Pacer International 10-K 2009
Documents found in this filing:
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
x ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(D) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 26, 2008
¨ TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(D) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from to
Commission file number 000-49828
PACER INTERNATIONAL, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
2300 Clayton Road, Suite 1200
Concord, CA 94520
Telephone Number (887) 917-2237
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes No x
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes No x
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15 (d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes x No
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrants knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K. x
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer or a smaller reporting company. See definition of large accelerated filer, accelerated filer and smaller reporting company in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes No x
The aggregate market value of the voting stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant was approximately $744,300,022 at June 27, 2008 (based on the NASDAQ National Market closing price on that date). For purposes of this calculation, the registrant has assumed that its directors and executive officers are affiliates. On February 3, 2009, the registrant had 34,940,620 outstanding shares of Common Stock, par value $.01 per share.
Documents Incorporated by Reference Portions of the registrants definitive Proxy Statement for the 2009 annual meeting of shareholders to be held on May 5, 2009 which will be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission within 120 days after the end of the registrants fiscal year ended December 26, 2008, have been incorporated by reference into Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K to the extent described herein.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
In this Annual Report on Form 10-K, our company, Pacer International, we, us and our refer to Pacer International, Inc., and its consolidated subsidiaries, and Pacer Logistics refers to our former subsidiary Pacer Logistics, Inc., which merged into Pacer International, Inc., on May 31, 2003. Our subsidiary that provides intermodal equipment and arranges rail transportation operates under the name Pacer Stacktrain and is referred to as Stacktrain or Pacer Stacktrain in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. References to our intermodal segment operations include our Stacktrain operations, our local cartage operations (also referred to as local trucking and drayage) conducted through our subsidiary Pacer Cartage, Inc., and our intermodal marketing operations (also referred to as rail brokerage) conducted through our subsidiary Pacer Transportation Solutions, Inc., formerly known as Pacer Global Logistics, Inc. and is referred to as Pacer Transportation Solutions in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. References to our logistics segment operations include our businesses providing highway brokerage, truck services, international freight forwarding, supply chain management services and warehousing and distribution services. Our highway brokerage and supply chain management services are conducted through our Pacer Transportation Solutions subsidiary; our warehousing and distribution services and associated port drayage are conducted through our subsidiaries Pacer Distribution Services, Inc., and PDS Trucking, Inc.; our international freight forwarding operations are conducted through our subsidiaries RF International, Ltd., and Ocean World Lines, Inc.; and our truck services operations are conducted through our subsidiaries Pacer Transport, Inc., and S&H Transport, Inc. Statements in this Annual Report on Form 10-K as to our size or position relative to our competitors are based on revenues.
Special Note Regarding Forward-looking Statements
This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains forward looking statements, within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, that reflect our current estimates, expectations and projections about our future results, performance, prospects and opportunities. Forward-looking statements include, among other things, the information concerning our possible future consolidated results of operations, business and growth strategies, financing plans, our competitive position and the effects of competition, the projected growth of the industries in which we operate, and the benefits and synergies to be obtained from any future acquisitions. Forward-looking statements include all statements that are not historical facts and can be identified by forward-looking words such as anticipate, believe, could, estimate, expect, intend, plan, may, should, will, would, project and similar expressions. These forward-looking statements are based on information currently available to us and are subject to a number of risks, uncertainties and other factors that could cause our actual results, performance, prospects or opportunities to differ materially from those expressed in, or implied by, these forward-looking statements. Important factors that could cause our actual results to differ materially from the results referred to in the forward-looking statements we make in this Annual Report on Form 10-K are discussed under Item 1A. Risk Factors and elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K and include:
Our actual consolidated results of operations and the execution of our business strategy could differ materially from those expressed in, or implied by, the forward-looking statements contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. In addition, past financial or operating performance is not necessarily a reliable indicator of future performance and you should not use our historical performance to anticipate future results or future period trends. We can give no assurances that any of the events anticipated or implied by the forward-looking statements will occur or, if any of them do, what impact they will have on our consolidated results of operations, financial condition or cash flows. In evaluating our forward-looking statements, you should specifically consider the risks and uncertainties discussed under Item 1A. Risk Factors in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Except as otherwise required by federal securities laws, we undertake no obligation to publicly revise our forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances that arise after the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. All forward-looking statements attributable to us or persons acting on our behalf are expressly qualified in their entirety by the cautionary statements included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
ITEM 1. BUSINESS
We are a leading asset-light North American transportation and logistics services provider. Within North America, we operate one of the largest intermodal services networks and facilitate the movement of freight containers and trailers using two or more modes of transportation. We also provide complementary logistics services to our customers that allow us to cross sell between our intermodal and logistics segments. We focus our business on our core intermodal products, with sales from our intermodal segment representing approximately 80% of our total revenues. We believe that our competitive advantages include:
We provide transportation and logistics services to numerous Fortune 500 and multi-national companies, including Big Lots, C.H. Robinson, General Electric, Sony, Union Pacific, Toyota and ConAgra, which named companies together represented approximately 18.7% of our revenues for the fiscal year ended December 26, 2008, as well as to numerous third party transportation companies, including intermodal marketing companies.
We utilize an asset-light strategy by which we seek to limit our investment in equipment and facilities and reduce working capital requirements through arrangements with transportation carriers and equipment providers. This strategy provides us with access to freight terminals and facilities and control over transportation-related equipment without owning significant assets.
In our intermodal segment, our contractual arrangements with our underlying rail carriers and local trucking or drayage companies generally do not require us to pay for rail or truck transportation services that are not needed to service our customers shipping needs. We can leverage our controlled intermodal equipment and network so our customers can have access to capacity and transportation at competitive rates.
In our logistics segment, our contractual arrangements with ocean carriers, truck carriers and equipment providers also generally do not require us to purchase or pay for carrier services or for equipment usage or availability that are not required to service our customers shipping needs. We believe that this is customary in the non-asset based highway brokerage industries in which our logistics segment competes. Also, our trucking services units utilize independent owner-operators, who own and operate their own equipment, to provide truck transportation for our customers, and our agreements with these owner-operators do not require us to pay for truck services or for equipment usage or availability that are not actually used to transport our customers goods. We believe that our non-asset based competitors in the trucking services sector utilize a similar model.
We file or furnish with or to the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) our quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, annual reports on Form 10-K, current reports on Form 8-K, annual reports to shareholders and annual proxy statements and amendments to such filings. Our SEC filings are available to
the public on the SECs website at http://www.sec.gov. These reports are also available free of charge from our website at http://www.pacer.com, as soon as reasonably practical after we electronically file or furnish such material with or to the SEC. Information contained on our website is not part of this Annual Report on Form 10-K or of any registration statement that incorporates this Annual Report on Form 10-K by reference.
Our Service Offerings
We provide our transportation services from two operating segments, our intermodal segment, which provides intermodal transportation services principally to transportation intermediaries, beneficial cargo owners (end-user customers) and international shipping companies who utilize intermodal transportation, and our logistics segment, which provides truck brokerage, truck transport (including specialized haulage), supply chain management services, freight forwarding, ocean shipping and warehousing and distribution services to a wide variety of end-user customers.
Intermodal transportation is the movement of freight via trailer or container using two or more modes of transportation which nearly always include rail and truck segments. The intermodal segment consists of our Stacktrain unit which provides ramp-to-ramp and door-to-door services to third party customers (such as intermodal marketing companies and brokers), our Rail Brokerage unit which provides door-to-door services to beneficial cargo owners, and our Cartage unit which provides service between the customers door, ports and rail ramps.
Our logistics segment consists of the following business units: Highway Brokerage; Truck Services; International Shipping; Non-Vessel Operating Common Carrier (NVOCC) and Freight Forwarding Services; Warehousing and Distribution Services; and Supply Chain Management Services.
Both segments have dedicated management teams and offer different but related products and services. Information about our segments, including revenues, income from operations, and geographic information, is included in Note 8 to the notes to consolidated financial statements included in this report.
Our intermodal marketing unit, which is a division of our Pacer Transportation Solutions subsidiary, arranges for and optimizes the movement of our end-user customers freight in containers and trailers throughout North America using truck and rail transportation. We provide box capacity, drayage capacity, door-to-door shipment management and high quality customer service for our intermodal customers. We arrange for a container or trailer shipment to be picked up at origin by truck (using either our cartage services or other truck carriers directly) and transported to a site for loading onto a train. The shipment is then transported via railroad (using either our Stacktrain services or rail carriers directly) to a site for unloading from the train in the vicinity of the final destination. After the shipment has been unloaded from the train and is available for pick-up, we arrange for the shipment to be transported by truck (using either our Cartage services or other truck carriers directly) to the final destination. We provide customized electronic tracking and analysis of charges and our own negotiated rail, truck and intermodal rates, and we determine the optimal routes. We also track and monitor shipments in transit, consolidate billing, handle claims of freight loss or damage on behalf of our customers and manage the handling, consolidation and storage of freight throughout the process. Our rail brokerage operations are based in Rutherford, NJ, Dublin, OH, and Jacksonville, FL. Our experienced transportation personnel are responsible for operations, customer service, management information systems and our relationships with the rail carriers.
