Ocean Shore Holding 10-K 2009
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2008
For the transition period from to
Commission File Number: 0-
OCEAN SHORE HOLDING CO.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Registrants telephone number, including area code: (609) 399-0012
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act: None
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes ¨ No x
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes ¨ No x
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes x No ¨
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of the registrants knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K. x
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer or a smaller reporting company. See definition of large accelerated filer accelerated filer and smaller reporting company in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined by Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes ¨ No x
The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates as of June 30, 2008 was $0.
At March 1, 2009, the registrant had no shares of common stock outstanding.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the Proxy Statement for the 2009 Annual Meeting of Stockholders of Ocean Shore Holding Co. (File No. 0-51000) are incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K.
Ocean Shore Holding Co., a New Jersey corporation (the Registrant), was organized by Ocean City Home Bank (the Bank) to facilitate the second-step conversion of the Bank from the mutual holding company structure to the stock holding company structure (the Conversion). Upon consummation of the Conversion the Registrant will become the holding company for the Bank and will own all of the issued and outstanding shares of the Banks common stock. As part of the Conversion, shares of the Registrants common stock will be issued and sold in an offering to certain depositors of the Bank and others and will also be issued in exchange for the currently issued and outstanding shares of Ocean Shore Holding Co., a federal corporation and the current mid-tier holding company for the Bank (Ocean Shore Holding), held by persons other than OC Financial MHC. The Registrant filed a registration statement on Form S-1 (File No. 333-153454) with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the SEC) on September 12, 2008, which were declared effective by the SEC on November 12, 2008. The information in this report is for Ocean Shore Holding. Separate financial statements for the Registrant have not been included in this report because the Registrant, which has not issued any shares and has engaged only in organizational activities to date, has no significant assets, contingent or other liabilities, revenues or expenses.
This report contains certain forward-looking statements within the meaning of the federal securities laws. These statements are not historical facts; rather, they are statements based on Ocean Shore Holding Co.s current expectations regarding its business strategies, intended results and future performance. Forward-looking statements are preceded by terms such as expects, believes, anticipates, intends and similar expressions.
Managements ability to predict results or the effect of future plans or strategies is inherently uncertain. Factors which could affect actual results include: interest rate trends; the general economic climate in the market area in which Ocean Shore Holding Co. operates, as well as nationwide; Ocean Shore Holding Co.s ability to control costs and expenses; competitive products and pricing; loan delinquency rates and changes in federal and state legislation and regulation. These factors should be considered in evaluating the forward-looking statements and undue reliance should not be placed on such statements. Ocean Shore Holding Co. assumes no obligation to update any forward-looking statements.
Ocean Shore Holding Co. (Ocean Shore Holding or the Company) is a federally chartered savings and loan holding company established in 1998 to be the holding company for Ocean City Home Bank. Ocean Shore Holdings business activity is the ownership of the outstanding capital stock of Ocean City Home Bank.
Ocean City Home Bank is a federally chartered savings bank. We operate as a community-oriented financial institution offering a wide range of financial services to consumers and businesses in our market area. We attract deposits from the general public, small businesses and municipalities and use those funds to originate a variety of consumer and commercial loans, which we hold primarily for investment.
OC Financial MHC is our federally chartered mutual holding company parent. As a mutual holding company, OC Financial MHC is a non-stock company that has as its members the depositors of Ocean City Home Bank. OC Financial MHC does not engage in any business activity other than owning a majority of the common stock of Ocean Shore Holding. So long as we remain in the mutual holding company form of organization, OC Financial MHC will own a majority of the outstanding shares of Ocean Shore Holding.
Our Web site address is www.ochome.com. We make available on our Web site, free of charge, our annual report or Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q and amendments to these reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act. Information on our Web site should not be considered a part of this Form 10-K.
We are headquartered in Ocean City, New Jersey, and serve the southern New Jersey shore communities through a total of nine full service offices. A total of seven offices are located in Atlantic County while two offices are situated in Cape May County. Our markets are in the southeastern corner of New Jersey, approximately 65 miles east of Philadelphia and 130 miles south of New York.
The economy of Atlantic County is dominated by the service sector, of which the gaming industry in nearby Atlantic City is the primary employer. The economy of Cape May is primarily geared toward tourism. According to the most recent published statistics, Atlantic Countys population in 2007 was approximately 281,000 persons and Cape May Countys population was approximately 106,000. The economy in Atlantic County has been strong in recent years as new and expanding casinos in Atlantic City, along with new retail centers and entertainment venues, have led to job growth and an increase in housing development.
Cape May County has also benefited from the growth in and around Atlantic City, as many residents commute into that area for employment. Although the economy in our market area has been strong in recent years, median household and per capita income in Atlantic and Cape May Counties are lower than the comparable figures for New Jersey as a whole. We attribute this to several factors. First, there has been an influx of retirees with limited incomes but moderate to substantial wealth. Additionally, since our market is located outside of a major metropolitan area, average income levels are negatively affected by the small proportion of high-paying, white collar jobs. In our market area, lower paying service jobs provide a relatively large proportion of overall employment.
We face significant competition for the attraction of deposits and origination of loans. Our most direct competition for deposits has historically come from the many financial institutions operating in our market area. We also face competition for investors funds from money market funds, mutual funds and other corporate and government securities. Our competition for loans comes primarily from financial institutions in our market area and, to a lesser extent, from other financial service providers, such as mortgage companies and mortgage brokers. Competition for loans also comes from non-depository financial service companies that have entered the mortgage market, such as insurance companies, securities companies and specialty finance companies.
Several large banks operate in our market area, including Bank of America, PNC Bank, Wachovia, and TD Bank (formerly Commerce Bank). These institutions are significantly larger than us and, therefore, have significantly greater resources. According to data provided by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, as of June 30, 2008, we had a deposit market share of 5.2% in Atlantic County, which represented the 8th largest deposit market share out of 16 banks with offices in the county. In Cape May County, at that same date we had a deposit market share of 8.5%, which represented the 6 th largest market share out of 14 banks with offices in the county.
We expect competition to remain intense in the future as a result of legislative, regulatory and technological changes and the continuing trend of consolidation in the financial services industry. Technological advances, for example, have lowered barriers to entry, allowed banks to expand their geographic reach by providing services over the Internet and made it possible for non-depository institutions to offer products and services that traditionally have been provided by banks. Changes in federal law permit affiliation among banks, securities firms and insurance companies, which promotes a competitive environment in the financial services industry. Competition for deposits and the origination of loans could limit our growth in the future.
One- to Four-Family Residential Loans. Our primary lending activity is the origination of mortgage loans to enable borrowers to purchase or refinance existing homes in our market area. We offer fixed-rate and adjustable-rate mortgage loans with terms up to 40 years. Interest rates and payments on our adjustable-rate mortgage loans generally adjust annually after an initial fixed period that ranges from one to 10 years. Interest rates and payments on our adjustable-rate loans generally are adjusted to a rate typically equal to 2.75% to 3.25% above the one-, three- or ten-year constant maturity Treasury index. The maximum amount by which the interest rate may be increased or decreased is generally 1 or 2% per adjustment period and the lifetime interest rate cap is generally 5 or 6% over the initial interest rate of the loan.
Borrower demand for adjustable-rate loans versus fixed-rate loans is a function of the level of interest rates, the expectations of changes in the level of interest rates, and the difference between the interest rates and loan fees offered for fixed-rate mortgage loans and the initial period interest rates and loan fees for adjustable-rate loans. The relative amount of fixed-rate mortgage loans and adjustable-rate mortgage loans that can be originated at any time is largely determined by the demand for each in a competitive environment. The loan fees charged, interest rates and other provisions of mortgage loans are determined by us on the basis of our own pricing criteria and competitive market conditions.
In order to attract borrowers, we have developed products and policies to provide flexibility in times of changing interest rates. For example, some of our adjustable-rate loans permit the borrower to convert the loan to a fixed-rate loan. In addition, for a fixed fee plus a percentage of the loan amount, we will allow the borrower to modify a loans interest rate, term or program to equal the current rate for the desired loan product. Recently, we began offering loans that require the payment of interest only for a period of years.
While one- to four-family residential real estate loans are normally originated with up to 40-year terms, such loans typically remain outstanding for substantially shorter periods because borrowers often prepay their loans in full upon sale of the property pledged as security or upon refinancing the original loan. Therefore, average loan maturity is a function of, among other factors, the level of purchase and sale activity in the real estate market, prevailing interest rates and the interest rates payable on outstanding loans.
Because of our location on the South Jersey shore, many of the properties securing our residential mortgages are second homes or rental properties. At December 31, 2008, 49.9% of our one- to four-family mortgage loans were secured by second homes or rental properties. If the property is a second home, our underwriting emphasizes the borrowers ability to repay the loan out of current income. If the property is a rental property, we focus on the anticipated income from the property. Interest rates on loans secured by rental properties are typically 1/2% higher than comparable loans secured by primary or secondary residences. Although the industry generally considers mortgage loans secured by rental properties or second homes to have a higher risk of default than mortgage loans secured by the borrowers primary residence, we generally have not experienced credit problems on these types of loans due to our strict underwriting standards.
We generally do not make conventional loans with loan-to-value ratios exceeding 95% and generally make loans with a loan-to-value ratio in excess of 80% only when secured by first and/or second liens on owner-occupied one- to four-family residences or private mortgage insurance. When the residence securing the loan is not the borrowers primary residence, loan-to-value ratios are limited to 80% when secured by a first lien or 90% when secured by a first and second lien or private mortgage insurance. We require all properties securing mortgage loans to be appraised by a board-approved independent appraiser. We require title insurance on all first mortgage loans. Borrowers must obtain hazard insurance, and flood insurance for loans on property located in a flood zone, before closing the loan.
In an effort to provide financing for low and moderate income and first-time buyers, we offer special home buyers programs. We offer adjustable-rate residential mortgage loans through these programs to qualified individuals and originate the loans using modified underwriting guidelines, including reduced fees and loan conditions.
We have not originated subprime loans (i.e., mortgage loans aimed at borrowers who do not qualify for market interest rates because of problems with their credit history). We briefly offered alt-A loans (i.e., mortgage loans aimed at borrowers with better credit scores who borrow with alternative documentation such as little or no verification of income), but have discontinued that practice and have few such loans in our portfolio.
Commercial and Multi-Family Real Estate Loans. We offer fixed-rate and adjustable-rate mortgage loans secured by commercial real estate. In the past, we originated loans secured by multi-family properties and we still have a few in our portfolio. Our commercial real estate loans are generally secured by condominiums, small office buildings and owner-occupied properties located in our market area and used for businesses.
We originate fixed-rate and adjustable-rate commercial real estate loans for terms up to 20 years. Interest rates and payments on adjustable-rate loans typically adjust every five years after a five-year initial fixed period to a rate typically 3 to 4% above the five-year constant maturity Treasury index. In some instances, there are adjustment period or lifetime interest rate caps. Loans are secured by first mortgages and amounts generally do not exceed 80% of the propertys appraised value.
In reaching a decision on whether to make a commercial real estate loan, we consider the net operating income of the property, the borrowers expertise, credit history and profitability and the value of the underlying property. In addition, with respect to commercial real estate rental properties, we will also consider the term of the lease and the nature and financial strength of the tenants. We have generally required that the properties securing these real estate loans have debt service coverage ratios (the ratio of earnings before debt service to debt service) of at least 1.25x. Environmental surveys are generally required for commercial real estate loans of $500,000 or more.
Construction Loans. We originate loans to individuals and, to a lesser extent, builders to finance the construction of residential dwellings. We also make construction loans for commercial development projects, including condominiums, apartment buildings and owner-occupied properties used for businesses. Our construction loans generally provide for the payment of interest only during the construction phase, which is usually 12 months. At the end of the construction phase, the loan generally converts to a permanent mortgage loan. Loans generally can be made with a maximum loan-to-value ratio of 90% on residential construction and 80% on commercial construction. Before making a commitment to fund a residential construction loan, we require an appraisal of the property by an independent licensed appraiser. We also will require an inspection of the property before disbursement of funds during the term of the construction loan.
Commercial Loans. We make commercial business loans to a variety of professionals, sole proprietorships and small businesses in our market area. We offer term loans for capital improvements, equipment acquisition and long-term working capital. These loans are secured by business assets other than real estate, such as business equipment and inventory, and are originated with maximum loan-to-value ratios of 80%. We originate lines of credit to finance the working capital needs of businesses to be repaid by seasonal cash flows or to provide a period of time during which the business can borrow funds for planned equipment purchases. We also offer time notes, letters of credit and loans guaranteed by the Small Business Administration. Time notes are short-term loans and will only be granted on the basis of a defined source of repayment of principal and interest from a specific foreseeable event.
When making commercial business loans, we consider the financial statements of the borrower, the borrowers payment history of both corporate and personal debt, the debt service capabilities of the borrower, the projected cash flows of the business, the viability of the industry in which the customer operates and the value of the collateral.
Consumer Loans. At December 31, 2008, 98.4% of our consumer loans were home equity loans or lines of credit. The remainder of our consumer loan portfolio consisted of loans secured by passbook or certificate accounts, secured and unsecured personal loans and home improvement loans.
The procedures for underwriting consumer loans include an assessment of the applicants payment history on other debts and ability to meet existing obligations and payments on the proposed loan. Although the applicants creditworthiness is a primary consideration, the underwriting process also includes a comparison of the value of the collateral, if any, to the proposed loan amount. Home equity lines of credit have adjustable rates of interest that are indexed to the prime rate as reported in The Wall Street Journal. Home equity loans are fixed-rate loans. We offer home equity loans with a maximum combined loan-to-value ratio at underwriting of 90% and lines of credit with a maximum loan-to-value ratio of 80%. A home equity line of credit may be drawn down by the borrower for an initial period of ten years from the date of the loan agreement. During this period, the borrower has the option of paying, on a monthly basis, either principal and interest or only interest. After the initial draw period, the line of credit is frozen and the amount outstanding must be repaid over the remaining ten years of the loan term.
Loan Underwriting Risks.
Adjustable-Rate Loans. While we anticipate that adjustable-rate loans will better offset the adverse effects of an increase in interest rates as compared to fixed-rate mortgages, the increased mortgage payments required of
adjustable-rate loan borrowers in a rising interest rate environment could cause an increase in delinquencies and defaults. The marketability of the underlying property also may be adversely affected in a high interest rate environment. In addition, although adjustable-rate mortgage loans help make our asset base more responsive to changes in interest rates, the extent of this interest sensitivity is limited by the annual and lifetime interest rate adjustment limits.
