantities which, if unused, will result in charges for unused capacity or scrapping costs. The cost efficiencies implemented in our supply chain to meet our targets to reduce Networks production overheads may result in lapses in the availability of certain components, especially in situations of tight supply or demand peaks.
We may not be able to secure components at attractive terms from our suppliers or, a supplier may fail to meet our supplier requirements, such as, most notably, our and our customers product quality, safety, security and other standards. Consequently, some of our products may be unacceptable to us and our customers, or may fail to meet our quality controls. In case of issues affecting a products safety or regulatory compliance, we may be subject to damages due to product liability, or defective products, components or services may need to be replaced. Also, some suppliers may not be compliant with local laws, including, among other things, local labor laws. In addition, a component supplier may experience delays or disruption to its manufacturing processes or financial difficulties or even insolvency or closure of its business, in particular due to difficult economic conditions. Any of these events could delay our successful and timely delivery of products that meet our and our customers quality, safety, security and other requirements, or otherwise materially adversely affect our sales and results of operations or our reputation and brand value.
We may also experience challenges caused by third parties or other external difficulties in connection with our efforts to modify our operations to improve the efficiency and flexibility of our manufacturing, service creation and delivery as well as our logistics, including, but not limited to, strikes, purchasing boycotts, public harm to our brands and claims for compensation resulting from our decisions on where to locate and how to utilize our manufacturing facilities. Such difficulties may result from, among other things, delays in adjusting or upgrading production at our facilities, delays in expanding production capacity, failure in our manufacturing, service creation and delivery as well as logistics processes, failures in the activities we have outsourced, and interruptions in the data communication systems that run our operations. Such failures or interruptions could result in our products not meeting our and our customers quality, safety, security and other requirements, or being delivered late or in insufficient or excess volumes compared to our own estimates or customer requirements, which could have a material adverse effect on our sales, results of operations, reputation and the value of our brands.
Many of our production sites or the production sites of our suppliers are geographically concentrated, with a majority of our suppliers based in Asia. In the event that any of these geographic areas is affected by any adverse conditions, such as natural disasters, geopolitical disruptions or civil unrest that disrupt production and/or deliveries from our suppliers, our ability to deliver our products on a timely basis could be negatively affected, which may materially adversely affect our business and results of operations.
The Sale of the D&S Business may expose us to contingent liabilities and the agreements we have entered into with Microsoft may have terms that prove to be unfavorable to us.
The sale by Nokia of substantially all of Nokias Devices & Services business, including Smart Devices and Mobile Phones pursuant to the D&S Purchase Agreement may expose us to liabilities or have terms that prove unfavorable to us. Under the D&S Purchase Agreement, we are required to indemnify Microsoft for the breach or violation of certain representations and warranties and covenants made by us in the D&S Purchase Agreement, subject to certain limitations and, in some cases, subject to a cap
of EUR 284 250 000 and for losses arising from assets not acquired by Microsoft, liabilities retained by us and liabilities that are not primarily related to the D&S Business, subject to certain limitations and, in some cases, subject to a cap of EUR 284 250 000. Significant indemnification claims by Microsoft with respect to the D&S Purchase Agreement and the Sale of the D&S Business could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition. In addition, we are required to indemnify Microsoft for certain tax liabilities, including tax liabilities of the Nokia entities acquired by Microsoft, the D&S Business or the assets to be acquired by Microsoft attributable to tax periods ending on or prior to the closing date of the transaction or the certain pre-closing portion of any taxable period that includes the closing date of the transaction or taxes imposed with respect to any asset not being acquired by Microsoft. The D&S Purchase Agreement may have terms that prove to be unfavorable to us and significant transactions may result in claims between the parties, which can consume time and management attention and the outcome of disputes related to significant transactions may be difficult to predict.
The D&S Purchase Agreement contains certain purchase price adjustment mechanisms. The estimate of the adjustments made for net working capital and cash earnings was slightly positive for Nokia, and we currently expect the total transaction price to be slightly higher than the earlier-announced transaction price of EUR 5.44 billion after the final adjustments are made based on the verified closing balance sheet. In line with the D&S Purchase Agreement, the final purchase price adjustment will be based on the final adjustment amount determined after Closing in accordance with the terms of the D&S Purchase Agreement and as such there are no assurances that this will be the final purchase price adjustment as it may be higher or lower.
Nokia and Microsoft made certain adjustments to the scope of the assets originally planned to transfer. These adjustments included Nokias manufacturing facilities in Chennai in India and Masan in the Republic of Korea not transferring to Microsoft. In India, our manufacturing facility is subject to an asset freeze by the Indian tax authorities as a result of ongoing tax proceedings. Consequently, the facility remains part of Nokia following the closing of the transaction. Nokia and Microsoft have entered into a service agreement whereby Nokia will produce mobile devices for Microsoft. In the Republic of Korea, Nokia and Microsoft agreed to exclude the Masan facility from the scope of the transaction. Nokia will now take steps to close the facility, which employs approximately 200 people.
As Nokia retains the Chennai facility and is taking steps to close the Masan facility, it continues to face certain risks and costs related to these production facilities that may not be fully remedied by our arrangements with Microsoft, including claims that may be made against Nokia as the owner of these facilities, administrative burden associated with running these facilities, potential claims by authorities and potential reputational damage associated with owning and running these production facilities. After the above mentioned periods, Nokia will need to find alternative solutions for these production facilities, which may further expose Nokia to additional risks and cost associated with such plans.
Our operations rely on the efficient and uninterrupted operation of complex and centralized information technology systems and networks and we store certain personal and consumer data as part of our business operations. If a system or network inefficiency, cybersecurity breach, malfunction or disruption occurs, this could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.
Our operations rely on the efficient and uninterrupted operation of complex and centralized information technology systems and networks, which are integrated with those of third parties. Additionally, we store certain personal and consumer data as part of our business operations. All information technology systems are potentially vulnerable to damage, malfunction or interruption from a variety of sources. We are to a significant extent relying on third parties for the provision of information
technology systems and networks. We may experience disruptions if our partners do not deliver as we have planned or if we are unable to successfully and manage systems together with our partners.
We have made certain adjustments to our information technology systems as a result of the Sale of the D&S Business. We will need to use new service providers and may increase our reliance on certain new technologies, such as cloud based services and certain other services that are used over the internet rather than with the traditional licensing model. Switching to using new service providers and introducing new technologies is inherently risky and may exposes us to a heightened risk of experiencing disruptions in our operations for instance due to network inefficiency, cybersecurity breach, malfunction or other disruptions resulting from information technology systems.
We pursue various measures in order to manage our risks related to system and network malfunction and disruptions, including the use of multiple suppliers and available information technology security. However, despite precautions taken by us, any malfunction or disruption of our current or future systems, or networks such as an outage in a telecommunications network used by any of our information technology systems, or a breach of our cybersecurity, such as an attack, malware or other event that leads to an unanticipated interruption or malfunction of our information technology systems or networks or data leakages, could have a material adverse effect on our brand image, business and results of operations. In addition, if we fail to successfully use our information technology systems and networks, our operational efficiency or competitiveness could be impaired which could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations. A disruption, for instance, in our location-based services, could cause significant discontent among users of our products resulting in claims or deterioration of our brand image.
Although we endeavor to develop products and services that meet the appropriate security standards, including with respect to data protection, we or our products and online services, marketing and developer sites may be subject to breaches in our cybersecurity, including hacking, viruses, worms and other malicious software, unauthorized modifications or illegal activities, that may cause potential security risks and other harm to us, our customers or consumers and other end-users of our products. Events or mere allegations of cybersecurity breaches may have a material adverse effect on our business. Additionally, we contract with multiple third parties in various jurisdictions who collect and use certain data on our behalf. Although we have processes in place designed to ensure appropriate collection, handling and use of such data, third parties may use the data inappropriately, breach laws in collecting, handling or using such data or leak such data. This could lead to lengthy proceedings or fines imposed on us as well as adverse effects to our reputation and brand value.
In connection with providing our products to our customers and consumers, certain customer feedback, information on consumer usage patterns and other personal and consumer data is collected and stored through us, either by the consumers or by us or our partners or subcontractors. Loss, improper disclosure or leakage of any personal or consumer data collected by us or that is available to our partners or subcontractors, made available to us or stored in or through our products could result in liability to us and harm our reputation and brand. In addition, governmental authorities may use our networks products to access the personal data of individuals without our involvement, for example, through so-called lawful intercept capability of network infrastructure. Even perceptions that our products do not adequately protect personal or consumer data collected by us, made available to us or stored in or through our products or that they are being used by third parties to access personal or consumer data could impair our sales, results of operations, reputation and brand value.
Our efforts aimed at managing and improving financial performance, cost savings and competitiveness may not lead to targeted results or improvements.
We need to manage our operating expenses and other internal costs to maintain cost efficiency and competitive pricing of our products and services. Any failure by us to determine the appropriate
prioritization of operating expenses and other costs, to identify and implement on a timely basis the appropriate measures to adjust our operating expenses and other costs accordingly, or to maintain achieved reduction levels, could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Nokia has recently completed large restructuring programs and has over recent years significantly reduced its global work force. In November 2011, NSN (since renamed Networks) announced a strategy, including changes to its organizational structure and an extensive global restructuring program, aimed at improving its competitiveness and profitability. The strategy also included efforts to focus its business and exit certain countries, business areas and contacts. This program was largely completed at the end of 2013 resulting in a reduction of more than EUR 1.5 billion NSN (since renamed Networks) annualized operating expenses and production overheads, excluding special items and purchase price related items. We may in the ordinary course of business institute new plans for restructuring measures. The restructuring programs are costly, potentially disruptive to operations and may not lead to sustainable improvements in overall competitiveness and profitability, and may have a negative effect for instance as result in the loss of scale benefits.
Networks may be adversely affected by negative developments with respect to the customer financing or extended payment terms it provides to customers.
Mobile operators in some markets may require their suppliers, including Networks, to arrange, facilitate or provide financing in order to obtain sales or business. They may also require extended payment terms. In some cases, the amounts and duration of these financings and trade credits, and the associated impact on our working capital, may be significant. Credit markets in general have been tight since 2009. Requests for customer financing and especially extended payment terms have remained at a reasonably high level. However, the amount of financing provided directly to our customers continued to decrease in 2013.
Uncertainty in the financial markets may result in more customer financing requests. As a strategic market requirement, Networks arranges and facilitates financing or provides longer payment terms to a number of customers, typically supported by export credit or guarantee agencies or through sale of the related receivables. In the event that export credit agencies face future constraints on their ability or willingness to provide financing to Networks customers or there is not sufficient demand to purchase their receivables, there could be a material adverse effect on our business and financial condition. Networks has agreed to extended payment terms for a number of customers, and may continue to do so. Extended payment terms may continue to result in a material aggregate amount of trade credits. Even when the associated risk is mitigated by the fact that the portfolio relates to a variety of customers, defaults in the aggregate could have a material adverse effect on us.
Networks cannot guarantee that it will be successful in arranging, facilitating or providing needed financing, including longer or extended payment terms to customers, particularly in difficult financial market conditions. In addition, certain of Networks competitors may have greater access to credit financing, which could adversely affect our ability to compete successfully for business in the mobile broadband infrastructure and, indirectly, in the related services sectors. Networks ability to manage its total customer finance and trade credit exposure depends on a number of factors, including capital structure, market conditions affecting its customers, the level and terms of credit available to it and to its customers, the cooperation of export credit or guarantee agencies and our ability to mitigate exposure on acceptable terms. Networks may not be successful in managing the challenges associated with the customer financing and trade credit exposure that Networks may have from time to time. While defaults under financings, guarantees and trade credits to our customers resulting in impairment charges and credit losses have not been a significant factor for Networks, these may increase in the future, and commercial banks may not continue to be able or willing to provide
sufficiently long-term financing, even when backed by export credit agency guarantees, due to their own liquidity constraints.
Networks has used the sale of receivables to banks or other financial institutions to improve its liquidity, and any significant change in Networks ability to continue this practice could impair our liquidity. See Item 5B. Liquidity and Capital ResourcesStructured Finance, and Note 35(b) to our consolidated financial statements included in Item 18 of this annual report for a more detailed discussion of issues relating to customer financing, trade credits and related commercial credit risk.
If any of the companies we partner and collaborate with were to fail to perform as planned or if we fail to achieve the collaboration or partnering arrangements needed to succeed, we may not be able to bring our products or services to market successfully or in a timely way.
We are increasingly collaborating and partnering with third parties to develop technologies, products and services. Additionally, we have outsourced various functions to third parties and are relying on them to provide certain services to us. These arrangements involve the commitment by each party of various resources, including technology, research and development efforts, services and personnel. Although the objective of the collaborative and partnering arrangements is a mutually beneficial outcome for each party, our ability to introduce products and services that are commercially viable and meet our and our customers and consumers quality, safety, security and other standards successfully and on schedule could be hampered if, for example, any of the following risks were to materialize:
Our products and services include increasingly complex technologies, some of which have been developed by us or licensed to us by certain third parties. As a result, evaluating the rights related to the technologies we use or intend to use is more and more challenging, and we expect to continue to face claims that we could have allegedly infringed third parties intellectual property rights. The use of these technologies may also result in increased licensing costs for us, restrictions on our ability to use certain technologies in our products and/or costly and time-consuming litigation.
Our products and services include increasingly complex technologies, some of which have been developed by us or licensed to us by certain third parties. As the amount of such proprietary technologies and the number of parties claiming intellectual property rights continue to increase, even within individual products, as the range of our products becomes more diversified and if we were to
enter into new businesses, and as the complexity of the technology increases, the possibility of alleged infringement and related intellectual property claims against us continues. The holders of patents and other intellectual property rights potentially relevant to our products may be unknown to us, may have different business models, may refuse to grant licenses to their proprietary rights, or may otherwise make it difficult for us to acquire a license on commercially acceptable terms. There may also be technologies licensed to and relied on by us that are subject to alleged infringement or other corresponding allegations or claims by others which could impair our ability to rely on such technologies. In addition, although we endeavor to ensure that companies that work with us possess appropriate intellectual property rights or licenses, we cannot fully avoid the risks of intellectual property rights infringement created by suppliers of components and various layers in our products, or by companies with which we work in cooperative research and development activities. Similarly, we and our customers may face claims of infringement in connection with our customers use of our products.
In many aspects the business models for mobile services are not yet established. The lack of availability of licenses for copyrighted content, delayed negotiations, or restrictive licensing terms may have a material adverse effect on the cost or timing of content-related services offered by us, mobile network operators or third-party service providers.
Since all technology standards, including those we use and rely on, include some intellectual property rights, we cannot fully avoid risks of a claim for infringement of such rights due to our reliance on such standards. We believe, the number of third parties declaring their intellectual property to be potentially relevant to these standards, for example, the standards related to so-called 3G and 4G mobile communication technologies, as well as other advanced mobile communications standards, is increasing, which may increase the likelihood that we will be subject to such claims in the future. As the number of market entrants and the complexity of technology increases, it remains likely that we will need to obtain licenses with respect to existing and new standards from other licensors. While we believe, most such intellectual property rights declared or actually found to be essential to a given standard carry with them an obligation to be licensed on fair, reasonable and non-discriminatory terms, not all intellectual property owners agree on the meaning of that obligation and thus costly and time-consuming litigation over such issues has resulted and may continue to result in the future.
From time to time, some existing patent licenses may expire or otherwise become subject to renegotiation. The inability to renew or finalize such arrangements or new licenses with acceptable commercial terms may result in costly and time-consuming litigation, and any adverse result in any such litigation may lead to restrictions on our ability to sell certain products and could result in payments that potentially could have a material adverse effect on our operating results and financial condition. These legal proceedings may continue to be expensive and time-consuming and divert the efforts of our management and technical personnel from our business, and, if decided against us, could result in restrictions on our ability to sell our products, require us to pay increased licensing fees, substantial judgments, settlements or other penalties and incur expenses.
Our patent license agreements may not cover all the future businesses that we may enter; our existing businesses may not necessarily be covered by our patent license agreements if there are changes in our corporate structure or in companies under our control; or our newly-acquired businesses may already have patent license agreements with terms that differ from similar terms in our patent license agreements. This may result in increased costs, restrictions to use certain technologies or time-consuming and costly disputes whenever there are changes in our corporate structure or in companies under our control, or whenever we enter new businesses or acquire new businesses.
We make accruals and provisions to cover our estimated total direct IPR costs for our products. The total direct IPR cost consists of actual payments to licensors, accrued expenses under existing
agreements and provisions for potential liabilities. We believe that our accruals and provisions are appropriate for all technologies owned by others. The ultimate outcome, however, may differ from the provided level which could have a positive or negative impact on our results of operations and financial condition.
Any restrictions on our ability to sell our products due to expected or alleged infringements of third-party intellectual property rights and any intellectual property rights claims, regardless of merit, could result in material loss of profits, costly litigation, the payment of damages and other compensation, the diversion of the attention of our personnel, product shipment delays or the need for us to develop non-infringing technology or to enter into a licensing agreement. If licensing agreements were not available or are not available on commercially acceptable terms, we could be precluded from making and selling the affected products, or could face increased licensing costs. As new features are added to our products, we may need to acquire further licenses, including from new and sometimes unidentified owners of intellectual property. The cumulative costs of obtaining any necessary licenses are difficult to predict and may over time have a negative effect on our operating results. See Item 4B. Business OverviewPatents and Licenses for a more detailed discussion of our intellectual property activities.
We are a company with global operations and with sales derived from various countries, exposing us to risks related to regulatory, political or other developments in various counties or regions.
We generate sales from and have manufacturing facilities and suppliers located in various countries. Additionally, sales from emerging markets that may have a higher degree of regulatory or political risk represent a significant portion of our total sales and those countries represent a significant portion of any expected industry growth. Most of our suppliers are located in and our products are manufactured and assembled in emerging market countries, particularly in Asia. Accordingly, economic or political turmoil, military actions, labor unrest, civil unrest, public health and environmental issues or natural and man-made disasters in those countries could materially adversely affect the supply of our products and services, including network infrastructure equipment manufactured in those countries, our sales and results of operations. In recent years, we witnessed political unrest in various markets where we do business or have operations in, which adversely affected our sales in those markets or operations also outside those countries or regions, and any reoccurrence or escalation of such unrest could do so in the future. For instance, economic or political instability or the introduction of trade sanctions, as a result of the recent events and instability in Ukraine and the international reaction to them may adversely affect our business or operations in Ukraine, Russia and/or related markets, including as a result of potential trade sanctions or economic uncertainly or slowdown resulting from these events.
Further, the economic conditions in emerging market countries may be more volatile than in developed countries, and the purchasing power of our customers and consumers in those countries depends to a greater extent on the price development of basic commodities and currency fluctuations which may render our products too expensive to afford. Our business and investments in emerging market countries may also be subject to risks and uncertainties, including unfavorable or unpredictable taxation treatment, exchange controls, and other restrictions affecting our ability to make cross-border transfers of funds, regulatory proceedings, unsound or unethical business practices, challenges in protecting our intellectual property rights, nationalization, inflation, currency fluctuations, or the absence of, or unexpected changes in, regulation as well as other unforeseeable operational risks. See Note 2 to our consolidated financial statements included in Item 18 of this annual report for more detailed information on geographic location of net sales to external customers, segment assets and capital expenditures.
Our business is subject to direct and indirect regulation in each of the countries where we, the companies with which we work, and our customers, do business. We develop many of our products based on existing regulations and technical standards, our interpretation of unfinished technical
standards or there may be an absence of applicable regulations and standards. As a result, changes in various types of regulations, their application and trade policies applicable to current or new technologies or products may adversely affect our business and results of operations. For example, changes in regulation affecting the construction of base stations and other network infrastructure could adversely affect the timing and costs of new network construction or expansion and the commercial launch and ultimate commercial success of those networks. Also, changes in the applicable privacy related regulatory framework may adversely affect our business, especially our offering through our networks business, including if there are changes that reduce or are seen to reduce the privacy aspects of our offering, for instance if further governmental interception capabilities are required for the products and services that we offer. Our ability to protect the IP in our products and generate IP related net sales is dependent on regulatory developments in various jurisdictions, as well as the application of the regulations for instance through administrative bodies. Export control, tariffs or other fees or levies imposed on our products and environmental, health, data protection, product safety and data protection, security, consumer protection, money laundering and other regulations that adversely affect the export, import, technical design, pricing or costs of our products could also adversely affect our sales and results of operations. In addition, changes in various types of regulations or their application with respect to taxation or other fees collected by governments or governmental agencies may result in unexpected payments to be made by us, and in response to difficult global economic conditions there may be an increase in the aggressiveness of collecting such fees. The trade sanctions environment can be difficult to navigate for companies with global operations. We may be subject to new, existing or tightened export control regulations, sanctions, embargoes or other forms of trade restrictions imposed on certain countries. Such actions may trigger additional investigations, including tax audits by authorities or claims by contracting parties. The result and costs of such investigations or claims may be difficult to predict and could lead to lengthy disputes, fines or fees, indemnities or a settlement.