Through our rail brokerage operations, we assist the railroads and our Pacer Stacktrain operation in balancing freight resulting in improved asset utilization. In addition, we serve our customers by passing on economies of scale that we achieve as a volume buyer from railroads, trucking companies and other third party transportation providers, providing access to large equipment pools and streamlining the paperwork and logistics of an intermodal move.
Our Stacktrain unit has been a leader in the development and use of double-stack intermodal equipment and methodologies. Double-stack intermodal transportation consists of the movement of cargo containers stacked two high on special railcars, which significantly improves the efficiency of our service by increasing capacity at a low incremental cost without sacrificing quality of service. We are a major non-railroad provider of intermodal rail service in North America. We sell intermodal service primarily to intermodal marketing companies, truck brokerage companies, truckload carriers, large automotive intermediaries and international shipping companies, as well as to our own wholly-owned internal intermodal marketing company, which we refer to in this Form 10-K as our Rail Brokerage unit. We offer both ramp-to-ramp services (rail only services) as well as a door-to-door service offering called PacerDirect. We compete primarily with rail carriers and other private intermodal equipment and service providers and with over-the-road full truckload service providers.
Through multi-year contracts and other operating arrangements with North American railroads, including Union Pacific, Burlington Northern Santa Fe, CSX, KCSM in Mexico, and Canadian National Railroad, we have access to over a 100,000-mile North American rail network serving most major population and commercial centers in the United States, Canada and Mexico. These contracts and arrangements provide for, among other things, competitive rates, minimum service standards, capacity assurances, priority handling and the utilization of nationwide terminal facilities.
We maintain an extensive fleet of double-stack railcars, containers and chassis, substantially all of which are leased. As of December 26, 2008, our equipment fleet consisted of 1,849 double-stack railcars, 28,681 containers and 29,904 chassis (steel frames with rubber tires used to transport containers over the highway). In addition, through arrangements with APL Limited and other shipping companies, we provide customers with access to a large fleet of smaller International Standards Organization (ISO) international containers, allowing us to provide additional transportation capacity using these containers as they are being repositioned from destinations within North America back to the West Coast. Our fleet, combined with ocean shipping companies ISO containers, makes us a major provider of capacity in all container sizes.
The size of our leased and owned equipment fleet (as well as the smaller ISO international container westbound fleet), the frequent departures available to us through our rail contracts and the geographic coverage of our rail network provide our customers with single-company control over their transportation requirements, which we believe gives us an advantage in attaining, at a competitive price, the responsiveness and reliability required by our customers. In addition, our access to information technology enables us to continuously track containers, chassis and railcars throughout our transportation network. Through our equipment fleet and arrangements with rail carriers, we can control the equipment used in our intermodal operations and employ full-time personnel on-site at many terminals to ensure close coordination of the services provided at these facilities.
Our subsidiary, Pacer Cartage, Inc., provides local truck transportation (also called local cartage or drayage) largely in and around major U.S. cities, rail ramps and ports. We contract with independent trucking owner operators and maintain interchange agreements with many major steamship lines, railroads and intermodal equipment providers for the interchange and use of equipment supplied by these providers. This network allows us to supply door-to-door transportation across the country for shippers, ocean carriers and transportation intermediaries. Currently approximately 880 owner-operator trucks are under contract with us to haul freight for our local cartage operations.
Through our highway brokerage unit, which is a division of our Pacer Transportation Solutions subsidiary, we arrange the movement of freight in containers or trailers by truck using a nationwide network of over 10,000 independent trucking companies. By utilizing our aggregate volumes to negotiate
rates, we are able to provide quality service at attractive prices. We provide highway brokerage services throughout North America through our customer service centers in Rutherford, NJ, and Dublin, OH, and our network of independent agents and agencies. We manage all aspects of these services for our customers, including selecting qualified carriers, negotiating rates, tracking shipments, billing, and resolving disputes.
Our separate truck services unit, Pacer Transport, Inc., provides dry van, flatbed and specialized heavy-haul trucking services on behalf of our customers. We provide these trucking services through independent agents and contractors who operate approximately 500 trucks equipped with van, flatbed and heavy-haul trailers. We also operate approximately 100 company-owned trucks.
International Freight Forwarding and NVOCC Services
As an international freight forwarder, our subsidiary, RF International, Ltd., provides freight forwarding and customs brokerage services that involve transportation of freight into or out of the United States. As a non-vessel operating common carrier (NVOCC), our subsidiary Ocean World Lines, Inc., manages international shipping for our customers and provides or connects them with the range of services necessary to run a global business. We also provide airfreight forwarding services as an indirect air carrier. Our international product offerings serve more than 1,000 clients internationally through offices in Lake Success, NY, Norfolk, VA, Chicago, IL, Seattle, WA, San Francisco, CA, Los Angeles, CA, Miami, FL, Dublin, OH, Cincinnati, OH, and regional offices in Hamburg, Germany, and Ipswich, U.K., and approximately 100 agents worldwide.
As a NVOCC, we arrange the transportation of our customers freight by contracting with the actual vessel operator to obtain transportation for a fixed number of containers between various points during a specified time period at an agreed wholesale discounted volume rate. We then are able to charge our customers rates lower than the rates they could obtain directly from actual vessel operators for similar type shipments. We consolidate the freight bound for a particular destination from a common shipping point, prepare all required shipping documents, arrange for any inland transportation, deliver the freight to the vessel operator and arrange transportation to the final destination. At the destination port, acting directly or through our agent, we deliver the freight to the receivers of the goods, which may include customs clearance and inland freight transportation to the final destination. Our contracts with ocean carriers generally require us to pay a small liquidated damage amount for each committed container that we do not ship during the relevant contract period. The aggregate amount of such damages that we have been required to pay in the past has not been material, however, and management believes that such contract terms will not have a material adverse effect on our operating results in the future.
As a customs broker, we are licensed by the U.S. Customs and Border Protection Service to act on behalf of importers in handling customs formalities and other details critical to the importation of goods. We prepare and file formal documentation required for clearance through customs agencies, obtain customs bonds, facilitate the payment of import duties on behalf of the importer, arrange for the payment of collect freight charges, assist with determining and obtaining the best commodity classifications for shipments and assist with qualifying for duty drawback refunds. We provide customs brokerage services to direct domestic importers in connection with many of the shipments that we handle as a non-vessel operating common carrier, as well as shipments arranged by other freight forwarders, non-vessel operating common carriers or vessel operating common carriers.
Warehousing and Distribution
Our warehousing and distribution unit, Pacer Distribution Services, Inc., primarily specializes in servicing the needs of importers looking to move their goods in a timely and efficient manner, either directly to a retailer or to an inland distribution point. To accomplish this objective and deliver superior service to our import customers, we operate multiple facilities in the Los Angeles area that occupy approximately 800,000 square feet. All of these facilities are located within 18 miles of the Southern California ports, making possible a timely and efficient flow of ocean containers to and from our
warehouses. To further improve the quality of service and expedite the delivery of ocean freight, our subsidiary, PDS Trucking, Inc., manages a trucking fleet of over 100 owner-operators, many of whom service the Southern California ports on a daily basis. To help our customers reduce their import costs, we have extended the hours of operation of our harbor trucking fleet to take maximum advantage of the program implemented by the Ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach to encourage the movement of cargo at night and on weekends to reduce truck traffic during peak daytime hours.
Our warehousing and distribution unit performs multiple services specifically designed for importers, including:
Supply Chain Management
We use the information from our advanced information system to provide consulting and supply chain management services to our customers. These specialized services, offered through our Pacer Transportation Solutions subsidiary, allow our customers to realize cost savings and concentrate on their core competencies by outsourcing to us the management and transportation of their materials and inventory throughout their supply chain. We provide infrastructure and equipment, integrated with our customers existing systems, to handle distribution planning, just-in-time delivery and automated ordering. We also manage warehouses, distribution centers and other facilities for selected customers and consult on identifying bottlenecks in our customers supply chains by analyzing freight patterns and costs, optimizing facility locations and developing internal policies and procedures. We leverage these capabilities to drive additional volume to our other service offerings.