Commercial Real Estate Loans. Loans secured by commercial real estate generally have larger balances and involve a greater degree of risk than residential mortgage loans. Of primary concern in commercial real estate lending is the borrowers creditworthiness and the feasibility and cash flow potential of the project. Payments on loans secured by income properties often depend on the successful operation and management of the properties. As a result, repayment of such loans may be subject to a greater extent than residential real estate loans to adverse conditions in the real estate market or the economy. To monitor cash flows on income properties, we require borrowers and loan guarantors, if any, to provide annual financial statements on commercial real estate loans.
Construction Loans. Construction financing is generally considered to involve a higher degree of risk of loss than long-term financing on improved, occupied real estate. Risk of loss on a construction loan depends largely upon the accuracy of the initial estimate of the propertys value at completion of construction and the estimated cost (including interest) of construction. During the construction phase, a number of factors could result in delays and cost overruns. If the estimate of construction costs proves to be inaccurate, we may be required to advance funds beyond the amount originally committed to permit completion of the building. If the estimate of value proves to be inaccurate, we may be confronted, at or before the maturity of the loan, with a building having a value that is insufficient to assure full repayment. If we are forced to foreclose on a building before or at completion due to a default, there can be no assurance that we will be able to recover all of the unpaid balance of, and accrued interest on, the loan as well as related foreclosure and holding costs.
Commercial Loans. Unlike residential mortgage loans, which generally are made on the basis of the borrowers ability to make repayment from his or her employment or other income, and which are secured by real property whose value tends to be more easily ascertainable, commercial loans are of higher risk and typically are made on the basis of the borrowers ability to make repayment from the cash flow of the borrowers business. As a result, the availability of funds for the repayment of commercial loans may depend substantially on the success of the business itself. Further, any collateral securing such loans may depreciate over time, may be difficult to appraise and may fluctuate in value.
Consumer Loans. Consumer loans may entail greater risk than residential mortgage loans, particularly in the case of consumer loans that are unsecured or secured by assets that depreciate rapidly. In such cases, repossessed collateral for a defaulted consumer loan may not provide an adequate source of repayment for the outstanding loan and the remaining deficiency often does not warrant further substantial collection efforts against the borrower. In addition, consumer loan collections depend on the borrowers continuing financial stability, and therefore are more likely to be adversely affected by job loss, divorce, illness or personal bankruptcy. Furthermore, the application of various federal and state laws, including federal and state bankruptcy and insolvency laws, may limit the amount that can be recovered on such loans.
Loan Originations, Purchases and Sales. Loan originations come from a number of sources. We have a good working relationship with many realtors in our market area and employ two account executives solely for the purpose of soliciting loans. Our Web site accepts on-line applications and branch personnel are trained to take applications. We also employ three commercial loan officers.
We generally originate loans for portfolio but from time to time will sell residential mortgage loans in the secondary market. Our decision to sell loans is based on prevailing market interest rate conditions and interest rate risk management. We sold no loans in the years ended December 31, 2008, 2007 and 2006. At December 31, 2008, we had no loans available for sale.
In 2007, we established a relationship with a local mortgage broker through which we purchase loans. All loans purchased through this channel are underwritten by us. At December 31, 2008, purchased loans totaled $15.6 million.
Loan Approval Procedures and Authority. Our lending activities follow written, non-discriminatory, underwriting standards and loan origination procedures established by our board of directors and management. The board of directors has granted loan approval authority to certain officers up to prescribed limits, depending on the officers experience and tenure. The Chief Executive Officer or Chief Lending Officer may combine their lending authority with that of one or more other officers. All extensions of credit that exceed $1.0 million in the aggregate require the approval or ratification of the board of directors.
Loans to One Borrower. The maximum amount that we may lend to one borrower and the borrowers related entities is generally limited, by regulation, to 15% of our stated capital and reserves. At December 31, 2008, our regulatory limit on loans to one borrower was $9.7 million. At that date, our largest lending relationship was $3.7 million and included commercial loans secured by commercial real estate located in Atlantic County, New Jersey, all of which were performing according to their original repayment terms at December 31, 2008.
Loan Commitments. We issue commitments for fixed-rate and adjustable-rate mortgage loans conditioned upon the occurrence of certain events. Commitments to originate mortgage loans are legally binding agreements to lend to our customers. Commitments, excluding lines and letters of credit, as of December 31, 2008 totaled $21.3 million.
We have legal authority to invest in various types of liquid assets, including U.S. Treasury obligations, securities of various federal agencies and of state and municipal governments, mortgage-backed securities and certificates of deposit of federally insured institutions. Within certain regulatory limits, we also may invest a portion of our assets in corporate securities and mutual funds. We also are required to maintain an investment in Federal Home Loan Bank of New York stock. While we have the authority under applicable law and our investment policies to invest in derivative securities, we had no such investments at December 31, 2008.
Our investment objectives are to provide and maintain liquidity, to provide collateral for pledging requirements, to establish an acceptable level of interest rate and credit risk, to provide an alternate source of low-risk investments when demand for loans is weak and to generate a favorable return. Our board of directors has the overall responsibility for the investment portfolio, including approval of the investment policy and appointment of the Investment Committee. The Investment Committee consists of the Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer. The Investment Committee is responsible for implementation of the investment policy and monitoring our investment performance. Individual investment transactions are reviewed and approved by the board of directors on a monthly basis, while portfolio composition and performance are reviewed at least quarterly by the Investment Committee.
At December 31, 2008, 75.1% of our investment portfolio consisted of mortgage-backed securities issued primarily by Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac and Ginnie Mae. None of our mortgage-backed securities had underlying collateral that would be considered subprime (i.e., mortgage loans advanced to borrowers who do not qualify for market interest rates because of problems with their credit history). All mortgage-backed securities owned by us as of December 31, 2008 possessed the highest possible investment credit rating at that date.
The remainder of the portfolio consisted primarily of corporate securities, U.S. agency securities and municipal securities. We did not own any preferred stock of Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac at December 31, 2008. Included in the investment portfolio at December 31, 2008 were two pooled trust preferred securities with a book value of $1.1 million (after an impairment charge of $1.9 million) and an estimated fair value of $1.0 million.
Management reviews the investment portfolio on a periodic basis to determine the cause of declines in the fair value of each security. We determine whether the unrealized losses are temporary in accordance with Emerging Issues Task Force (EITF) No. 99-20, Recognition of Interest Income and Impairment on Purchased and Retained Beneficial Interests in Securitized Financial Asset, as amended by FASB Staff Position (FSP) EITF 99-20-1, Amendments to the Impairment Guidance of EITF Issue No. 99-20, when applicable, and FSP SFAS No. 115-1 and SFAS No. 124-1, The Meaning of Other-Than-Temporary Impairment and Its Application to Certain Investments. The evaluation is based upon factors such as the creditworthiness of the issuers/guarantors, the underlying collateral, if applicable, and the continuing performance of the securities. Management also evaluates other facts and circumstances that may be indicative of an OTTI condition. This includes, but is not limited to, an evaluation of the type of security, length of time and extent to which the fair value has been less than cost, and near-term prospects of the issuer., as well as , considerations of our intent and ability to hold securities. For the year ended December 31, 2008, we recorded a $300,000 impairment charge on our investment in a mutual fund that was sold during the year, and $1.9 million in other-than-temporary impairment charges on two pooled trust preferred securities currently still held in our portfolio of in other-than-temporary impairment charges on investment securities. These securities are held in our available for sale portfolio. The decision to record these non-cash, other-than-temporary impairment charges was due to the significant decline in the market value of these securities, which resulted from a sharp decline in trading activity, as well as deterioration in the credit quality of the underlying collateral of the security indicating a probable shortfall in the distributions of the pool. Changes in the expected cash flows of the pooled trust preferred securities and/or prolonged price declines may result in our concluding in future periods that there is additional impairment of these securities, which would require a charge to earnings to write down these securities to their fair value.
Deposit Activities and Other Sources of Funds
General. Deposits, borrowings and loan repayments are the major sources of our funds for lending and other investment purposes. Loan repayments are a relatively stable source of funds, while deposit inflows and outflows and loan prepayments are significantly influenced by general interest rates and money market conditions.
Deposit Accounts. Substantially all of our depositors are residents of New Jersey. Deposits are attracted from within our market area through the offering of a broad selection of deposit instruments, including noninterest-bearing demand deposits (such as checking accounts), interest-bearing demand accounts (such money market accounts), regular savings accounts and certificates of deposit. Deposit account terms vary according to the minimum balance required, the time periods the funds must remain on deposit and the interest rate, among other factors. In determining the terms of our deposit accounts, we consider the rates offered by our competition, our liquidity needs, profitability to us, matching deposit and loan products and customer preferences and concerns. We generally review our deposit mix and pricing weekly. Our current strategy is to offer competitive rates on certificates of deposit and stress our high level of service and technology. At December 31, 2008 we did not have any brokered deposits.
In addition to accounts for individuals, we also offer a variety of deposit accounts designed for the businesses operating in our market area. Our business banking deposit products include commercial checking accounts, a sweep account, and special accounts for realtors, attorneys and non-profit organizations. The promotion of commercial deposit accounts is an important part of our effort to increase our core deposits and reduce our funding costs. At December 31, 2008, commercial deposits totaled $85.8 million, or 18.8% of total deposits.
Since 1996, we have offered deposit services to municipalities and local school boards in our market area. At December 31, 2008, we had $66.9 million in deposits from five municipalities and thirteen school boards, all in the form of checking accounts. We emphasize high levels of service in order to attract and retain these accounts. Unlike time deposits by municipalities, which often move from bank to bank in search of the highest available rate, checking accounts tend to be stable relationships.
Borrowings. We utilize advances from the Federal Home Loan Bank of New York and securities sold under agreements to repurchase to supplement our supply of investable funds and to meet deposit withdrawal requirements. The Federal Home Loan Bank functions as a central reserve bank providing credit for member financial institutions. As a member, we are required to own capital stock in the Federal Home Loan Bank and are authorized to apply for advances on the security of such stock and certain mortgage loans and other assets (principally securities which are obligations of, or guaranteed by, the United States), provided certain standards related to creditworthiness have been met. Advances are made under several different programs, each having its own interest rate and range of maturities. Depending on the program, limitations on the amount of advances are based either on a fixed percentage of an institutions net worth or on the Federal Home Loan Banks assessment of the institutions creditworthiness. Under its current credit policies, the Federal Home Loan Bank generally limits advances to 30% of a members assets using mortgage collateral and an additional 20% using pledged securities for a total maximum indebtedness of 50% of assets. The Federal Home Loan Bank determines specific lines of credit for each member institution.
Subordinated Debt. In 1998, Ocean Shore Capital Trust I, a business trust formed by us, issued $15.0 million of preferred securities in a private placement and issued approximately $464,000 of common securities to Ocean Shore Holding. Ocean Shore Capital Trust I used the proceeds of these issuances to purchase $15.5 million of our junior subordinated deferrable interest debentures. The interest rate on the debentures and the preferred trust securities is 8.67%. The debentures are the sole assets of Ocean Shore Capital Trust I and are subordinate to all of our existing and future obligations for borrowed money, our obligations under letters of credit and any guarantees by us of any such obligations. The stated maturity of the debentures is July 15, 2028. The debentures are subject to redemption at various prices at the option of Ocean Shore Holding, subject to prior regulatory approval, in whole or in part after July 15, 2008.
As of December 31, 2008, we had 124 full-time employees and 30 part-time employees, none of whom is represented by a collective bargaining unit. We believe our relationship with our employees is good.
Ocean Shore Holdings only subsidiary is Ocean City Home Bank.
Ocean City Home Banks only active subsidiary is Seashore Financial Services, LLC. Seashore Financial Services receives commissions from the sale of insurance products.
REGULATION AND SUPERVISION
As savings and loan holding companies, Ocean Shore Holding and OC Financial MHC are required by federal law to report to, and otherwise comply with the rules and regulations of, the Office of Thrift Supervision. Ocean City Home Bank, an insured federal savings association, is subject to extensive regulation, examination and supervision by the Office of Thrift Supervision, as its primary federal regulator, and the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation as its deposit insurer.
Ocean City Home Bank is a member of the Federal Home Loan Bank System and, with respect to deposit insurance, of the Deposit Insurance Fund managed by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation. Ocean City Home Bank must file reports with the Office of Thrift Supervision and the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation concerning its activities and financial condition and obtain regulatory approvals prior to entering into certain transactions such as mergers with, or acquisitions of, other savings associations. The Office of Thrift
Supervision and/or the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation conduct periodic examinations to test Ocean City Home Banks safety and soundness and compliance with various regulatory requirements. This regulation and supervision establishes a comprehensive framework of activities in which an institution can engage and is intended primarily for the protection of the insurance fund and depositors. The regulatory structure also gives the regulatory authorities extensive discretion in connection with their supervisory and enforcement activities and examination policies, including policies with respect to the classification of assets and the establishment of adequate loan loss reserves for regulatory purposes. Any change in such regulatory requirements and policies, whether by the Office of Thrift Supervision, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation or Congress, could have a material adverse impact on Ocean Shore Holding, OC Financial MHC and Ocean City Home Bank and their operations.
Certain regulatory requirements applicable to Ocean City Home Bank, Ocean Shore Holding and OC Financial MHC are referred to below or elsewhere herein. The summary of statutory provisions and regulations applicable to savings associations and their holding companies set forth below and elsewhere in this document does not purport to be a complete description of such statutes and regulations and their effects on Ocean City Home Bank, Ocean Shore Holding and OC Financial MHC and is qualified in its entirety by reference to the actual laws and regulations.
Holding Company Regulation
General. Ocean Shore Holding and OC Financial MHC are subject to Office of Thrift Supervision regulations, examinations, supervision, reporting requirements and regulations concerning corporate governance and activities. In addition, the Office of Thrift Supervision has enforcement authority over Ocean Shore Holding and OC Financial MHC and their non-savings institution subsidiaries. Among other things, this authority permits the Office of Thrift Supervision to restrict or prohibit activities that are determined to be a serious risk to Ocean City Home Bank. As a unitary savings and loan holding company, Ocean Shore Holding is able to engage only in activities permitted to a financial holding company and those permitted for a multiple savings and loan holding company, which includes non-banking activities that the Federal Reserve Board has determined to be permissible for bank holding companies.
Restrictions Applicable to Mutual Holding Companies. According to federal law and Office of Thrift Supervision regulations, a mutual holding company, such as OC Financial MHC, may generally engage in the following activities upon the receipt of necessary regulatory approvals: (1) investing in the stock of a savings association; (2) acquiring a mutual association through the merger of such association into a savings association subsidiary of such holding company or an interim savings association subsidiary of such holding company; (3) merging with or acquiring another holding company, one of whose subsidiaries is a savings association; and (4) any activity approved by the Federal Reserve Board for a bank holding company or financial holding company or previously approved by Office of Thrift Supervision for multiple savings and loan holding companies. In addition, mutual holding companies may engage in activities permitted for financial holding companies. Financial holding companies may engage in a broad array of financial service activities including insurance and securities.