Our expansion into the provision of services, including the activities of our HERE business, has resulted in a variety of new regulatory issues and subjects us to increased regulatory scrutiny. Moreover, our competitors have employed and will likely continue to employ significant resources to shape the legal and regulatory regimes in countries where we have significant operations. Legislators and regulators may make legal and regulatory changes or interpret and apply existing laws in ways that make our services less appealing to the end users, require us to incur substantial costs, change our business practices or prevent us from offering our services.
In line with changes in strategy, as well as in some cases a difficult political or business environment and an increasingly complicated trade sanctions environment, Nokia and its Networks business have exited or reduced operations in certain areas or countries, with some of these exits or reductions in operations still-ongoing. We continuously monitor international developments and assess the appropriateness of our presence and businesses in various markets. For instance, in light of the recent developments relating to Iran, Networks is assessing its position on performing business in Iran in compliance with all applicable trade sanctions and regulations, including potentially increasing its business activities with its existing customers in the country, while NSN works with them to find solutions to honor existing contractual obligations. The actions described in this paragraph may have adverse effects on Nokia for instance through triggering additional investigations, including tax audits by authorities or claims by contracting parties or reputational damage resulting for instance in adverse effects to business relationships. The result and costs of investigations or claims may be difficult to predict and could lead to lengthy disputes, fines or fees, indemnities or a settlement.
The impact of changes in or uncertainties related to regulation and trade policies could affect our business and results of operations adversely even though the specific regulations do not always directly apply to us or our products. In many parts of the world where we currently operate or seek to expand our business, local practices and customs may be contrary to our code of conduct and could violate anticorruption laws, including the US Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and the UK Bribery Act
2010 or EU and other applicable trade sanctions and embargoes. Our employees, or others who act on our behalf, could violate policies and procedures intended to promote compliance with anticorruption laws or trade sanctions. Violations of these laws by our employees or others who act on our behalf, regardless of whether we participated in such acts or knew about such acts at certain levels of our organization, could subject us and our employees to criminal or civil enforcement actions, including fines or penalties, disgorgement of profits and suspension or disqualification from sales. Additionally, violations of law or allegations of violations may result in the loss of reputation and business. Detecting, investigating and resolving such situations may also result in significant costs, including the need to engage external advisors, and consume significant time, attention and resources of our management. The result and costs of such investigations or claims may be difficult to predict and could lead to lengthy disputes, fines or fees, indemnities or a settlement.
As a global company, we are subject to various legislative frameworks and jurisdictions that regulate fraud committed in the course of business operations and trade sanctions and as such the extent and outcome of any proceedings is difficult to estimate. Further, our business and results of operations may be adversely affected by regulation and trade policies favoring the local industry participants as well as other measures with potentially protectionist objectives which host governments in different countries may take, particularly in response to difficult global economic conditions.
Our net sales, costs and results of operations, as well as the US dollar value of our dividends and market price of our ADSs, are affected by exchange rate fluctuations, particularly between the euro, which is our reporting currency, and the US dollar, the Japanese yen and the Chinese yuan, as well as certain other currencies.
We operate globally and are therefore exposed to foreign exchange risks in the form of both transaction risks and translation risks. Our policy is to monitor and hedge exchange rate exposure, and we manage our operations to mitigate, but not to eliminate, the impacts of exchange rate fluctuations. There can be no assurance, however, that our hedging activities will be successful in mitigating the impact of exchange rate fluctuations. In addition, significant volatility in the exchange rates may increase our hedging costs, as well as limit our ability to hedge our exchange rate exposure in particular against unfavorable movements in the exchange rates of certain emerging market currencies and could have an adverse effect on our results of operations, particularly our profitability. Further, exchange rate fluctuations may have an adverse effect on our net sales, costs and results of operations, as well as our competitive position through their impact on our competitors and customers. Further, exchange rate fluctuations may also materially affect the US dollar value of any dividends or other distributions that are paid in euro as well as the market price of our ADSs. For a more detailed discussion of exchange risks, see Item 5A. Operating ResultsCertain Other FactorsExchange Rates and Note 35 of our consolidated financial statements included in Item 18 of this annual report.
We may not be able to achieve targeted benefits from or successfully implement planned transactions, such as acquisitions, divestments, mergers or joint ventures, for instance due to issues in selecting successfully the targets or failure to execute transactions or due to unexpected liabilities associated with such transactions.
From time to time, we may consider possible transactions that would complement our existing operations and enable us to grow our business or divest our existing businesses or operations. In addition to the Sale of the D&S Business, we have for instance as part of Networks strategy to focus on mobile broadband, divested certain businesses and may make further strategic divestments in the future.
We cannot provide assurance that any transactions, such as acquisitions, divestments, mergers or joint ventures, we consummate will ultimately provide the benefit we originally anticipate and the return on the acquisition may be below targets or negative. Furthermore, we may not succeed in integrating acquired operations with our existing businesses. We may not overcome problems encountered in connection with
transactions, such as potential acquisitions or completed acquisitions, and such problems could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operation and cash flows.
Transactions, including acquisitions, divestments, mergers or joint ventures involve inherent risks, including:
An unfavorable outcome of litigation, contract-related disputes or allegations of health hazards associated with our business could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and reputation.
We are a party to lawsuits and contract-related disputes in the normal course of our business. Litigation or contract related disputes can be expensive, lengthy and disruptive to normal business operations and divert the efforts of our management. Moreover, the results of complex legal proceedings or contract related disputes are difficult to predict. An unfavorable resolution of a particular lawsuit or contract related dispute could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and reputation.
We record provisions for pending litigation when we determine that an unfavorable outcome is probable and the amount of loss can be reasonably estimated. Due to the inherent uncertain nature of litigation, the ultimate outcome or actual cost of settlement may vary materially from estimates. We believe that our provisions for pending litigation are appropriate. The ultimate outcome, however, may differ from the provided level which could have a positive or negative impact on our results of operations and financial condition.
There has been public speculation about possible health risks to individuals from exposure to electromagnetic fields from base stations and from the use of mobile devices. A substantial amount of scientific research conducted to date by various independent research bodies has indicated that these radio signals, at levels within the limits prescribed by safety standards set by, and recommendations of, public health authorities, present no adverse effect on human health. We cannot, however, be certain that future studies, irrespective of their scientific basis, will not suggest a link between electromagnetic fields and adverse health effects that could have a material adverse effect on our sales, results of operations, share price, reputation and brand value. Research into these issues is ongoing by government agencies, international health organizations and other scientific bodies in order to develop a better scientific and public understanding of these issues.
Although Nokia products are designed to meet all relevant safety standards and recommendations globally, we cannot guarantee we will not become subject to product liability claims or be held liable for such claims or be required to comply with future regulatory changes in this area that could have a material adverse effect on our business. We have been involved in several lawsuits alleging adverse health effects associated with our product, including those caused electromagnetic fields and the outcome of such procedures is difficult to predict, including the potentially significant fines or settlements. Even a perceived risk of adverse health effects of mobile devices or base stations could have a material adverse effect on us through a reduction in the demand for mobile devices having a negative effect on our continuing businesses, for instance through demand for mobile networks or increased difficulty in obtaining sites for base stations.
See Item 8A7. Litigation for a more detailed discussion about litigation that we are party to.
ITEM 4. INFORMATION ON THE COMPANY
4A. History and Development of the Company
Nokia invests in technologies important in a world where billions of devices are connected. We are focused on three businesses: network infrastructure software, hardware and services, which we offer through Networks; location intelligence, which we provide through HERE; and advanced technology development and licensing, which we pursue through Technologies. Each of these businesses is a leader in its respective field.
Through our three businesses, we have a global presence with operations and R&D facilities in Europe, North America and Asia, sales in approximately 130 countries, and we employ around 55 000 people. We are also a major investor in R&D, with expenditure through the three businesses amounting to more than EUR 2.5 billion in 2013.
Until recently, Nokia was a key participant in the mobile devices market through its Devices & Services business, which largely comprised two business units: Smart Devices and Mobile Phones. In September 2013, Nokia announced an agreement with Microsoft whereby it would sell substantially all of its Devices & Services business to Microsoft. The transaction, which we describe in more detail below, was completed on April 25, 2014.
In this report, we describe the Nokia business as of today, including our three continuing businesses but also provide under Discontinued Operations information about the Devices & Services business which was fully part of the Nokia Group throughout 2013.
For 2013, our three continuing businesses had net sales of approximately EUR 13 billion and generated an operating profit of EUR 0.5 billion.
Nokia has a long history of successful change and innovation, adapting to shifts in markets and technologies. From its humble beginning in 1865 with one paper mill, the company has participated in many sectors over time: cables, paper products, tires, rubber boots, consumer and industrial electronics, plastics, chemicals, telecommunications infrastructure and more.
Most recently, Nokia has been best known for its revolutionary wireless communication technologies, which have connected billions of people through networks and mobile phones. Nokias history dates back to 1865, when mining engineer Fredrik Idestam set up his first wood pulp mill at the Tammerkoski Rapids in Southwestern Finland. A few years later he opened a second mill on the banks of the Nokianvirta River, inspiring him to name his company Nokia Ab in 1871.
In 1967, we took our current form as Nokia Corporation as a result of the merger of Idestams Nokia AB, Finnish Rubber Works, a manufacturer of rubber boots, tires and other rubber products founded in 1898, and Finnish Cable Works Ltd, a manufacturer of telephone and power cables founded in 1912. The new Nokia Corporation had five businesses: rubber, cable, forestry, electronics and power generation.
Nokia first entered the telecommunications equipment market in 1960 when an electronics department was established at Finnish Cable Works to concentrate on the production of radio-transmission equipment. Regulatory and technological reforms have played a role in our success. Deregulation of the European telecommunications industries since the late 1980s has stimulated competition and boosted customer demand.
In 1982, we introduced the first fully-digital local telephone exchange in Europe, and, in the same year, the worlds first car phone for the Nordic Mobile Telephone analog standard. The technological breakthrough of GSM, which made more efficient use of frequencies and had greater capacity in addition to high-quality sound, was followed by the European resolution in 1987 to adopt GSM as the European digital standard by July 1, 1991. The first GSM call was made with a Nokia phone over the Nokia-built network of a Finnish operator called Radiolinja in 1991, and in the same year Nokia won contracts to supply GSM networks in other European countries.
In the early 1990s, we made a strategic decision to make telecommunications our core business, with the goal of establishing leadership in every major global market. Basic industry and non-telecommunications operationsincluding paper, personal computer, rubber, footwear, chemicals, power plant, cable, aluminum and television businesseswere divested between 1989 and 1996. By 1998, Nokia was the world leader in mobile phones, a position it enjoyed for more than a decade
In 2006, Nokia, which had already been investing in its mapping capabilities for many years, acquired Gate5, a mapping software specialist, and then in 2008 NAVTEQ, the US-based maker of digital mapping and navigational software. Today, Nokia offers leading location services through the HERE business and brand, launched in 2012.
In 2007, Nokia combined its telecoms infrastructure operations with those of Siemens to form a joint venture named Nokia Siemens Networks. NSN, today known as Networks, has become a leading global provider of telecommunications infrastructure, with a focus on offering innovative mobile broadband technology and services.
In 2011, Nokia joined forces with Microsoft to strengthen its position in the highly competitive smartphone market. Nokia adopted the Windows Phone operating system for smart devices and through their strategic partnership Nokia and Microsoft set about establishing an alternative ecosystem to rival iOS and Android. In 2011, Nokia also started to make a number of changes to its operations
and company culture that would in the course of the next two years lead to shortened product development times and better responsiveness to market demand.
In 2013, Nokia moved to reinvent itself with two transformative transactions. The first was the purchase of Siemens stake in the then NSN, which was nearing the end of a deep restructuring and remarkable transformation. The second was the announcement of the sale of substantially all of Nokias Devices & Services business to Microsoft, which we completed in April 2014.
Following the closing of the Microsoft transaction, Nokia announced its new strategy, building on its three strong businesses: Networks, HERE, and Technologies.
Acquisition of Siemens Stake in NSN
Nokia announced the first of what would be two transformative transactions for the company during 2013 on July 1 when it announced an agreement to acquire Siemens 50% in the companies joint venture Nokia Siemens Networks. The purchase price for Siemens stake was EUR 1.7 billion and the transaction closed on August 7, 2013, at which time NSN became a wholly owned subsidiary of Nokia.
Nokia saw the transaction as an opportunity to create more shareholder value for the group. We had a clear view of NSNs leadership in next generation technologies, such as LTE, as well as its impressive profitability improvement, which was the result of the focused strategy and successful implementation of the companys restructuring program. Furthermore, it was evident to us that NSN was not a core business for Siemens. We saw a good opportunity to purchase Siemens share at what we believed to be an attractive price.
After the transaction closed, we phased out the Siemens name from Nokia Siemens Networks company name and branding and adopted Nokia Solutions and Networks, or NSN, as the name and brand. Upon the announcement of our new strategy on April 29, 2014, NSN is now known as Networks and operates under the Nokia brand.
Following the completion of the transaction, Rajeev Suri continued as CEO of NSN. However, the NSN Board of Directors was adjusted to the new ownership structure, with the Siemens-appointed directors resigning. In addition, Jesper Ovesen stepped down from his position as Executive Chairman of the NSN Board upon the closing of the sale of the Devices & Services Business.
Sale of the Devices & Services Business to Microsoft
The process leading to the announcement of the proposed sale of substantially all of Nokias Devices & Services business to Microsoft on September 3, 2013, and eventually to the closing of the transaction on April 25, 2014, started in early 2013 when Microsoft approached Nokia indicating its interest in purchasing all or part of our Devices & Services business. After this contact, we carried out an extensive strategic review and considered a wide range of strategic alternatives and scenarios for the company. This review included, among other things, a thorough assessment of what would be possible within the framework of the partnership with Microsoft, outside of it, as well as the value of Nokias businesses and assets in different scenarios.
During this process and throughout the negotiations, we consulted with our senior management as well as with outside legal and financial advisors. The negotiations with Microsoft progressed and eventually resulted in an offer from Microsoft to purchase substantially all of Nokias Devices & Services business and to license our patents. After a thorough and careful assessment, we determined at a meeting held on September 2, 2013, that the proposed transaction was advisable, fair to, and in the best interests of Nokia and its shareholders. We decided to enter into the transaction and resolved to submit it to Nokia shareholders for confirmation and approval.
On September 3, 2013, Nokia announced that it had signed an agreement to enter into a transaction whereby Nokia would sell to Microsoft substantially all of its Devices & Services business, including the Mobile Phones and Smart Devices business units as well as an industry-leading design team, operations including Nokia Devices & Services production facilities, Devices & Services-related sales and marketing activities, and related support functions. Also, in conjunction with the closing of the transaction, Nokia granted Microsoft a 10 year non-exclusive license to its patents and Microsoft granted Nokia reciprocal rights to use Microsoft patents in our HERE services, our mapping and location services business. The total purchase price was EUR 5.44 billion, of which EUR 3.79 billion related to the purchase of substantially all of the Devices & Services business, and EUR 1.65 billion related to the 10 year mutual patent license agreement and the option to extend this agreement to perpetuity. In addition, Microsoft became a strategic licensee of the HERE platform, and separately pays Nokia for a four-year license.
On November 19, 2013, Nokias shareholders confirmed and approved the transaction at the Extraordinary General Meeting in Helsinki. We were very pleased for the overwhelmingly strong support our shareholders gave for the transaction, as a total of over 99% of the votes cast were in favour of the approval. Having received the approval of Nokia shareholders and regulatory authorities as well as fulfilling other customary closing conditions, the transaction closed on April 25, 2014.
Of the Devices & Services related assets, Nokias former CTO (Chief Technology Office) organization and patent portfolio remained within the Nokia Group, which are currently part of the Technologies business. The operations that were transferred to Microsoft generated EUR 10.7 billion, or approximately 46%, of Nokias net sales for the full year 2013.
As is customary for transactions of this size, scale and complexity, Nokia and Microsoft made certain adjustments to the scope of the assets originally planned to transfer. These adjustments included Nokias manufacturing facilities in Chennai in India and Masan in the Republic of Korea not transferring to Microsoft. These adjustments did not impact the material deal terms of the transaction and Nokia will be materially compensated for any retained liabilities.
In India, our manufacturing facility is subject to an asset freeze by the Indian tax authorities as a result of ongoing tax proceedings. Consequently, the facility remains part of Nokia following the closing of the transaction. Nokia and Microsoft have entered into a service agreement whereby Nokia would produce mobile devices for Microsoft.
In the Republic of Korea, Nokia and Microsoft agreed to exclude the Masan facility from the scope of the transaction. At the time of writing, Nokia was taking steps to close the facility, which employs approximately 200 people.
Altogether, and accounting for these adjustments, approximately 25 000 employees transferred to Microsoft at the closing. Earlier, we had expected approximately 32 000 employees to transfer.
Following the transaction, Nokia continues to own and maintain the Nokia brand. Under the terms of the transaction, Microsoft received a 10 year license arrangement with Nokia to use the Nokia brand on certain Mobile Phones products. Additionally, Nokia is restricted from licensing the Nokia brand for use in connection with mobile device sales for 30 months and from using the Nokia brand on Nokias own mobile devices until December 31, 2015.
Nokia retains its headquarters in Finland, but as the majority of employees working at the Keilaniemi, Espoo headquarters were focused on Devices & Services activities and support functions it was agreed that the Keilaniemi facility would become a Microsoft site upon the closing of the transaction. Nokia has since relocated its headquarters to the Karaportti campus in Espoo.
New vision, strategy and structure
The completion of the transaction with Microsoft has provided Nokia with a solid basis for future investment. It has also significantly strengthened our financial position, supporting our target of returning to being an investment grade company. On April 29, 2014, and building on this platform of renewed financial strength, Nokia outlined its next steps and future plans in more detail. These included:
Long-term leadership targeted in three key areas
Nokia believes that over the next 10 years billions of connected devices will converge into intelligent and programmable systems that will have the potential to improve lives in a vast number of areas: time and availability, transportation and resource consumption, learning and work, health and wellness, and many more.
This new world of technology will require 1) connectivity capable of handling massive numbers of devices and exponential increases in data traffic; 2) location services that seamlessly bridge between the real and virtual worlds; and 3) innovation, including in sensing, radio and low power technologies. Nokias vision is to be a leader over the long term in these three areas.
Nokias strategy is to develop its three businessesNetworks, HERE, and Technologiesin order to realize its vision of being a technology leader in a connected world and, in turn, create long-term shareholder value. Our goal is to optimize the company so that each business is best enabled to meet its goals. Where it makes sense to do so, we will pursue shared opportunities between the businesses, but not at the expense of focus and discipline in each.
Nokia will target the creation of long-term shareholder value by focusing on the following three areas:
Today, the Networks business serves more than 90 of the worlds 100 largest operators, is a leader in the large and dynamic mobile broadband market, and is ranked third in estimated global market share in mobile radio and second in telecommunication services. An early leader in virtualization and cloud technologies, Networks conducted trials and pre-commercial live projects with more than 50 customers in 2013.
Today, HERE is the leading global provider of map content, powering four out of five in-car navigation systems. Its location platform is used by leading internet companies such as Amazon, Microsoft and Yahoo.
The Technologies team includes hundreds of world-class scientists and engineers who have driven more than half of Nokias recent patent filings and many of whom are recognized as leading experts in fields that are essential for enabling the future connected world. These areas include low-power connected smart multi-sensor systems, distributed sensing, and intelligent interplay between various types of radio technologies.
Nokias continuing businesses invested more than EUR 2.5 billion in research and development in 2013. We believe that the company has a strong financial position and the capacity to continue to make the investments necessary to remain an innovation leader in the three segments in which it competes.
Clear operational governance and structure; strong leadership team
Nokia will adopt a simple and clear operational governance model, designed to facilitate innovation and growth. As of May 1, 2014, all three businesses will report to the Nokia President and CEO, who has full accountability for the performance of the company. HERE and Technologies each will have a single leader reporting to the President and CEO. To ensure efficiency and simplicity, the Nokia President and CEO will assume direct control of the Networks business and key Networks leaders will report to him.