Our current intermodal and logistics transportation technology systems provide a scalable migration path designed for the electronic interchange of data between our customers and us, and an Internet-based connectivity that allows us to communicate directly with our customers and transportation service providers. Our systems provide us with performance, utilization and profitability indicators as they monitor and track shipments across various transportation modes, providing timely visibility regarding shipment status, location and estimated delivery times. Our exception notification system informs us of any potential delays so we can alert our customers to minimize the impact of any problems. Our systems also report transit times, rates, equipment availability and the logistics activity of our transportation service providers, enabling us to plan and execute freight movements more reliably, efficiently and cost effectively.
We manage our intermodal services through the continuous monitoring and tracking of our containers, chassis and railcars throughout the network. This allows us to monitor equipment location and availability and therefore plan and provide for increased equipment utilization and balanced freight flows. We can also prepare and distribute customized accounting and billing reports for our customers as well as management reports to meet federal highway authority requirements.
Pursuant to a long-term information technology services agreement, APL Limited provides us with the computers, software and other information technology services necessary for the operation of and accounting for our Stacktrain business. We paid an annual fee of $10.6 million in 2008 to APL Limited under this agreement (of which $3.4 million has been subject to a 3% compounded annual increase since May 2003). This agreement with APL Limited has a term expiring in May 2019, and is cancelable by us on 120 days notice without penalty.
To further enhance our information technology capabilities, on September 30, 2007, we entered into a software license agreement with SAP America, Inc. (SAP), for an enterprise suite of applications, including the latest release of SAPs Transportation Management Solution. Under the agreement, we were granted a perpetual license for the suite of SAP software. Total capital expenditures were $17.5 million (including an accrual of $0.9 million) in 2008 and $10.6 million in 2007 (including the license fee and other expenditures), with an additional $5.8 million recorded in 2008 operating expenses. In addition, capital lease obligations of $0.8 million related to the project were recorded in 2008. No capital lease obligations were recorded in 2007.
The new system is expected to provide an improved integrated, streamlined platform across all business units, provide better information management, eliminate duplicated work effort and dispersed data, and enhance customer services and communications. During 2008, we implemented the finance and accounting applications of the new system in all units but our Stacktrain unit. Implementation of the finance and accounting applications at Stacktrain began in January 2009 and is expected to be completed by the end of the first quarter of 2009. Other operational elements of the new system for the intermodal and logistics segments are expected to be implemented by the end of 2009 and in 2010, respectively, and include equipment management, pricing, billing and tracking and tracing applications.
We will continue to avail ourselves of the services and support under our existing long-term technology services agreement with APL Limited until the SAP implementation project is completed. See Managements Discussion of Financial Condition and Results of Operations Liquidity and Capital Resources for additional discussion.
We provide transportation and logistics services on a nationwide basis to retailers, manufacturers, intermodal marketing companies and other companies, including a number of Fortune 500 and multi-national companies such as Big Lots, C.H. Robinson, General Electric, Sony, Union Pacific, Toyota and Conagra, which named companies together represented approximately 18.7% of our 2008 revenues. In addition, we provide transportation and logistics services to numerous other shippers and transportation third parties. Other notable customers include The Scotts Company, Whirlpool, Shaw Industries, and Costco. Approximately 20% of our 2008 total revenues were related to the automotive industry.
For the fiscal years ended December 26, 2008, December 28, 2007, and December 29, 2006, one customer contributed 10.5%, 10.4%, and 10.3% of our consolidated revenues, respectively.
Sales and Marketing
As of December 26, 2008, we have over 150 direct sales and customer service representatives in our intermodal and logistics segments that sell and support our portfolio of services to a diverse customer base which includes transportation third parties such as intermodal marketing companies and brokers, steamship lines, truckload carriers, logistics companies, truck brokers and beneficial cargo owners.
Our sales representatives are directly responsible for managing our business relationships with our customers. They expand our business base by cross-selling our portfolio of services to our current and future customer base. They also collaborate with our customer service groups in an effort to provide problem-solving, cargo tracking services, reporting and the efficient processing of customer orders and inquiries. The domestic direct sales force is also supplemented with over 60 sales agents and agencies.
In addition to our direct domestic sales force, we also have an extensive network of sales and customer service representatives for our international NVOCC and freight forwarding business located in nine offices in North America, and regional offices in Hamburg, Germany and Ipswich, UK, along with approximately 100 agents worldwide.
In 2008, our corporate marketing efforts focused on customer and corporate communications, market research and product development and public relations, as well as the development of a new unified Pacer brand identity and one integrated website.
Our marketing departments efforts are focused on improving new customer acquisition and existing customer growth through media, public relations and electronic communications to rapidly connect customers to new products, service improvements and network expansions. The marketing department also completed surveys and research projects to ascertain customer buying behavior patterns by industry to ensure our services are updated to meet evolving customer requirements.
The marketing team led the effort in 2008 to unify our business units under a new single Pacer brand identity and tag line, Making Your World Run Smoother, to more effectively communicate the services capabilities of the Pacer portfolio and improve our customers ease of doing business with Pacer. This effort includes the reduction of eight legacy websites into the newly launched pacer.com website which we expect to improve our customers online experience and more effectively communicate the value of the entire Pacer portfolio of services.
Development of Our Company
We commenced operations as an independent, stand-alone company upon our recapitalization in May 1999. From 1984 until our recapitalization, our Stacktrain business was conducted by various entities owned directly or indirectly by APL Limited.
In May 1999, we were recapitalized through the purchase of shares of our common stock from APL Limited by two affiliates of Apollo Management, and an affiliate of each of Credit Suisse First Boston LLC and Deutsche Bank Securities Inc. and our redemption of a portion of the remaining shares of common stock held by APL Limited. On the date of the recapitalization, we also began providing retail and logistics services to customers through our acquisition of Pacer Logistics. In connection with these transactions, our name was changed from APL Land Transport Services, Inc. to Pacer International, Inc.
Pacer Logistics, Inc. was originally incorporated on March 5, 1997, under the name PMT Holdings, Inc., and acquired the successor to a company formed in 1974. Between the time of its formation and our acquisition of Pacer Logistics in May 1999, Pacer Logistics acquired and integrated six logistics services companies.
In 2000, we acquired four companies that complemented our business operations and expanded our geographic reach and service offerings for intermodal marketing, highway brokerage, international freight forwarding and other logistics services. In 2001, we integrated our intermodal marketing, highway brokerage and supply chain services business operations into our Pacer Transportation Solutions subsidiary.
In June 2002, we completed our initial public offering of common stock and used the net proceeds to repay a significant portion of our outstanding long-term debt. During June and July 2003, we completed the refinancing of our credit facilities, including the early redemption of $150 million of 11.75% senior subordinated notes originally issued in connection with our May 1999 recapitalization. In August 2003, we completed an underwritten secondary public offering of common stock on behalf of a number of selling stockholders; no new shares were issued and we received no proceeds from this offering.
On January 7, 2004, we filed with the SEC a shelf registration statement, providing for our issuance of up to $150 million in additional common stock, preferred stock and warrants to purchase any of such securities and for the sale by a number of selling stockholders of 8,702,893 shares of common stock. In offerings under the registration statement in April and November 2004, all 8,702,893 shares of common stock of the selling stockholders were sold with no new shares issued or proceeds received by the company. Upon completion of the offerings, Apollo Management and its affiliated entities no longer owned any shares of our common stock. There are currently no arrangements in place for the company to issue any additional securities, and the registration statement has expired.
On April 5, 2007, we entered into a new $250 million, five-year revolving credit agreement and repaid the principal balance due under the term loan portion of our prior bank credit facility, which was terminated.
We have multi-year contracts and other operating arrangements with most of the major North American railroads, including Union Pacific, Burlington Northern Santa Fe, CSX, Norfolk Southern, KCSM in Mexico, and Canadian National Railroad. These contracts and arrangements generally provide for access to terminals controlled by the railroads as well as support services related to our Stacktrain operations. Through these contracts and arrangements, our intermodal business has established an extensive North American rail transportation network. Our rail brokerage business also maintains contracts with the railroads that govern the transportation services and payment terms pursuant to which the railroads handle intermodal shipments. These contracts are typically of short duration, usually twelve-month terms, and subject to regular renewal or extension. We maintain close working relationships with all of the major railroads in the United States and will continue to focus our efforts on strengthening these relationships. The multi-year rail contracts with Union Pacific (expiring in 2011) and CSX (expiring in 2014) represent a majority of our Stacktrain units cost of purchased transportation, while other business with Union Pacific and CSX is covered by shorter-term commercial arrangements. Business with other railroads, including the Burlington Northern Santa Fe, Canadian National Railroad and KCSM, constituted approximately 12% of our Stacktrain units cost of purchased transportation in 2008.