Federal law prohibits a savings and loan holding company, including a federal mutual holding company, from directly or indirectly, or through one or more subsidiaries, acquiring more than 5% of the voting stock of another savings association, or its holding company, without prior written approval of the Office of Thrift Supervision. Federal law also prohibits a savings and loan holding company from acquiring more than 5% of a company engaged in activities other than those authorized for savings and loan holding companies by federal law, or acquiring or retaining control of a depository institution that is not insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation. In evaluating applications by holding companies to acquire savings associations, the Office of Thrift Supervision must consider the financial and managerial resources and future prospects of the company and institution involved, the effect of the acquisition on the risk to the insurance fund, the convenience and needs of the community and competitive factors.
The Office of Thrift Supervision is prohibited from approving any acquisition that would result in a multiple savings and loan holding company controlling savings associations in more than one state, except: (1) the approval of interstate supervisory acquisitions by savings and loan holding companies, and (2) the acquisition of a savings association in another state if the laws of the state of the target savings institution specifically permit such acquisitions. The states vary in the extent to which they permit interstate savings and loan holding company acquisitions.
If the savings association subsidiary of a savings and loan holding company fails to meet the qualified thrift lender test, the holding company must register with the Federal Reserve Board as a bank holding company within one year of the savings associations failure to so qualify.
Stock Holding Company Subsidiary Regulation. The Office of Thrift Supervision has adopted regulations governing the two-tier mutual holding company form of organization and subsidiary stock holding companies that are controlled by mutual holding companies. Ocean Shore Holding is the stock holding company subsidiary of OC Financial MHC. Ocean Shore Holding is permitted to engage in activities that are permitted for OC Financial MHC subject to the same restrictions and conditions.
Waivers of Dividends by OC Financial MHC. Office of Thrift Supervision regulations require OC Financial MHC to notify the Office of Thrift Supervision if it proposes to waive receipt of dividends from Ocean Shore Holding. The Office of Thrift Supervision reviews dividend waiver notices on a case-by-case basis, and, in general, does not object to any such waiver if: (i) the waiver would not be detrimental to the safe and sound operation of the savings association; and (ii) the mutual holding companys board of directors determines that such waiver is consistent with such directors fiduciary duties to the mutual holding companys members.
Conversion of OC Financial MHC to Stock Form. Office of Thrift Supervision regulations permit OC Financial MHC to convert from the mutual form of organization to the capital stock form of organization. There can be no assurance when, if ever, a conversion transaction will occur. In a conversion transaction, a new holding company would be formed as the successor to Ocean Shore Holding, OC Financial MHCs corporate existence would end, and certain depositors of Ocean City Home Bank would receive the right to subscribe for additional shares of the new holding company. In a conversion transaction, each share of common stock held by stockholders other than OC Financial MHC would be automatically converted into a number of shares of common stock of the new holding company based on an exchange ratio determined at the time of conversion that ensures that stockholders other than OC Financial MHC own the same percentage of common stock in the new holding company as they owned in Ocean Shore Holding immediately before conversion. The total number of shares held by stockholders other than OC Financial MHC after a conversion transaction would be increased by any purchases by such stockholders in the stock offering conducted as part of the conversion transaction.
Acquisition of Ocean Shore Holding. Under the Federal Change in Control Act, a notice must be submitted to the Office of Thrift Supervision if any person (including a company), or group acting in concert, seeks to acquire direct or indirect control of a savings and loan holding company or savings association. Under certain circumstances, a change of control may occur, and prior notice is required, upon the acquisition of 10% or more of Ocean Shore Holdings outstanding voting stock, unless the Office of Thrift Supervision has found that the acquisition will not result in control of Ocean Shore Holding. Under the Change in Control Act, the Office of Thrift Supervision generally has 60 days from the filing of a complete notice to act, taking into consideration certain factors, including the financial and managerial resources of the acquirer and the competitive effects of the acquisition. Any company that so acquires control would then be subject to regulation as a savings and loan holding company.
Federal Savings Association Regulation
Business Activities. The activities of federal savings banks, such as Ocean City Home Bank, are governed by federal laws and regulations. Those laws and regulations delineate the nature and extent of the business
activities in which federal savings banks may engage. In particular, certain lending authority for federal savings banks, e.g., commercial, non-residential real property loans and consumer loans, is limited to a specified percentage of the institutions capital or assets.
Capital Requirements. The Office of Thrift Supervisions capital regulations require savings associations to meet three minimum capital standards: a 1.5% tangible capital to total assets ratio, a 4% tier 1 capital to total assets leverage ratio (3% for institutions receiving the highest rating on the CAMELS examination rating system) and an 8% risk-based capital ratio. In addition, the prompt corrective action standards discussed below also establish, in effect, a minimum 2% tangible capital standard, a 4% leverage ratio (3% for institutions receiving the highest rating on the CAMELS system) and, together with the risk-based capital standard itself, a 4% Tier 1 risk-based capital standard. The Office of Thrift Supervision regulations also require that, in meeting the tangible, leverage and risk-based capital standards, institutions must generally deduct investments in and loans to subsidiaries engaged in activities as principal that are not permissible for a national bank.
The risk-based capital standard for savings associations requires the maintenance of Tier 1 (core) and total capital (which is defined as core capital and supplementary capital less certain specified deductions from total capital such as reciprocal holdings of depository institution capital instruments and equity investments) to risk-weighted assets of at least 4% and 8%, respectively. In determining the amount of risk-weighted assets, all assets, including certain off-balance sheet activities, recourse obligations, residual interests and direct credit substitutes, are multiplied by a risk-weight factor of 0% to 100%, assigned by the Office of Thrift Supervision capital regulation based on the risks believed inherent in the type of asset. Tier 1 (core) capital is generally defined as common stockholders equity (including retained earnings), certain non-cumulative perpetual preferred stock and related surplus and minority interests in equity accounts of consolidated subsidiaries, less intangibles other than certain mortgage servicing rights and credit card relationships. The components of supplementary capital (Tier 2 capital) include cumulative preferred stock, long-term perpetual preferred stock, mandatory convertible debt securities, subordinated debt and intermediate preferred stock, the allowance for loan and lease losses limited to a maximum of 1.25% of risk-weighted assets and up to 45% of unrealized gains on available-for-sale equity securities with readily determinable fair market values. Overall, the amount of supplementary capital included as part of total capital cannot exceed 100% of core capital.
The Office of Thrift Supervision also has authority to establish individual minimum capital requirements in appropriate cases upon a determination that an institutions capital level is or may become inadequate in light of the particular risks or circumstances. At December 31, 2008, Ocean City Home Bank met each of its capital requirements.
Prompt Corrective Regulatory Action. The Office of Thrift Supervision is required to take certain supervisory actions against undercapitalized institutions, the severity of which depends upon the institutions degree of undercapitalization. Generally, a savings association that has a ratio of total capital to risk weighted assets of less than 8%, a ratio of Tier 1 (core) capital to risk-weighted assets of less than 4% or a ratio of core capital to total assets of less than 4% (3% or less for institutions with the highest examination rating) is considered to be undercapitalized. A savings association that has a total risk-based capital ratio of less than 6%, a Tier 1 capital ratio of less than 3% or a leverage ratio that is less than 3% is considered to be significantly undercapitalized and a savings association that has a tangible capital to assets ratio equal to or less than 2% is deemed to be critically undercapitalized. Subject to a narrow exception, the Office of Thrift Supervision is required to appoint a receiver or conservator within specified time frames for an institution that is critically undercapitalized. The regulation also provides that a capital restoration plan must be filed with the Office of Thrift Supervision within 45 days of the date a savings association is deemed to have received notice that it is undercapitalized, significantly undercapitalized or critically undercapitalized. Compliance with the plan must be guaranteed by any parent holding company up to the lesser of 5% of the savings associations total assets when it was deemed to be undercapitalized or the amount necessary to achieve compliance with applicable capital requirements. In addition, numerous mandatory supervisory actions become immediately applicable to an undercapitalized institution, including, but not limited to, increased monitoring by regulators and restrictions on
growth, capital distributions and expansion. The Office of Thrift Supervision could also take any one of a number of discretionary supervisory actions, including the issuance of a capital directive and the replacement of senior executive officers and directors. Significantly and critically undercapitalized institutions are subject to additional mandatory and discretionary measures.
Insurance of Deposit Accounts. Ocean City Home Banks deposits are insured up to applicable limits by the Deposit Insurance Fund of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation. The Deposit Insurance Fund is the successor to the Bank Insurance Fund and the Savings Association Insurance Fund, which were merged in 2006. Under the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporations risk-based assessment system, insured institutions are assigned to one of four risk categories based on supervisory evaluations, regulatory capital levels and certain other factors, with less risky institutions paying lower assessments. An institutions assessment rate depends upon the category to which it is assigned. For 2008, assessments ranged from five to forty-three basis points of assessable deposits. Due to losses incurred by the Deposit Insurance Fund in 2008 from failed institutions, and anticipated future losses, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, pursuant to a Restoration Plan to replenish the fund, has adopted an across the board seven basis point increase in the assessment range for the first quarter of 2009. The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation has adopted further refinements to its risk-based assessment that are effective April 1, 2009 and effectively make the range seven to 77 1/2 basis points. No institution may pay a dividend if in default of the federal deposit insurance assessment.
Due to the recent difficult economic conditions, deposit insurance per account owner has been raised to $250,000 for all types of accounts until January 1, 2010. In addition, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation adopted an optional Temporary Liquidity Guarantee Program under which, for a fee, noninterest bearing transaction accounts receive unlimited insurance coverage until December 31, 2009 and certain senior unsecured debt issued by institutions and their holding companies between October 13, 2008 and June 30, 2009 is guaranteed by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation through June 30, 2012. Ocean City Home Bank made the business decision to participate in the unlimited noninterest bearing transaction account coverage and Ocean City Home Bank and Ocean Shore Holding opted to participate in the unsecured debt guarantee program.
In addition to the assessment for deposit insurance, institutions are required to make payments on bonds issued in the late 1980s by the Financing Corporation to recapitalize a predecessor deposit insurance fund. That payment is established quarterly and during the calendar year ending December 31, 2007 averaged 1.12 basis points of assessable deposits.
The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation has authority to increase insurance assessments. A significant increase in insurance premiums would likely have an adverse effect on the operating expenses and results of operations of Ocean City Home Bank. Management cannot predict what insurance assessment rates will be in the future.
Insurance of deposits may be terminated by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation upon a finding that the institution has engaged in unsafe or unsound practices, is in an unsafe or unsound condition to continue operations or has violated any applicable law, regulation, rule, order or condition imposed by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation or the Office of Thrift Supervision. The management of Ocean City Home Bank does not know of any practice, condition or violation that might lead to termination of deposit insurance.
Loans to One Borrower. Federal law provides that savings associations are generally subject to the limits on loans to one borrower applicable to national banks. Generally, subject to certain exceptions, a savings association may not make a loan or extend credit to a single or related group of borrowers in excess of 15% of its unimpaired capital and surplus. An additional amount may be lent, equal to 10% of unimpaired capital and surplus, if secured by specified readily-marketable collateral.
Qualified Thrift Lender Test. Federal law requires savings associations to meet a qualified thrift lender test. Under the test, a savings association is required to either qualify as a domestic building and loan association
under the Internal Revenue Code or maintain at least 65% of its portfolio assets (total assets less: (i) specified liquid assets up to 20% of total assets; (ii) intangibles, including goodwill; and (iii) the value of property used to conduct business) in certain qualified thrift investments (primarily residential mortgages and related investments, including certain mortgage-backed securities but also including education, credit card and small business loans) in at least 9 months out of each 12-month period.
A savings association that fails the qualified thrift lender test is subject to certain operating restrictions and may be required to convert to a bank charter. As of December 31, 2008, Ocean City Home Bank maintained 89.96% of its portfolio assets in qualified thrift investments and, therefore, met the qualified thrift lender test.
Limitation on Capital Distributions. Office of Thrift Supervision regulations impose limitations upon all capital distributions by a savings association, including cash dividends, payments to repurchase its shares and payments to shareholders of another institution in a cash-out merger. Under the regulations, an application to and the prior approval of the Office of Thrift Supervision is required prior to any capital distribution if the institution does not meet the criteria for expedited treatment of applications under Office of Thrift Supervision regulations (i.e., generally, examination and Community Reinvestment Act ratings in the two top categories), the total capital distributions for the calendar year exceed net income for that year plus the amount of retained net income for the preceding two years, the institution would be undercapitalized following the distribution or the distribution would otherwise be contrary to a statute, regulation or agreement with the Office of Thrift Supervision. If an application is not required, the institution must still provide prior notice to the Office of Thrift Supervision of the capital distribution if, like Ocean City Home Bank, it is a subsidiary of a holding company. If Ocean City Home Banks capital ever fell below its regulatory requirements or the Office of Thrift Supervision notified it that it was in need of increased supervision, its ability to make capital distributions could be restricted. In addition, the Office of Thrift Supervision could prohibit a proposed capital distribution by any institution, which would otherwise be permitted by the regulation, if the Office of Thrift Supervision determines that such distribution would constitute an unsafe or unsound practice.
Standards for Safety and Soundness. The federal banking agencies have adopted Interagency Guidelines prescribing Standards for Safety and Soundness in various areas such as internal controls and information systems, internal audit, loan documentation and credit underwriting, interest rate exposure, asset growth and quality, earnings and compensation, fees and benefits. The guidelines set forth the safety and soundness standards that the federal banking agencies use to identify and address problems at insured depository institutions before capital becomes impaired. If the Office of Thrift Supervision determines that a savings association fails to meet any standard prescribed by the guidelines, the Office of Thrift Supervision may require the institution to submit an acceptable plan to achieve compliance with the standard.
Transactions with Related Parties. Ocean City Home Banks authority to engage in transactions with affiliates (e.g., any entity that controls or is under common control with Ocean City Home Bank, including Ocean Shore Holding and OC Financial MHC and their other subsidiaries) is limited by federal law. The aggregate amount of covered transactions with any individual affiliate is limited to 10% of the capital and surplus of the savings association. The aggregate amount of covered transactions with all affiliates is limited to 20% of the savings associations capital and surplus. Certain transactions with affiliates are required to be secured by collateral in an amount and of a type specified by federal law. The purchase of low quality assets from affiliates is generally prohibited. Transactions with affiliates must generally be on terms and under circumstances that are at least as favorable to the institution as those prevailing at the time for comparable transactions with non-affiliated companies. In addition, savings associations are prohibited from lending to any affiliate that is engaged in activities that are not permissible for bank holding companies and no savings association may purchase the securities of any affiliate other than a subsidiary.