The primary operative decision-making body for the company will be the Nokia Group Leadership Team, which will be responsible for Group level matters, including the company strategy and overall business portfolio. Effective May 1 2014, the Nokia Group Leadership Team will replace the current Nokia Leadership Team, and the President and CEO will chair the Group Leadership Team, which will consist of the following members:
Effective May 1, 2014 the interim governance structure of Nokia will cease to exist. Risto Siilasmaa, who has been serving as an interim CEO since September 3, 2013, will focus exclusively on his role as the Chairman of the Nokia Board of Directors. In addition, Timo Ihamuotila will step down from the interim President position.
Consistent with the planned structural changes we announced on April 29, 2014, Networks (formerly Nokia Solutions and Networks, or NSN) and Technologies will operate under the Nokia brand. HERE will retain its distinct identity within the Nokia family and, where appropriate, will be identified as A Nokia Company. The NSN name will no longer be used after a short phase-out period.
Organizational Structure and Reportable Segments
We have three businesses: Networks, HERE, and Technologies, and four operating and reportable segments for financial reporting purposes: Mobile Broadband and Global Services within Networks, HERE, and Technologies.
Networks also contains Networks Other, which includes net sales and related cost of sales and operating expenses of non-core businesses, as well as Optical Networks business until May 6, 2013, when its divestment was completed. It also includes restructuring and associated charges for Nokia Solutions and Networks business. Additionally, as a result of the Sale of the D&S Business, we report certain separate information for Discontinued Operations.
On August 7, 2013, Nokia completed the acquisition of Siemens stake in Nokia Siemens Networks, which was a joint venture between Nokia and Siemens. NSN was consolidated by Nokia prior to this transaction. Beginning in the third quarter of 2013, Nokia has reported financial information for the two operating and reportable segments within NSN; Mobile Broadband and Global Services. As of the fourth quarter of 2013, the Devices & Services business has been reported as Discontinued Operations. To reflect these changes, historical results information for past periods has been regrouped for historical comparative purposes. As is customary, certain judgments have been made when regrouping historical results information and allocating items in the regrouped results.
For the breakdown of our net sales and other operating results by category of activity and geographical location in 2013, see Item 5 and Note 2 to our consolidated financial statements included in Item 18 of this annual report.
During 2014, we currently expect the amount of capital expenditure from continuing operations, excluding acquisitions, to be approximately EUR 200 million, primarily attributable to Networks, and to be funded from our cash flow from operations.
During 2013, our capital expenditures, excluding acquisitions, totaled EUR 407 million, compared with EUR 461 million in 2012. For further information regarding capital expenditures, see Item A Operating results, and for a description of capital expenditures by our reportable segments, see Note 2 to our consolidated financial statements included in Item 18 of this annual report.
We maintain listings on two major securities exchanges. The listing venues for our shares are NASDAQ OMX Helsinki, in the form of shares, and the New York Stock Exchange, in the form of American Depositary Shares.
Following the closing of the Sale of the D&S Business on April 25, 2014, our principal executive office is located at Karakaari 7, FI-02610 Espoo and our telephone number is +358 (0) 10 44 88 000.
4B. BUSINESS OVERVIEW
The following discussion focuses mainly on Nokias three businesses: Networks, HERE, and Technologies. Prior to its sale, the Devices & Services business was a reportable segment for Nokia
until the end of the third quarter 2013 and was reported as Discontinued Operations as of the fourth quarter 2013.
The mobile infrastructure and related services market comprises a broad range of different products, from the hardware components of networks used by network operators to software solutions supporting the efficient interaction of them as well as services to plan, implement, run and upgrade mobile operators networks. The fundamental driver of demand in the mobile infrastructure and related services market is the ever-growing need for greater bandwidth and capacity. Bandwidth requirements are rapidly expanding as markets transition to data-rich websites and video-based and other web applications become more commonly deployed, and as market penetration of data intensive devices such as smartphones and tablets increases.
Through Networks (formerly NSN), Nokia is a leading global provider of telecommunications infrastructure that focuses on the mobile broadband market. We believe we are the third largest company worldwide by revenue in our target market. We have a strong position in the newer infrastructure technologies of 3G and 4G (LTE). In 3G, we are the industry leader by customers served, with more than a billion subscribers connected through our 3G networks. In LTE, we had 117 commercial contracts at the end of 2013.
Networks is the former NSN business, which began operations on April 1, 2007, combining the networks business of Nokia Corporation and the carrier-related operations of Siemens AG for fixed and mobile networks. Since August 7, 2013, the business has been wholly owned by the Nokia Corporation and is now operating under the Nokia brand.
Networks continues to focus on mobile broadband. The company believes this market will continue to grow as mobile operators face the challenge of increasing demand for greater network capacity and improved user experience. At the same time, mobile operators are continually seeking ways to meet subscriber demands in a cost-effective manner. With a specialist approach to mobile broadband, targeted research and development, and a streamlined structure, Networks has positioned itself to enable operators to address these challenges.
The company has an installed base of around 600 customers worldwide and these operators serve over 4 billion subscribers. Networks customers include many of the worlds largest mobile operators, including Bharti Airtel, China Mobile, Deutsche Telekom, NTT DoCoMo, Softbank, Sprint, Telefónica, Verizon and Vodafone among them.
For the year ended December 31, 2013, Networks had net sales of EUR 11.3 billion and total assets of EUR 8.6 billion.
Networks has identified the following key developments in its industry:
Networks strategy announced in 2011 is built around focus, quality and innovation. To address the industry developments identified above, we have evolved this strategy around three areas: 1) end-to-end mobile broadband leadership, 2) services growth, and 3) quality and execution. Overlying these areas we have defined three enablers of its strategy: innovation, automation and partnering.
Networks continues to focus on its current Radio and Core businesses, as well as plans to address new areas within mobile broadband for further growth. In the Radio business, we are focused on strengthening the companys position in SingleRAN technology, which allows the same hardware platform to be used for different generations of radio technology, and using it to develop an improved
position in the LTE market. Further, we believe small cells, which are targeted on a smaller geographical area and a fewer number of users, represent an area of significant opportunity for the future and that we have a competitive advantage with its microcells and picocells which are estimated to be the smallest in the industry and are also uniquely able to provide feature parity with larger macro cells. In the Core business, we estimate it has taken an early lead in the effort of providing a fully virtualized Liquid Core, as well as positioning itself well with respect to the emerging telco cloud through its already existing commercial solutions.
During the recent transformation of the company, we rebalanced our Global Services business unit by adjusting the services portfolio, exiting from certain unprofitable customer deals and focusing its attention on the business and geographic areas in which we can add the most value for our customers. In its refreshed services strategy, we have placed increased focus on the revenues of Global Services by concentrating on three priority areas:
We plan to make quality a competitive differentiator for Networks and believe that the importance of end-to-end quality is increasing in the telecommunications industry, while the complexity and cost of delivering it are rising as well. The intolerance of lapses in service from mobile broadband subscribers and operators means that quality improvements have a direct impact on the reputation and success of network suppliers. We aim to meet these quality requirements proactively to ensure that mobile operators can provide their customers with an excellent end-user experience. We are also focusing on continuously improving efficiency in all operations.
We employ a strategy of customer-focused innovation, which aims to deliver a better return on investment for its customers than pure technology research, and to direct resources and attention to specific challenges faced by operators.
We have one of the largest research and development commitments in the telecommunications industry with total expenditures of EUR 1.8 billion in 2013. The efforts of our R&D teams result in a stream of continuous improvement, technology breakthroughs and industry awards.
For example, the companys Flexi Multiradio base stations have, since their first shipment in 2008, been shipped to close to 300 customers. New generations of the product are continuously in development and launch, such as the launch of our new Flexi Zone LTE microcell and picocell base stations in November 2013.
We also focus on innovation in the area of customer experience management (CEM) which involves various tools that help operators to better meet their subscribers demands and monetize their network investments.
With a portfolio of almost 4 000 patent families, Networks is a significant holder of intellectual property rights (please also see the section Research and Development below).
We aim to leverage the broader IT and telecommunications ecosystem with an increased focus on partnerships, ranging from largely standardized areas of transport, packet networks and IT hardware, to core virtualization, network security, Liquid Applications and specialized services.
We have leveraged automation in areas such as Global Delivery and R&D Centers, making considerable progress in efficiency and profitability. We now plan to extend the automation focus to other areas, aiming to improve efficiency and gain more time for value-added work dedicated to improving our offerings for customers.
Networks Business Overview in 2013
During 2013, Networks made progress in a number of areas relative to its strategy, including the following:
In November 2011, NSN (now Networks) announced its strategy to focus on mobile broadband and services. It also announced an extensive global restructuring program, targeting the reduction of its annualized operating expenses and production overhead, excluding special items and purchase price accounting related items, by EUR 1 billion by the end of 2013, compared to the end of 2011. In January 2013, this target was raised to EUR 1.5 billion, and in July 2013 this target was further raised to more than EUR 1.5 billion. While these savings were expected to come largely from organizational streamlining, the program also targeted areas such as real estate, information technology, product and service procurement costs, overall general and administrative expenses, and a significant reduction of suppliers in order to further lower costs and improve quality. By the end of 2013, the business had achieved this target.
Non-core Businesses, Divestments and Portfolio Management
As part of its strategy of focusing on mobile broadband, Networks has divested a number of businesses not in line with company direction. In 2013, Networks completed the divestment of its Optical Network business to Marlin Equity Partners, and the divestment of the Business Support Systems operations to Redknee. This was in addition to the five transactions closed in the course of 2012, including the divestments of the microwave transport business, former Motorola Solutions WiMAX business, fixed-line broadband access business, Belgacom-related IPTV assets and NSNs proprietary broadband business, Expedience.
Networks has two business units: Mobile Broadband and Global Services. The Mobile Broadband business unit provides flexible and adaptable network solutions for mobile voice and data services through its Radio and Core businesses. The Radio business covers all generations of the technology: GSM, CDMA, WCDMA, and LTE. The Core product portfolio includes a comprehensive mobile switching portfolio and voice and packet core solutions as well as smartphone-friendly Liquid software providing a high level of network capacity and performance. Additionally, Mobile Broadbands expertise in customer experience management, virtualization and software-rich solutions helps operators to deal with the new technology trends such as cloud computing, big data, multimedia content, special events, and security.
The Global Services business unit provides mobile operators with a broad range of services. Network Implementation includes services needed to build, expand or modernize a communications network efficiently. Customer Care includes software and hardware maintenance as well as competence development services. Within the Managed Services business, Networks takes the responsibility for running a range of services for operators, from network operations to service operations, which enables operators to manage service life-cycles efficiently and enhance their customers experience. The Network Planning and Optimization business offers network assessment and capacity and configuration planning. Our Systems Integration capabilities ensure that all the elements of a new mobile broadband solution seamlessly bring together new and legacy technologies. We use global and local services experts and centralized tools and architecture at two Global Delivery Centers and five Global Service Delivery hubs around the world. These delivery centers, which deliver a growing proportion of our services, consolidate a range of service solutions into one location to provide greater efficiency for customers.
Sales and Marketing
Our direct sales force or sales support teams are active in approximately 120 countries. They help to ensure that we are close to our customers, both physically and in terms of understanding the local market, and helps us develop stable customer relationships.
In 2013, our country operations were grouped into three main geographical markets: Asia, Middle East and Africa; Europe and Latin America; and North America. These three markets further divide into regions containing our sales and delivery teams, which benefit from a close relationship with mobile operators in their countries. Our operating approach in the various regions and countries is tailored according to the requirements of the countries and their respective operator customers.
Our Asia, Middle East and Africa (AMEA) Market spans an expansive and varied geographical scoperanging from advanced telecommunications markets, such as Japan and Korea, to developing markets, such Bangladesh, India, Kenya and Vietnam. We have strong mobile broadband momentum in the AMEA market, including Saudi Arabia, China, Japan, Korea, Indonesia, and Australia and works with the leading operators in this market, such as Vodafone, China Mobile, China Unicom, China Telecom, SoftBank, KDDI, NTT DoCoMo, KT, SKT, Telkomsel, Bharti Airtel, Etisalat, Ooredoo, STC and, and Zain. The AMEA market has one Global Delivery Center in India.
Our Europe and Latin America (ELAT) Market is further divided into the regions of Europe and Latin America. The European region includes our headquarters in Finland and the Global Delivery Center in Portugal. In Europe, we work with all the regions major operators, including Orange, Vodafone Group, Deutsche Telekom, MTS Sistema, MegaFon, TeliaSonera and WIND, serving hundreds of millions of customers. Operators like Telefónica, TIM and Portugal Telecom are present in both Europe and Latin America, on a very large scale. We also have extensive R&D expertise in Europe, including some of its largest technology centers working on future mobile broadband technologies. In Latin America, we work with all major operators, including Oi, TIM, Telefónica, América Móvil, Telecom Personal, Nuevatel and Avantel. We believe that the mobile broadband market in Latin America has high potential, as the majority of mobile devices are not yet 3G capable.
Our North America (NAM) Market comprises operations in the United States and Canada. Teams across the region work with 8 of the top 10 North American mobile operators, as well as local operators, key cable companies, and government entities. With strong demand for advanced services driven by growth in the smartphone market, 4G LTE has been strongly embraced by all major NAM operators. These operators have invested in an attempt to provide the best in coverage and speed to grow their market share. We believe our major LTE contract with T-Mobile USA, the new TD-LTE contract with Sprint, and the IP multimedia subsystem (IMS) solution with Verizon have positioned our mobile operator customers well to compete in this competitive market. We also have the Innovation Lab, which is our flagship mobile broadband testing and development facility located in Silicon Valley. We estimate that North America was one of the fastest growing markets in 2013, delivering strong net sales growth for us in 2013 both in terms of products and services.
Networks Marketing and Corporate Affairs organization is responsible for developing, executing and measuring corporate strategies, plans and budgets for marketing, communications, government relations, health and safety, and security. The organization drives product launches and sales enablement, manages corporate reputation, and oversees the health and safety and security of employees and contractors. Following the announcement by Nokia of its new strategy, it is also charged with raising the visibility of the Nokia brand and positioning the company as a leader in the telecommunications industry, as well as, more broadly, a technology leader in a world where everyone and everything is connected.
Production of Infrastructure Equipment and Products
Networks Operations unit handles the supply chain management of all of the businesss hardware, software and original equipment manufacturer products. This includes supply planning, manufacturing, distribution, procurement, logistics, supply network design and delivery capability creation in product programs.
As of December 31, 2013, Networks had seven manufacturing facilities worldwide: four in China (Beijing, Shanghai, Tianjin and Suzhou), one in Finland (Oulu), one in India (Chennai) and one in Russia (Tomsk).
Certain components and sub-assemblies for products, such as company specific integrated circuits and radio frequency components, are sourced and manufactured by third-party suppliers. We then assembles these components and sub-assemblies into final products and solutions. For selected products and solutions, suppliers deliver goods directly to customers. Consistent with industry practice, we manufacture telecommunications systems on a contract-by-contract basis.
Research and Development
Networks has ten Global Technology Centers with specific technology and competence profiles in China, Finland, Germany, Hungary, India, Poland and the United States.
Networks research and development (R&D) activities and product portfolio are software-driven, and the majority of R&D resources are dedicated to software development. The R&D organization is designed to have a flat structure to encourage process discipline, and at the same time increased R&D automation is implemented for improved efficiency. We focus on creating a strong partner ecosystem and effective management of portfolio decision-making for its partners and suppliers and their products. The Mobile Broadband business unit conducts R&D internally as well as with external partners when additional capacity or expertise is required.
Through Networks, Nokia is one of the largest investors in R&D in the telecommunications industry, with total expenditures of EUR 1.8 billion in 2013, and with approximately 16 000 R&D personnel, at the end of 2013. These R&D capabilities are designed to give us the ability to keep up with the pace of change in the telecommunications sector, where the products and their development needs to be faster, more intelligent, more efficient, interconnected, context-aware and adaptive, driven by an evolving device landscape and exponential data traffic growth.
We believe that the geographical diversity of its R&D network is an important competitive advantage for Networks. In addition, the ecosystem around each of its R&D sites helps it connect with experts worldwide, complemented by cooperation with universities and other research facilities.
In recent years, we have increased our R&D efficiency and scale by aligning resources with its focus on the mobile broadband and related services market. Since the end of 2008, we have more than doubled its development capacity in terms of research hours in next generation radio and core, such as LTE, small cells, IMS/Voice over LTE, evolved packet core and customer experience management, while reducing capacity by more than 50% on more mature technologies such as GSM and CDMA.
Networks Technology & Innovation unit complements the R&D organization by focusing on developing and implementing cutting-edge technologies that are several years more advanced than other technologies currently in the market. Technology & Innovation also has responsibility for research, standardization, intellectual property rights and innovation. The unit cooperates with universities, research institutes, leading industry partners and other industry cooperation bodies worldwide.
Patents and Licenses
Intellectual property assets are fundamental to Networks and its business units. We believe Networks is an industry leader in the research and development of wireless, broadband and transport technologies, and has a robust patent portfolio in a broad range of technology areas. Networks seeks to safeguard its investments in technology through appropriate IPR protections and it has generated and maintained an extensive portfolio of patents covering significant innovations arising from its
research and development activities since the businesss formation, including patents, design patents, trade secrets, trademark registrations, and copyrights. Additionally, where deemed necessary, Networks obtains licenses to use standards-essential and other patents in its hardware and software solutions for both fixed and mobile network infrastructure.
Networks owns a large portfolio of almost 4 000 patent families comprising of approximately 11 000 individual patents and patent applications across an array of technologies, some of which were transferred from Nokia and Siemens upon the formation of the business as NSN in 2007.
Networks IPR portfolio includes high-quality standard-essential patents (SEPs) and patent applications which have been declared to ETSI and other SDOs as essential to LTE, WCDMA, TD-SCDMA, WIMAX, GSM, CDMA2000 and other standards. In addition, Networks holds copyright registrations relating to certain aspects of its products and services.
Networks receives and pays patent license royalties in the ordinary course of its business based on existing agreements with telecommunications vendors. The company has in place a number of patent license agreements with other major companies and patent holders, both directly and through Nokia, that afford it freedom to operate without risk of infringing standard-essential patents owned by such entities.
Conditions in the market for mobile network infrastructure and related services continued to be intensely competitive during 2013. With a relatively flat market, competition was intense, most notably around growth areas such as 4G (LTE).
Industry participants have changed significantly in recent years. Substantial industry consolidation occurred in 2006 and 2007 with the emergence of three major European vendors: Alcatel-Lucent, Ericsson, and the then Nokia Siemens Networks. In November 2009, Ericsson acquired Nortels CDMA and LTE business and, in April 2011, NSN acquired the majority of Motorola Solutions wireless network assets.
During this period, the market also saw the rise of Huawei and ZTE, both of which have gained market share by leveraging their low-cost advantage in tenders for customer contracts. In recent years, the technological capabilities of these vendors, particularly Huawei, have improved significantly, resulting in competition not only on price but also on quality. In 2013, Huawei continued to grow its market share albeit at a slower pace than in previous years, further challenging European vendors. In 2012 and 2013, competition emerged from Samsung Electronics, which expanded its network infrastructure business out of its domestic Korean market with limited gains in Europe and the United States.
At present, we consider five companiesEricsson, Alcatel-Lucent, Huawei, ZTE and Samsung Electronicsto be our main competitors as major network infrastructure providers. We also competes with Cisco Systems, Oracle and NEC.
In 2013, the overall telecommunications infrastructure market was flat in terms of capital expenditure, mainly attributable to increased investment by operators in Japan, Asia Pacific and North America being off-set by declines in Europe.
The continued decline of legacy technologies such as 2G (GSM) and CDMA that was experienced in 2012 continued during 2013. After reasonable growth in 2011, the 3G radio market declined in 2012, and the decline has accelerated during 2013. This decline has been off-set by the growth in 4G (LTE), which has emerged as a fast-growing commercial technology in markets outside the early adopting United States, and especially in Asia.
Within the 4G market, leading vendors are competing based on factors such as technology innovation, network topology and simplified network architectures, as well as network quality and network virtualization. Competition in legacy radio technologies remains intense as deployments of single Radio Access Network technology are viewed as a critical entry point for networks, particularly by vendors looking to win share in new markets. This was particularly intense in 2011, but has showed some signs of easing during last two years.