Through our contracts and arrangements with these rail carriers, we have access to over a 100,000 mile rail network throughout North America. Our rail contracts and arrangements generally require the rail carriers to perform point-to-point linehaul transportation and terminal services for us. Pursuant to the service provisions, the rail carriers provide transportation of our intermodal equipment across their rail networks and terminal services related to loading and unloading of containers, equipment movement and general administration. Our rail contracts and arrangements generally establish per container rates for Stacktrain shipments made on the rail carriers transportation networks. The terms of our rail contracts and arrangements, including rates, are generally subject to adjustment or renegotiation throughout the term of the contract or arrangement, based on factors such as the continuing fairness of the contract terms, prevailing market conditions and changes in the rail carriers costs to provide rail service. Based upon these provisions, and the volume of freight that we ship with each of the rail carriers, we believe that we enjoy competitive transportation rates for our intermodal shipments.
Agents and Independent Contractors
In our long haul and local trucking services operations, we rely on the services of independent agents, who procure business for and manage a group of trucking contractors. Although we own a small number of tractors and trailers, the majority of our truck equipment and drivers are provided by agents and independent contractors. Our relationships with agents and independent contractors allow us to provide customers with a broad range of trucking services without the need to commit capital to acquire and maintain a large trucking fleet. Although our agreements with independent agents and trucking contractors are typically long-term in practice, they are generally terminable by either party on short notice.
Independent agents and trucking contractors are compensated on the basis of mileage rates, fixed fees between particular origins and destinations, fixed fees within certain distance-based zones or a fixed percentage of the revenue generated from the shipments that they arrange or haul. Under the terms of our typical lease contracts, independent agents and trucking contractors must pay all of the expenses of operating their equipment, including driver wages and benefits, fuel, physical damage insurance, maintenance and debt service.
Local Trucking Companies
To support our intermodal operations, we have established a good working relationship with a large network of local truckers in many major urban centers throughout the United States. The quality of these relationships helps ensure reliable pickups and deliveries, which is a major differentiating factor among intermodal marketing companies. Our strategy has been to concentrate business with a select group of local truckers in a particular urban area, which increases our economic value to the local truckers and in turn raises the quality of service that we receive from them.
Our intermodal equipment fleet consists of a large number of double-stack railcars, containers and chassis that are owned or subject to short and long-term leases. We lease almost all of our containers, approximately 87% of our chassis and approximately 89% of our double-stack railcars.
In addition, all of our railcar equipment is associated with revenue generating arrangements. Our railcar fleet consists of free running railcars operating under the publicly reported BRAN mark. These railcars are in general service with railroads throughout North America to haul not only our own intermodal containers but also those of the railroads and their other customers. Under this system, our railcars are freely interchanged from one rail carrier to another throughout the North American rail system. To use our railcars, the rail carrier pays us a fee, known as the car hire rate, which takes into account the miles traveled by a railcar and the railcars time in service with a railroad. The actual rate payable is determined under our bilateral rate agreement with the railroad, or in the case of a railroad with which we have no rate agreement, under our schedule of car hire rates maintained in the Car Hire Accounting Rate Master (CHARM) administered by Railinc in association with the Association of American Railroads. We are solely responsible for the costs of operating our railcars and do not have any recourse to our customers for the lease or purchase of our railcars.
As of December 26, 2008, our Stacktrain equipment fleet consisted of the following:
During 2008, we received 3,079 primarily 53-ft. leased containers and 3,038 primarily 53-ft leased chassis, and returned 2,423 primarily 48-ft. leased containers, 2,275 primarily 48-ft. and 40-ft. leased chassis, and sold 1,282 48-ft. owned chassis in an effort to continue to align our container and chassis fleets. During 2008, one leased railcar was destroyed.
During 2007, we received 1,658 primarily 53-ft. leased containers and 1,072 53-ft., 48-ft. and 40-ft. leased chassis, and we returned 2,191 primarily 48-ft. leased containers, 1,596 primarily 48-ft. and 40-ft. leased chassis, and sold 618 48-ft. owned chassis in an effort to more closely align our container and chassis fleets. During 2007, four railcars were destroyed.
During 2006, we received 2,360 53-ft. leased containers and 4,552 53-ft. and 40-ft. leased chassis, and we returned 2,033 primarily 48-ft. leased containers and 1,684 primarily 48-ft. and 40-ft. leased chassis. During 2006, four railcars were destroyed.
We also own or lease a limited amount of equipment to support our trucking operations. The majority of our trucking operations are conducted through contracts with independent trucking companies and contractors that own and operate their own equipment. In late 2008, the fleets of our local trucking and port drayage operations in Southern California transitioned to 230 new tractors operated by independent contractors in response to the Clean Truck Program of the Port of Los Angeles and the Port of Long Beach.
The Ports Clean Truck Program, among other elements, imposes fees on shippers for shipments handled with tractors that do not comply with USEPA 2007 emission standards. These new tractors comply with USEPA 2007 emission standards.
Risk Management and Insurance
In our rail and highway brokerage operations, we typically require all motor carriers to which we tender freight to carry at least $1,000,000 in truckers commercial automobile liability insurance, $1,000,000 in commercial general liability insurance and $100,000 in motor truck cargo insurance. Many carriers provide insurance exceeding these minimums. Railroads, which are largely self-insured, provide limited common carrier liability protection, generally up to $250,000 per container. We maintain an all-risk form of cargo insurance to protect us against cargo damage claims that may not be recoverable from the responsible carriers or their insurers.
In our operations as an authorized carrier or warehouseman, we maintain legal liability insurance to protect us against catastrophic claims arising from damage or loss to freight in transit or warehouse storage. We also maintain property damage insurance to protect us against damage to our railcars and intermodal equipment.
Our terms of carriage on international and ocean shipments limit our liability consistent with industry standards. We offer our freight forwarding customers the option to purchase all risk cargo insurance for their shipments.
We also purchase insurance policies for commercial automobile liability, truckers commercial automobile liability, commercial general liability, employers liability, and umbrella and excess umbrella liability, with a total insurance limit of $50 million. Our historical self-retained (deductible) levels vary based on claim frequency, severity and timing factors. Our current deductible level per occurrence for commercial automobile liability is $25,000. Our current deductible level per occurrence for truckers commercial automobile liability is $500,000 for our Pacer Transport and Pacer Cartage operations and $100,000 for our PDS Trucking operation. Our current deductible level per occurrence for commercial general liability is $100,000. Our current workers compensation and employers liability deductible is $150,000 per incident. Our current deductible per occurrence for freight damage as an authorized carrier or warehouseman is $250,000, with the exception of our cartage operations which carry a $10,000 deductible.
Relationship with APL Limited
We are a party to a long-term agreement with APL Limited involving domestic transportation of APL Limiteds international freight by our Stacktrain operation. The majority of APL Limiteds imports to the United States are transported by rail from ports on the West Coast to population centers in the Midwest and Northeast. Our agreement with APL also permits Pacer to place empty APL equipment into domestic intermodal freight service originating predominantly in eastern and mid-western production centers to consumption centers on the West Coast thereby repositioning APLs international equipment to their respective return ports at a reduced cost. Combining the typical westbound freight movement with the predominantly eastbound APL Limited freight movement allows us to achieve higher train-set utilization (loads per train) and higher eastbound/westbound volumes. We also provide APL Limited with equipment repositioning services through which we transport APL Limiteds empty containers from destinations within North America to their West Coast points of origin. To the extent we are able to fill these empty containers with the westbound freight of other customers, we receive compensation from both APL Limited for our repositioning service on a cost reimbursement basis and from the other customers for the shipment of their freight.
APL Limited also supplies us with computer software and other information technology services for our Stacktrain business. See Information Technology, above.
The transportation industry has historically performed cyclically as a result of economic recession, customers business cycles, increases in prices charged by third-party carriers, interest rate fluctuations and
other economic factors, many of which are beyond our control. The U.S. and global economy is undergoing a period of record slowdown widely characterized as a recession, the length and depth of which can not be predicted. The severity of this recession may impact the viability of our rail and truck transportation providers and our customers demands for our services. During economic downturns, reduced overall demand for transportation services will likely reduce demand for our services and exert downward pressures on rates and margins. In periods of strong economic growth, demand for limited transportation resources can result in increased rail network congestion and resulting operating inefficiencies. Although rail service deterioration increases our costs and may slow demand, we believe that our personnel on-site at many terminals, extensive equipment fleet and customer service capabilities enable us to provide comparatively better service than others affected by rail service deterioration and thereby to retain shipping volumes. We also participate during periods of business expansion when speed of service to fill inventories increases in importance.