The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 generally prohibits loans by Ocean Shore Holding to its executive officers and directors. However, the law contains a specific exception for loans by a depository institution to its executive officers and directors in compliance with federal banking laws. Under such laws, Ocean City Home Banks
authority to extend credit to executive officers, directors and 10% shareholders (insiders), as well as entities such persons control, is limited. The laws limit both the individual and aggregate amount of loans that the bank may make to insiders based, in part, on the Banks capital level and requires that certain board approval procedures be followed. Such loans are required to be made on terms substantially the same as those offered to unaffiliated individuals and not involve more than the normal risk of repayment. There is an exception for loans made pursuant to a benefit or compensation program that is widely available to all employees of the institution and does not give preference to insiders over other employees. Loans to executive officers are subject to additional limitations based on the type of loan involved.
Enforcement. The Office of Thrift Supervision has primary enforcement responsibility over savings associations and has authority to bring actions against the institution and all institution-affiliated parties, including stockholders, and any attorneys, appraisers and accountants who knowingly or recklessly participate in wrongful actions likely to have an adverse effect on an insured institution. Formal enforcement action may range from the issuance of a capital directive or cease and desist order to removal of officers and/or directors to institution of receivership, conservatorship or termination of deposit insurance. Civil penalties cover a wide range of violations and can amount to $25,000 per day, or even $1 million per day in especially egregious cases. The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation has the authority to recommend to the Director of the Office of Thrift Supervision that enforcement action be taken with respect to a particular savings association. If action is not taken by the Director, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation has authority to take such action under certain circumstances. Federal law also establishes criminal penalties for certain violations.
Assessments. Savings associations are required to pay assessments to the Office of Thrift Supervision to fund the agencys operations. The general assessments, paid on a semi-annual basis, are computed based upon the savings associations (including consolidated subsidiaries) total assets, financial condition and complexity of its portfolio. The Office of Thrift Supervision assessments paid by Ocean Shore Holding and Ocean City Home Bank for the year ended December 31, 2008 totaled $152,000.
Federal Home Loan Bank System. Ocean City Home Bank is a member of the Federal Home Loan Bank System, which consists of 12 regional Federal Home Loan Banks. The Federal Home Loan Bank provides a central credit facility primarily for member institutions. Ocean City Home Bank, as a member of the Federal Home Loan Bank of New York, is required to acquire and hold shares of capital stock in that Federal Home Loan Bank. Ocean City Home Bank was in compliance with this requirement with an investment in Federal Home Loan Bank stock at December 31, 2008 of $7.1 million.
The Federal Home Loan Banks have been required to provide funds for the resolution of insolvent thrifts in the late 1980s and to contribute funds for affordable housing programs. These and similar requirements could reduce the amount of dividends that the Federal Home Loan Banks pay to their members and result in the Federal Home Loan Banks imposing a higher rate of interest on advances to their members. If dividends were reduced, or interest on future Federal Home Loan Bank advances increased, our net interest income would likely also be reduced.
Federal Reserve System. The Federal Reserve Board regulations require savings associations to maintain non-interest earning reserves against their transaction accounts (primarily Negotiable Order of Withdrawal (NOW) and regular checking accounts). The regulations generally provide that reserves be maintained against aggregate transaction accounts as follows: a 3% reserve ratio is assessed on net transaction accounts up to and including $44.4 million; a 10% reserve ratio is applied above $44.4 million. The first $10.3 million of otherwise reservable balances (subject to adjustments by the Federal Reserve Board) are exempted from the reserve requirements. The amounts are adjusted annually. Ocean City Home Bank complies with the foregoing requirements. In October 2008, the Federal Reserve Board began paying interest on certain reserve balances.
The Board of Directors annually elects the executive officers of OC Financial MHC, Ocean Shore Holding and Ocean City Home Bank, who serve at the Boards discretion. Our executive officers are:
Below is information regarding our executive officers who are not also directors. Each executive officer has held his or her current position for at least the last five years. Ages presented are as of December 31, 2008.
Anthony J. Rizzotte has been Executive Vice President and Chief Lending Officer of Ocean City Home Bank and Vice President of Ocean Shore Holding and OC Financial MHC since 1991. Mr. Rizzotte was named Executive Vice President of Ocean Shore Holding and OC Financial MHC in 2004. Age 53.
Kim Davidson has been the Executive Vice President of Ocean City Home Bank since 2005, prior to which she served as the Senior Vice President of Business Development of Ocean City Home Bank since 2001. She has also served as the Corporate Secretary of Ocean Shore Holding, OC Financial MHC and Ocean City Home Bank since 2004. Prior to becoming a senior vice president, Ms. Davidson was a vice president of Ocean City Home Bank. Age 48.
Janet Bossi has been the Senior Vice President of Loan Administration of Ocean City Home Bank since 2002. Prior to becoming a senior vice president, Ms. Bossi was a vice president of Ocean City Home Bank. Age 42.
Paul Esposito has been the Senior Vice President of Marketing of Ocean City Home Bank since 1999. Prior to becoming a senior vice president, Mr. Esposito was a vice president of Ocean City Home Bank. Age 59.
Donald F. Morgenweck has been Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer of Ocean City Home Bank and Vice President of Ocean Shore Holding and OC Financial MHC since March 2001. Mr. Morgenweck was named Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer of Ocean Shore Holding and OC Financial MHC in 2004. Prior to joining Ocean City Home Bank, Mr. Morgenweck was a Vice President at Summit Bank. Age 54.
Our emphasis on residential mortgage loans exposes us to a risk of loss due to a decline in property values.
At December 31, 2008, $464.7 million, or 78.2%, of our loan portfolio consisted of residential mortgage loans and $60.0 million, or 10.1%, of our loan portfolio consisted of home equity loans. Recent declines in the housing market have resulted in declines in real estate values in our market areas. These declines in real estate values could cause some of our mortgage and home equity loans to be inadequately collateralized, which would expose us to a greater risk of loss in the event that we seek to recover on defaulted loans by selling the real estate collateral. Because of our location on the South Jersey shore, many of the properties securing our residential mortgages are second homes or rental properties. At December 31, 2008, 49.9% of our one- to four-family mortgage loans were secured by these types of properties. These loans generally are considered to be more risky than loans secured by the borrowers permanent residence, since the borrower is typically dependent upon rental income to meet debt service requirements, in the case of a rental property, and when in financial difficulty is more likely to make payments on the loan secured by the borrowers primary residence before a vacation home.
A continuation of recent turmoil in the financial markets could have an adverse effect on our financial position or results of operations.
Beginning in 2008, United States and global markets have experienced severe disruption and volatility, and general economic conditions have declined significantly. Adverse developments in credit quality, asset values and revenue opportunities throughout the financial services industry, as well as general uncertainty regarding the economic, industry and regulatory environment, have had a marked negative impact on the industry. The United States and the governments of other countries have taken steps to try to stabilize the financial system, including investing in financial institutions, and have also been working to design and implement programs to improve general economic conditions. Notwithstanding the actions of the United States and other governments, there can be no assurances that these efforts will be successful in restoring industry, economic or market conditions and that they will not result in adverse unintended consequences. Factors that could continue to pressure financial services companies, including Ocean Shore Holding, are numerous and include (1) worsening credit quality, leading among other things to increases in loan losses and reserves, (2) continued or worsening disruption and volatility in financial markets, leading among other things to continuing reductions in assets values, (3) capital and liquidity concerns regarding financial institutions generally, (4) limitations resulting from or imposed in connection with governmental actions intended to stabilize or provide additional regulation of the financial system, or (5) recessionary conditions that are deeper or last longer than currently anticipated.
Higher loan losses could require us to increase our allowance for loan losses through a charge to earnings.
When we loan money we incur the risk that our borrowers do not repay their loans. We reserve for loan losses by establishing an allowance through a charge to earnings. The amount of this allowance is based on our assessment of loan losses inherent in our loan portfolio. The process for determining the amount of the allowance is critical to our financial results and condition. It requires subjective and complex judgments about the future, including forecasts of economic or market conditions that might impair the ability of our borrowers to repay their loans. We might underestimate the loan losses inherent in our loan portfolio and have loan losses in excess of the amount reserved. We might increase the allowance because of changing economic conditions. For example, in a rising interest rate environment, borrowers with adjustable-rate loans could see their payments increase. There may be a significant increase in the number of borrowers who are unable or unwilling to repay their loans, resulting in our charging off more loans and increasing our allowance. In addition, when real estate values decline, the potential severity of loss on a real estate-secured loan can increase significantly, especially in the case of loans with high combined loan-to-value ratios. Our allowance for loan losses amounted to 0.45% of total loans outstanding and 136.0% of nonperforming loans at December 31, 2008. Our allowance for loan losses at December 31, 2008, may not be sufficient to cover future loan losses. We may be required to increase our allowance for loan losses, thus reducing earnings.
If we conclude that the decline in value of any of our investment securities is other than temporary, we are required to write down the value of that security through a charge to earnings.
We review our investment securities portfolio at each quarter-end reporting period to determine whether the fair value is below the current carrying value. When the fair value of any of our investment securities has declined below its carrying value, we are required to assess whether the decline is other than temporary. If we conclude that the decline is other than temporary, we are required to write down the value of that security through a charge to earnings. As of December 31, 2008, our investment portfolio included six corporate debt securities with a book value of $8.2 million and an estimated fair value of $5.3 million, and two pooled trust preferred securities with a book value of $1.1 million (after an impairment charge of $1.9 million) and an estimated fair value of $1.0 million. Changes in the expected cash flows of these securities and/or prolonged price declines may result in our concluding in future periods that the impairment of these securities is other than temporary, which would require a charge to earnings to write down theses securities to their fair value. At December 31, 2008, we had an investment of $7.1 million in capital stock of the Federal Home Loan Bank of New York. If the Federal Home Loan Bank of New York is unable to meet minimum regulatory capital requirements or is required to aid the remaining Federal Home Loan Banks, our holding in FHLB-NY may be determined to be other than temporarily impaired and may require a charge to our earnings, which could have a material impact on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. Any other charges for other-than-temporary impairment would not impact cash flow, tangible capital or liquidity.
Commercial lending may expose us to increased lending risks.
At December 31, 2008, $60.7 million, or 10.2%, of our loan portfolio consisted of commercial and multi-family real estate loans, commercial construction loans and commercial business loans. These types of loans generally expose a lender to greater risk of non-payment and loss than one- to four-family residential mortgage loans because repayment of the loans often depends on the successful operation of the property and the income stream of the borrowers. Such loans typically involve larger loan balances to single borrowers or groups of related borrowers compared to one- to four-family residential mortgage loans. Also, many of our commercial borrowers have more than one loan outstanding with us. Consequently, an adverse development with respect to one loan or one credit relationship can expose us to a significantly greater risk of loss compared to an adverse development with respect to a one- to four-family residential mortgage loan.
An economic recession or even a modest slowdown could reduce demand for our products and services and lead to lower revenue and lower earnings.
Our business activities and earnings are affected by general business conditions in the United States. These conditions include short-term and long-term interest rates, inflation, unemployment levels, monetary supply, fluctuations in both debt and equity capital markets, and the strength of the United States economy and the local economy in which we operate. For example, an economic downturn, an increase in unemployment, a decline in real estate values or other events that affect household and/or corporate incomes could result in reduced demand for credit or fee-based products and services. An economic downturn can also hurt the ability of our borrowers to repay their loans, causing us to incur higher loan losses. Nearly all of our loans are secured by real estate or made to businesses in Atlantic or Cape May Counties, New Jersey. As a result of this concentration, a downturn in the local economy, which is dependent on the gaming and tourism industries, could cause significant increases in nonperforming loans, which would hurt our profits.
Changes in interest rates could reduce our net interest income and earnings.
Our net interest income is the interest we earn on loans and investment less the interest we pay on our deposits and borrowings. Our net interest margin is the difference between the yield we earn on our assets and the interest rate we pay for deposits and our other sources of funding. Changes in interest ratesup or down
could adversely affect our net interest margin and, as a result, our net interest income. Although the yield we earn on our assets and our funding costs tend to move in the same direction in response to changes in interest rates, one can rise or fall faster than the other, causing our net interest margin to expand or contract. Our liabilities tend to be shorter in duration than our assets, so they may adjust faster in response to changes in interest rates. As a result, when interest rates rise, our funding costs may rise faster than the yield we earn on our assets, causing our net interest margin to contract until the yield catches up. Changes in the slope of the yield curveor the spread between short-term and long-term interest ratescould also reduce our net interest margin. Normally, the yield curve is upward sloping, meaning short-term rates are lower than long-term rates. Because our liabilities tend to be shorter in duration than our assets, when the yield curve flattens or even inverts, we could experience pressure on our net interest margin as our cost of funds increases relative to the yield we can earn on our assets.
Future FDIC Assessments Will Hurt Our Earnings
In February 2009, the FDIC adopted an interim final rule imposing a special assessment on all insured institutions due to recent bank and savings association failures. The emergency assessment amounts to 20 basis points of assessable deposits as of June 30, 2009. The assessment will be collected on September 30, 2009. The FDIC subsequently announced that it would reduce the special assessment to 10 basis points if Congress increases the FDICs borrowing authority with the U.S. Department of the Treasury. The special assessment will negatively impact the Companys earnings. In addition, the interim rule would also permit the FDIC to impose additional emergency special assessments after June 30, 2009, of up to 10 basis points per quarter if necessary to maintain public confidence in federal deposit insurance or as a result of deterioration in the deposit insurance fund reserve ratio due to institution failures. Any additional emergency special assessment imposed by the FDIC will further hurt the Companys earnings.
Strong competition within our market area could reduce our profits and slow growth.
We face intense competition both in making loans and attracting deposits. This competition has made it more difficult for us to make new loans and at times has forced us to offer higher deposit rates. Price competition for loans and deposits might result in us earning less on our loans and paying more on our deposits, which would reduce net interest income. Competition also makes it more difficult to grow loans and deposits. As of June 30, 2008, which is the most recent date for which information is available, we held 5.2% of the deposits in Atlantic County, New Jersey, which was the 8th largest share of deposits out of 16 financial institutions with offices in the county, and 8.5% of the deposits in Cape May County, New Jersey, which was the 6th largest share of deposits out of 14 financial institutions with offices in this county. Some of the institutions with which we compete have substantially greater resources and lending limits than we have and may offer services that we do not provide. We expect competition to increase in the future as a result of legislative, regulatory and technological changes and the continuing trend of consolidation in the financial services industry. Our profitability depends upon our continued ability to compete successfully in our market area.
We operate in a highly regulated environment and we may be adversely affected by changes in laws and regulations.