In services, which remained a growth area in the industry, our business is increasingly tied directly to the mobile broadband product business, in particular in areas such as Care and Network Implementation. As a result, pricing, efficiency and roll-out capabilities are competitive drivers. The development of its global service delivery capability, which allows us to perform more tasks remotely using standardized tools and processes, is increasingly important. Competition in services is from both traditional network providers such as Ericsson, Alcatel-Lucent and Huawei, as well as non-traditional telecommunications entities and system integrators, such as Accenture and IBM. In addition to these companies, there are also local service companies competing, which have a narrower scope in terms of served regions and business areas. In 2013, Alcatel-Lucent and Networks scaled back their activities in the lower profitability areas of services such as field maintenance and some managed networks operations.
Certain of our competitors may receive governmental support allowing them to offer products and services at substantially lower prices. In some regions, restricted access to capital continues to cause mobile operators to reduce capital expenditure and creates demand for vendor financing. Certain of our competitors may have stronger customer financing options due to internal policies or government support.
The market for location services has undergone significant change in recent years. Access to location services has broadened from personal navigation devices (PNDs)such as those in carsto multiple devices and screens, including smartphones. Location is now a key aspect of the mobile and web experience, whether it is to seek live subway departures, check restaurant ratings, share location-tagged images on social networks, or track pending online deliveries.
The industry is also delivering location experiences in a different way. Until recently, static maps tended to be provided on disc or pre-installed on a device, whereas today users are increasingly being delivered content and services over the Internet in real time thanks to cloud-based technologies. Cloud-based location services hold the potential to transform the lives of many people and industries. Companies in the automotive, enterprise, mobile and broader consumer electronics industries are already making considerable investments in and around location services, and location will be a critical element in, for example, the areas of wearable computing, augmented reality, personal activity tracking, connected cars, and autonomous driving.
HERE is the leading company in the location intelligence business, delivering highly precise and up-to-date maps, a location platform, and location experiences across multiple screens and operating systems. Built on more than 25 years of experience in cartography and drawing on more than 80 000 sources of data, we offer maps for more than 190 countries, voice guided navigation in 95 countries in more than 50 languages and live traffic information for 34 countries. We believe our map is the best digital representation of the real world in terms of accuracy, coverage, richness and freshness. More than 3 000 geographic analysts around the world maintain and improve the quality of the core map. Altogether, HERE employs approximately 6 500 people, with its major development sites in Berlin in Germany and Chicago, Boston and Sunnyvale in the United States.
HEREs customer base includes many of the worlds leading companies from the automotive, commerce, mobile, Internet and consumer electronics industries. Customers can license map content, our location platform, specific location services or all or parts of the HERE offering. The platform is device and operating system-agnostic and includes functionalities such as routing, traffic and positioning, a digital 3D reference model of the world, the development tools with which customers can create their own experiences on top of our map, and the analytical tools to make sense of location-based data. The flexibility in being able to choose all or specific parts of HEREs offering enables us to serve a broad range of customers with different business models and needs.
Nokia launched HERE as a brand in 2012, prior to which it was already an established business operating under the Nokia name. The business has developed organically and through acquisitions, the most significant of which were location software provider Gate5 in 2006, digital mapping provider NAVTEQ in 2008, and data capture company earthmine in 2012.
Since 2006the year in which Nokia was also the first company to launch a mobile phone with in-built GPSwe have been driving fundamental changes to our map. Chiefly, we have developed our map from a static, two-dimensional form akin to a digital version of a paper map to a dynamic, three-dimensional digital representation of the world rich in real time and contextually-relevant information drawn from both real-world and digital sources.
In recent years, amid advances in wireless connectivity and a growing need for ever-more-relevant data, we have also been driving a fundamental change to the way we build and deliver map and location data. Increasingly, our location experiences are powered by our location cloud, which processes and delivers data to smartphones, tablets, in-car navigation systems and other devices over the cloud in real time, reducing the need for those devices to do any heavy computing themselves.
We already aggregate data related to parking, gas prices, traffic, weather and more, and see further opportunities in a world where billions of devices, including phones, tablets and cars, are connected. Accordingly, we are investing in technologies and analytics capabilities to ensure our location cloud can harness the collective power of the data those devices generate to deliver real-time, predictive and relevant information to every individual user. We believe the next generation map has to be fresh, predictive and very rich.
The automotive market is a clear growth area for us. More and more cars will be connected to the cloud, which will drive an increase of data and services in areas such as traffic, predictive driver behavior, driver safety and autonomous driving, all of which are areas in which we are investing. In addition to the automotive industry, we invest in and target growth opportunities to offer our services to Internet companies and to companies operating in the consumer electronic industry.
HERE Business Overview in 2013
In 2013 HERE made significant progress towards our goal of becoming the leading location cloud business with the introduction of new, innovative products as well as updates to its signature experiences, a number of new partnerships that demonstrate that HERE is the preferred partner across industries for maps and location-based technology, and through further extending its reach across a number of operating systems.
Sales and Marketing
HEREs core business has been licensing content and platform technologies and today it has agreements with most of the worlds leading automotive brands, as well as many Internet and technology companies including Amazon, Microsoft and Yahoo.
Research & Development
HERE is an R&D-intensive business. The team is focused on building and enriching our core map as well as developing the platform and cloud technologies with which we can ensure the effective delivery of the map and location services to our customers irrespective of the device they use.
HERE collects data in over 200 field offices, across 56 countries. We have hundreds of cars driving the roads every day. Our most advanced vehicles capture 700 000 data points per second with their 360-degree cameras and LiDAR. As a result, our large data factories make 2.7 million changes to the map every single day.
In addition to collecting data with our own fleet of cars, we aggregate data from another 80 000 sources, including but not limited to parking, gas price, traffic, weather and points of interest (POI) data. To maintain the freshest maps, we compile, test and publish them continuously. From usage, we collect billions of data points to train our real-time traffic, routing and search engines.
Our longer-term R&D efforts are focused on the development of software and data analytical capabilities that would support our plan to convert behavioral data into such data which can serve as a basis for location services that are more predictive.
Historically, the market for mapping data has been structured like many other content-centric service businesses with just a few leading suppliers delivering map data to fragmented end markets. Today, HERE and Google Maps are the largest suppliers, followed by TomTom.
In contrast to HERE, which has a licensing model for its map data and platform, Google uses an advertising-based model allowing consumers and businesses to use its map data and related services free of charge. Google has continued to leverage Google Maps as a differentiator for Android, bringing certain new features and functionalities to the platform.
TomTom licenses map data to Apple, which offers its own mapping service. Apple, which has sought to strengthen its location assets and capabilities through targeted acquisitions and organic growth, offers its maps through iOS, the operating system that powers its range of iPhones and iPads. Apples map offering has displaced Google Maps, which had been pre-loaded on iOS for many years following the iPhones launch in 2007, although a native iOS application from Google Maps is available to iPhone users via download. TomTom also licenses its map data to other companies in different industries.
While content remains hugely important, HERE has been increasing its focus on platform technologies which can power up-to-date and predictive maps more tailored to the individual user and we believe that in this regard the only competitive platform to ours is that of Google. Googles focus is on visuals and search, while HERE has historically been focused on the automotive industry. Our platform is seen as the benchmark in the automotive space and the business is making rapid progress in the mobile space with significant investments into visuals, including the earthmine acquisition in 2012.
We believe that economies of scale and scope in the mapping services industry favor players that are able to provide end-to-end hardware-agnostic solutions which include proprietary content, platform technologies and applications. In this sense, we believe the mapping industry will continue to transition away from pure content-based business models towards cloud-based solutions.
Technologies aims to be a leader in technology development and licensing, building on several of Nokias Chief Technology Office (CTO) and intellectual property rights activities. Prior to the sale of substantially all of our Devices & Business to Microsoft, Nokias CTO focused primarily on developing innovations in the mobile devices market. In particular, much of its work aimed at bringing new technologies and features to our own range of mobile devices to help make them differentiated from competitors offerings. Today, as part of our newly formed business, Technologies, the research agenda of our engineers, scientists and researchers is shifting to address opportunities in a broader market that both encompasses and goes beyond mobile devices. We see a world where hundreds of billions of deviceslarge, small and minisculewill connect to form intelligent systems, and we see significant potential for our own technologies in that world.
Technologies develops technologies which it believes will be important in the programmable world. We seek to create value from our investments by helping other companies and organizations benefit from our innovations through our established and successful licensing business. Additionally, we are also exploring the possibility of utilizing new technologies in our own future products and services.
We formed Technologies upon the closing of the transaction to sell substantially all of our Devices & Services business to Microsoft. The business combines a leading team from our Chief Technology Office with our world-class Intellectual Property Rights activities which have developed on the back of Nokia having invested cumulatively more than EUR 50 billion in research and development over the last two decades. Previously working closely with our Devices & Services business, the personnel which form our Advanced Technologies business solve problems in project-specific teams in addition
to working closely with leading universities and technology partners around the world. Our primary technology development centers are in Espoo and Tampere in Finland and California in the United States. The majority of our IPR team is based in Finland.
Innovations from our Technologies business have created and shaped fundamental technologies used in all mobile products and in multiple wireless communications technologies today. We are continuing to build on that heritage to drive further innovations, with a focus on connectivity, sensing and material technologies, as well as imaging, web and cloud technologies.
We manage a portfolio with approximately 10 000 patent families comprising of around 30 000 individual patents and patent applications. In industry terms, our portfolio is relatively young: in ten years from now, two-thirds of our current patents will continue to be in force.
Sales and Marketing
While a new business, Technologies already has significant ongoing research and development activities and an established licensing program. We manage our intellectual property as a technology asset and seek a return on investment by making the innovation available to the markets through different licensing activities and transactions. We have more than 60 licensees, mainly for Nokia standard-essential patents.
We see further opportunities in licensing our proprietary technologies, intellectual property and brand assets into telecommunications and adjacent industries. Over the last ten years, we have also systematically licensed certain Nokia proprietary technologies, which we have decided not to reserve solely for our internal use. This has enabled numerous companies and businesses to benefit from Nokia innovation, in areas such as connectivity and imaging.
Research & Development
Technologies has advanced research and development activities, in countries including Finland, the United States, and the United Kingdom. We also collaborate in open innovation with universities and research institutes around the world.
The applied nature of our R&D in Advanced Technologies has resulted in the team making various relevant and valuable inventions both in and around the technologies that we believe will be important in the programmable world as well as emerging consumer experiences. In recent years, the team has contributed more than half of the new patent filings in Nokia, and has been particularly strong in, for example, 3G and 4G patents, codecs and imaging.
We hold several central roles in standardization bodies and we contribute to the standardization work by filing technical proposals, which when found relevant are often accepted and embodied in standards. In addition, we develop reference implementations while defining the standards, which result in significant innovations which cover proprietary ways to implement relevant technologies.
Our achievements Technologies in recent years include:
During 2013, Technologies revenue came from intellectual property income. The majority of the IP income was from licensing our standards essential patents. We are a leading innovator in key cellular standards, as well as wireless LAN, NFC and various audio, speech and video codecs, and we believe the licensing of essential patents will continue to be a strength for us.
Of our current IP portfolio, approximately one-third is related to radio communications, one-third to software and services, and one-third to product technologies. As we expand our successful licensing program to cover patents which have not been broadly licensed to date, as well as proprietary technologies and other intellectual property, we could face competition from alternate technologies or solutions. However, it is too early to anticipate which of these may be significant in future.
Devices & Services Operations Sold to Microsoft
Since the early 1990s, mobile telecommunications penetration has grown rapidly and today billions of people own a mobile device. Over the same period, what people can do with their mobile device has also undergone fundamental change. With early models enabling voice calls and text messaging, the mobile phone has developed into a powerful computing and Internet device with which we take photographs, listen to music, watch television and movies, play games, navigate, bank, shop and more. Supported by new-generation mobile networks, the mobile phone or smartphonetogether with their larger-screened phablet and tablet offshootsare today the primary interfaces through which we access and consume web and cloud services.
In recent years, success for participants in the mobile devices market has been influenced by their ability to build, catalyze or be part of a competitive ecosystem, examples of which include those based around the Google Android, Apple iOS, Microsoft Windows and BlackBerry software platforms. A vibrant ecosystem creates value for consumers, giving them access to a rich and broad range of user experiences through an array of different form factors and screen sizes, such as smartphones, tablets, televisions, desktop computers and games consoles. Each based on software platforms with
different technologies, the leading ecosystems have enjoyed differing degrees of success in attracting the resources of developers and other industry participants such as hardware manufacturers, software providers, publishers, entertainment providers, and advertisers. Consequently, they have also enjoyed differing degrees of success in attracting consumers.
With the closing of the Sale of the D&S Business to Microsoft in April 2014, Nokia has exited the business of selling mobile devices. Prior to the sale, Nokia created products for virtually every demographic and every geography worldwide, with sales in more than 160 countries. Through 2013, the Devices & Services business comprised of two business units: Mobile Phones, which focused on the area of mass market entry and feature phones as well as affordable smartphones; and Smart Devices, which focused on our most advanced products, including smartphones powered by the Windows Phone operating system.
During 2013, our Mobile Phones unit, which was acquired by Microsoft in its entirety, shipped more than 200 million mobile devices. The unit developed ultra-low cost phones, feature phones and affordable smartphones, with most models running the Nokia Asha software platform and the Series 30+ operating system. In early 2014, the unit also introduced its first affordable smartphones based on the Nokia X software platform, which offers access to Android applications. Our major Mobile Phones development sites were in Beijing in China and Oulu in Finland.
The strategy of our Mobile Phones unit focused on leveraging the companys innovation and strength in growth markets to provide people with an affordable Internet experience on their mobile device. Our most affordable products were targeted at consumers for whom durability, good battery life and price are most important. Mobile Phones also produced a range of affordable smartphones whose hardware, software and services are optimized forand not compromised bylow price points.
As part of Nokias transaction with Microsoft, Microsoft has licensed for a limited time the Nokia brand for use with certain products from the Mobile Phones unit as well as acquired the Asha brand under which Nokia marketed some of its Mobile Phones products.
Our Smart Devices unit, which was acquired by Microsoft in its entirety, developed smartphones based on Microsofts Windows Phone operating system. In October 2013, the unit also introduced its first tablet device. Our major Smart Devices development sites were in Beijing in China, San Diego in the United States and in Salo, Tampere and Greater Helsinki in Finland.
Nokia brought its first Windows Phone productsunder the Lumia brandto market in 2011, several months after entering into a strategic partnership with Microsoft that brought together our respective complementary assets and expertise to build a new global mobile ecosystem for smartphones. We then expanded the depth and breadth of our Lumia range, contributing to Windows Phone becoming the third-largest ecosystem system globally during 2013. As part of Nokias transaction with Microsoft, Microsoft acquired the Lumia brand.
Sales and Marketing
We derived our net sales of mobile devices primarily from sales to mobile network operators and distributors, and to a lesser extent independent retailers, corporate customers and consumers. Our marketing efforts were aimed at creating consumer loyalty, enhancing the Nokia brand and increasing
sales. In the marketing of our mobile devices, we focused on expanding awareness of the key points of differentiation in our products and services, such as the imaging capabilities of our high-end smartphones or the robust quality and long battery life of our most affordable feature phones. During 2013, we also continued to expand our digital marketing efforts, including engaging consumers through our own social media channels, including Nokia Conversations, which is among the most popular company blogs worldwide.
Production of Mobile Devices
In 2013 Nokia operated in a total of eight production facilities for the production and customization of mobile devices. The production facilities were in Manaus, Brazil; Beijing and Dongguan, China; Komárom, Hungary; Chennai, India; Reynosa, Mexico; Masan, Republic of Korea and Hanoi, Vietnam. We opened our Hanoi facility, which focused on producing Nokias most affordable Asha smartphones and feature phones, in 2013.
The mobile device industry has undergone radical changes since 2007, with new entrants and operating systems changing the competitive landscape, particularly in the area of smartphones.
In smartphones, our competitors have pursued a wide range of strategies. Apple, for example, deploys its proprietary iOS operating system on its popular iPhone smartphones and iPad tablets, while many other device manufacturers in the industry are utilizing Googles Android operating system. Android, which is available to anyone without a software license cost, has made entry into and expansion in the smartphone market easier for a number of hardware manufacturers, especially at the mid-to-low price points of the smartphone market. Samsung has become by far the most successful vendor using Android, offering a broad portfolio of devices including high-end smartphones under the Galaxy series. Vendors such as HTC, LG, Googles own Motorola, and Sony also have an Android-based offering, while Android has become a springboard to market for a number of Chinese vendors too. In particular, many have grown market share by developing affordable Android handsets with low-cost chipsets from MediaTek of China.
When deploying the Android operating system on a smartphone, vendors have an opportunity to join Googles Open Handset Alliance (OHA), which then requires them to deploy Google-developed services on their products. Alternatively, vendors can choose not to join the OHA and instead use only the Android operating system made available through the Android open source project, meaning that they can offer their own services in place of those provided by Google. Xiaomi, which has also employed novel go-to-market strategies including selling phones in bulk online auctions, is among the Chinese vendors which have been most successful in building market share.
Generally, the increased availability of lower cost chips and components has seen fully-fledged smartphones become available at lower price points, with some models offered for sale for under EUR 75. Consequently, the market for traditional feature phones has narrowed in scope, though in practice the distinction between the feature and smartphone markets has also blurred since many feature phone modelsincluding those from Nokiaoffer a variety of smartphone functionalities. In Nokias case, the company offered affordable devices which combined basic smartphone features with important features such as long battery life, durability, and robustness. In this portion of the market, we competed with established vendors such as Samsung but also increasingly with certain vendors with manufacturing facilities primarily centered around certain locations in Asia and other emerging markets which produce inexpensive devices with oftentimes low quality and limited after-sales services.
SeasonalityNetworks, HERE and Technologies
For information on the seasonality of NSN, HERE and AT, see Item 5A. Operating ResultsCertain Other FactorsSeasonality.
Sales in US Sanctioned Countries: Networks, HERE, Technologies and Discontinued Operations
We are a global company and have sales in most countries of the world. For more information on our organizational structure see Item 4A. History and Development of the CompanyOrganizational Structure and Reportable Segments. Cuba, Iran, Sudan and Syria are targets of comprehensive United States economic sanctions and the United States government has designated these countries as state sponsors of terrorism.
We cannot exclude the possibility that third parties acting independently from us have exported our products to countries from other countries in which we sell them. We also distribute certain services, through the Internet. In terms of these offerings, we have industry standard systems in place recognizing users IP addresses and, if applicable, block the access to our service offerings if they are not intended for a certain market or country. We cannot exclude the possibility that our services when distributed through the Internet, may be accessed in markets or countries which they are not intended for if the industry standard protective mechanisms, such as IP address blocks, are circumvented.
In 2013, we sold through our continuing operations, Networks, HERE and AT certain services and network equipment to customers in Iran, Sudan and Syria. Our continuing operations did not have any sales in Cuba in 2013, 2012 or 2011. Our aggregate net sales to customers in Iran, Sudan and Syria accounted for approximately 0.01% of Nokias continuing operations total net sales, or EUR 1 million, in 2013; 0.49% of Nokias continuing operations total net sales, or EUR 76 million, in 2012; and approximately 1.06%, or EUR 169 million, in 2011.
In 2013, we sold mobile devices and services through our Discontinued Operations to customers in Iran, Sudan and Syria. Our Discontinued Operations did not have any sales in Cuba in 2013, 2012 or 2011. Our aggregate net sales to customers through our Discontinued Operations in Iran, Sudan and Syria accounted for approximately 1.02% of its total net sales, or EUR 110 million, in 2013; 1.24% of Discontinued Operations total net sales, or EUR 188 million, in 2012; and approximately 1.65% of Discontinued Operations total net sales, or EUR 382 million, in 2011.
We closed the local Iranian office for our Devices & Services business, now classified as Discontinued Operations, in 2012. There were no employees based in Iran for our Discontinued Operations for the year ended December 31, 2013. The other activities relating to the termination of the local presence in Iran for Discontinued Operations have been ongoing, such as closing of the local branch. In connection with terminating the presence in Iran, we have routine contacts with governmental agencies in Iran as required, such as with respect to activities related to closing the local branch. Our Discontinued Operations sold mobile devices, accessories and certain free of charge items such as digital content and services into Iran through regional distributors based outside of Iran.
After the completion of the Sale of the D&S Business, completed on April 25, 2014 we are no longer managing the business described in this Discontinued Operations section.