The transportation services industry is highly competitive. Our intermodal business competes primarily with over-the-road full truckload carriers, conventional intermodal movement of trailers-on-flatcars and containerized intermodal rail services offered directly by railroads and other intermodal services providers. Our logistics business competes primarily against other domestic non-asset-based transportation and logistics companies, asset-based transportation and logistics companies, third-party freight brokers, freight forwarders and private shipping departments. We also compete with transportation services companies for the services of independent commissioned agents, and with trucklines for the services of independent contractors and drivers. Competition in our intermodal and logistics business is based primarily on freight rates, quality of service, such as damage-free shipments, on-time delivery and consistent transit times, reliable pickup and delivery and scope of operations. Our major competitors include Union Pacific, CSX Intermodal, J.B. Hunt Transport and Hub Group. Other competitors include C.H. Robinson, Exel, Alliance Shippers, Burlington Northern Santa Fe and the supply chain solutions divisions of Ryder and Menlo Worldwide. Some of these competitors, such as C.H. Robinson, Expeditors International, Union Pacific and CSX Intermodal, have significantly larger operations, revenues and resources than we have.
As of December 26, 2008, we had a total of 1,601 employees. None of our employees are represented by unions, and we generally consider our relationships with our employees to be satisfactory.
Regulation of Our Trucking and Intermodal Operations
The transportation industry has been subject to legislative and regulatory changes that have affected the economics of the industry by requiring changes in operating practices or influencing the demand for, and cost of, providing transportation services. We cannot predict the effect, if any, that future legislative and regulatory changes may have on our business or consolidated results of operations.
Our highway brokerage operations are licensed by the U.S. Department of Transportation, or DOT, as a national freight broker in arranging for the transportation of general commodities by motor vehicle. The DOT prescribes qualifications for acting as a national freight broker, including surety bonding requirements. Our truck services and local cartage operations provide motor carrier transportation services that require registration with the DOT and compliance with economic regulations administered by the DOT, including a requirement to maintain insurance coverage in minimum prescribed amounts. Other sourcing and distribution activities may be subject to various federal and state food and drug statutes and regulations. Although Congress enacted legislation in 1994 that substantially preempts the authority of states to exercise economic regulation of motor carriers and brokers of freight, we continue to be subject to a variety of state vehicle registration and licensing requirements. We and the carriers upon which we rely are also subject to various federal and state safety and environmental regulations. Our operations serving
ports may also be subject to regulatory initiatives by the ports, such as the Ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach Clean Truck Program which bans pre-1989 trucks from the Ports, imposes fees on shipments handled with trucks that do not meet 2007 emission standards, and requires trucking companies to execute port concession agreements and comply with a variety of requirements to remain eligible for port access. Although compliance with regulations governing licenses in these areas has not had a material adverse effect on our consolidated results of operations, financial condition or cash flows in the past, there can be no assurance that these regulations or changes in these regulations will not adversely affect our consolidated results of operations, financial condition or cash flows in the future. Violations of these regulations could also subject us to fines or, in the event of serious violations, suspension or revocation of operating authority or port access as well as increased claims liability.
Intermodal operations like ours were exempted from virtually all active regulatory supervision by the U.S. Interstate Commerce Commission, predecessor to the regulatory responsibilities now held by the U.S. Surface Transportation Board. Such exemption is revocable by the Surface Transportation Board, but the standards for revocation of regulatory exemptions issued by the Interstate Commerce Commission or Surface Transportation Board are high. While that exemption remains in place, the DOT issued final regulations in December 2008 that make intermodal equipment providers like our Stacktrain unit subject to the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations for the first time. The newly-finalized regulation, among other requirements, obligates Stacktrain to register and file with the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration an Intermodal Equipment Provider Report, establish a systematic inspection, repair and maintenance program on its chassis and maintain documentation of the program. The final regulations were published in December 2008 and will become effective in June 2009. Intermodal equipment providers must comply with the new regulations by December 2009. We are continuing to evaluate the regulations operational impact and cost of compliance. Our preliminary estimates indicate the annual incremental additional cost of the chassis maintenance and repair program required under the new regulations will be between $1 million and $5 million.
Regulation of Our International Freight Forwarding Operations
We maintain licenses issued by the U.S. Federal Maritime Commission as an ocean transportation intermediary. These licenses govern both our operations as an ocean freight forwarder and as a non-vessel operating common carrier. The Federal Maritime Commission has established qualifications for ocean transportation intermediaries, including surety bond requirements. The Federal Maritime Commission also is responsible for the regulation and oversight of non-vessel operating common carriers that contract for space with vessel operating carriers and sell that space to commercial shippers and other non-vessel operating common carriers for freight originating and/or terminating in the United States. Non-vessel operating common carriers are required to publish and maintain tariffs that establish the rates to be charged for the movement of specified commodities into and out of the United States. The Federal Maritime Commission has the power to enforce these regulations by commencing enforcement proceedings seeking the assessment of penalties for violation of these regulations. For ocean shipments not originating or terminating in the United States, the applicable regulations and licensing requirements typically are less stringent than in the United States. We believe that we are in substantial compliance with all applicable regulations and licensing requirements in all countries in which we transact business.
We are also licensed as a customs broker by the U.S. Customs and Border Protection Service of the Department of Treasury in each United States customs district in which we do business. All United States customs brokers are required to maintain prescribed records and are subject to periodic audits by the Customs Service. In other jurisdictions in which we perform customs brokerage services, we are licensed, where necessary, by the appropriate governmental authority. We believe we are in substantial compliance with these requirements.
In connection with certain pending litigation and other claims, we have estimated the range of probable loss and provided for such losses through charges to our consolidated statements of operations. These estimates have been based on our assessment of the facts and circumstances at each balance sheet date and are subject to change based upon new information and future events.
From time to time, we are involved in disputes that arise in the ordinary course of business, and we expect such disputes to continue to arise from time to time in the future. We are currently involved in certain legal proceedings as discussed in Item 3. Legal Proceedings, and Note 7. Commitments and Contingencies to our consolidated financial statements included in this report. Based on currently available information and advice of counsel, we believe that we have meritorious defenses to the claims against us and that, except as discussed in Item 3. Legal Proceedings and Note 7. Commitments and Contingencies to our consolidated financial statements included in this report, none of these claims will have a material adverse impact on our consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows. Our present assessment of these claims could change, however, based on new information and future events. In addition, even if successful, our defense against certain actions could be costly and could divert the time and resources of our management and staff.
Our facilities and operations are subject to federal, state and local environmental, hazardous materials transportation and occupational health and safety requirements, including those relating to the handling, labeling, shipping and transportation of hazardous materials, discharges of substances into the air, water and land, the handling, storage and disposal of wastes and the cleanup of properties affected by pollutants. In particular, a number of our facilities have underground and above-ground storage tanks for diesel fuel and other petroleum products. These facilities are subject to requirements regarding the storage of such products and the clean-up of any leaks or spills. We could also have liability as a responsible party for costs to clean-up contamination at off-site locations where we have sent, or arranged for the transport of, wastes. We have not received any notices that we are potentially responsible for material clean-up costs at any off-site waste disposal location. We do not currently anticipate any material adverse effect on our capital expenditures, consolidated results of operations or competitive position as a result of our efforts to comply with environmental requirements, nor do we believe that we have any material environmental liabilities. We also do not expect to incur material capital expenditures for environmental controls in 2009. However, future changes in environmental regulations or liabilities from newly discovered environmental conditions could have a material adverse effect on our business, competitive position, consolidated results of operations, financial condition or cash flows.
Our revenues generally show a seasonal pattern as some customers reduce shipments during and after the winter holiday season. In addition, the auto companies that we serve generally shut down their assembly plants for new model re-tooling during the summer months.
ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS
Risks Related to Our Business
Current economic conditions may harm our business and results of operations.
During calendar 2008, the U.S. and global economies slowed dramatically as a result of a variety of serious problems, including turmoil in the credit and financial markets, concerns regarding the stability and viability of major financial institutions and the Big Three U.S. automakers, the state of the housing markets and volatility in fuel prices and worldwide stock markets. Given the significance and widespread nature of these nearly unprecedented circumstances, the U.S. and global economies could remain significantly challenged in a recessionary state for an indeterminate period of time. While we are closely watching and evaluating the development of these conditions and taking steps to mitigate their effect on our operations, these economic conditions, which are beyond our control, could cause many of our existing and potential customers to reduce their use of our products and services for some time, which in turn would harm our business by adversely affecting our revenues, results of operations, cash flows and financial condition. We cannot predict the duration of these economic conditions or the impact they will have on our customers, vendors or business. The economic downturn negatively impacted our freight volumes in 2008 and thus our income from operations and is expected to continue to adversely affect our results in 2009.