We are subject to extensive regulation, supervision and examination by the Office of Thrift Supervision, our primary federal regulator, and by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, as our insurer of our deposits. Such regulation and supervision governs the activities in which an institution and its holding company may engage and are intended primarily for the protection of the insurance fund and the depositors and borrowers of Ocean City Home Bank rather than for holders of our common stock. Regulatory authorities have extensive discretion in their supervisory and enforcement activities, including the imposition of restrictions on our operations, the classification of our assets and determination of the level of our allowance for loan losses. Any change in such regulation and oversight, whether in the form of regulatory policy, regulations, legislation or supervisory action, may have a material impact on our operations.
We currently conduct business through our nine full-service banking offices in Ocean City, Marmora, Linwood, Ventnor, Egg Harbor Township, Absecon, Northfield, Margate City and Mays Landing, New Jersey. We own all of our offices, except for those in Absecon and Northfield. The lease for our Absecon office expires in 2011 and has an option for an additional five years. The lease for our Northfield office expires in 2010 and has an option for an additional one year. The net book value of the land, buildings, furniture, fixtures and equipment owned by us was $11.8 million at December 31, 2008.
Periodically, there have been various claims and lawsuits against us, such as claims to enforce liens, condemnation proceedings on properties in which we hold security interests, claims involving the making and servicing of real property loans and other issues incident to our business. We are not a party to any pending legal proceedings that we believe would have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations or cash flows.
The Companys common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Global Market (NASDAQ) under the trading symbol OSHC. The following table sets forth the high and low sales prices of the common stock and dividends paid per share for the years ended December 31, 2008 and 2007. See Item 1, BusinessRegulation and SupervisionLimitation on Capital Distributions and Note 12 in the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements for more information relating to restrictions on dividends.
As of March 12, 2009, there were approximately 769 holders of record of the Companys common stock.
Purchases of Equity Securities by the Issuer and Affiliated Purchases During the 4th Quarter of 2008
N/Mnot meaningful as nonperforming loans are not material enough to allow for meaningful calculations.
We conduct community banking activities by accepting deposits and making loans in our market area. Our lending products include residential mortgage loans, commercial loans and mortgages, and home equity and other consumer loans. We also maintain an investment portfolio consisting primarily of mortgage-backed securities to manage our liquidity and interest rate risk. Our loan and investment portfolios are funded with deposits as well as collateralized borrowings from the Federal Home Loan Bank of New York.
Income. Our primary source of pre-tax income is net interest income. Net interest income is the difference between interest income, which is the income that we earn on our loans and investments, and interest expense, which is the interest that we pay on our deposits and borrowings. Our net interest income is affected by a variety of factors, including the mix of interest-earning assets in our portfolio and changes in levels of interest rates. Growth in net interest income is dependent upon our ability to prudently manage the balance sheet for growth, combined with how successfully we maintain or increase net interest margin, which is net interest income as a percentage of average interest-earning assets.
A secondary source of income is non-interest income, or other income, which is revenue that we receive from providing products and services. The majority of our non-interest income generally comes from service charges (mostly from service charges on deposit accounts). We also earn income on bank-owned life insurance and receive commissions for various services. In some years, we recognize income from the sale of securities and real estate owned.
Allowance for Loan Losses. The allowance for loan losses is a valuation allowance for probable losses inherent in the loan portfolio. We evaluate the need to establish allowances against losses on loans on a monthly basis. When additional allowances are necessary, a provision for loan losses is charged to earnings.
Expenses. The noninterest expenses we incur in operating our business consist primarily of expenses for salaries and employee benefits and for occupancy and equipment. We also incur expenses for items such as professional services, advertising, office supplies, insurance, telephone, and postage.
Our largest noninterest expense is for salaries and employee benefits, which consist primarily of salaries and wages paid to our employees, payroll taxes, and expenses for health insurance, retirement plans and other employee benefits.
Occupancy and equipment expenses, which are the fixed and variable costs of buildings and equipment, consist primarily of depreciation charges, ATM and data processing expenses, furniture and equipment expenses, maintenance, real estate taxes and costs of utilities. Depreciation of premises and equipment is computed using the straight-line method based on the useful lives of the related assets, which range from three to 40 years. Leasehold improvements are amortized over the shorter of the useful life of the asset or the term of the lease.
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation assessments for 2008 ranged from five to forty-three basis points of assessable deposits. Due to losses incurred by the Deposit Insurance Fund in 2008 from failed institutions, and anticipated future losses, the FDIC has increased its assessment rates for 2009 and has announced plans to charge a special assessment to increase the balance of the insurance fund.
The Company continues to operate in a challenging and uncertain economic environment, including uncertainty in national and local conditions. The market dislocations, which began in 2007 and continue today,
have brought unprecedented turmoil to the financial markets. Credit conditions are deteriorating rapidly and financial markets are experiencing widespread illiquidity and elevated levels of volatility as concerns over the future of the economy grow, consumer confidence declines, unemployment rises, home values decline, credit availability contracts, and companies report lower corporate earnings. The U.S. rate of unemployment continued to increase during 2008, reaching its highest level in over fifteen years at 7.2% in December 2008. U.S. consumer spending also continued to tighten as 2008 capped off the worse year since 1961 as the full year rose just 3.6%. The National Bureau of Economic Research officially declared that the U.S. is in a recession.
At the onset of the national economic downturn, New Jersey did not experience a significant downturn. However, as the downturn persists, New Jersey is mirroring the overall economy. The companies experiencing the greatest impact are those closely associated with residential real estate and consumer spending. While we continue to focus on the credit quality of our customersclosely monitoring the financial status of borrowers throughout our markets, gathering information, working on early detection of potential problems, taking pre-emptive steps where necessary and doing the analysis required to maintain adequate reservesevidence of these economic challenges is reflected in the increased level of non performing loans and levels of delinquency in our loan portfolio.
There have been several high profile failures and takeovers of major market participants including Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. In July 2008, the U.S. Government passed the Housing and Economic Recovery Act of 2008, which was designed primarily to address the sub-prime mortgage crisis and authorized the Federal Housing Administration to guarantee up to $300 billion in new 30-year, fixed-rate mortgages for sub-prime borrowers, if lenders write-down principal loans balances to 90 percent of current appraisal value. This Act was intended to restore confidence in Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac by strengthening regulation and injecting capital into these entities. Although we have no exposure to sub-prime mortgages or any material equity investments in Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac, we maintain a portfolio of mortgage backed securities issued by Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac and continue to monitor those market segments that may be impacted by the significantly wider credit spreads resulting from the market turmoil.
In October 2008, the U.S. Government passed the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008 (EESA) which provided for the implementation of the Troubled Asset Relief Plan (TARP). The TARPs primary purpose is to remove troubled assets from the balance sheets of financial institutions. Under the authority provided by the EESA, the U.S. Treasury created the voluntary Capital Purchase Program (CPP), which provides direct equity investment of by the U.S. Treasury in preferred stock of qualified financial institutions. The legislations goal is to provide market stability, strengthen financial institutions and enhance market liquidity. Because our capital ratios are strong, the Board of Directors concluded that if we are going to raise additional capital, it is in the best interests of our shareholders to accomplish that through a second step conversion, which is currently in process. See Liquidity and Capital Resources and footnote 19 of the audited consolidated financial statements.
As part of the regulatory initiatives, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) implemented the Temporary Liquidity Guarantee Program (TLGP) to strengthen confidence and encourage liquidity in the banking system. As part of the TLGP, the FDIC will guaranty certain newly issued senior unsecured debt of banks, thrifts and certain holding companies issued on or before June 30, 2009. In addition, the FDIC will also provide full coverage of non-interest bearing deposit transaction accounts until December 31, 2009. Initially, these programs were provided at no cost and entities had to choose to opt out. An entity that choose not to opt out of either or both programs became a participating entity and will be assessed fees for participation. Participants issuing senior unsecured debt under the TLGP will be charged an annualized fee equal to 75 basis points (bps) multiplied by the debt issued, and calculated for the maturity period of that debt, or through June 30, 2012, whichever is earlier. Any eligible entity that has not chosen to opt out of the full coverage on the non-interest bearing transaction accounts will be assessed, on a quarterly basis, an annualized 10 bps fee on balances in noninterest-bearing transaction accounts that exceed the existing deposit insurance limit of $250,000. We are participating in these programs.
During 2008, the economic environment caused higher levels of bank failures, which dramatically increased FDIC resolution costs and led to a significant reduction in the Deposit Insurance Fund (DIF). To ensure that the deposit insurance system remains sound and in an effort to restore the reserve ratio of the DIF to at least 1.15 percent of estimated insured deposits as required under the FDICs Restoration Plan, the FDIC voted on December 16, 2008 to increase initial base assessment rates uniformly by 7 bps (7 cents for every $100 of deposits), beginning with the first quarter of 2009. On February 27, 2009, the FDIC adopted a final rule to modify the risk-based assessment system and to reset initial base assessment rates. Effective April 1, 2009, initial base assessment rates will range from 12 bps to 45 bps across all risk categories with possible adjustments to these rates based on certain debt-related components. The FDIC also extended the period of the Restoration Plan from five years to seven years. Furthermore, the FDIC adopted an interim rule imposing a one-time emergency special assessment of 20 bps, in addition to the risk-based assessment, on assessable deposits as of June 30, 2008, which will be collected on September 30, 2009.
On February 17, 2009, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) was enacted. ARRA is intended to provide a stimulus to the U.S. economy in the wake of the economic downturn brought about by the sub-prime mortgage crisis and the resulting credit crunch. ARRA includes federal tax cuts, expansion of unemployment benefits and other social welfare provisions, and domestic spending in education, healthcare, and infrastructure, including the energy structure. The new law also includes numerous non-economic recovery related items, including a limitation on executive compensation in federally aided banks.
As a result of the market uncertainty and the overall weakened economic conditions, the Federal Reserve began lowering the Fed Funds Rate in 2007, and continued to do so throughout 2008. The Fed Funds Rate decreased from 4.25% at December 31, 2007 to a range of 0.00%-0.25% at December 31, 2008 and market expectations are that it will remain relatively low during 2009. Though the Federal Reserve has attempted to orchestrate short-term rate reductions, loan and deposit pricing in our market place has not always followed the declining trend as deposit pricing remains intensely competitive, partially offset by slightly wider spreads on loans and investments. We began to experience interest rate spread expansion as a result of a large percentage of fixed-rate loans in our portfolio, which remained consistent with the previous year while the rates on the Companys deposit liabilities declined. We expect this trend to continue into 2009.
The deterioration in the overall economy will continue to affect the markets in which we and our customers do business and may adversely impact our results in the future, depending upon the duration and severity of such conditions. The following discussion provides further detail on our financial condition and results of operations at and for the year ended December 31, 2008.
Critical Accounting Policies, Judgements and Estimates
The discussion and analysis of the financial condition and results of operations are based on the Consolidated Financial Statements, which are prepared in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States of America (GAAP). The preparation of these financial statements requires management to make estimates and assumptions affecting the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities, and the reported amounts of income and expenses. Management evaluates these estimates and assumptions on an ongoing basis, including those related to the allowance for loan losses, income taxes, and the fair value of financial instruments. Management bases its estimates on historical experience and various other factors and assumptions that are believed to be reasonable under the circumstances. These form the basis for making judgments on the carrying value of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results may differ from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions.
Allowance for Loan Losses. The allowance for loan losses is the amount estimated by management as necessary to cover losses inherent in the loan portfolio at the balance sheet date. The allowance is established through the provision for loan losses, which is charged to income. Determining the amount of the allowance for
loan losses necessarily involves a high degree of judgment. Among the material estimates required to establish the allowance are the following: loss exposure at default; the amount and timing of future cash flows on impacted loans; value of collateral; and determination of loss factors to be applied to the various elements of the portfolio. All of these estimates are susceptible to significant change. Although we believe that we use the best information available to establish the allowance for loan losses, future adjustments to the allowance may be necessary if economic conditions differ substantially from the assumptions used in making the evaluation. In addition, the Office of Thrift Supervision, as an integral part of its examination process, periodically reviews our allowance for loan losses. Such agency may require us to recognize adjustments to the allowance based on its judgments about information available to it at the time of its examination. The allowance for loan losses is maintained at a level that management considers adequate to provide for estimated losses and impairment based upon an evaluation of known and inherent risk in the loan portfolio. Loan impairment is evaluated based on the fair value of collateral or estimated net realizable value. A provision for loan losses is charged to operations based on managements evaluation of the estimated losses that have been incurred in the Companys loan portfolio. It is the policy of management to provide for losses on unidentified loans in its portfolio in addition to classified loans.
Management monitors its allowance for loan losses at least quarterly and makes adjustments to the allowance through the provision for loan losses as economic conditions and other pertinent factors indicate. The quarterly review and adjustment of the qualitative factors employed in the allowance methodology and the updating of historic loss experience allow for timely reaction to emerging conditions and trends. In this context, a series of qualitative factors are used in a methodology as a measurement of how current circumstances are affecting the loan portfolio. Included in these qualitative factors are:
In determining the allowance for loan losses, management has established both specific and general pooled allowances. Values assigned to the qualitative factors and those developed from historic loss experience provide a dynamic basis for the calculation of reserve factors for both pass-rated loans (general pooled allowance) and those criticized and classified loans without Statement of Financial Accounting Standards (SFAS) No. 114, Accounting by Creditors for Impairment of a Loanan amendment of FASB Statements No. 5 and 15, reserves (specific allowance). The amount of the specific allowance is determined through a loan-by-loan analysis of certain large dollar commercial loans. Loans not individually reviewed are evaluated as a group using reserve factor percentages based on historic loss experience and the qualitative factors described above. In determining the appropriate level of the general pooled allowance, management makes estimates based on internal risk ratings, which take into account such factors as debt service coverage, loan-to-value ratios, and external factors. Estimates are periodically measured against actual loss experience.
As changes in our operating environment occur and as recent loss experience fluctuates, the factors for each category of loan based on type and risk rating will change to reflect current circumstances and the quality of the
loan portfolio. Given that the components of the allowance are based partially on historical losses and on risk rating changes in response to recent events, required reserves may trail the emergence of any unforeseen deterioration in credit quality.
Although we maintain our allowance for loan losses at levels considered adequate to provide for the inherent risk of loss in our loan portfolio, if economic conditions differ substantially from the assumptions used in making the evaluations there can be no assurance that future losses will not exceed estimated amounts or that additional provisions for loan losses will not be required in future periods. Accordingly, the current decline in the national economy and the local economies of the areas in which the loans are concentrated could result in an increase in loan delinquencies, foreclosures or repossessions resulting in increased charge-off amounts and the need for additional loan loss allowances in future periods. In addition, our determination as to the amount of our allowance for loan losses is subject to review by the Banks primary regulator, the Office of Thrift Supervision (the OTS), as part of its examination process, which may result in the establishment of an additional allowance based upon the judgment of the OTS after a review of the information available at the time of the OTS examination. A large loss could deplete the allowance and require increased provisions to replenish the allowance, which would negatively affect earnings.