Disclosure pursuant to Section 219 of the Iran Threat Reduction and Syria Human Rights
Act of 2012 (ITRA)
Networks- then operating as NSNmade the decision in November 2011 to withdraw from the Iranian market in a controlled manner and reached the milestone of ceasing all revenue-generating activities relating to Iran as of July 16, 2013. Networks has been working with its current customers in Iran to find solutions to honor existing contractual obligations. Further, in the light of the recent international developments, Networks is assessing its position on performing business in Iran in compliance with all applicable trade sanctions and regulations, including potentially increasing its business activities with its existing customers in the country. In connection with the business activities relating to Iran, Networks has routine contacts with governmental agencies in Iran as required, for example, to maintain a legal presence in Iran, pay taxes, employ Iranian nationals and offer customary work related services and facilities and maintain shareholdings in certain Iranian companies as required under Iranian law and as is customary under Iranian business practices. NSN expects to manage these contacts and shareholdings in line with the information provided above.
To our knowledge, none of our sales through HERE, Technologies or Discontinued Operations in Iran in 2013 are required to be disclosed pursuant to ITRA Section 219. To our knowledge, none of our sales of network equipment and services through Networks in Iran in 2013 are required to be disclosed pursuant to ITRA Section 219, with the possible exception of the following: During the year ended December 31, 2013, Networks provided 2G Radio, core and transmission equipment, including related implementation and care services, in Iran under agreements with Mobile Communications Company of Iran (MCCI) and MTN Irancell. Additionally, during the year ended December 31, 2013, Networks purchased certain fixed line telephony services from Telecommunication Company of Iran (TCI) and certain mobile telephony services from MCCI. Through a branch of its Finnish subsidiary, Networks employs personnel in Iran to perform its contractual and regulatory obligations in Iran. In connection with these agreements, Networks maintains a shareholding in Pishahang Communications Network Development Company (Pishahang), as required under Iranian law and as is customary under Iranian business practices. NSN holds 49% of the outstanding shares of Pishahang. The other major shareholder in Pishahang is Information Technology Application Development TACFAM Company (Tacfam). Tacfam holds 49% of the outstanding shares of Pishahang. Although it is difficult to do with a reasonable degree of certainty, we have concluded that the possibility that TCI, MCCI, MTN Irancell or Tacfam is owned or controlled, directly or indirectly, by the Government of Iran cannot be excluded. During the year ended December 31, 2013, NSN divested its 20% shareholding in Iran Telecommunications Manufacturing Company (ITMC).
During the year ended December 31, 2013, Networks did not recognize sales revenue from agreements with MCCI and MTN Irancell, and recorded a net loss for that period.
Networks closed its bank accounts in Iran with Bank Tejarat on August 13, 2013. Networks conducted transactions in these accounts until March 17, 2012 mainly relating to winding down its activities. Between March 17, 2012 and August 13, 2013, no transactions were conducted in these accounts with the exception of maintaining a balance so that unpresented checks issued on these accounts could be honored upon presentment to Bank Tejarat.
Government RegulationNetworks, HERE and Technologies
Our business is subject to direct and indirect regulation in each of the countries in which we, the companies with which we work and our customers do business. As a result, changes in or uncertainties related to various types of regulations applicable to current or new technologies, products and services could affect our business adversely. Moreover, the implementation of technological or legal requirements could impact our products and services, manufacturing and distribution processes, and could affect the timing of product and services introductions, the cost of our production, products and services, as well as their commercial success. Also, our business is subject to the impacts of changes in trade policies or
regulation favoring the local industry participants, as well as other measures with potentially protectionist objectives that the host governments in different countries may take. Export control, tariffs or other fees or levies imposed on our products and services as well as environmental, product safety and security and other regulations that adversely affect the export, import, pricing or costs of our products and services could adversely affect our net sales and results of operations.
For example, in the United States, our products and services are subject to a wide range of government regulations that might have a direct impact on our business, including, but not limited to, regulation related to product certification, standards, spectrum management, consumer privacy, competition and sustainability. In the European Union the EU level or local member state regulation has in many areas a direct impact on our business and customers. The European regulation influences for example conditions for innovation for multifunctional devices and services, as well as investment in fixed and wireless broadband communication infrastructure. In China new partly local 3G telecom standards have been enacted that may affect production processes and have impact on our business. Additionally, with respect to certain developing market countries for example in Asia and in Latin and South America the business environment we operate in can pose risks to our business due to unpredictable, discriminatory or protectionist regulation.
We are in continuous dialogue with relevant state agencies, regulators and other decision makers through our experts, industry associations and our representatives in Washington, D.C., Brussels, Espoo, Berlin, Beijing and Delhi and through our experts, industry associations and representatives in the regions of Middle East and Africa, Latin and South America and South-East Asia.
Corporate responsibilityNokia Group, excluding Networks
During 2013, the corporate sustainability activities of Nokia, including its Devices & Services-related activities, were managed separately from those of Networks. Consequently, in the following discussion, we present corporate sustainability activities firstly for Nokia, which covers all of our operations, including the operations sold to Microsoft but excluding Networks. Thereafter, we provide separate discussions of the corporate sustainability activities of Networks and certain information for the operations sold to Microsoft in the Discontinued Operations section.
Sustainability issues are reviewed regularly at various levels of the company, including within the Nokia Leadership Team and the Board of Directors, and we have personnel across the business responsible for environmental and social targets.
The basic principles of our sustainability work are: Valuing people in everything we do; Being Green and Clean, Unleashing the potential of technology for good; Making change happen together.
For many years, we have been recognized for the results we achieve in the area of sustainability. For example, in 2013, Nokia was ranked second within the Communications Equipment industry in the Dow Jones Sustainability Indexes and ninth in Interbrands Best Global Green Brands survey.
Human rights. We have specific human rights responsibilities toward our employees, customers, the communities where we work, and within our supply chain. We apply the UN Human Rights special representative John Ruggies business and human rights framework to our business practices. Since 2011 our Nokia Human Rights Approach has been based on the frameworkProtect, Respect and Remedy.
Nokia Code of Conduct. The Nokia Code of Conduct sets our approach to ethical and sustainable business practices and is based on the highest ethical standards. It outlines our commitment to respect and promote human rights and fair workplace practices, equal opportunities, environmentally sustainable business and our zero-tolerance policy on bribery and corruption, and all Nokia employees must understand and comply with it. We have held Code of Conduct training for all employees using e-learning (in 14 languages) as well as classroom training. By the end of 2013, 94% of eligible non-manufacturing
employees and 93% of eligible employees in our manufacturing facilities had completed the training. During 2013 the Ethics and Compliance Office developed a comprehensive training program designed to support a culture of compliance based on the highest standards of ethical behavior and to safeguard Nokia against global compliance risks. New or refreshed modules were introduced including one on General Privacy for all Nokia employees and other modules for specific groups of employees covering the areas of Competition Law, Anticorruption and Trade Compliance. We also established a new Nokia business ethics helpline designed for reporting on concerns involving financial affairs, auditing or accounting practices, corruption, fraud or other serious misconduct. The helpline is available globally and provides a dedicated telephone line in nearly every country where Nokia has a presence, and an encrypted Internet site available to employees and others.
Nokia values. Nokias values have been articulated by our employees around the world. They act as a foundation for our evolving business culture, and form the basis for how we operate as a company. Together we have defined four core values that guide us in our everyday work. These values are: Make it great for the customer, Challenge and innovate, Achieve together, and Act with empathy and integrity.
Diversity and inclusion. Nokia is committed to promoting diversity and inclusion in the workplace and providing rewarding career development opportunities for all employees. We strive to create an inclusive workplace that welcomes men and women of different cultural or ethnic backgrounds, skills and abilities, lifestyles, generations and perspectives.
Training and development. We provide a variety of training opportunities for our employees to help them develop a broad range of skills for the workplace, as well as competencies specific to their roles. In 2013, we invested almost EUR 15 million in training and development.
Performance and rewarding employees. We offer a variety of recognition plans with levels of compensation determined by local labor markets and taking into account both individual contribution and company performance. The Nokia Equity Program 2013 included: New Employee Share Purchase Plan for Nokia employees in selected jurisdictions, Performance Shares, Restricted Shares, and Stock Options. Approximately 38 500 employees in 27 countries were offered the possibility to participate in the Employee Share Purchase Plan for the plan cycle in 2013 and 9 177 of them enrolled. Additionally, a total of 3 500 employees participated in the Nokia Performance Share Plan, Restricted Share Plan and Stock Option Plan. There are also other plans, including cash incentive plans for all employees, as well as small monetary bonuses as recognition awards, and we encourage managers to coach employees continually and to have at least one formal performance review every year. For information about our equity programs, see Item 6 of this annual report.
Customer privacy. As the Internet has expanded and new services for consumers have emerged, user privacy has become increasingly important. Consumers have increasing possibilities to use and share their personal information in new contexts. To remain a trusted brand, we work to ensure that this custodial information is protected from any threats. Respect for privacy is part of our commitment to observing high standards of integrity and ethical conduct in all our operations. In 2013, we improved the maturity of our privacy program by updating our privacy principles, policies, requirements and processes. Nokia believes in privacy by design which means that we strive to consider the privacy impacts already in the design of a product or service and not only as an afterthought.
Energy use and carbon emissions of our operations. In 2013, our facilities consumed 419 GWh of energy. This energy consumption caused 8 200 tonnes of direct and 187 100 tonnes of indirect greenhouse gas (C02e) gross emissions. Direct emissions are generated from our use of gas and oil, while our consumption of electricity and district heating/cooling generates indirect emissions. Nokia Group as a whole consumed 925 GWh of energy, out of which 332 GWh was certified renewable electricity. Purchased renewables reduced indirect CO2 emissions by 115 000 tonnes and hence, Nokia Group net emissions were 327 300 tonnes.
Reducing waste. In 2013, Nokia produced a total of 22 600 tons of waste, a 28% reduction from 2012.
Water usage. Water is not a significant environmental issue for our own operations, but used mainly for sanitary and catering purposes, and in gardening and facilities management, e.g. cooling towers. Production processes used relatively small amounts of water, under 1 000 liters per year in each factory. In 2013, we withdrew 1 096 mega liters of water for use in our facilities. Nokia Group as whole withdrew 1 628 mega liters of water.
Helping others decrease emissions. The role of ICT in driving a sustainable future and decreasing global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is quite significant. Our precise maps, combined with in-car connectivity, creates possibilities for helping people in cars plot the most optimal route to their destination, making it possible to cut down on carbon emissions.
Working together. Nokia has global partnerships in place to support our ambitions in our key corporate responsibility focus areas. Our global partners in 2013 were Oxfam, Plan International, UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization), British Council and WWF (World Wide Fund for Nature), and our partnerships with IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) and UNICEF (United Nations Childrens Fund) ended during the year. In each of these partnerships, we have provided not only financial support, but also our technology, resources and expertise on an ongoing basis for projects in which we are working jointly together. In addition, we work together with our non-profit partners around the world when a disaster strikes. In 2013, we responded to relief efforts when an earthquake struck in China and to the relief efforts when the Typhoon Haiyanknown locally as Typhoon Yolandastruck the south-easterly islands of the Philippines.
Suppliers. For over a decade, Nokia has required its first tier suppliers to adhere to strict ethical and sustainable business practices. The Nokia Supplier Requirements and the Nokia Supplier Code of Conduct provide clear guidance on the environmental, social, ethical, as well as health and safety expectations we have for our suppliers. These requirements are based on international standards such as ISO 14001, SA 8000, OHSAS 18001, ILO and UN conventions and they are enforced through contractual agreements.
Bridge program. Already in 2011, Nokia reported expecting critical challenges to its business and the way of working. As part of the transformation, Nokia outlined a range of planned changes in 2013 to streamline its IT organization and Nokias Mobile Phones business unit announced its plans to focus its product offering with the aim of improving product competitiveness and delivering more innovation. The affected employees were offered both financial support and a comprehensive Bridge support program. Nokia engaged with employee representatives regarding the plans in accordance with country-specific legal requirements. The program, which supported individuals and local communities directly impacted by changes at Nokia, provided the following options to employees whose job is affected by the restructuring:
Employees losing their jobs at Nokia have typically been entitled to severance packages more generous than local minimum practice.
By the end of 2013, the Bridge program, established in 2011, had served approximately 18 000 people, including factory workers. As a result, more than 1 000 new businesses have been established and approximately 60% of the employees participating in the program had found a new position within Nokia, outside of Nokia or in the newly-established businesses or are now pursuing full-time education, measured on their last day in Nokia.
Networks aims to minimize the adverse impacts of its business while also maximizing the positive social and environmental impacts its products can have.
Networks has an impact on people including employees, suppliers and communities. The companys five values guide the actions and behavior of employees and define the company culture. The values are: focus on the customer; communicate openly; win together; inspire; and innovate.
Global workforce. The restructuring efforts announced in November 2011 have progressed well towards the set goals with the aim of creating an efficient and more competitive Networks business. The change continued during 2013 with speed and momentum, and started moving from a phase where the focus has been primarily on restructuring to one where that primary focus shifted more to transformation and continuous improvement efforts. In 2013, the original target of reducing our annualized operating expenses and production overhead, excluding special items and purchase price accounting related items, was raised to more than EUR 1.5 billion. This revised target was achieved by the end of 2013. We have followed country-specific legal requirements to find socially responsible means of reducing its workforce and treated those affected with dignity and respect. Wherever possible, we transferred employees to new roles inside the company to support businesses that are core to its strategy. Additionally, we have often worked with local communities to speed up the process for re-employment with other companies.
On December 31, 2013, Networks had almost approximately 48 500 employees, of which approximately 2 500 worked in production. During the year, the rate of voluntary attrition was 7.5%, involuntary attrition was 18.2% and attrition due to common agreement was 7.1%.
Diversity and inclusion. At the end of 2013, 13% of senior management positions (approximately 350 employees) within Networks were held by women, an increase of 0.5 percentage points from 2012. Employees of non-Finnish or non-German nationality held 57% of senior management positions. For example, NSN has a very diverse Executive Board including members from Australia, Canada/Lebanon, France, Germany, India, Iran, Italy, Sweden and United States.
Training and development. During 2013, Networks spent EUR 41.5 million on training for employees through its training organization.
Health, safety and labor conditions. Providing safe and decent working conditions for employees is a priority for Nokia and its Networks business. The companys Code of Conduct and Global Labor Standard set out clear requirements for labor conditions, based on the International Labor Organisation (ILO) conventions. Networks is implementing the global standard at country level, focusing on the highest risk countries for labor violations. Internal audits are used to confirm compliance.
Networks health and safety management system, based on the international standard OHSAS 18001, safeguards employees with appropriate safety procedures, equipment and training. In 2013, Networks was awarded a global ISO OHSAS 18001 certificate, excluding China, which will be amended during
2014. Also, contractors must comply with our health and safety standards and Networks trains contractors to ensure they understand the procedures. Regular internal and external audits are used to check compliance. In 2013, Networks regrettably recorded two fatal incidents both resulting in contractor fatality. Overall, however, fatalities were reduced by 83% in 2013.
Networks Code of Conduct. The Code of Conduct sets out Networks commitment to uphold high ethical standards wherever it operates. Networks trains its employees on ethical business conduct every year and concerns can be reported anonymously through established whistleblower channels. Reported ethical concerns are investigated thoroughly by the companys Ethics and Compliance Office. In 2013, 96% of employees completed ethical business conduct training and 96% of employees received further training on anti-corruption.
Community. Networks has policies in place relating to disaster relief and to employee volunteering. During 2013, its efforts were focused on local activities on helping to recover telecommunications functionality in disaster areas.
Human rights. Networks recognizes its responsibility to help ensure that the communications technologies it provides are used to respect, and not infringe on, human rights. Networks Code of Conduct spells out zero tolerance for the violation of human rights. This commitment is reinforced in Networks human rights policy, which establishes due diligence processes to identify and address relevant human rights risks across the companys global operations. Employees are trained on human rights through ethical business training and those in high-risk roles such as procurement are given additional training on the companys human rights policy.
Suppliers. Networks Global supplier requirements, which set standards in ethical, environment and social issues, form a part of contractual agreements with suppliers and must be met by every NSN supplier. In 2013, we continued to tighten these requirements by putting in place Consequence Management for suppliers who do not meet our Health and Safety requirements. Failing to demonstrate robust safety management can trigger the termination of contract and phase out of the supplier. Compliance to supplier requirements was monitored through 27 system audits.
More detailed audits are undertaken with some suppliers selected through a risk assessment process. During 2013, we closed 3 audits and conducted 10 new audits. Additionally, 52 suppliers were assessed through the EcoVadis platform.
Networks requires suppliers who manufacture components containing materials associated with conflict minerals to adopt a zero tolerance policy on use of conflict minerals with their respective suppliers. We further clarified our scope of suppliers under the Conflict Free Sourcing Program, and as a result, we have made enquiries with 282 key suppliers with respect to their mineral sourcing processes and we are ready for the first time progress reporting as required in 2014.
Environmental strategy. Networks environmental strategy has two key elements:
Networks offers a comprehensive range of energy solutions for telecoms operators, combining products and services. The portfolio is designed to reduce the network operating costs of new and legacy telecommunications networks, using more efficient technology and renewable energy to reduce power consumption and the resultant GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions.
To achieve improved environmental performance, Networks operates a company-wide Environmental Management System (EMS), certified to the internationally recognized standard ISO 14001. Networks also requires its suppliers to have a documented Environmental Management Systemcompliant with ISO 14001in place. In 2013, Networks was recertified with ISO14001.
Reducing the companys environmental impact. Networks continued to reduce the environmental impact of products and operations. Also, the company managed to reduce the energy consumption of buildings in 2013 by 9%. This exceeds the initial 5% target set for 2013. Renewable energy continues to form a substantial part of the energy used in Networks own facilitiesin 2013, Networks was able to grow the amount of renewable energy used in our operations, and today 44.5% of the used overall energy at Networks is from certified renewable sources.
In 2013, Networks continued with the logistics improvements, including the efforts to reduce airfreight and shift to ground/sea freight and had significant success. Efforts in 2013 for lowering energy consumption and emissions resulted in 19% reduction of total CO2 emissions from Networks operations including facilities, air freight and air travel.
Radio waves and health. Wireless communications technologies operate well within the limits recommended by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection and endorsed by the WHO, and the company works to ensure continued compliance of its products with these requirements. Networks engages with its stakeholders and in public discussions on this topic, as well as monitoring scientific studies.
Corporate responsibilityDiscontinued operations
This section gives a brief overview of some of the sustainability activities of the operations we divested to Microsoft in April, 2014 due to the closing of the Sale of the D&S Business.
Unleashing the full potential of mobile technology for good. By extending the power of mobile technology, our Devices & Services business helped address global sustainability challenges such as education, livelihoods, and accessibility. For example, our Nokia Data Gathering software that replaces traditional data collection methods with mobile devices, improving results and saving time and money has made data collection more efficient in around 70 countries and by over 300 registered organizations for fields such as birth registration, agricultural production monitoring, water surveys, the fight against dengue fever and more.
Additionally, Nokia has supported the use of mobile communications to deliver education to people. Our mobile learning solutions included Nokia Mobile Mathematics, a mobile service that combines official mathematics curricula with social networking; Nokia Education Delivery, software which enables delivery of quality education materials over mobile networks to the classroom, particularly useful in hard-to-reach areas.
Accessibility. In the area of accessibility, we worked to bring mobile communications to the people worldwide who have a recognized disability, whether in vision, hearing, speech, mobility or cognition. For example, in 2013, we made our Lumia devices usable for the blind and people with severe sight impairment by launching the Mobile Accessibility screen reader for Windows Phone. For the hard-of-hearing, we gathered the largest hearing-aid manufacturers together to create a new, open, Bluetooth-based standard for a direct connectivity between phone and the hearing aid. Additionally, in partnership with the Royal National Institute of Blind People (RNIB), we invited developers to create new apps that will make the lives of people with low vision easier; or update their existing apps to make them more accessible in general.
Health, safety and well-being. The health, safety and well-being of our employees are vital to the success of our business. Our global OHS Injury and Illness Reporting includes all factory internal Nokia
employees, external contractors and service providers as well. In 2013, our Total Incident Frequency Rate for all of our major manufacturing facilities was 0.11. In other words, for every 100 employees, contractors and service providers, there were 0.11 incidents of occupational injury or illness. Since 2011, our global Occupational Health and Safety Injury and Illness Reporting has included all cases that require some type of medical treatment, not just those that result in absence from work.
Labor Conditions at manufacturing facilities. We used Nokia Labor Conditions Requirements as a framework to monitor labor conditions in a consistent manner. Compliance with local law is naturally the foundation for all our activities but, on top of this, we also aim to comply with global practices that often go above and beyond scope of the local legislation.