Continuation or further worsening of these difficult financial and macroeconomic conditions could have a significant adverse effect on our revenues, profitability and results of operations.
Continued disruption in credit markets may adversely affect our customers and as a result our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Recent disruptions in the financial and credit markets may adversely affect our business and our financial results. The tightening of credit markets may reduce the funds available to our customers to purchase our services for an unknown, but perhaps lengthy, period. It may also result in customers extending times for payment and may result in our having higher customer receivables with increased default rates. Furthermore, as we are moving products and services for other businesses, the tight credit markets may reduce funds available to consumers and businesses purchasing from our shipping customers and thereby reduce demand for our shippers products and services and their consequent need for our transportation services. Likewise, general concerns about the fundamental soundness of domestic and foreign economies may also cause consumers and others to reduce the amount of products and services they purchase from our shipping customers, which will translate into reduced shipping volumes, even if consumers, businesses and shippers have cash or if credit is available to them.
Changes in freight rates, as a result of competition in our industry and pricing strategies of our transportation suppliers, could adversely affect our business and results of operations.
The transportation services industry is highly competitive. Our logistics businesses compete primarily against other domestic asset-based and non-asset based transportation and logistics companies, third-party freight brokers, shipping departments of our customers and other freight forwarders. Our intermodal business competes primarily with over-the-road full truckload carriers, conventional intermodal movement of trailers on flat cars, and containerized intermodal rail services offered by railroads and other intermodal service providers. Some of our competitors have substantially greater financial, marketing and other resources than we do, which may allow them to withstand better an economic downturn, reduce their prices more easily than we can or expand or enhance the marketing of their products. There are a number of large companies competing in one or more segments of our industry, although the number of companies with a North American network that offer a full complement of logistics services is more limited. Depending on the location of the customer and the scope of services requested, we must compete against both the niche players and larger entities. In addition, customers are increasingly soliciting competitive bids for transportation services from a number of competitors, including competitors that are larger than we are. We also face competition from Internet-based freight exchanges, or electronic bid environments, that provide an online marketplace for buying and selling supply chain services.
Historically, competition has created downward pressure on freight rates. In the past and currently in the worsening economic environment, we have experienced downward pressure in the pricing of our intermodal and logistics services that has affected our revenues and operating results. In particular, our intermodal segment has offered lower rates to its customers to match lower rates offered by our railroad competitors in the intermodal business. Rate reductions by truckload carriers may also exert downward pressures on intermodal rates. Such rate reductions could adversely affect the yields of our intermodal product.
Rate increases, particularly when taken by our railroad and motor transportation suppliers, may also have an adverse impact if our brokerage operations are unable to obtain commensurate price increases from our customers, on a timely basis or if at all. Because transportation costs represent such a significant portion of our costs, even a relatively small increase in transportation costs, if we are unable to pass them through to customers, are likely to have a significant effect on our margins and operating income. Even variances between the time that the supplier assesses higher charges and the time we are able to begin collecting higher charges from our customers can deteriorate margins and operating income. Although the application of intermodal rate increases to a portion of our Stacktrain business is limited by some of our multi-year rail contracts, such increases have resulted in higher costs to some of our Stacktrain business and to our rail brokerage operation that we have not been able to fully pass on as quickly as the increases are implemented by the rail carriers. While our Stacktrain operation may benefit from the intermodal rate increases, such rate increases may have the impact of slowing overall demand for intermodal services and thereby affect our consolidated results of operations.
We are dependent on the automotive industry which has experienced significant declines as a result of the current economic downturn.
Approximately 20% of our revenues for fiscal 2008 and 2007 were to customers in the automotive industry. Our automotive industry volumes have declined significantly over the past year reflecting that automotive manufacturers globally are experiencing significant declines in sales of vehicles from the current economic downturn, credit conditions, and volatile fuel costs. In particular, there has been significant concern regarding the long-term viability of the Big Three U.S. auto manufacturers whose sales of vehicles have also shown significant erosion. Extended automotive plant shutdowns and significant production cuts have already occurred and are likely to continue in the future, affecting shipments to and from affected plants. A large number of our customers are also suppliers of automotive products whose own viability and operating results are tied to the long-term viability and operating results of automotive manufacturers. Continued downturns in the business of North American automobile manufacturers would adversely affect our revenues, results of operations and cash flows.
Network changes, lane closures, rail congestion, carrier consolidation and other reductions or deterioration in rail services could increase costs, decrease demand for our intermodal services and adversely affect our operating results.
We depend on the major railroads in the United States for substantially all of the intermodal transportation services that we provide. In many markets, rail service is limited to a few railroads or even a single railroad. As a result, any reduction or elimination of service to a particular market may limit our ability to serve some of our customers. Furthermore, reductions in service by the railroads are likely to increase the cost of the rail-based services that we provide and reduce the reliability, timeliness and overall attractiveness of our intermodal product. Increases in the cost of rail service reduce some of the advantages of intermodal transportation compared to truck and other transportation modes, and may reduce demand for our intermodal services.
In recent years, train resource shortages, severe weather, operating inefficiencies and high demand for rail transportation resulted in increased transit times, terminal congestion and decreased equipment velocity. With slowing volumes in 2008 combined with the railroads recent capital investments and operating improvements, rail transit times have recently improved. While we believe that our customer service capabilities, extensive equipment fleet and network of personnel on-site at many terminals enables us to lessen the impact to our intermodal customers of these service disruptions, rail service issues increase our costs and create a challenging operating environment. To the extent that we operate on rail carriers that experience poor service performance, demand for our intermodal services may be adversely affected, and customers may switch to alternate providers to avoid intermodal transportation delays.
In addition to reducing or eliminating routes and experiencing service disruptions, rail carriers may engage in further consolidations. Rail consolidations have caused service disruptions in the past and would further reduce service choices and bargaining power for rail customers. As a result, further consolidation among railroads might adversely affect intermodal transportation and our results of operations.
We are dependent upon third parties for equipment, capacity and services essential to operate our business, and if we fail to secure sufficient equipment, capacity or services, we could lose customers and revenues.
We are dependent upon rail, truck and ocean transportation services and transportation equipment such as chassis and containers provided by independent third parties. We, along with competitors in our industry, have experienced equipment and capacity shortages in the past, particularly during peak shipping season in October and November. We also depend upon the rail carriers to provide sufficient rail slots on the train to transport our containers and access to the rail terminal for the delivery of our containers for shipment. From time to time, as with other users of Union Pacifics rail service, we have not been able to obtain sufficient gate reservations for all containers to be shipped on a particular day and have had to wait for the gate reservation necessary to allow the container to enter the rail terminal and to be loaded on the train. If we cannot secure sufficient transportation equipment, capacity or services from these third parties to meet our customers needs and schedules, customers may seek to have their transportation and logistics needs met by other providers on a temporary or permanent basis, which could materially adversely affect our business, consolidated results of operations and financial condition.
Likewise, the intermodal industry from time to time faces excess demand for the current rail network size, which causes network congestion and service delays and allows rail carriers to implement rate increases and to limit volumes. In addition, the trucking industry, including the local drayage community, has difficulty from time to time maintaining a consistent supply of qualified drivers. Shortages such as this may cause our motor transportation suppliers to increase drivers compensation, thereby increasing our cost of providing motor transportation, including the local cartage portion of an intermodal move, to our customers. Driver shortages and tight rail capacity could adversely impact our profitability and limit our ability to expand our intermodal and highway service offerings.
Since our relationships with the major North American railroads are critical to our ability to provide intermodal transportation services, our business may be adversely affected by any adverse change to those relationships.
We have important relationships with most of the major U.S. railroads supported by multi-year contracts and other operating arrangements. To date, the railroads have chosen to allow us, other intermodal marketing companies and other intermodal competitors to market their intermodal services and supply intermodal equipment to many beneficial cargo owners rather than marketing their services directly to all beneficial cargo owners. If one or more of the major railroads were to decide to change their strategy regarding our business and other intermodal intermediaries, the margins and volume of intermodal shipments we arrange would likely decline, which could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.
Our multi-year rail contracts, which have varied expiration dates, contain favorable provisions that we believe enable us to provide competitive transportation rates and services to our customers. In particular, our current Union Pacific contract expires in October 2011, and our current CSX Intermodal contract expires in December 2014. Our loss of one or more of the multi-year contracts or failure to enter into renewal or replacement contracts with comparably favorable terms upon expiration of the current contract or contracts could materially adversely affect our business, results of operations and cash flows. While we expect to be able to continue to obtain competitive terms and conditions from our railroad vendors, no assurance can be given that such terms and conditions will be comparable to those in our current rail contracts.