Other Than Temporary Impairment. Investment securities are reviewed at each quarter-end reporting period to determine whether the fair value is below the current carrying value. When the fair value of any of our investment securities has declined below its carrying value, management is required to assess whether the decline is other than temporary. In making this assessment, we consider such factors as the type of investment, the length of time and extent to which the fair value has been below the carrying value, the financial condition and near- term prospects of the issuer, and our intent and ability to hold the investment long enough to allow for any anticipated recovery. The decision to record a write-down, its amount and the period in which it is recorded could change if managements assessment of the above factors were different. We consider facts and circumstances in determining whether the impairment in the security is due to credit deterioration or general fluctuations in the interest rates, and generally do not record impairment write-downs on debt securities when decline in value is due to changes in interest rates, since we have the intent and ability to realize the full value of the investments by holding them to maturity. Quoted market value is considered to be fair value for actively traded securities. For privately issued securities, and for thinly traded securities where market quotes are not available, we use estimation techniques to determine fair value. Estimation techniques used include discounted cash flows for debt securities. Additional information regarding our accounting for investment securities is included in notes 2, 3 and 4 to the notes to consolidated financial statements.
Deferred Income Taxes. We account for income taxes in accordance with SFAS No. 109, Accounting for Income Taxes and Financial Accounting Standards Board (the FASB) Interpretation (FIN) No. 48, Accounting for Uncertainty in Income Taxesan interpretation of FASB Statement No. 109. SFAS No. 109 requires the recording of deferred income taxes that reflect the net tax effects of temporary differences between the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities for financial reporting purposes and the amounts used for income tax purposes. Under this method, deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the future tax consequences attributable to differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases. If current available information raises doubt as to the realization of the deferred tax assets, a valuation allowance is established. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. We exercise significant judgment in evaluating the amount and timing of recognition of the resulting tax liabilities and assets. These judgments require us to make projections of future taxable income. The judgments and estimates we make in determining our deferred tax assets, which are inherently subjective, are reviewed on a continual basis as regulatory and business factors change. Any reduction in estimated future taxable income may require us to record an additional valuation allowance against our deferred tax assets. An increase in the valuation allowance would result in additional income tax expense in the period, which would negatively affect earnings. On January 1, 2007, we incorporated FIN No. 48 with our existing accounting policy. FIN No. 48 prescribes a minimum probability threshold that a tax position must meet before a financial statement
benefit is recognized. When applicable, we recognize interest and penalties related to unrecognized tax benefits in the provision for income taxes in the consolidated income statement. Assessment of uncertain tax positions under FIN No. 48 requires careful consideration of the technical merits of a position based on managements analysis of tax regulations and interpretations. Significant judgment may be involved in applying the requirements of FIN No. 48.
Management expects that the Companys adherence to FIN No. 48 may result in increased volatility in quarterly and annual effective income tax rates as FIN No. 48 requires that any change in judgment or change in measurement of a tax position taken in a prior period be recognized as a discrete event in the period in which it occurs. Factors that could impact managements judgment include changes in income, tax laws and regulations, and tax planning strategies.
Fair Value Measurement. We adopted SFAS No. 157, Fair Value Measurements, on January 1, 2008 and FASB Staff Position (FSP) SFAS No. 157-3, Determining the Fair Value of a Financial Asset When the Market for That Asset Is Not Active, on September 30, 2008. SFAS No. 157 establishes a framework for measuring fair value. SFAS No. 157 defines fair value as the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date, emphasizing that fair value is a market-based measurement and not an entity-specific measurement. FSP SFAS No. 157-3 clarifies the application of SFAS No. 157 in a market that is not active and provides an example to illustrate key considerations in determining the fair value of a financial asset when the market for that financial asset is not active. SFAS No. 157 addresses the valuation techniques used to measure fair value. These valuation techniques include the market approach, income approach and cost approach. The market approach uses prices or relevant information generated by market transactions involving identical or comparable assets or liabilities. The income approach involves converting future amounts to a single present amount. The measurement is valued based on current market expectations about those future amounts. The cost approach is based on the amount that currently would be required to replace the service capacity of the asset.
SFAS No. 157 establishes a fair value hierarchy, which prioritizes the inputs to valuation techniques used to measure fair value into three broad levels. The fair value hierarchy gives the highest priority to quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities (Level 1) and the lowest priority to unobservable inputs (Level 3). A financial instruments categorization within the fair value hierarchy is based upon the lowest level of input that is significant to the instruments fair value measurement.
The three levels within the fair value hierarchy are described as follows:
The Company measures financial assets and liabilities at fair value in accordance with SFAS No. 157 and FSP SFAS No. 157-3. These measurements involve various valuation techniques and models, which involve inputs that are observable, when available, and include the following significant financial instruments:
investment securities available for sale and derivative financial instruments. The following is a summary of valuation techniques utilized by the Company for its significant financial assets and liabilities which are valued on a recurring basis.
Investment securities available for sale. Where quoted prices for identical securities are available in an active market, securities are classified within Level 1 of the valuation hierarchy. If quoted market prices are not available, then fair values are estimated using quoted prices of securities with similar characteristics or discounted cash flows based on observable market inputs and are classified within Level 2 of the fair value hierarchy. In certain cases where there is limited activity or less transparency around inputs to the valuation, securities are classified within Level 3 of the valuation hierarchy. Level 3 market value measurements include an internally developed discounted cash flow model combined with using market data points of similar securities with comparable credit ratings in addition to market yield curves with similar maturities in determining the discount rate. In addition, significant estimates and unobservable inputs are required in the determination of Level 3 market value measurements. If actual results differ significantly from the estimates and inputs applied, it could have a material effect on the Companys consolidated financial statements.
In addition, certain assets are measured at fair value on a nonrecurring basis; that is, the instruments are not measured at fair value on an ongoing basis but are subject to fair value adjustments in certain circumstances (for example, when there is evidence of impairment). The Company measures impaired loans, servicing assets, restricted equity investments and loans or bank properties transferred into other real estate owned at fair value on a non-recurring basis.
Valuation techniques and models utilized for measuring financial assets and liabilities are reviewed and validated by the Company at least quarterly.
Balance Sheet Analysis
General. Total assets increased $49.0 million, or 7.8%, to $678.5 million at December 31, 2008 from $629.5 million at December 31, 2007. Total loans, net, increased $66.4 million, or 12.6%, during 2008 to $594.5 million. Investment and mortgage-backed securities decreased $21.5 million during the year due to sales of available for sale mutual funds of $7.6 million and normal repayments of principal and maturities. Asset growth in 2008 was funded through increases in deposits of $40.7 million, or 9.8%, to $456.0 million and Federal Home Loan Bank advances of $13.6 million, or 11.3%, to $133.8 million.
Loans. Our primary lending activity is the origination of loans secured by real estate. Total loans, net, represented 87.6% of total assets at December 31, 2008, compared to 83.9% of total assets at December 31, 2007.
Loans receivable, net, increased $66.4 million, or 12.6%, in 2008 to $594.5 million. One- to four-family residential loans increased $56.6 million, or 13.9%, in 2008 on high loan activity. Real estate mortgage loan originations accounted for $113.2 million, or 68.8%, of this years $164.5 million of total loan originations. Construction loans decreased $1.4 million, or 13.3%, in 2008 due to the completion of the construction phase of existing loans and either sale of the property or subsequent conversion of those loans to permanent financing. Consumer loans, almost all of which are home equity loans, totaled $61.0 million and represented 10.3% of total loans at December 31, 2008 compared to $59.1 million, or 11.2% of total loans, at December 31, 2007. Consumer loan originations totaled $23.9 million or 14.5% of total loan originations. Commercial loans totaled $17.1 million and represented 2.8% of total loans at December 31, 2008 compared to $17.3 million, or 3.3% of total loans, at December 31, 2007.
Table 1: Loan Portfolio Analysis
The following table sets forth certain information at December 31, 2008 regarding the dollar amount of loan principal repayments coming due during the periods indicated. The table does not include any estimate of prepayments, which significantly shorten the average life of all loans and may cause our actual repayment experience to differ from that shown below. Demand loans having no stated schedule of repayments and no stated maturity are reported as due in one year or less.
Table 2: Contractual Maturities and Interest Rate Sensitivity
Table 3: Loan Origination, Purchase and Sale Activity
Securities. At December 31, 2008, our securities portfolio represented 5.5% of total assets, compared to 9.4% at December 31, 2007. Investment securities decreased $13.0 million to $9.3 million at December 31, 2008 from $22.3 million at December 31, 2007 as the result of the sale of mutual funds totaling $7.6 million and the call of municipal securities of $1.1 million. In addition, we realized OTTI charges on two pooled trust preferred securities, totaling $1.9 million, and a $300,000 OTTI charge on previous holdings of mutual funds, and had a significant increase in the unrealized market value loss position due primarily to the turbulent market conditions in the second half of 2008. Mortgage-backed securities decreased by $8.5 million to $28.1 million at December 31, 2008 from $36.6 million at December 31, 2007 due to maturities and repayments of principal. Overall, investments decreased $21.5 million, or 36.5%, in the year ended December 31, 2008 as we funded increased loan demand with the proceeds from sales, maturities and principal paydowns.
Table 4: Investment Securities
At December 31, 2008, we had no investments in a single company or entity (other than the U.S. Government or an agency of the U.S. Government) that had an aggregate book value in excess of 10% of our equity.
The following table sets forth the stated maturities and weighted average yields of debt securities at December 31, 2008. Certain mortgage-backed securities have adjustable interest rates and will reprice annually within the various maturity ranges. These repricing schedules are not reflected in the table below. At December 31, 2008, mortgage-backed securities with adjustable rates totaled $5.6 million. Weighted average yields are on a tax-equivalent basis.
Table 5: Investment Maturities Schedule
Deposits. Our primary source of funds are retail deposit accounts held primarily by individuals and businesses within our market area. We also actively solicit deposits from municipalities in our market area. Municipal deposit accounts differ from business accounts in that we pay interest on those deposits and we pledge collateral (typically investment securities) with the New Jersey Department of Banking to secure the portion of the deposits that are not covered by federal deposit insurance. At December 31, 2008 and 2007, there were approximately $66.8 million and $64.8 million of such deposits.
Our deposit base is comprised of demand deposits, savings accounts and time deposits. Deposits increased $40.7 million, or 9.8%, in 2008. The change in deposits consisted of increases in demand deposits of $7.3 million, savings accounts of $2.9 million and time deposits of $30.5 million.
We aggressively market checking and savings accounts, as these tend to provide longer-term customer relationships and a lower cost of funding compared to time deposits. Due to our marketing efforts and sales efforts, we have been able to attract core deposits of 55.6% of total deposits at December 31, 2008, compared to 58.6% in 2007.
Table 6: Deposits
Table 7: Time Deposit Maturities of $100,000 or More
Borrowings. We utilize borrowings from a variety of sources to supplement our supply of funds for loans and investments and to meet deposit withdrawal requirements.
Table 8: Borrowings
Federal Home Loan Bank advances increased $13.6 million at December 31, 2008 from December 31, 2007. These advances mature starting in 2009 through 2017. All $13.6 million of the increase in advances was used to fund increases in loan demand.
Securities sold under agreements to repurchase decreased $8.0 million during 2008. At December 31, 2008, the Company had no securities sold under agreements to repurchase.
Subordinated debt reflects the junior subordinated deferrable interest debentures issued by us in 1998 to a business trust formed by us that issued $15.0 million of preferred securities in a private placement.
Results of Operations for the Years Ended December 31, 2008, 2007 and 2006
Table 9: Overview of 2008, 2007 and 2006
2008 vs. 2007. Net income increased $139,000, or 4.9%, in 2008 to $2.9 million. Net interest income increased $3.7 million, or 24.4%, in 2008 from 2007 while non-interest income decreased $2.1 million, or 80.0%, to $533,000 due primarily to other than temporary impairment charges of investment securities of $2.2 million in 2008. Other expenses increased $1.2 million, or 9.1%, to $14.3 million in 2008 from 2007 due primarily to increased costs associated with the opening of a new branch, increases in FDIC insurance, occupancy, data processing and salary expenses. Income taxes increased $153,000, or 9.3%, in 2008 from 2007 due primarily from increased taxable income.
2007 vs. 2006. Net income decreased $358,000, or 11.4%, in 2007 to $2.8 million. Net interest income decreased $81,000, or 0.5%, in 2007 from 2006 while non-interest income increased $290,000, or 12.4%, to $2.6 million. Other expenses increased $263,000, or 2.1%, to $13.1 million in 2007 from 2006 due primarily to cost associated with the opening of a new branch. Income taxes increased $343,000, or 26.5%, in 2007 from 2006 due primarily from reduced deferred taxes in 2006.
Net Interest Income.
2008 vs. 2007. Net interest income increased $3.7 million, or 24.4%, to $18.8 million for 2008 from $15.1 million in 2007. The increase in net interest income for 2008 was primarily attributable to interest earned on a higher volume of interest-earning loans and a lower costs of deposits partially offset by an increase in interest paid on borrowings.
Total interest and dividend income increased $3.3 million, or 10.1%, to $35.9 million for 2008, as growth in interest income was enhanced by an increase in the average balance of loans partially offset by a decrease in the yield on earnings assets. Interest income on loans increased $4.8 million, or 17.1%, in 2008 as the average balance of the portfolio grew $95.7 million, or 20.4%, offset by the average yield decrease of 16 basis points to 5.84%. The decrease in the average yield was the result of lower rates on new loans originated. Declining balances offset by a higher yield in the investment portfolio accounted for the 24.6% decrease of $950,000 in interest income on investment securities in 2008. The average balance of the investment portfolio decreased
$18.4 million, or 28.4%, in 2008, while the average yield increased 32 basis points to 6.30% as a result of higher rates earned on the remainder of the portfolio. The average balance of other interest-earning assets decreased $8.8 million while the yield decreased 312 basis points due to a sharp decline in short term rates accounting for the decrease in income of $561,000.
Total interest expense decreased $388,000, or 2.2%, to $17.1 million for 2008 as a decline in interest paid on deposits of $2.2 million was offset by an increase of $1.8 million in interest paid on borrowings. The average balance of interest-bearing deposits decreased $2.0 million, or 0.5%, in 2008 due to decreases of $22.3 million in the average balance of interest-bearing checking and $3.5 million in the average balance of savings accounts offset by increases in the average balance of certificates of deposit of $23.8 million. The decrease in the average balance interest-bearing of checking accounts during 2008 was due primarily to the Company modifying a group of $31.8 million of checking products to non-interest bearing. The average interest rate paid on deposits decreased 56 basis points as a result of the prevailing lower interest rate environment during 2008. Interest paid on borrowings increased in 2008 as an increase in the average balance of borrowings of $56.7 million was offset by a lower average interest rate paid of 68 basis points. The increase in borrowed money was used to fund the increased loan demand in 2008.