We carried out in-depth assessments at our major mobile device production facilities every second year to monitor labor conditions and verify compliance. These assessments were always conducted by a professional external assessment company. The last assessment round took place in 2012 and the outcome indicated that labor, health and safety were properly managed at all seven factories.
In 2013, our internal assessors carried out internal assessments at our factories in Hanoi, Chennai and Dongguan. We also followed up on non-conformity found during the third party assessments.
Product safety. Product safety has been a top priority for Nokia. All the mobile products we made operate below relevant international exposure guidelines and limits that are set by public health authorities. Since 1995, expert panels and government agencies around the world have performed more than 110 reviews of the scientific evidence regarding health effects from exposure to radio frequencies (RF). These reviews consistently support the scientific conclusion that RF fields operated at levels below the exposure guidelines pose no adverse effects to humans. We are responsive to our customers questions about mobile device safety and are committed to making information available transparently for consumers.
Environmentally-leading mobile product range. In 2013, we introduced our very first phone using recycled plastics in the product cover, the Nokia Lumia 1520. The phone continued our range of eco hero devices, such as the Nokia Lumia 820 and Nokia Asha 311, which showcase the widest range of environmental features and innovations in our product range.
Energy-savings in our mobile products. Since 2004, we have reduced the no-load power consumption of our chargers by over 83% and in our best-in-class chargers by over 90%. During 2013, we have introduced one new energy efficient charger: AC-60, for our high end phones. Since 2012, all new Nokia devices have been shipped with a four star or five star chargers. The target for the average no-load was to reduce it with 75% to 0.07W from the 2006 value of 0.278W. We reached 0.061W which is a reduction of 37% from year 2012. The charger no-load power consumption values are calculated as volume weighted average charger no-load power consumption for phone products per year.
Substance and materials management in our mobile products. Our main objective has been to know all the substances in our products, not just those that raise concerns. Our products must be safe for people and the environment when used in the proper way. All our mobile devices and accessories worldwide are fully compliant with the EU Directive on the Restriction of the Use of Certain Hazardous Substances in Electrical and Electronic Equipment (EU RoHS), and all national requirements similar to RoHS. Since 2009, all our new products must be free of BFR (brominated flame retardants) and RFR (restricted flame retardants), as defined in the Nokia Substance List (NSL). The full NSL, with information about our substance management, including legal requirements and our voluntary phase-outs, is available on our website.
Packaging. During 2013, we continued to find more sustainable materials both in fiber packages and in plastics materials. We increased the use of recycled fibers in our packaging and at the end of 2013,
78% of our packaging materials needed in retail and transport were made of recycled fibers, of which a large proportion are also certified. The increased use of recycled fibers and related material choices decreased the need for virgin fibers. The share of certified virgin materials used in our packaging was 9% and not certified virgin materials 13%. We also only used plastics in those packages where transparency was needed to show the products to customers, which were usually accessory packages.
Take-back and recycling. 100% of the materials in a Nokia mobile device can be recovered and used to make new products or generate energy. Our challenge has been to create a recycling culture where the recycling of mobile products is easy and desirable. We focus on raising consumer awareness, ensuring that old products are treated responsibly as recyclable materials and getting the recycling process right by working with recyclers. Our own take-back and recycling efforts have been intended to ensure not only legal compliance, but also go above and beyond legally set requirements.
Environmental management systems (EMS). Our EMS is an integral part of our common global management structure. The international ISO14001 standard has been the foundation for our certified EMS for more than 15 years and it covers all of our manufacturing facilities. Its goal is to improve our environmental performance, focusing on energy consumption, waste management, water management and air emissions. We require a certified EMS according to ISO 14001 from our contract manufacturers, and a certified EMS from all our direct suppliers.
Suppliers. To monitor supplier compliance and performance against the Nokia Supplier code of Conduct, Nokia used a wide range of approaches and means. At the end of 2013, 371 supplier facilities had been risk self-assessed relation to labor, ethics, health and safety and environmental practices at the factories. Self-assessments have provided us with an indication of the suppliers own understanding of their compliance level before conducting selected on-site assessments. This accounts for around 90% of our hardware and mechanics estimated business value for 2013. Estimated Business value is based on the estimated volume of the year.
In 2013, 42 Nokia Supplier Requirements on-site assessments and 13 Environmental and Ethical on-site in-depth assessments were carried out to ensure that suppliers provide a safe work environment, exercise good labor practices, use environmentally sustainable manufacturing processes, and aim to reduce the environmental impact of their own operations. In addition to assessments, we pay attention to these processes and practices in supplier selection and contracting, relationship development, procurement decisions and steering meetings. Nokia has also taken continuous actions to ensure that our products are manufactured from ethically sourced materials. We do not tolerate activity in our supply chain that fuels conflict, violates human rights or leads to serious environmental degradation. The issue is currently especially acute with the extraction and trade of minerals in Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and surrounding countries. During 2013, we continued to evaluate our suppliers due diligence activities towards conflict-free sourcing and to contribute to activities that support responsible sourcing from high-risk regions.
4C. ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE
The following is a list of Nokias significant subsidiaries at December 31, 2013. See also, Item 4A. History and Development of the CompanyOrganizational Structure and Reportable Segments.
Upon the closing of the Sale of the D&S Business to Microsoft on April 25, 2014, Nokias companies listed under Discontinued Nokia Group Companies transferred to Microsoft with the exception of Nokia India Pvt. Ltd. and Nokia TMC Limited.
4D. Property, Plants and Equipment
At December 31, 2013, Nokia operated seven manufacturing facilities in six countries for the production of Nokia-branded mobile devices, and Networks had seven manufacturing facilities in four countries. We consider the production capacity of our manufacturing facilities to be sufficient to meet the requirements of our networks infrastructure business. The extent of utilization of our manufacturing facilities varies from plant to plant and from time to time during the year. None of these facilities is subject to a material encumbrance, with the exception of the mobile devices related facility in Chennai as tax authorities in India have placed a lien on this facility prohibiting Nokia to transfer this facility.
The following is a list of the location, use and capacity of major manufacturing facilities for Nokia mobile devices and NSN infrastructure equipment on December 31, 2013.
Upon the closing of the Sale of the D&S Business to Microsoft, Nokias manufacturing sites located in Manaus, Beijing, Dongguan, Komárom, and Reynosa transferred to Microsoft. Contrary to the original scope of the Sale of the D&S Business, Nokias manufacturing facilities in Chennai in India and Masan in the Republic of Korea did not transfer to Microsoft at the closing of the transaction. With regard to the Chennai facility, Nokia and Microsoft have entered into a service agreement whereby Nokia will produce mobile devices for Microsoft. With regard to the Masan facility, Nokia is taking steps to close the facility, which employs approximately 200 people.
5A. Operating Results
This section begins with an overview of the principal factors and trends affecting our results of operations. The overview is followed by a discussion of our critical accounting policies and estimates
that we believe are important to understanding the assumptions and judgments reflected in our reported financial results. We then present an analysis of our results of operations for the last three fiscal years.
Nokia announced two significant transactions during 2013. On July 1, 2013, Nokia announced an agreement to acquire Siemens 50% stake in the companies joint venture Nokia Siemens Networks. The purchase price for Siemens stake was EUR 1.7 billion and the transaction closed on August 7, 2013. Additionally, on September 3, 2013, Nokia announced that it had signed an agreement to enter into a transaction whereby Nokia sold substantially all of its Devices & Services business and license its patents to Microsoft for EUR 5.44 billion in cash, payable at closing, which took place on April 25, 2014. More details on the transactions can be found in Item 4A. History and Development of the CompanyOrganizational Structure and Reportable Segments.
Organizational Structure and Reportable Segments
We have three businesses: Networks, HERE, and Technologies, and four operating and reportable segments for financial reporting purposes: Mobile Broadband and Global Services within Networks, HERE, and Technologies. Below is a description of our four reportable segments.
Networks also contains Networks Other, which includes net sales and related cost of sales and operating expenses of non-core businesses, as well as Optical Networks business until May 6, 2013, when its divestment was completed. It also includes restructuring and associated charges for Networks business. Additionally, as a result of the Sale of the D&S Business, we report certain separate information for Discontinued Operations.
On August 7, 2013, Nokia completed the acquisition of Siemens stake in Nokia Siemens Networks, which was a joint venture between Nokia and Siemens and renamed the company Nokia Solutions and Networks, also referred to as NSN. After the closing of the Sale of the D&S Business, NSN was renamed Networks. Networks was consolidated by Nokia prior to this transaction. Beginning in the third quarter of 2013, Nokia has reported financial information for the two operating and reportable segments within Networks; Mobile Broadband and Global Services. Beginning in the fourth quarter of 2013, the Devices & Services business has been reported as Discontinued Operations. To reflect these changes, historical results information for past periods has been regrouped for historical comparative purposes. As is customary, certain judgments have been made when regrouping historical results information and allocating items in the regrouped results. When presenting financial information as at December 31, 2013 and related comparative information for previous periods, we generally refer to the names of the businesses and reportable segments as they were named at December 31, 2013. However, the terms Networks and Nokia Solutions and Networks, or NSN and the terms Technologies and Advanced Technologies may be used interchangeably in this annual report.
For more information on our organizational structure, see Item 4A. History and Development of the CompanyOrganizational Structure and Reportable Segments. Business segment data in the
following discussion is prior to inter-segment eliminations. See Note 2 to our consolidated financial statements included in Item 18 of this annual report. The following discussion should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements included in Item 18 of this annual report, Item 3D, Risk Factors and Forward-Looking Statements. Our financial statements have been prepared in accordance with IFRS.
Principal Factors & Trends Affecting our Results of Operations
Networks, our network infrastructure and related services business, is a leading vendor in the mobile infrastructure market comprising a broad range of different products, from the hardware components of networks used by network operators to software solutions supporting the efficient interaction of networks, as well as services to plan, implement, run and upgrade mobile operators networks. We are investing in the innovative products and services needed by telecoms operators to manage the increase in wireless data traffic. We plan to focus future investment on further building on our strong position in mobile broadband and related services, and strengthening our leadership position in next-generation network technologies that will be important enablers for the future networks connecting tens of billions of devices. For more information on the Networks business see Item 4B.
In recent years, the most important trends affecting Networks have been the increase in the use of mobile data services and the resulting exponential increase in data traffic, which however has not been directly reflected in operators revenue. With end users replacing operator services, such as voice telephony and SMS with over-the-top applications, such as Skype and WhatsApp, operators revenue growth is slowing down. As a result, there is an increased need for efficiency for both operators and network infrastructure, as well as services vendors that may lead to industry consolidation to achieve scale. Other developments related to the need for greater efficiency are the mixed radio technology environment, increased network sharing, re-use of already scarce radio frequency spectrums, and an increased need for network flexibility, as well as the use of cognitive network technologies. In addition to the attempts to reduce their costs, the operators want to increase their agility through the adoption of the emerging telco cloud and network virtualization which is enabled by the convergence of IT and telecommunications. For more information, please see Item 4B.
Pricing and Price Erosion
The pricing environment remained intense in 2013. In particular, a wave of network modernization that has taken place, primarily in Europe, and increasingly also in other regions, including Asia Pacific, has continued to put pressure on pricing as the vendors compete for market share.
Networks net sales are impacted by these pricing developments. Although some regional variation exists, price erosion is evident across most geographical markets and impacts Networks sales and profitability.
Product and regional mix
Networks profitability is also impacted by the product mix, software sales and regional mix.
Products and services have varying profitability profiles. The Mobile Broadband business offers a combination of hardware and software. These products, in particular software products, have higher gross margins; however, they require much higher research and development investments. Global Services offerings are typically labor-intensive while carrying low research and development
investment, and have relatively low gross margins compared to the hardware and software products of Mobile Broadband.
Regional sales also carry varying profitability. Overall profitability for certain regions should only be seen as indicative, since profitability can vary from country to country, within a particular region, and even from customer to customer within a particular country. In general, developed markets provide relatively high margins while emerging markets, where end-users, and therefore mobile operators, are often more financially constrained, provide lower margins.
Cyclical nature of projects
In addition to the normal industry seasonality described in the section Certain other factors below, there are normal peaks and troughs in the roll-out of large infrastructure projects. The timing of roll-outs is dependent on factors that affect our customers, such as new spectrum allocation, network upgrade cycles and the availability of new consumer devices. Networks net sales are affected by the cycle stages of these large projects, and the extent to which they overlap. Overall, profitability can be affected by the sales impact as well as the requirement to source large volumes of components at short notice, which can impact the cost of sales.
Continued efficiency improvements
Efficiency improvements are expected to continue in 2014 as Networks continues to realize some of the benefits from the restructuring program announced in 2011. Networks also plans further efficiency gains from increased automation in Global Service delivery and other areas, as well as continued improvements in R&D efficiency and agility.
Cost of components and raw materials
There are several factors that drive Networks profitability. Scale, operational efficiency and cost control have been, and will continue to be, important factors affecting profitability and competitiveness. Networks product costs are comprised of the cost of components, manufacturing, labor and overhead, royalties and license fees, the depreciation of product machinery, logistics costs, as well as warranty and other quality costs.
Targets and Priorities
Networks is putting increased focus on revenue growth and market share gains while it aims to maintain strong profitability and cash generation. (For more information, please see Item 4B, Strategy section.)
Longer-term, Nokia continues to target Networks operating margin to be between 5% and 10%, excluding special items and purchase price accounting related items.
Nokia expects Networks operating margin for the full year 2014 to be towards the higher end of Networks targeted long term operating margin range of 5% to 10%, excluding special items and purchase price accounting related items. In addition, Nokia expects Networks net sales to grow on a year-on-year basis in the second half of 2014. This outlook is based on Nokias expectations regarding a number of factors, including:
Our HERE business is a leading provider of maps and location experiences across multiple screens and operating systems. We are focused on producing the most accurate and fresh map content, available through multiple devices and operating systems. We are investing to further develop our leading location cloud to make it the source of location intelligence and experiences across many different operating systems, platforms and screens. Given that location is an essential element of a connected world, we are targeting our investment in three areas: 1) technology for smart, connected cars; 2) cloud-based services for personal mobility and location intelligence, including for the growing segment of wearables and special purpose devices; and 3) location-based analytics for better business decisions. For more information on the HERE business, see Item 4B.
Vertical and Horizontal opportunities in Map Content, Platform and Applications
HERE is a leading provider of map content and is focused on providing the richest, most accurate and most current maps possible, since these attributes are becoming more important for consumers and providers of location services. HEREs ability to offer independent solutions at various levels of the value chain offers both vertical and horizontal opportunities. We see opportunities in being able to offer solutions across ecosystems and different layers within them, as well as with different types of devices.
HEREs map data provides a strong foundation, and HEREs cloud-based map platform enables us to compete at multiple levels of the location services value chain including partnering with automobile vendors and internet services companies for their own differentiated offerings.
The HERE map platform enables our location intelligence and experiences to be distributed in the cloud and to be used across many different operating systems, platforms and screens. This enables users of the platform to license certain parts of our offering, including content, location services and functionalities, such as routing and positioning. Access to the platform allows users to build specific applications for location-related services and products, such as wearables and special purpose devices.
Automotive and Other Industries
We see, and are investing in, certain transformational growth opportunities within the automotive and other industries that require location-based intelligence. An area of interest is the automotive industry, where our focus goes beyond the traditional turn-by-turn navigation, and towards concepts such as smart, connected cars, autonomous driving and augmented reality. As these are new areas, our success in terms of transforming development efforts into sales is dependent on these concepts developing commercially and on our ability to produce products that are appealing to the industry.
In general, we believe there is a trend of more and more devices being connected, forming an Internet of Things. We believe there may be opportunities for location-based intelligence to serve as a key dimension in this development, and we believe that HERE is well-positioned to capture those potential growth opportunities with its broad offering.
As the automotive industry is a significant contributor to HEREs sales, the broader economy and its influence on new car sales are an important factor in HEREs future success. The adoption rate of in-car navigation products and services is important too. In general, adoption of these types of products has been increasing.
Targets and Priorities
In 2014, Nokia expects HERE to invest to capture longer term transformational growth opportunities. This is expected to negatively affect HEREs 2014 operating margin, excluding special items and purchase price accounting related items.
Our Technologies business builds on several of Nokias Chief Technology Office (CTO) and Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) activities, including patent, technology, trademark and brand assets. Technologies explores new business opportunities through advanced research and development and concept products in areas such as connectivity, sensing and material technologies, as well as web and cloud technologies. We are investing in the further development of our industry-leading innovation portfolio. This includes 1) expanding our successful IP licensing program; 2) helping other companies and organizations benefit from our breakthrough innovations through technology licensing; and 3) exploring new technologies for use in potential future products and services. For more information on the Technologies business, see Item 4B.
Divestment of substantially all of our Devices & Services business
Since the early 1990s, we have invested more than EUR 50 billion in research and development and built one of the markets strongest and broadest IPR portfolios, with approximately 10 000 patent families. In addition, Networks has a separate portfolio of approximately 4 000 patent families. As Nokia is no longer a handset manufacturer, due to the Sale of D&S Business to Microsoft, the need to obtain licenses from other companies will be significantly reduced. As the length of license agreements is generally several years, the eventual renegotiations of our existing contracts, once they expire, are expected to have a positive impact on our future results. While the majority of our current revenues are derived from licenses related to Standard Essential Patents, these only represent approximately 15% of our overall portfolio. The vast majority of Nokias patents cover proprietary technologies, which have been crucial for driving differentiation of our handsets. As this exclusivity is no longer needed, we see further opportunities in the licensing of such patented technologies more broadly. As an example, the technology licensing could include connectivity, sensing, materials and energy and power management technologies.
Monetization Strategies of Intellectual Property Rights
Success in the technology industry requires significant research and development investments, with intellectual property rights to protect those investments and related inventions. In recent years, we have seen new entrants in the mobile device industry, many of which do not have licenses to our IPR. In 2013, we continued to see active licensing and enforcement strategies of IPR emerge through a series of legal disputes between several industry participants, as patent holders sought to protect their IPR against unauthorized infringements by other device OEMs. We believe we are well-positioned to protect our existing industry-leading IPR portfolio, and consequently increase value to our shareholders.
General Trends in IPR Licensing
In general, there has been increased focus on IPR protection and licensing, and this trend is expected to continue. As such, new agreements are generally a product of lengthy negotiations and potential litigation, and therefore the timing and outcome can be difficult to forecast. Due to the structure of the patent license agreements, the payments may be very infrequent, often retrospective in part, and the lengths of license agreements can vary.
As a result of the Sale of the D&S Business, we have an opportunity to develop a technology licensing business, in order to realize returns on our investments in certain technologies that have previously been crucial to the differentiation of our devices, as well as other relevant future technologies. This may increase the scope of potential sales opportunities in the longer term, as some of the technologies may be of interest to other market participants.
Research, Development and Patent Portfolio Development
As the creation of new technology assets, including IPR, is heavily focused on research and development activities, we may from time to time see investment opportunities that have strategic importance. This generally affects the operating expenses before the results of such investments are visible in the sales.
Targets and Priorities
Nokia expects Technologies annualized net sales run rate to expand to approximately EUR 600 million during 2014, now that Microsoft has become a more significant intellectual property licensee in conjunction with the Sale of the D&S Business.
Certain Other Factors
Our business and results of operations are, from time to time, affected by changes in exchange rates, particularly between the euro, our reporting currency, and other currencies such as the US dollar and the Japanese yen. See Item 3A. Selected Financial Data-Exchange Rate Data. Foreign currency denominated assets and liabilities, together with highly probable purchase and sale commitments, give rise to foreign exchange exposure.
The magnitude of foreign exchange exposures changes over time as a function of our presence in different markets and the prevalent currencies used for transactions in those markets. The majority of our non-euro based sales are denominated in the US dollar, but our strong presence in emerging markets like China and India also gives rise to foreign exchange exposure in several emerging market currencies. The majority of our non-euro based purchases are denominated in US dollars. In general, depreciation of another currency relative to the euro has an adverse effect on our sales and operating profit, while appreciation of another currency relative to the euro has a positive effect.
In addition to foreign exchange risk of our own sales and costs, our overall risk depends on the competitive environment in our industry and the foreign exchange exposures of our competitors.