Congestion, work stoppages, capacity shortages, weather related issues or other disruptions affecting the transportation network could adversely affect our operating results.
As transportation services are provided through a network of rail and trucking transportation providers, a disruption in one area or in one sector can affect the flow of traffic over the entire network. In addition, our business could be adversely affected by labor disputes between the railroads and their union employees. Negotiations have been in progress between the railroads and rail unions for new collective bargaining agreements since November 2004 and were concluded with the remaining unions (yardmasters, United Transportation Union and International Association of Machinists) in 2008. These union agreements resolve all wages, work rule and benefit issues through December 31, 2009, with the next round of negotiations to begin in late 2009.
Our business could also be adversely affected by a work stoppage affecting providers of local trucking services to and from rail terminals. For example, during 2004, independent owner-operators providing local drayage services in parts of California refused to transport shipments to and from the rail facilities, leading to terminal congestion and a Union Pacific embargo on shipments to Northern California destinations which adversely affected our consolidated results of operations in the second quarter of 2004. In 2008, independent owner operators in Northern California again refused to transport shipments to protest high fuel prices which negatively impacted our second quarter results. We have also experienced service disruptions due to other conditions, such as hurricanes, flooding and other adverse weather conditions, that hinder the railroads and local trucking companies ability to provide transportation services and negatively impact our operating results.
Work stoppages affecting seaports may also adversely impact our operations as we experienced in the second half of 2002 when West Coast ports were shut down as a result of a labor dispute with the longshoremen who offload freight that we subsequently transport. Third party international loadings,
container repositioning revenue and railcar utilization revenues from our intermodal segment were adversely impacted during the port shutdown. The shutdown also impacted our local cartage and harbor drayage on the West Coast with lower volumes and our international freight forwarding operations with reduced ship sailings. Other work stoppages, slowdowns or other disruptions, such as those that could result from an act of terrorism or war, are beyond our control and could adversely affect our operating income and cash flows in both our intermodal and logistics segments, particularly if they have a material effect on major railroad interchange facilities or areas through which significant amounts of our rail shipments pass, such as the Los Angeles and Chicago gateways.
If we fail to develop, integrate, upgrade or replace our information technology systems, including the new SAP enterprise suite of applications, we may lose orders and customers or incur costs beyond our expectations.
Increasingly, we compete for customers based upon the flexibility and sophistication of the information technologies that support our current services or any new services that we may introduce. The failure of the hardware or software that supports our information technology systems, the loss of data contained in the systems, or our customers inability to access or interact with our website and other systems could significantly disrupt our operations, prevent our customers from placing orders, or cause us to lose orders or customers. If our information technology systems are unable to handle additional volume for our operations as our business and scope of services grow, our service levels, operating efficiency and future freight volumes will decline. In addition, we expect customers to continue to demand more sophisticated, fully integrated information systems from their supply chain management service providers. If we fail to hire qualified personnel to implement and maintain our information technology systems or fail to upgrade or replace our information technology systems to handle increased volumes, meet the demands of our customers and protect against disruptions of our operations, we may lose orders and customers which could adversely affect our business.
During the fourth quarter of 2007, we entered into a software license agreement with SAP America, Inc. (SAP) under which we licensed an enterprise suite of applications, including the latest release of SAPs transportation management solution. During 2008, the financial and accounting applications of the new system were implemented on all units but our Stacktrain unit. The financial and accounting applications will be implemented on our Stacktrain unit during the first quarter of 2009. Other operational elements of the new system for the intermodal and logistics segments are expected to be implemented by the end of 2009 and in 2010, respectively, and include equipment management, pricing, billing and tracking and tracing applications. The new system is intended to provide an integrated, streamlined platform across business units that will provide better management information, eliminate duplicated work effort and dispersed data, and enhance customer service and communications. Currently, we operate numerous systems with varying degrees of integration, which can lead to inefficiencies, workarounds and rework. As such, delays in the SAP project will also delay cost savings and efficiencies expected to result from the project. Delays and problems with the project may also result in higher than anticipated costs for development and implementation. If the systems to be implemented with the SAP software do not operate as anticipated or contain unforeseen problems, our business, consolidated results of operations financial condition and cash flows could be materially adversely affected. We may also experience operational difficulties consolidating our current systems, moving to a common set of operational processes and implementing a successful change management process. These difficulties may impact our clients and our ability to efficiently meet their needs. Any such delays or difficulties may have a material and adverse impact on our business, client relationships and financial results.
Our revenues could be reduced by the loss of major customers.
We have derived, and believe we will continue to derive, a significant portion of our revenues from our largest customers. In 2008, Union Pacific affiliate(s) accounted for approximately 10.5% of our revenues and our 10 largest customers accounted for approximately 39.9% of our revenues. The loss of one or more of our major customers or a significant change in their shipping patterns could have a material adverse effect on our revenues, business and prospects.
Ongoing insurance and claims expenses could adversely affect our earnings.
We are exposed to claims related to property damage, personal injury, cargo loss and damage and workers compensation. We carry significant insurance with third party insurance carriers. The cost of such insurance has varied over the past five years, reflecting our operational growth, the insurance environment for our industry, our claim experience and our self-retained (deductible) level. We have maintained self-retained (deductible) levels for our public liability exposures to optimize cost efficiency, reflecting our claims experience and the insurance environment for our industry. Our current deductible per occurrence for commercial automobile liability is $25,000. Our current deductible level for truckers commercial automobile liability is $500,000 for our truck services and cartage operations and $100,000 for trucking operations related to our warehousing and distribution operations. Our current deductible level per occurrence for commercial general liability is $100,000. Our current workers compensation and employers liability deductible is $150,000 per incident. Our current deductible per occurrence for freight damage as an authorized motor carrier or warehouseman is $250,000, except for our cartage operations which carry a $10,000 deductible. We are also responsible for legal expenses within our deductible levels for liability and workers compensation claims. We currently accrue the estimated probable loss for incurred and reported but not yet paid claim amounts and expenses, and regularly evaluate and adjust our claim accruals to reflect actual experience. If the ultimate results differ from our estimates, we could incur costs in excess of accrued amounts. To cover claims and expense in excess of our deductible levels, we maintain insurance with insurance companies that we believe are financially sound. Although we believe our aggregate insurance limits are sufficient to cover reasonably expected claims, it is possible that one or more claims could exceed those limits. If the number or severity of claims within our deductible levels increases, or if we are required to accrue or pay additional amounts because the claims prove to be more severe than our original assessment, our operating results would be adversely affected.
If we have difficulty attracting and retaining agents and independent contractors, our consolidated results of operations could be adversely affected.
We rely extensively on the services of agents and independent contractors to provide our trucking services. We rely on a fleet of vehicles which are owned and operated by independent trucking contractors and on agents representing groups of trucking contractors to transport customers goods by truck. Although we believe our relationships with our agents and independent contractors are good, we may not be able to maintain our relationships with them. Contracts with agents and independent contractors are, in most cases, terminable upon short notice by either party. If an agent terminates its relationship with us, some customers and independent contractors with which such agent has a direct relationship may also terminate their relationship with us. We may have difficulty replacing our agents and independent contractors with equally qualified persons. We compete with transportation service companies and trucking companies for the services of agents and with trucking companies for the services of independent contractors and drivers. The pool of agents, contractors and drivers is limited, and therefore competition from other transportation service companies and trucking companies can increase the price we must pay to obtain services from agents, contractors and drivers. From time to time the trucking industry experiences a shortage of independent contractors resulting in increased compensation expenses to us and our competitors who also rely on them. In addition, because independent contractors are not employees, they may not be as loyal to our company, requiring us to pay more to retain their services and to implement aggressive recruitment efforts to offset turnover. If we are unable to attract or retain agents and independent contractors or need to increase the amount paid for their services, our consolidated results of operations could be adversely affected and we could experience difficulty increasing our business volume. This adverse effect was seen in 2005 and 2006 as the cost of qualified driver acquisition and retention increased and negatively impacted our consolidated results of operations. Driver acquisition and retention issues remain a focus of our trucking operations, and during 2008, programs were implemented to more effectively manage driver turnover.
Our customers who are also competitors could transfer their business to their non-competitors and our suppliers who are also competitors could provide preferences to others, including their own competing operations, which in both cases would decrease our profitability.