2007 vs. 2006. Net interest income decreased $81,000, or 0.5%, to $15.1 million for 2007 from $15.2 million in 2006. The decrease in net interest income for 2007 was primarily attributable to a higher cost of deposits partially offset by a higher yield and a higher volume of interest-earning assets.
Total interest and dividend income increased $2.8 million, or 9.3%, to $32.6 million for 2007, as growth in interest income was enhanced by an increase in the average balance of loans and an increase in the yield on earning assets. Interest income on loans increased $2.9 million, or 11.5%, in 2007 as the average balance of the portfolio grew $43.3 million, or 10.2%, while the average yield increased 7 basis points to 6.00%. The increase in the average yield was the result of higher rates on new loans originated and an increase in rate on adjustable rate loans in the portfolio. Declining balances offset by a higher yield in the investment portfolio accounted for the 2.6% decrease in interest income on investment securities of $102,000 from 2006. The average balance of the investment portfolio decreased $14.3 million, or 18.1%, in 2007, while the average yield increased 95 basis points to 5.98% as a result of higher short term market rates.
Total interest expense increased $2.9 million, or 19.6%, to $17.5 million for 2007 as deposit and borrowing costs increased. The average balance of interest-bearing deposits increased $3.6 million, or 0.9%, in 2007 due to growth in certificates of deposit offset by decreases in both checking and savings accounts. The average interest rate paid on deposits increased 38 basis points as a result of the prevailing high interest rate environment during 2007 and the growth in higher cost certificates of deposit. During 2007, we experienced higher costs on demand deposits tied to treasury bills and a shift of deposits from lower-cost savings accounts to higher-cost certificates of deposit. Interest paid on borrowings increased in 2007 as an increase in the average balance of borrowings of $29.0 million was offset by a lower average interest rate paid of 31 basis points. The increase in borrowed money was used to fund the increased loan demand in 2007.
Table 10: Net Interest IncomeChanges Due to Rate and Volume
Provision for Loan Losses.
2008 vs. 2007. Provision for loan losses increased $112,000 to $373,000 in 2008 from $261,000 in 2007. The provision for loan losses was primarily to maintain an allowance level deemed appropriate by management which includes evaluations of concentrations of credit, past loss experience, current economic conditions, amount and composition of the loan portfolio, estimated fair value of underlying collateral, loan commitments outstanding, delinquencies and other factors such as the level of nonperforming loans and the current market conditions. The larger provision in 2008 reflected growth in the loan portfolio.
2007 vs. 2006. Provision for loan losses decreased $39,000 to $261,000 in 2007 from $300,000 in 2006. An increase in real estate mortgages, which have a lower loss factor, and a small increase in combined balances of construction, consumer and commercial mortgage and business loans, which carry a higher risk of default, was offset by stable performing assets with lower delinquencies.
An analysis of the changes in the allowance for loan losses is presented under Risk ManagementAnalysis and Determination of the Allowance for Loan Losses.
Other Income. The following table shows the components of other income and the percentage changes from year to year.
Table 11: Other Income Summary
2008 vs. 2007. Total other income decreased $2.1 million, or 80.0%, in 2008 from 2007 due primarily to other than temporary impairment charges of investment securities of $2.2 million in 2008 offset by increases in service charges, income on the cash surrender value of bank-owned life insurance and fees collected on deposit accounts and debit card commissions.
2007 vs. 2006. Total other income increased $291,000, or 12.5%, in 2007 from 2006 due to higher service charge fees collected on deposit accounts and increases from debit card commissions, both of which were due to higher customer usage of those services. In addition, income on the cash surrender value of bank-owned life insurance increased with the purchase of additional policies.
Other Expense. The following table shows the components of other expense and the percentage changes from year to year.
Table 12: Other Expense Summary
2008 vs. 2007. Total other expenses increased $1.2 million, or 9.2%, to $14.3 million in 2008 compared to $13.1 million in 2007. Increased personnel and occupancy costs associated with the opening of a new branch office in November of 2008 accounted for $131,000 in increased other expenses. In addition, excluding the costs associated with the new branch, salaries and employee benefits increased $654,000 primarily due to increases in salary and employee benefits. FDIC insurance cost increases $72,000 on higher premiums. Occupancy, equipment and data processing expenses increased $253,000. Professional services and other operating expenses accounted for the remaining $90,000 increase due to normal activity.
2007 vs. 2006. Total other expenses increased $263,000, or 2.1%, to $13.1 million in 2007 compared to $12.8 million in 2006. Increased personnel and occupancy costs associated with the opening of a new branch office in November of 2006 accounted for $343,000 in increased other expenses. In addition, excluding the costs associated with the new branch, salaries and employee benefits decreased $289,000 primarily due to higher credits of deferred personnel costs due to higher loan volume in 2007 compared to 2006. Occupancy and equipment, advertising, professional services and other operating expenses accounted for the remaining $208,000 increase due to normal activity.
2008 vs. 2007. Income tax expense was $1.8 million for 2008 compared to $1.6 million for 2007. The effective tax rate for 2008 was 38.0% compared to 37.0% for 2007. The increase was primarily due to an increase in taxable income for the year ended 2008 compared to 2007 and higher state income taxes as a result of non-deductible expenses related to impairment of securities. We recorded a reduction of $122,000 in 2008 of a tax valuation allowance for charitable contributions carryover deduction resulting from an increase in actual taxable income over prior projections.
2007 vs. 2006. Income tax expense was $1.6 million 2007 compared to $1.3 million for 2006. The effective tax rate for 2007 was 37.0% compared to 29.2% for 2006. The increase is primarily due to our change in policy regarding the tax treatment of bank owned life insurance during 2006. In 2007, we recorded a tax refund of $242,000. Partially offsetting the impact of the refund was a $168,000 tax valuation allowance relating to the deferred tax asset established in connection with the Companys contribution to the charitable foundation established in connection with its public offering in 2004. We determined that, based on our assessment of future taxable income and expectations of charitable contributions, it is probable that the tax benefit of the contribution may not be fully realized.
Average Balances and Yields. The following table presents information regarding average balances of assets and liabilities, the total dollar amounts of interest income and dividends from average interest-earning assets, the total dollar amounts of interest expense on average interest-bearing liabilities, and the resulting average yields and costs. The yields and costs for the periods indicated are derived by dividing income or expense by the average balances of assets or liabilities, respectively, for the periods presented. For purposes of this table, average balances have been calculated using the average daily balances and nonaccrual loans are included in average balances only. Loan fees are included in interest income on loans and are insignificant. Interest income on loans and investment securities has not been calculated on a tax equivalent basis because the impact would be insignificant.
Table 13: Average Balance Tables
Overview. Managing risk is an essential part of successfully managing a financial institution. Our most prominent risk exposures are credit risk, interest rate risk and market risk. Credit risk is the risk of not collecting the interest and/or the principal balance of a loan or investment when it is due. Interest rate risk is the potential reduction of interest income as a result of changes in interest rates. Market risk arises from fluctuations in interest rates that may result in changes in the values of financial instruments, such as available-for-sale securities that are accounted for on a mark-to-market basis. Other risks that we face are operational risks, liquidity risks and reputation risk. Operational risks include risks related to fraud, regulatory compliance, processing errors, technology and disaster recovery. Liquidity risk is the possible inability to fund obligations to depositors, lenders or borrowers. Reputation risk is the risk that negative publicity or press, whether true or not, could cause a decline in our customer base or revenue.
Credit Risk Management. Our strategy for credit risk management focuses on having well-defined credit policies and uniform underwriting criteria and providing prompt attention to potential problem loans. Our strategy also emphasizes the origination of one- to four-family mortgage loans, which typically have lower default rates than other types of loans and are secured by collateral that generally tends to appreciate in value.
When a borrower fails to make a required loan payment, we take a number of steps to have the borrower cure the delinquency and restore the loan to current status. We make initial contact with the borrower when the loan becomes 15 days past due. If payment is not then received by the 30th day of delinquency, additional letters and phone calls generally are made. Generally, when the loan becomes 60 days past due, we send a letter notifying the borrower that we will commence foreclosure proceedings if the loan is not brought current within 30 days. Generally, when the loan becomes 90 days past due, we commence foreclosure proceedings against any real property that secures the loan or attempt to repossess any personal property that secures a consumer loan. If a foreclosure action is instituted and the loan is not brought current, paid in full, or refinanced before the foreclosure sale, the real property securing the loan generally is sold at foreclosure. We may consider loan workout arrangements with certain borrowers under certain circumstances.
Management informs the board of directors monthly of the amount of loans delinquent more than 30 days, all loans in foreclosure and all foreclosed and repossessed property that we own.
Analysis of Nonperforming and Classified Assets. We consider repossessed assets and loans that are 90 days or more past due to be nonperforming assets. When a loan becomes 90 days delinquent, the loan is placed on nonaccrual status at which time the accrual of interest ceases and the allowance for any uncollectible accrued interest is established and charged against operations. Typically, payments received on a nonaccrual loan are applied to the outstanding principal and interest as determined at the time of collection of the loan.
Real estate that we acquire as a result of foreclosure or by deed-in-lieu of foreclosure is classified as real estate owned until it is sold. When property is acquired it is recorded at the lower of its cost, which is the unpaid balance of the loan plus foreclosure costs, or fair market value at the date of foreclosure. Holding costs and declines in fair value after acquisition of the property result in charges against income.
Nonperforming assets totaled $2.0 million, or 0.29% of total assets, at December 31, 2008, which was an increase of $1.7 million from December 31, 2007. Nonaccrual loans accounted for all nonperforming assets at December 31, 2008. At December 31, 2008, nonaccrual loans were comprised of $1.9 million in mortgage loans and $100,000 in consumer loans.
Table 14: Nonperforming Assets
N/Mnot measurable as nonperforming loans are not material enough to allow for meaningful calculations.
Interest income that would have been recorded for the year ended December 31, 2008 had nonaccruing loans been current according to their original terms amounted to $57,000. No interest related to nonaccrual loans was included in interest income for the year ended December 31, 2008.
Federal regulations require us to review and classify our assets on a regular basis. In addition, the Office of Thrift Supervision has the authority to identify problem assets and, if appropriate, require them to be classified. There are three classifications for problem assets: substandard, doubtful and loss. Substandard assets must have one or more defined weaknesses and are characterized by the distinct possibility that we will sustain some loss if the deficiencies are not corrected. Doubtful assets have the weaknesses of substandard assets with the additional characteristic that the weaknesses make collection or liquidation in full on the basis of currently existing facts, conditions and values questionable, and there is a high possibility of loss. An asset classified as loss is considered uncollectible and of such little value that continuance as an asset of the institution is not warranted. The regulations also provide for a special mention category, described as assets which do not currently expose us to a sufficient degree of risk to warrant classification but do possess credit deficiencies or potential weaknesses deserving our close attention. When we classify an asset as substandard or doubtful we establish a specific allowance for loan losses. If we classify an asset as loss, we charge off an amount equal to 100% of the portion of the asset classified loss.
Classified assets increased to $6.0 million at December 31, 2008 from $2.7 million at December 31, 2007. The increase in classified assets reflects the addition of $2.1 million in mortgage loans, $1.0 million in commercial mortgage loans and $200,000 in consumer loans.
Table 15: Classified Assets
Table 16: Loan Delinquencies(1)
At each of the dates in the above table, delinquent mortgage loans consisted primarily of loans secured by residential real estate.
Analysis and Determination of the Allowance for Loan Losses. The allowance for loan losses is a valuation allowance for probable losses inherent in the loan portfolio. We evaluate the need to establish allowances against losses on loans on a monthly basis. When additional allowances are necessary, a provision for loan losses is charged to earnings.
Our methodology for assessing the appropriateness of the allowance for loan losses consists of three key elements: (1) specific allowances for impaired or collateral-dependent loans; (2) a general valuation allowance on identified problem loans; and (3) a general valuation allowance on the remainder of the loan portfolio. Although we determine the amount of each element of the allowance separately, the entire allowance for loan losses is available for the entire portfolio. See Critical Accounting Policies, Judgements and Estimates and note 5 of the notes to the consolidated financial statements for additional information on the determination of the allowance for loan losses.
At December 31, 2008, our allowance for loan losses represented 0.45% of total net loans. The allowance for loan losses increased to $2.7 million at December 31, 2008 from $2.3 million at December 31, 2007 due to additions of $373,000 to the provision for loan losses offset by recoveries of $4,000. The provision for loan losses in 2008 reflected continued growth of the loan portfolio, particularly the increases in one- to four-family mortgage loans, commercial real estate loans and consumer loans. The loss factors used to calculate the allowance in December 31, 2008 from December 31, 2007 were increase by 2.3 basis points due to general economic conditions. At December 31, 2008, the specific allowance on impaired or collateral-dependent loans was zero as no loans were deemed impaired. The general valuation allowance for identified problem loans was $34,000 and the general valuation allowance on the remainder of the loan portfolio was $2.65 million.
At December 31, 2007, our allowance for loan losses represented 0.44% of total gross loans. The allowance for loan losses increased to $2.3 million at December 31, 2007 from $2.1 million at December 31, 2006 due additions to the provision for loan losses of $261,000 offset by net charge-offs of $4,000. The provision for loan losses in 2007 reflected continued growth of the loan portfolio, particularly the increases in one- to four-family mortgage loans, commercial real estate loans and consumer loans. There was no change in the loss factors used to calculate the allowance in December 31, 2007 from December 31, 2006. At December 31, 2007, the specific allowance on impaired or collateral-dependent loans was zero as no loans were deemed impaired. The general valuation allowance for identified problem loans was $36,000 and the general valuation allowance on the remainder of the loan portfolio was $2.3 million.
Table 17: Allocation of Allowance for Loan Losses
Although we believe that we use the best information available to establish the allowance for loan losses, future adjustments to the allowance for loan losses may be necessary and our results of operations could be adversely affected if circumstances differ substantially from the assumptions used in making the determinations. Furthermore, while we believe we have established our allowance for loan losses in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles, there can be no assurance that regulators, in reviewing our loan portfolio, will not request us to increase our allowance for loan losses. In addition, because future events affecting borrowers and collateral cannot be predicted with certainty, there can be no assurance that the existing allowance for loan losses is adequate or that increases will not be necessary should the quality of any loans deteriorate as a result of the factors discussed above. Any material increase in the allowance for loan losses may adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.