To mitigate the impact of changes in exchange rates on our results, we hedge material transaction exposures, unless hedging would be uneconomical due to market liquidity and/or hedging cost. We hedge significant forecasted cash flows typically with an approximately 12-month hedging horizon. For the majority of these hedges, hedge accounting is applied to reduce income statement volatility. We also hedge significant balance sheet exposures. Our balance sheet is also affected by the translation into euro for financial reporting purposes of the shareholders equity of our foreign subsidiaries that are denominated in currencies other than the euro. In general, this translation increases our shareholders equity when the euro depreciates, and affects shareholders equity adversely when the euro appreciates against the relevant other currencies (year-end rate to previous year-end rate). To mitigate the impact to shareholders equity, we hedge selected net investment exposures from time to time.
In 2013, the overall volatility of the global currency markets has remained broadly around the same level as in 2012. Out of our significant non-euro transaction currencies, however, the Japanese yen depreciated significantly during 2013 compared to the rate at the end of 2012. Overall, hedging costs remained relatively low in 2013 due to the low interest rate environment globally.
During 2013, the US dollar depreciated against the euro by 7.1%. The weaker US dollar in 2013 had a negative impact on our net sales expressed in euro, as approximately 30% of our net sales are generated in US dollars and currencies closely following the US dollar. The depreciation of the US dollar
also contributed to lower cost of sales and operating expenses, as approximately 30% of our cost base was in US dollars and currencies closely following the US dollar. In total, before hedging, the movement of the US dollar against the euro had a negative effect on our operating profit in 2013.
In 2013, the Japanese yen depreciated by 26.8% against the euro. During that year, approximately 10% of our net sales were generated in Japanese yen. The depreciation of the Japanese yen also contributed to lower cost of sales and operating expenses, as approximately 10% of our cost base was in Japanese yen. In total, before hedging, the depreciation of the Japanese yen had a negative impact on our operating profit in 2013.
The majority of the impact of the US dollar and Japanese yen depreciation against the euro on our operating result was, however, mitigated through hedging.
Significant changes in exchange rates may also impact our competitive position and related price pressures through their impact on our competitors.
For a discussion on the instruments used by Nokia in connection with our hedging activities, see Note 35 to our consolidated financial statements included in Item 18 of this annual report. See also Item 11. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk and Item 3D. Risk Factors.
At December 31, 2013, Nokias continuing operations in Finland had approximately EUR 2.3 billion (calculated at the Finnish corporate tax rate of 20%) of net deferred tax assets that have not been recognized in the financial statements. A significant portion of Nokias Finnish deferred tax assets are indefinite in nature and available against future Finnish taxable income. Nokia will continue to closely monitor its ability to utilize these deferred tax assets, including assessing future financial performance of Nokias continuing operations in Finland. Should the recent improvements in Nokias continuing operations financial results be sustained, all or part of the unrecognized deferred tax assets may be recognized in the future.
Our Networks sales are affected by seasonality in the network operators planning, budgeting and spending cycles, with generally higher Networks sales in the fourth quarter compared to the first quarter of the following year.
Our HERE sales to the automotive industry are affected by seasonality in the automobile market, navigation device market, and mobile device market, with generally higher HERE sales in the fourth quarter compared to the first quarter of the following year.
Technologies sales are not significantly affected by seasonality. However, the sales can be unevenly distributed across the quarters, based on the timing and frequency of certain payments from certain licensees. In addition, possible retrospective payments that may occur, for instance as a result of entering into an agreement or settlement, may cause even significant variations on quarterly sales.
The International Accounting Standards Board, or IASB, has and will continue to critically examine current IFRS, with a view towards improving existing IFRS, as well as increasing international harmonization of accounting rules. This process of improvement and convergence of worldwide accounting standards has resulted in amendments to existing rules effective during the year ended
December 31, 2013. These are discussed in more detail under New accounting pronouncements under IFRS in Note 1 to our consolidated financial statements included in Item 18 of this annual report. The adopted 2013 amendments to IFRS did not have a material impact on our results of operations or financial position.
On April 25, 2014 Nokia completed the sale of substantially all of its Devices & Services business to Microsoft. The transaction was subject to potential purchase price adjustments. At closing, the agreed transaction price of EUR 5.44 billion was increased by approximately EUR 170 million as a result of the estimated adjustments made for net working capital and cash earnings. However this adjustment is based on an estimate which will be finalized when the final cash earnings and net working capital numbers are expected to be available during the second quarter 2014.
Nokia expects to book a gain on sale of approximately EUR 3.0 billion from the transaction. As a result of the gain, Nokia expects to record tax expenses of approximately EUR 180 million.
Additionally, as is customary for transactions of this size, scale and complexity, Nokia and Microsoft made certain adjustments to the scope of the assets originally planned to transfer. These adjustments have no impact on the material deal terms of the transaction and Nokia will be materially compensated for any retained liabilities.
In India, our manufacturing facility remains part of Nokia following the closing of the transaction. Nokia and Microsoft have entered into a service agreement whereby Nokia would produce mobile devices for Microsoft for a limited time. In the Republic of Korea, Nokia and Microsoft agreed to exclude the Masan facility from the scope of the transaction and Nokia is taking steps to close the facility, which employs approximately 200 people. Altogether, and accounting for these adjustments, approximately 25 000 employees transferred to Microsoft at the closing.
The EUR 1.5 billion convertible bonds issued by Nokia to Microsoft following the announcement of the transaction have been redeemed and netted against the deal proceeds by the amount of principal and accrued interest.
Critical Accounting Policies
Our accounting policies affecting our financial condition and results of operations are more fully described in Note 1 to our consolidated financial statements included in Item 18 of this annual report. Some of our accounting policies require the application of judgment by management in selecting appropriate assumptions for calculating financial estimates, which inherently contain some degree of uncertainty. Management bases its estimates on historical experience and various other assumptions that are believed to be reasonable under the circumstances. The related results form the basis for making judgments about reported carrying values of assets and liabilities and reported amounts of revenues and expenses that may not be readily apparent from other sources. The Group will revise material estimates if changes occur in the circumstances on which an estimate was based or as a result of new information or more experience. Actual results may differ from current estimates under different assumptions or conditions. The estimates affect all our businesses equally unless otherwise indicated.
The following paragraphs discuss critical accounting policies and related judgments and estimates used in the preparation of our consolidated financial statements. We have discussed the application of these critical accounting estimates with our Board of Directors and the Audit Committee.
Revenues within the Group are generally recognized when the significant risks and rewards of ownership have transferred to the buyer, continuing managerial involvement usually associated with ownership and effective control have ceased, the amount of revenue can be measured reliably, it is probable that economic benefits associated with the transaction will flow to the Group and the costs incurred or to be incurred in respect of the transaction can be measured reliably. When management determines that such criteria have been met, revenue is recognized.
Networks enters into transactions that involve multiple components consisting of any combination of hardware, software and services. Within these arrangements, separate components are identified and accounted for based on the nature and fair value of those components and considering the economic substance of the entire arrangement. Revenue is allocated to each separately identifiable component based on the relative fair value of each component. The fair value of each component is determined by taking into consideration factors such as the price of the component when sold separately and the component cost plus a reasonable margin when price references are not available. This determination of the fair value and allocation thereof to each separately identifiable component of a transaction requires the use of estimates and judgment which may have a significant impact on the timing and amount of revenue recognized for the period. Service revenue, which typically includes managed services and maintenance services, is generally recognized on a straight-line basis over the specified period unless there is evidence that some other method better represents the rendering of services.
Also at Networks, certain revenue is recognized from contracts involving solutions achieved through modification of complex telecommunications equipment on a percentage of completion basis when the outcome of the contract can be estimated reliably. Recognized revenues and profit estimates are subject to revisions during the project in the event that the assumptions regarding the overall project outcome are revised. Current sales and profit estimates for projects may materially change due to an early stage of a long-term project, new technology, changes in the project scope, changes in costs, changes in timing, changes in customers plans, realization of penalties and other corresponding factors.
Within the HERE business, a substantial majority of revenue is derived from the licensing of the HERE database. Revenue which consists of license fees from usage (including license fees in excess of the nonrefundable minimum fees), are recognized in the period in which the license fees are estimable. Nonrefundable minimum annual licensing fees are generally received upfront and represent a minimum guarantee of fees to be received from the licensee during the period of the arrangement. The total up-front fee paid by the customer is generally amortized ratably over the term of the arrangement. When it is determined that the actual amount of licensing fees earned exceeds the cumulative revenue recognized under the amortization method, we recognize the additional licensing revenue. Furthermore, within the HERE business, some licensing arrangements contain multiple elements, that could include data, software, services and updates. Revenue is allocated to each element based on its relative fair value and is recognized as the element is delivered and the obligation is fulfilled.
Technologies patent license agreements are multi-year arrangements, which usually cover both a licensees past and future sales until a certain agreed date, when the license expires. When a patent license agreement is signed, it typically includes an agreement or settlement on past royalties that the licensor is entitled to. Such income for past periods is recognized immediately. License payments relating to the future royalties are recognized over the remaining contract period, typically 5 to 10 years. Licensees often pay a fixed license fee in one or more installments and running royalties based on their sales of licensed products. Licensees generally report and pay their running royalties on a quarterly basis after the end of each quarter and Nokia revenue recognition takes place accordingly at the time the royalty reports are received.
Within the Devices & Services business in Discontinued Operations, a sale of devices can include multiple components consisting of a combination of hardware, services and software. The commercial effect of each separately identifiable element of the transaction is evaluated in order to determine the appropriate accounting treatment for each component of the transaction. The total amount received is allocated to individual components based on their estimated fair value. Fair value of each component is determined by taking into consideration factors such as the price when the component is sold separately, the price when a similar component is sold separately by a third party and cost plus a reasonable margin when pricing references are not available. The estimated fair values are allocated first to software and services and the residual amount allocated to hardware. Application of the recognition criteria described above generally results in recognition of hardware-related revenue at the time of delivery with software and services-related revenue recognized on a straight-line basis over their respective terms.
Also within the Devices & Services business in Discontinued Operations, we record estimated reductions to revenue for special pricing agreements and other volume-based discounts at the time of sale. Sales adjustments for volume based discount programs are estimated largely based on historical activity under similar programs.
We have provided a limited amount of customer financing arrangements, predominantly within Networks, and agreed extended payment terms with selected customers. In establishing credit arrangements, management must assess the creditworthiness of the customer and the timing of cash flows expected to be received under the arrangement. However, should the actual financial position of our customers or general economic conditions differ from our assumptions, we may be required to reassess the ultimate collectability of such financings and trade credits, which could result in a write-off of these balances in future periods and thus negatively impact our profits in future periods. Our assessment of the net recoverable value considers the collateral and security arrangements of the receivable, as well as the likelihood and timing of estimated collections. From time to time, the Group endeavors to mitigate this risk through transfer of its rights to the cash collected from these arrangements to third-party financial institutions on a non-recourse basis in exchange for an upfront cash payment. The financial impact of the customer financing related assumptions mainly affects the Networks business.
Allowances for Doubtful Accounts
We maintain allowances for doubtful accounts for estimated losses resulting from the subsequent inability of our customers to make required payments. If financial conditions of our customers were to deteriorate, resulting in an impairment of their ability to make payments, additional allowances may be required in future periods. Management specifically analyzes accounts receivables and historical bad debt, customer concentrations, customer creditworthiness, past due balances, current economic trends and changes in our customer payment terms when evaluating the adequacy of the allowance for doubtful accounts. Based on these estimates and assumptions, Nokia continuing operations allowance for doubtful accounts was EUR 124 million at the end of 2013.
We periodically review our inventory for excess, obsolescence and declines in market value below cost and record an allowance against the inventory balance for any such declines. These reviews require management to estimate future demand for our products. Possible changes in these estimates could result in revisions to the valuation of inventory in future periods. Based on these estimates and assumptions, the Nokia continuing operations allowance for excess and obsolete inventory was EUR 178 million at the end of 2013. The financial impact of the assumptions regarding this allowance
affects mainly the cost of sales of the Networks business and the results from Discontinued Operations through the Devices & Services business.
Project loss provisions
The Group provides for onerous contracts based on the lower of the expected cost of fulfilling the contract and the expected cost of terminating the contract. Due to the long-term nature of customer projects, changes in estimates of costs to be incurred, and therefore project loss estimates, may become necessary as the projects are executed. Based on these estimates and assumptions, the Networks project loss provision is EUR 152 million.
We provide for the estimated cost of product warranties at the time revenue is recognized. Our products are covered by product warranty plans of varying periods, depending on local practices and regulations. While we engage in extensive product quality programs and processes, including actively monitoring and evaluating the quality of our component suppliers, our warranty obligations are affected by actual product failure rates and by material usage and service delivery costs incurred in correcting a product failure. Our warranty provision is established based upon our best estimates of the amounts necessary to settle future and existing claims on products sold as of the balance sheet date. As we continuously introduce new products which incorporate complex technology, and as local laws, regulations and practices may change, it will be increasingly difficult to anticipate our failure rates, the length of warranty periods and repair costs. While we believe that our warranty provisions are adequate and that the judgments applied are appropriate, the ultimate cost of product warranty could differ materially from our estimates. When the actual cost of quality of our products is lower than we originally anticipated, we release an appropriate proportion of the provision, and if the cost of quality is higher than anticipated, we increase the provision. Based on these estimates and assumptions, the Nokia continuing operations warranty provision was EUR 94 million at the end of 2013. The financial impact of the assumptions regarding this provision mainly affects the cost of sales of the Networks business and the results from Discontinued Operations through the Devices & Services business.
Provision for Intellectual Property Rights, or IPR, Infringements
We provide for the estimated past costs related to alleged asserted IPR infringements based on the probable outcome of each potential future settlement.
Our products include increasingly complex technologies involving numerous patented and other proprietary technologies. Although we proactively try to ensure that we are aware of any patents and other IPR related to our products under development and thereby avoid inadvertent infringement of proprietary technologies, the nature of our business is such that patent and other IPR infringements may and do occur. We identify potential IPR infringements through contact with parties claiming infringement of their patented or otherwise exclusive technology, or through our own monitoring of developments in patent and other IPR cases involving our competitors.
We estimate the outcome of all potential IPR infringements made known to us through assertion by third parties, or through our own monitoring of patent- and other IPR-related cases in the relevant legal systems. To the extent that we determine that an identified potential infringement will result in a probable outflow of resources, we record a liability based on our best estimate of the expenditure required to settle infringement proceedings. Based on these estimates and assumptions, the provision for IPR infringements was EUR 15 million at the end of 2013 in Nokia continuing operations.
Our experience with claims of IPR infringement is that there is typically a discussion period with the accusing party, which can last from several months to years. In cases where a settlement is not
reached, the discovery and ensuing legal process typically lasts a minimum of one year. For this reason, IPR infringement claims can last for varying periods of time, resulting in irregular movements in the IPR infringement provision. In addition, the ultimate outcome or actual cost of settling an individual infringement may materially vary from our estimates.
As discussed in Item 8A7. Litigation and in Note 28 and 30 to the consolidated financial statements included in Item 18 of this annual report, legal proceedings covering a wide range of matters are pending or threatened in various jurisdictions against the Group. We record provisions for pending litigation when we determine that an unfavorable outcome is probable and the amount of loss can be reasonably estimated. Due to the inherent uncertain nature of litigation, the ultimate outcome or actual cost of settlement may materially vary from estimates.
We apply the acquisition method of accounting to account for acquisitions of businesses. The consideration transferred in a business combination is measured as the aggregate of the fair values of the assets transferred, liabilities incurred towards the former owners of the acquired business and equity instruments issued. Acquisition-related costs are recognized as expense in profit and loss in the periods when the costs are incurred and the related services are received. Identifiable assets acquired and liabilities assumed are measured separately at their fair value as of the acquisition date. Non-controlling interests in the acquired business are measured separately based on their proportionate share of the identifiable net assets of the acquired business. The excess of the cost of the acquisition over our interest in the fair value of the identifiable net assets acquired is recorded as goodwill.
The determination and allocation of fair values to the identifiable assets acquired and liabilities assumed is based on various assumptions and valuation methodologies requiring considerable management judgment. The most significant variables in these valuations are discount rates, terminal values, the number of years on which to base the cash flow projections, as well as the assumptions and estimates used to determine the cash inflows and outflows. Management determines the discount rates to be used based on the risk inherent in the related activitys current business model and industry comparisons. Terminal values are based on the expected life of products and forecasted life cycle and forecasted cash flows over that period. Although we believe that the assumptions applied in the determination are reasonably based on information available at the date of acquisition, actual results may differ from the forecasted amounts and the difference could be material.
Valuation of Long-lived Assets, Intangible Assets and Goodwill
We assess the carrying amount of identifiable intangible assets and long-lived assets if events or changes in circumstances indicate that such carrying amount may not be recoverable. We assess the carrying amount of our goodwill at least annually, or more frequently based on these same indicators. Factors that we consider important, and which could trigger an impairment review, include the following:
When we determine that the carrying amount of intangible assets, long-lived assets or goodwill may not be recoverable based upon the existence of one or more of the above indicators of impairment, we measure recoverable value based on discounted projected cash flows.
Recoverable value is based upon our projections of anticipated discounted future cash flows. The most significant variables in determining cash flows are discount rates, terminal values and the number of years on which to base the cash flow projections, as well as the assumptions and estimates used to determine the cash inflows and outflows. Management determines discount rates to be used based on the risk inherent in the related activitys current business model and industry comparisons. Terminal values are based on the expected life of products and forecasted life cycle and forecasted cash flows over that period. While we believe that our assumptions are appropriate, such amounts estimated could differ materially from what will actually occur in the future.
Goodwill is allocated to the Groups cash-generating units or groups of cash-generating units (CGUs) and recoverable value is determined for each of the CGUs for the purpose of impairment testing. The allocation of goodwill to the CGUs is made in a manner that is consistent with the level at which management monitors operations and the CGUs are expected to benefit from the synergies arising from the business combinations in which the goodwill arose. As a result of the Sale of the D&S Business, we have combined the Smart Devices and Mobile Phones CGUs into a single Devices & Services CGU and aligned with the scope of the business being sold. The goodwill previously allocated to the two separate CGUs has been allocated to the combined CGU for impairment testing purposes. No Goodwill was allocated to the new Technologies CGU, which aligns with the Groups new operating and reportable segment.
In previous years, we have defined the Networks operating segment as a single CGU. As a consequence of the acquisition of the Siemens minority stake in NSN on August 7, 2013, and the resulting change in reportable segments, the Group has identified two Networks related groups of CGUs to which goodwill has been allocated: Radio Access Networks within the Mobile Broadband operating segment and Global Services.
Goodwill amounting to EUR 4 815 million at the end of 2013 has been allocated as follows: HERE CGU (EUR 3 219 million), Networks Radio Access Networks group of CGUs within Mobile Broadband (EUR 88 million), Networks Global Services group of CGUs (EUR 91 million) and Devices & Services CGU within Discontinued Operations (EUR 1 417 million).
IAS 36 requires goodwill to be assessed annually for impairment unless triggering events are identified prior to the annual testing date that indicate a potential impairment in which case an interim assessment is required. The annual impairment testing for the HERE and Devices & Services CGUs is performed as of October 1. The annual impairment testing for the Networks related groups of CGUs has been performed as of September 30. An additional impairment analysis specific to Networks CGUs was performed subsequently at November 30, 2013, to align the annual testing date with Networks annual financial planning cycle. Management determined that the signing of the agreement with Microsoft on the Sale of the D&S Business constituted a triggering event requiring an interim impairment test for the Devices & Services and HERE CGUs. Accordingly, an interim review was performed in September 2013. No impairment charges were recorded for any of the CGUs as a result of either the interim or annual tests.
The recoverable values of the Smart Devices and Mobile Phones CGUs, that were combined to form the Devices & Services CGU and have been classified as Discontinued Operations in 2013, were previously valued using a value in use basis. During 2013, the Devices & Services CGU recoverable value was determined using a fair value less cost of disposal model based on the agreed purchase price defined in the agreement for the Sale of the D&S Business, excluding any consideration attributable to patents or patent applications.
During 2013, the recoverable amounts of the HERE CGU, Radio Access Networks and Global Services groups of CGUs have been determined using a fair value less cost of disposal model. Fair value less cost of disposal was estimated using discounted cash flow calculations. The cash flow projections employed in the discounted cash flow calculations have been determined by management
based on the information available, to reflect the amount that an entity could obtain from separate disposal of each of the CGUs in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date after deducting the estimated cost of disposal. The estimates of fair value less cost of disposal are categorized as level 3 of the fair value hierarchy.
Discounted cash flows for the Networks CGUs and HERE CGU were modeled over 10 annual periods. The growth rates used in transition to terminal year reflect estimated long-term stable growth which do not exceed long-term average growth rates for the industry and economies in which the CGUs operate. All cash flow projections are consistent with external sources of information, wherever possible.
The key assumptions applied in the impairment testing for each CGU in the annual goodwill impairment testing for each year indicated are presented in the table below. No information has been included for the Devices & Services CGU as the recoverable amount was not determined using a discounted cash flow analysis and the CGU is attributable to discontinued operations:
Fair value less cost of disposal for the HERE CGU and Radio Access Networks and Global Services groups of CGUs are determined using post-tax valuation assumptions including projected cash flows and the discount rate.
The discount rates applied in the impairment testing for the above noted CGUs or groups of CGUs reflect current assessments of the time value of money and relevant market risk premiums. Risk premiums included in the determination of the discount rate reflect risks and uncertainties for which the future cash flow estimates have not been adjusted.
The recoverable amount of the HERE CGU exceeds its carrying amount by a small margin at the testing date. The related valuation is deemed most sensitive to the changes in both discount and long-term growth rates. A discount rate increase in excess of 0.5 percentage point or long-term growth decline in excess of 1 percentage point would result in impairment loss in the HERE CGU. Managements estimates of the overall automotive volumes and market share, customer adoption of the new location-based platform and related service offerings, projected value of the services sold to Microsoft and assumptions regarding pricing, as well as continued focus on cost efficiency are the main drivers for the HERE net cash flow projections. The Groups cash flow forecasts reflect the current strategic views that license fee-based models will remain important in both near and long term. Management expects that license fee-based models which are augmented with software and services and monetized via license fees, transactions fees and advertising, will grow in the future as more customers demand complete, end-to-end location solutions and as cloud computing and cloud-based services garner greater market acceptance. Actual short- and long-term performance could vary from managements forecasts and impact future estimates of recoverable value. Since the recoverable amount exceeds the carrying amount only by a small margin, any material adverse changes such as market deterioration or changes in the competitive landscape could impact managements estimates of the main drivers and result in impairment loss.
In the fourth quarter of 2011, the Group recorded an impairment loss of EUR 1 090 million to reduce the carrying amount of the HERE CGU to its recoverable amount at that time. The impairment loss was allocated in its entirety to the carrying amount for goodwill. The Groups goodwill impairment testing did not result in impairment charges for the years ended December 31, 2013 and 2012.
Other than disclosed for the HERE CGU above, management believes that no reasonably possible change in any of the above assumptions would cause the carrying value of any cash generating unit to exceed its recoverable amount.
See Note 9 to our consolidated financial statements included in Item 18 of this annual report for further information regarding Valuation of long-lived and intangible assets and goodwill.
Fair Value of Derivatives and Other Financial Instruments
The fair value of financial instruments that are not traded in an active market for example, unlisted equities, are determined using widely accepted valuation techniques. We use judgment to select an appropriate valuation methodology and underlying assumptions based principally on existing market conditions. If quoted market prices are not available for unlisted shares, fair value is estimated by using various factors, including, but not limited to: (1) the current market value of similar instruments, (2) prices established from a recent arms length transactions and (3) analysis of market prospects and operating performance of target companies taking into consideration of public market comparable companies in similar industry sectors. Changes in these assumptions may cause the Group to recognize impairments or losses in future periods. During 2013, the Group received distributions of EUR 44 million (EUR 49 million in 2012) included in other financial income from a private fund held as non-current available-for-sale. Due to a reduction in estimated future cash flows, the Group also recognized an impairment loss of EUR 7 million in 2012 for the fund included in other financial expenses. See also note 12 to our consolidated financial statements included in item 18 of this annual report.
The Group is subject to income taxes both in Finland and in numerous other jurisdictions. Significant judgment is required in determining income tax expense, uncertain tax positions, deferred tax assets and liabilities recognized in the consolidated financial statements. We recognize deferred tax assets to the extent that it is probable that sufficient taxable income will be available in the future against which the temporary differences, tax losses and unused tax credits can be utilized. We have considered future taxable income and tax planning strategies in making this assessment. Deferred tax assets are assessed for realizability each reporting period, and when circumstances indicate that it is no longer probable that deferred tax assets will be utilized, they are adjusted as necessary. In 2013, Nokia taxes continued to be unfavorably affected by Networks taxes as no tax benefits are recognized for certain Networks deferred tax items. Additionally, Nokia taxes were adversely affected by allowances related to Devices & Services Finnish deferred tax assets and discontinuation of recognizing tax benefits for Devices & Services Finnish deferred tax items due to uncertainty of utilization of these items.
At December 31, 2013, the Group had tax losses carry forward, temporary differences and tax credits of EUR 10 693 million (EUR 10 446 million in 2012) for which no deferred tax assets were recognized in the consolidated financial statements due to uncertainty of utilization of these items.
We recognize liabilities for uncertain tax positions based on estimates and assumptions when, despite our belief that tax return positions are supportable, it is more likely than not that certain positions will be challenged and may not be fully sustained upon review by tax authorities. The Group has ongoing tax investigations in multiple jurisdictions, including India. If the final outcome of these matters differs from
the amounts initially recorded, differences may positively or negatively impact the current taxes and deferred taxes in the period in which such determination is made.
Results of Operations
In this Results of Operations discussion, we continue to refer to the reportable segments under their names as at December 31, 2013. Our current Networks business is referred to as Nokia Solutions and Networks, or NSN, HERE naming remains unchanged and our current Technologies business is referred to as Advanced Technologies.
2013 compared with 2012
Nokia Continuing Operations
The following table sets forth selective line items and the percentage of net sales that they represent for the fiscal years 2013 and 2012.
Continuing operations net sales declined by 17% to EUR 12 709 million in 2013 compared with EUR 15 400 million in 2012. The decline in Nokias continuing operations net sales in 2013 was primarily due to lower NSN and HERE net sales. The decline in NSN net sales was partially due to divestments of businesses not consistent with its strategic focus, as well as the exiting of certain customer contracts and countries. Excluding these two factors, NSN net sales in 2013 declined by approximately 13% primarily due to reduced wireless infrastructure deployment activity, which affected both Global Services and Mobile Broadband. The decline in HERE net sales was primarily due to a decline in internal1 HERE net sales due to lower recognition of deferred revenue related to our smartphone sales, partially offset by an increase in external HERE net sales due to higher sales to vehicle customers. Additionally, NSN and HERE net sales were negatively affected by foreign currency fluctuations.
The following table sets forth the distribution by geographical area of our net sales for the fiscal years 2013 and 2012.
Gross margin for continuing operations in 2013 was 42.1%, compared to 36.1% in 2012. The increase in 2013 was primarily due to a higher NSN gross margin. NSN gross margin increased primarily due to improved efficiency in Global Services, an improved product mix with a greater share of higher margin products, and the divestment of less profitable businesses.
Our research and development expenses were EUR 2 619 million in 2013, compared to EUR 3 081 million in 2012. Research and development expenses represented 20.6% of our net sales in 2013, compared to 20.0% in 2012. Research and development expenses included purchase price accounting items of EUR 188 million in 2013, compared to EUR 375 in 2012. The decrease was primarily due to lower amortization of acquired intangible assets within HERE. In addition, it included EUR 15 million of transaction related costs, related to the Sale of the D&S Business.
In 2013, our selling and marketing expenses were EUR 974 million, compared to EUR 1 372 million in 2012. Selling and marketing expenses represented 7.7% of our net sales in 2013 compared to 8.9% in 2012. The decrease in selling and marketing expenses was due to lower purchase price accounting items and generally lower expenses in NSN and HERE. Selling and marketing expenses included purchase price accounting items of EUR 93 million in 2013 compared to EUR 313 million in 2012. The decrease was primarily due to items arising from the formation of NSN becoming fully amortized at the end of the first quarter of 2013.
Administrative and general expenses were EUR 697 million in 2013, compared to EUR 690 million in 2012. Administrative and general expenses were equal to 5.5% of our net sales in 2013 compared to 4.5% in 2012. The increase in administrative and general expenses as a percentage of net sales reflected a decline in net sales in 2013. Administrative and general expenses did not include purchase price accounting items in either 2013 or 2012.
Other income and expense was a net expense of EUR 536 million in 2013, compared to a net expense of EUR 1 237 million in 2012. In 2013, other income and expenses included restructuring charges of EUR 602 million, as well as transaction related costs of EUR 18 million related to the Sale of the D&S Business. In 2012, other income and expenses included restructuring charges of EUR 1 265 million, including EUR 42 million related to country and contract exits, impairments of assets of EUR 2 million, a negative adjustment of EUR 4 million to purchase price allocations related to the final payment from
Motorola as well as amortization of acquired intangible assets of EUR 23 million and a net gain on sale of real estate of EUR 79 million.
Operating Profit (loss)
Our 2013 operating profit was EUR 519 million, compared with an operating loss of EUR 821 million in 2012. The increased operating profit resulted primarily from lower restructuring charges and purchase price accounting items in general and an increase in the operating performance of our NSN and HERE businesses. Our operating profit in 2013 included purchase price accounting items, restructuring charges and other special items of net negative EUR 917 million compared to net negative EUR 1 963 million in 2012. Our 2013 operating margin was positive 4.1% compared to negative 5.3% in 2012. The improvement was primarily due to an increase in our gross margin and lower expenses in other income and expenses.
Corporate common functions operating loss totaled EUR 57 million in 2013, compared to EUR 50 million in 2012. In 2013 corporate common included restructuring charges and associated impairments of EUR 10 million, as well as transaction related costs of EUR 18 million related to the Sale of the D&S Business. In 2012, corporate common benefitted from a net gain from sale of real estate of EUR 79 million and included restructuring charges of EUR 6 million.
Net Financial Income and Expenses
Financial income and expenses, net, was an expense of EUR 280 million in 2013 compared to an expense of EUR 357 million in 2012. The lower net expense in 2013 was primarily driven by lower foreign exchange losses.
Our net debt to equity ratio was negative 35% at December 31, 2013, compared with a net debt to equity ratio of negative 47% at December 31, 2012. See Item 5B. Liquidity and Capital Resources below.
Profit (loss) Before Taxes
Continuing operations profit before tax was EUR 243 million in 2013, compared to a loss of EUR 1 179 million in 2012. Taxes amounted to EUR 202 million in 2013 and EUR 304 million in 2012.
Loss attributable to non-controlling interests from continuing operations totaled EUR 145 million in 2013, compared with a loss attributable to non-controlling interests of EUR 712 million in 2012. This change was primarily due to an improvement in NSNs results and our acquisition of Siemens stake in NSN.
Profit (loss) Attributable to Equity Holders of the Parent and Earnings per Share
Nokia Groups total loss attributable to equity holders of the parent in 2013 amounted to EUR 615 million, compared with a loss of EUR 3 105 million in 2012. Continuing operations generated a profit attributable to equity holders of the parent in 2013, amounting to EUR 186 million, compared with a loss of EUR 771 million in 2012. Nokia Groups total earnings per share in 2013 increased to EUR (0.17) (basic) and EUR (0.17) (diluted), compared with EUR (0.84) (basic) and EUR (0.84) (diluted) in 2012. From continuing operations, earnings per share in 2013 increased to EUR 0.05 (basic) and EUR 0.05 (diluted), compared with EUR (0.21) (basic) and EUR (0.21) (diluted) in 2012.
Results by Segments
Nokia Solutions and Networks
The following table sets forth selective line items and the percentage of net sales that they represent for the fiscal years 2013 and 2012.
NSN Other includes net sales and related cost of sales and operating expenses of non-core businesses, as well as Optical Networks business until May 6, 2013 when its divestment was completed. It also includes restructuring and associated charges for the NSN business.
NSNs net sales decreased 18% to EUR 11 282 million in 2013, compared to EUR 13 779 million in 2012. The year-on-year decline in NSNs net sales was primarily due to reduced wireless infrastructure deployment activity affecting both Mobile Broadband and Global Services, as well as the divestments of businesses not consistent with its strategic focus, foreign currency fluctuations and the exiting of certain customer contracts and countries.
Mobile Broadband net sales declined 12% to EUR 5 347 million in 2013, compared to EUR 6 043 million in 2012, as declines in WCDMA, CDMA and GSM were partially offset by growth in both FD-LTE and TD-LTE, reflecting the industry shift to 4G technology. Core network sales declined as a result of the customer focus on radio technologies.
Global Services net sales declined 17% to EUR 5 753 million in 2013, compared to EUR 6 929 million in 2012 primarily due to the exiting of certain customer contracts and countries as part of NSNs strategy to focus on more profitable business as well as a decline in network roll-outs in Japan and Europe.
The following table sets forth the distribution by geographical area of our net sales for the fiscal years 2013 and 2012.
NSNs gross margin was 36.6% in 2013, compared to 30.3% in 2012, driven by improved efficiency in Global Services, an improved product mix with a greater share of higher margin products, and the divestment of less profitable businesses.
In Mobile Broadband, gross margin improved in 2013 driven by an increased software share in the product mix, offset by costs incurred in anticipation of a technology shift to TD-LTE.
In Global Services, gross margin improved significantly in 2013 due to the increase in efficiencies as part of our restructuring program and the exit of certain customer contracts and countries as part of NSNs strategy to focus on more profitable business.
NSNs research and development expenses decreased 11% year-on-year in 2013 to EUR 1 822 million from EUR 2 046 million in 2012, primarily due to business divestments and reduced investment in business activities not in line with NSNs focused strategy as well as increased research and development efficiency, partially offset by higher investments in business activities that are in line with NSNs focused strategy, most notably LTE.
NSNs sales and marketing expenses decreased 29% year-on-year in 2013 to EUR 821 million from EUR 1 158 million in 2012, primarily due to structural cost savings from NSNs restructuring program and a decrease in purchase price accounting related items arising from the formation of NSN, which were fully amortized at the end of the first quarter of 2013.
NSNs administrative and general expenses increased 4% year-on-year in 2013 to EUR 489 million from EUR 470 million in 2012, primarily due to consultancy fees related to finance and information technology related projects, partially offset by structural cost savings.
NSNs other income and expenses decreased in 2013 to an expense of EUR 582 million from an expense of EUR 1 290 million in 2012. In 2013, other income and expenses included restructuring charges of EUR 570 million, including EUR 52 million related to country and contract exits and EUR 157 million related to divestments to businesses, and in 2012 included restructuring charges and associated charges of EUR 1 226 million, including EUR 42 million related to country and contract exits, divestment of businesses EUR 50 million, impairments of assets of EUR 2 million, a negative adjustment of EUR 4 million to purchase price allocations related to the final payment from Motorola, as well as amortization of acquired intangible assets of EUR 23 million.
Operating Profit (loss)
NSNs operating profit in 2013 was EUR 420 million, compared with an operating loss of EUR 795 million in 2012. NSNs operating margin in 2013 was 3.7%, compared with a negative 5.8% in 2012. The increase in operating profit was primarily a result of an increase in the contribution of Global Services and a reduction in costs associated with NSNs transformation, consisting mainly of restructuring charges. Further, the purchase price accounting related items arising from the formation of NSN were fully amortized at the end of the first quarter of 2013.
The contribution of Mobile Broadband declined from EUR 490 million in 2012 to EUR 420 million in 2013, primarily as a result of lower net sales, which was partially offset by an improved gross margin and a reduction in operating expenses.
The contribution of Global Services increased from EUR 334 million in 2012 to EUR 693 million in 2013, as the increase in gross margin more than compensated for the decline in net sales, and the contribution in 2013 was further supported by a reduction in operating expenses.
Strategy and restructuring program
In November 2011, NSN announced its strategy to focus on mobile broadband and related services, and also launched an extensive global restructuring program, targeting a reduction of its annualized operating expenses and production overhead, excluding special items and purchase price accounting related items, by EUR 1 billion by the end of 2013, compared to the end of 2011. In January 2013, this target was raised to EUR 1.5 billion, and in July 2013 this target was further raised to more than EUR 1.5 billion. While these savings were expected to come largely from organizational streamlining, the program also targeted areas such as real estate, information technology, product and service procurement costs, overall general and administrative expenses, and a significant reduction of suppliers in order to further lower costs and improve quality. In 2013, NSN achieved its target to reduce operating expenses and production overhead, excluding special items and purchase price accounting items, by more than EUR 1.5 billion by the end of 2013, compared to the end of 2011.
During 2013, NSN recognized restructuring charges and other associated items of EUR 550 million related to this restructuring program, resulting in cumulative charges of approximately EUR 1 850 million. By the end of 2013, NSN had cumulative restructuring related cash outflows of approximately EUR 1 250 million relating to this restructuring program. NSN expects restructuring related cash outflows to be approximately EUR 450 million for the full year 2014 relating to this restructuring program.
The following table sets forth selective line items and the percentage of net sales that they represent for the fiscal years 2013 and 2012.
HERE net sales decreased 17% to EUR 914 million in 2013, compared to EUR 1 103 million in 2012. HERE internal net sales decreased 59% to EUR 154 million in 2013, compared to EUR 374 million in 2012. HERE external net sales increased 4% to EUR 760 million in 2013, compared to EUR 729 million in 2012. The year-on-year decline in HERE internal net sales was due to lower recognition of deferred revenue related to our smartphone sales. The year-on-year increase in HERE external net sales in 2013 was primarily due to higher sales to vehicle customers, partially offset by lower sales to personal navigation devices customers. Additionally, HERE net sales were negatively affected by foreign currency fluctuations.
The following table sets forth the distribution by geographical area of our net sales for the fiscal years 2013 and 2012.
On a year-on-year basis, the decrease in HERE gross margin, 77.2% in 2013 compared to 79.3% in 2012, was primarily due to proportionally higher sales of update units to vehicle customers which generally carry a lower gross margin, partially offset by lower costs related to service delivery.
HERE research and development expenses decreased 27% to EUR 648 million in 2013 compared to EUR 883 million in 2012, primarily due to a decrease in purchase price accounting related items, EUR 168 million in 2013 compared to EUR 355 million in 2012, and cost reduction actions.
HERE sales and marketing expenses decreased 36% to EUR 119 million in 2013 compared to EUR 186 million in 2012, primarily driven by a decrease in purchase price accounting items, EUR 11 million in 2013 compared to EUR 68 million in 2012, cost reduction actions and lower marketing spending.
HERE administrative and general expenses decreased 10% to EUR 69 million in 2013 compared to EUR 77 million in 2012, primarily due cost reduction actions.
In 2013, HERE other income and expense had a slightly positive year-on-year impact on profitability, decreasing from EUR 30 million in 2012 to EUR 24 million in 2013. In 2013, we recognized restructuring charges of EUR 22 million in HERE, compared to EUR 31 million in 2012.
Operating Profit (loss)
HERE operating loss decreased to EUR 154 million in 2013, compared with a loss of EUR 301 million in 2012. HERE operating margin in 2013 was negative 16.8%, compared with negative 27.3% in 2012. The year-on-year improvement in operating margin in 2013 was driven primarily by the absence of significant purchase price accounting related items arising from the purchase of NAVTEQ, the vast majority of which had been fully amortized as of the end of the second quarter of 2013.
Advanced Technologies net sales was stable on a year-on-year basis, EUR 529 million in 2013 compared to EUR 534 million in 2012, primarily due to a non-recurring license fee of EUR 50 million in the fourth quarter 2012, partially offset by net increases in royalty payments from our licensees.
On a year-on-year basis, the Advanced Technology gross margin decreased to 97.4% in 2013 compared to 98.7% in 2012.
Advanced Technologies research and development expenses decreased 4% to EUR 147 million in 2013 compared to EUR 153 million in 2012, primarily due to lower research and development costs, partially offset by transaction related costs of EUR 15 million related to the Sale of the D&S Business.
Advanced Technologies sales and marketing expenses increased 42% to EUR 34 million in 2013 compared to EUR 24 million in 2012, primarily due to IP licensing related litigation expenses. In 2013 sales and marketing expenses included transaction related costs of EUR 2 million related to the Sale of the D&S Business.
Advanced Technologies administrative and general expenses were flat year-on-year, amounting to EUR 22 million.
Advanced Technologies other income and expense was approximately flat year-on-year, and included restructuring charges of EUR 2 million in 2013, compared to EUR 3 million in 2012.
Operating Profit (loss)
Advanced Technologies operating profit decreased to EUR 310 million in 2013, compared to EUR 325 million in 2012. Advanced Technologies operating margin in 2013 was 58.6%, compared with 60.9% in 2012. The year-on-year decline in operating margin was driven primarily by the transaction related costs of EUR 17 million related to the Sale of the D&S Business to Microsoft, partially offset by decreased restructuring charges.
Nokia Discontinued Operations