Table 18: Analysis of Loan Loss Experience
N/Mnot measurable as nonperforming loans and charge-offs are not material enough to allow for meaningful calculations.
In recent years, our net charge-offs have been low, with most charge-offs relating to consumer loans. We believe that our strict underwriting standards and, prior to 2007, a prolonged period of rising real estate values in our market area has been the primary reason for the absence of charged-off real estate loans.
Interest Rate Risk Management. We manage the interest rate sensitivity of our interest-bearing liabilities and interest-earning assets in an effort to minimize the adverse effects of changes in the interest rate environment. Deposit accounts typically react more quickly to changes in market interest rates than mortgage loans because of the shorter maturities of deposits. To reduce the potential volatility of our earnings, we have sought to improve the match between asset and liability maturities and rates, while maintaining an acceptable interest rate spread. We have adopted an interest rate risk action plan pursuant to which we manage our interest rate risk. Under this plan, we have: periodically sold fixed-rate mortgage loans; extended the maturities of our borrowings; increased commercial lending, which emphasizes the origination of shorter term, prime-based loans; emphasized the generation of core deposits, which provides a more stable, lower cost funding source; and structured our investment portfolio to include more liquid securities. We currently do not participate in hedging programs, interest rate swaps or other activities involving the use of derivative financial instruments.
We have an Asset/Liability Committee, which includes members of both the board of directors and management, to communicate, coordinate and control all aspects involving asset/liability management. The committee establishes and monitors the volume, maturities, pricing and mix of assets and funding sources with the objective of managing assets and funding sources to provide results that are consistent with liquidity, growth, risk limits and profitability goals.
Net Interest Income Simulation Analysis. We analyze our interest rate sensitivity position to manage the risk associated with interest rate movements through the use of interest income simulation. The matching of
assets and liabilities may be analyzed by examining the extent to which such assets and liabilities are interest sensitive. An asset or liability is said to be interest rate sensitive within a specific time period if it will mature or reprice within that time period.
Our goal is to manage asset and liability positions to moderate the effects of interest rate fluctuations on net interest income. Interest income simulations are completed quarterly and presented to the Asset/Liability Committee. The simulations provide an estimate of the impact of changes in interest rates on net interest income under a range of assumptions. The numerous assumptions used in the simulation process are reviewed by the Asset/Liability Committee on a quarterly basis. Changes to these assumptions can significantly affect the results of the simulation. The simulation incorporates assumptions regarding the potential timing in the repricing of certain assets and liabilities when market rates change and the changes in spreads between different market rates. The simulation analysis incorporates managements current assessment of the risk that pricing margins will change adversely over time due to competition or other factors.
Simulation analysis is only an estimate of our interest rate risk exposure at a particular point in time. We continually review the potential effect changes in interest rates could have on the repayment of rate sensitive assets and funding requirements of rate sensitive liabilities.
The table below sets forth an approximation of our exposure as a percentage of estimated net interest income for the next 12- and 24-month periods using interest income simulation. The simulation uses projected repricing of assets and liabilities at December 31, 2008 on the basis of contractual maturities, anticipated repayments and scheduled rate adjustments. Prepayment rates can have a significant impact on interest income simulation. Because of the large percentage of loans and mortgage-backed securities we hold, rising or falling interest rates have a significant impact on the prepayment speeds of our earning assets that in turn affect the rate sensitivity position. When interest rates rise, prepayments tend to slow. When interest rates fall, prepayments tend to rise. Our asset sensitivity would be reduced if prepayments slow and vice versa. While we believe such assumptions to be reasonable, there can be no assurance that assumed prepayment rates will approximate actual future mortgage-backed security and loan repayment activity.
Table 19: Net Interest Income Simulation
Management believes that under the current rate environment, a change of interest rates downward of 200 basis points is a highly remote interest rate scenario. Therefore, management modified the limit and a 100 basis point decrease in interest rates was used. This limit will be re-evaluated periodically and may be modified as appropriate.
The 200 and 100 basis point change in rates in the above table is assumed to occur evenly over the following 12 months. Based on the scenario above, net interest income would be adversely affected (within our internal guidelines) in the 12-month if rates rose by 200 basis points. In addition, if rates declined by 100 basis points net interest income would be adversely affected (within our internal guidelines) in both the 12- and 24-month periods.
Net Portfolio Value Analysis. In addition to a net interest income simulation analysis, we use an interest rate sensitivity analysis prepared by the Office of Thrift Supervision to review our level of interest rate risk. This analysis measures interest rate risk by computing changes in net portfolio value of our cash flows from assets, liabilities and off-balance sheet items in the event of a range of assumed changes in market interest rates. Net
portfolio value represents the market value of portfolio equity and is equal to the market value of assets minus the market value of liabilities, with adjustments made for off-balance sheet items. This analysis assesses the risk of loss in market risk sensitive instruments in the event of a sudden and sustained 100 to 300 basis point increase or 50 to 100 basis point decrease in market interest rates with no effect given to any steps that we might take to counter the effect of that interest rate movement. We measure interest rate risk by modeling the changes in net portfolio value over a variety of interest rate scenarios. The following table, which is based on information that we provide to the Office of Thrift Supervision, presents the change in our net portfolio value at December 31, 2008 that would occur in the event of an immediate change in interest rates based on Office of Thrift Supervision assumptions, with no effect given to any steps that we might take to counteract that change.
Table 20: NPV Analysis
The Office of Thrift Supervision uses certain assumptions in assessing the interest rate risk of savings associations. These assumptions relate to interest rates, loan prepayment rates, deposit decay rates, and the market values of certain assets under differing interest rate scenarios, among others. As with any method of measuring interest rate risk, certain shortcomings are inherent in the method of analysis presented in the foregoing table. For example, although certain assets and liabilities may have similar maturities or periods to repricing, they may react in different degrees to changes in market interest rates. Also, the interest rates on certain types of assets and liabilities may fluctuate in advance of changes in market interest rates, while interest rates on other types may lag behind changes in market rates. Additionally, certain assets, such as adjustable-rate mortgage loans, have features that restrict changes in interest rates on a short-term basis and over the life of the asset. Further, in the event of a change in interest rates, expected rates of prepayments on loans and early withdrawals from certificates could deviate significantly from those assumed in calculating the table.
Liquidity Management. The term liquidity refers to our ability to generate adequate amounts of cash to fund loan originations, the purchase of investment securities, deposit withdrawals, repayment of borrowings and operating expenses. Our ability to meet our current financial obligations is a function of balance sheet structure, the ability to liquidate assets and the availability of alternative sources of funds. To meet the needs of clients and manage risk, we engage in liquidity planning and management.
Our primary sources of funds consist of deposit inflows, loan repayments, maturities and sales of investment securities and borrowings from the Federal Home Loan Bank of New York. While maturities and scheduled amortization of loans and securities are predictable sources of funds, deposit flows, calls of investment securities and borrowed funds, and prepayments on loans and mortgage-backed securities are greatly influenced by general interest rates, economic conditions and competition.
We regularly adjust our investments in liquid assets based upon our assessment of (1) expected loan demand, (2) expected deposit flows, (3) yields available on interest-earning deposits and securities, and (4) the objectives of our asset/liability management policy.
Our most liquid assets are cash and cash equivalents and interest-bearing deposits. The levels of these assets depend on our operating, financing, lending and investing activities during any given period. At December 31, 2008, cash and cash equivalents totaled $8.5 million. Securities classified as available-for-sale whose market value exceeds our cost, which provide additional sources of liquidity, totaled $20.3 million at December 31, 2008. In addition, at December 31, 2008, we had the ability to borrow an additional $195.2 million from the Federal Home Loan Bank of New York, which included available overnight lines of credit of $25.8 million. On that date, we had overnight advances of $3.8 million outstanding.
At December 31, 2008, we had $54.1 million in commitments outstanding, which included $7.8 million in undisbursed construction loans, $23.8 million in unused home equity lines of credit and $8.3 million in commercial lines of credit. Certificates of deposit due within one year of December 31, 2008 totaled $161.8 million, or 80.0% of certificates of deposit. The large percentage of certificates of deposit that mature within one year reflects customers hesitancy to invest their funds for long periods in the current low interest rate environment. If these maturing deposits do not remain with us, we will be required to seek other sources of funds, including other certificates of deposit and lines of credit. Depending on market conditions, we may be required to pay higher rates on such deposits or other borrowings than we currently pay on the certificates of deposit due on or before December 31, 2009. We believe, however, based on past experience, that a significant portion of our certificates of deposit will remain with us. We have the ability to attract and retain deposits by adjusting the interest rates offered.
Table 21: Outstanding Loan Commitments
Table 22: Contractual Obligations
Our primary investing activities are the origination of loans and the purchase of securities. Our primary financing activities consist of activity in deposit accounts, Federal Home Loan Bank advances and reverse repurchase agreements. Deposit flows are affected by the overall level of interest rates, the interest rates and products offered by us and our local competitors and other factors. We generally manage the pricing of our deposits to be competitive and to increase core deposit and commercial banking relationships. Occasionally, we offer promotional rates on certain deposit products to attract deposits.
Table 23: Summary of Investing and Financing Activities
Capital Management. We are subject to various regulatory capital requirements administered by the Office of Thrift Supervision, including a risk-based capital measure. The risk-based capital guidelines include both a definition of capital and a framework for calculating risk-weighted assets by assigning balance sheet assets and off-balance sheet items to broad risk categories. Under these requirements the federal bank regulatory agencies have established quantitative measures to ensure that minimum thresholds for Tier 1 Capital, Total Capital and Leverage (Tier 1 Capital divided by average assets) ratios are maintained. Failure to meet minimum capital requirements can trigger certain mandatory, and possibly additional discretionary, actions by regulators that could have a direct material effect on our operations and financial position. Under the capital adequacy guidelines and the regulatory framework for prompt corrective action, Ocean City Home Bank must meet specific capital guidelines that involve quantitative measures of assets and certain off-balance sheet items as calculated under regulatory accounting practices. It is our intention to maintain well-capitalized risk-based capital levels. Ocean City Home Banks capital amounts and classifications are also subject to qualitative judgments by the federal bank regulators about components, risk weightings, and other factors. At December 31, 2008, we exceeded all of our regulatory capital requirements. We are considered well capitalized under regulatory guidelines.
Managements current strategy is to grow capital internally at levels sufficient for achieving our internal growth projections while managing its operating and financial risks. The principal components of the strategy are to generate additional capital through retained earnings from internal growth, access the capital markets for external sources of capital, such as common equity and capital securities, when necessary or appropriate, redeem existing capital instruments and refinance such instruments at lower rates when conditions permit, and maintain sufficient capital for safe and sound operations. As a result of recent market disruptions, the availability of capital, principally to financial services companies, has become significantly restricted. While some companies have been successful in raising additional capital, the cost of the capital has been substantially higher than the prevailing market rates prior to the market volatility. Management cannot predict when or if the markets will return to more favorable conditions. We continue to assess our capital needs, and are currently in the process of raising capital through the second step conversion.
Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements. In the normal course of operations, we engage in a variety of financial transactions that, in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America,
are not recorded in our financial statements. These transactions involve, to varying degrees, elements of credit, interest rate and liquidity risk. Such transactions are used primarily to manage customers requests for funding and take the form of loan commitments and lines of credit. For information about our loan commitments and unused lines of credit, see note 12 of the notes to the consolidated financial statements.
For the years ended December 31, 2008 and 2007, we engaged in no off-balance-sheet transactions reasonably likely to have a material effect on our financial condition, results of operations or cash flows.
Impact of Recent Accounting Pronouncements
For a discussion of the impact of recent accounting pronouncements, see note 2 of the notes to the consolidated financial statements included in this Form 10-K.
Effect of Inflation and Changing Prices
The financial statements and related financial data presented in this Form 10-K have been prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, which require the measurement of financial position and operating results in terms of historical dollars without considering the change in the relative purchasing power of money over time due to inflation. The primary impact of inflation on our operations is reflected in increased operating costs. Unlike most industrial companies, virtually all the assets and liabilities of a financial institution are monetary in nature. As a result, interest rates generally have a more significant impact on a financial institutions performance than do general levels of inflation. Interest rates do not necessarily move in the same direction or to the same extent as the prices of goods and services.
The information required by this item is incorporated herein by reference to Part II, Item 7, Managements Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operation.
ITEM 8. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA
Managements Report on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting
The management of the Company is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting. The internal control process has been designed under our supervision to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of the Companys financial statements for external reporting purposes in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.
Management conducted an assessment of the effectiveness of the Companys internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2008, utilizing the framework established in Internal Control Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO). Based on this assessment, management has determined that the Companys internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2008 is effective.
Our internal control over financial reporting includes policies and procedures that pertain to the maintenance of records that accurately and fairly reflect, in reasonable detail, transactions and dispositions of assets; and provide reasonable assurances that: (1) transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States; (2) receipts and expenditures are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and the directors of the Company; and (3) unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the Companys assets that could have a material effect on the Companys financial statements are prevented or timely detected.
All internal control systems, no matter how well designed, have inherent limitations. Therefore, even those systems determined to be effective can provide only reasonable assurance with respect to financial statement preparation and presentation. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.
This annual report does not include an attestation report of the Companys independent registered public accounting firm regarding internal control over financial reporting. Managements report was not subject to attestation by the Companys independent registered public accounting firm pursuant to temporary rules of the Securities and Exchange Commission that permits the Company to provide only managements report in this annual report.
REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM
To the Board of Directors and Stockholders of
Ocean Shore Holding Co. and subsidiaries:
We have audited the accompanying consolidated statements of financial condition of Ocean Shore Holding Co. and subsidiaries (the Company) as of December 31, 2008 and 2007, and the related consolidated statements of income, statement of changes in equity, and cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2008. These financial statements are the responsibility of the Companys management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on these financial statements based on our audits.
We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States). Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement. The Company is not required to have, nor were we engaged to perform, an audit of its internal control over financial reporting. Our audits included consideration of internal control over financial reporting as a basis for designing audit procedures that are appropriate in the circumstances, but not for the purpose of expressing an opinion on the effectiveness of the Companys internal control over financial reporting. Accordingly, we express no such opinion. An audit also includes examining, on a test basis, evidence supporting the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements, assessing the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall financial statement presentation. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.
In our opinion, such consolidated financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of Ocean Shore Holding Co. and subsidiaries at December 31, 2008 and 2007, and the results of their operations and their cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2008, in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.
OCEAN SHORE HOLDING CO. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION
See notes to consolidated financial statements.
OCEAN SHORE HOLDING CO. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF INCOME
See notes to consolidated financial statements.
OCEAN SHORE HOLDING CO. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CHANGES IN EQUITY
YEARS ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2008, 2007 AND 2006