As a result of our company operating in two distinct but related channels, we buy and sell transportation services from and to many companies with which we compete. For example, Hub Group,
NYK Logistics and Alliance Shippers, who together accounted for 9.6% of the 2008 revenues of our intermodal segment operations, are also competitors. It is possible that these customers could transfer their business away from us to other companies with which they do not compete. The loss of one or more of these customers could have a material adverse effect on the profitability of our intermodal operations. In addition, rather than outsourcing their transportation logistics requirements to us, some of our customers could decide to provide these services internally, which could further adversely affect our business volumes and revenues.
Similarly, our Stacktrain business competes in some cases with the intermodal service offerings of our rail transportation providers and their affiliated equipment provider operations. For example, CSX Intermodal and Union Pacific Railroad, two of our primary rail transportation providers, offer transcontinental and other long-haul intermodal transportation services that compete with our Stacktrain services. Our rail transportation providers may provide preferences to their internal service offerings or to other customers that are not competitors. These preferences could have a material adverse effect on the profitability of our intermodal operations and on our ability to continue to provide efficient intermodal services to our customers.
We may be required to record a significant additional charge to earnings if our goodwill becomes further impaired.
In accordance with Statement of Financial Accounting Standards No. 142, Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets (SFAS 142), we performed the standard annual evaluation of our intangible assets as of December 26, 2008. Based on a combination of factors, including the current economic downturn, the steep, sustained decline in our stock price and resulting market capitalization that has continued into 2009, and the operating results of our logistics reporting unit, we concluded that the carrying value of our logistics reporting unit (including goodwill) exceeded the fair value of our logistics reporting unit. As a result, we recorded a non-cash impairment charge of $87.9 million, $73.3 million net of tax, or $2.11 per diluted share during 2008. As a result of our annual evaluation, we concluded that no impairment of the goodwill assigned to our intermodal reporting unit had occurred; however, the excess of the fair value of our intermodal reporting unit over carrying value of the intermodal reporting unit had declined to approximately $65 million from $288 million at December 28, 2007 and $1.1 billion at December 29, 2006. Should the current economic recession worsen or be prolonged, growth rates in the transportation industry decline, the trading price of our common stock deteriorate further or other adverse events occur, the determination of fair value in the future could result in an additional goodwill impairment with respect to one or both of our reporting units which would negatively impact the operating results and net worth of the company. See Item 7. Managements Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates for further discussion on goodwill evaluation.
Clean truck requirements at the Ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach which became effective on October 1, 2008 and other California tractor emissions requirements could adversely affect our business and profitability.
On October 1, 2008, the ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach began implementing clean truck plans that ban the use of pre-1989 trucks in the ports, require trucks accessing the ports to comply with phased-in emission standards and require trucking companies accessing the ports to sign concession agreements that impose a number of conditions. In February 2009, the ports are expected to begin charging shippers a $70 per container fee for each 40-foot or longer container ($35 per 20-foot container) moving in and out of the ports by trucks that do not meet 2007 emissions standards. These port programs affect our cartage and warehousing and distribution operations. We have initiated programs that would transition our owner-operator fleet new trucks that comply with 2007 emission standards in order to help our customers to avoid the per container fee to be assessed by the ports. Among other increased costs, we must pay the owner-operators higher fees for their services due to expected demand for the limited supply of 2007 tractors and the owner-operators need and desire to recover the increased lease or acquisition cost of such tractors. Our ability to meet our customers requirements, maintain our competitive position and preserve our profitability would be adversely impacted if we are unable to bring a sufficient number of emission-compliant trucks into our contractor fleet. Furthermore, our profitability will also be adversely affected if we are unable to collect higher charges from our customers to cover our increased costs.
In addition, the port of Los Angeles plan has a requirement that would require trucking companies to increase the percentage of employee drivers servicing the port of Los Angeles from 20% by December 31, 2009 to 100% by December 31, 2013. While this and other provisions of the port of Los Angeles plan are being litigated, should this element of the port plan remain in effect, we would either have to change from our current owner-operator structure to an employee driver structure to service the port of Los Angeles or cease business at this location. Operating an employee fleet to service the port of Los Angeles and an independent owner-operator fleet for the rest of our local transportation network could result in operational inefficiencies, increased costs, and reduced profitability.
We, our suppliers and our customers are subject to changes in government regulation which could result in additional costs and thereby affect our consolidated results of operations.
The transportation industry is subject to legislative and regulatory changes that can affect its economics. Although we primarily operate in the intermodal segment of the transportation industry, which has been essentially deregulated, changes in the levels of regulatory activity in the intermodal segment could potentially affect us and our suppliers and customers. Our trucking operations and those of the trucking companies and independent contractors whom we engage are subject to regulation by the DOT and various state and local agencies, which govern such activities as authorization to engage in motor carrier operations, safety, and insurance requirements. As an example, on January 4, 2004, revised DOT hours of service regulations became effective and after further regulatory and court action, were revised effective October 1, 2005. Since 2005, additional court and regulatory actions have occurred, and our trucking operations now operate under interim and final DOT rules substantially the same as those effective in 2005. These revised regulations reduced the amount of time that drivers can spend driving. Since these regulations went into effect, we have endeavored to make appropriate pricing, operational and training adjustments to address the regulations and mitigate their impact on our consolidated results of operations. While difficult to quantify, we believe that the hours of service regulations have negatively impacted our operating results due to the slight productivity decreases experienced by our drivers. These changes, in effect, increase the amounts charged by the trucking companies and independent contractors whom we engage to provide transportation for our customers. If we cannot pass the additional costs through to our customers, our consolidated operating results could be adversely affected.
Future laws and regulations may be more stringent and require changes in our operating practices, influence the demand for our transportation services or require the outlay of significant additional costs. Additional expenditures incurred by us, or by our suppliers and passed on to us, could adversely affect our consolidated results of operations. For instance, in December 2008, the DOT issued final regulations mandated by the Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act enacted in August 2005. These newly-finalized regulations regulate intermodal equipment providers like our Stacktrain unit and require them to establish a systematic inspection, repair and maintenance program on chassis and to provide a means to effectively respond to driver and motor carrier reports about chassis defects and deficiencies. Intermodal equipment providers must comply with the new regulations by December, 2009. We are continuing to evaluate the regulations operational impact and compliance cost of compliance. Our preliminary estimates indicate that the annual incremental additional cost of the chassis maintenance and repair program required under the new regulations will be between $1 million and $5 million. Similarly, a January 2007 ruling by the Surface Transportation Board found that the railroads practice of assessing fuel surcharges based on a percentage calculation of the base rate charged to the shipper was unreasonable. Although the ruling expressly does not apply to intermodal shipments, if the railroads change their methodology for assessing fuel surcharges on intermodal traffic to a per mile or other calculation, our Pacer Stacktrain and rail brokerage units may also change their fuel surcharge methodology. Such a change may adversely affect our revenues. Other potential effects are more difficult to quantify as we generally pass through fuel surcharges to our customers but may experience timing issues where we are unable to adjust charges to our customers to match fuel adjustments from our suppliers.
In addition, we have a substantial number of wholesale customers who provide ocean carriage of intermodal shipments. These wholesale customers and our own international freight forwarding operations are subject to regulation by the Federal Maritime Commission, U.S. Customs and other international, foreign, federal and state authorities. Regulatory changes in the ocean shipping or international freight
forwarding industries could adversely affect our freight forwarding operations or have a material impact on the competitiveness or efficiency of operations of our various ocean carrier customers, which could adversely affect our business.
In addition, as a publicly-traded company, we are also affected by new and changing laws, regulations and standards relating to corporate governance and public disclosure, including the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, SEC rules and regulations and the NASDAQ Stock Market rules. Our efforts to comply with these continually evolving laws, regulations and standards have resulted in, and are likely to continue to result in, increased general and administrative expenses and a diversion of management time and attention from revenue-generating activities to compliance activities as well as the risks of noncompliance, including damage to our reputation with investors and our stock price.
A determination by regulators that our independent contractors are employees could expose us to various liabilities and additional costs and adversely affect our operating results.
From time to time, tax and other regulatory authorities have sought to assert that independent contractors in the trucking industry are employees, rather than independent contractors. In the future these authorities could be successful in asserting this position, or the interpretations and tax laws that consider these persons independent contractors could change. If our independent contractors are determined to be our employees, that determination could materially increase our exposure under a variety of federal and state tax, workers compensation, unemployment benefits, labor, employment and tort laws, as well as our potential liability for employee benefits. Our business model assumes that our independent contractors are not deemed to be our employees, and exposure to any of the above increased costs would impair our competitiveness in the industry and materially adversely affect our operating results.
If we fail to comply with or lose any required licenses, governmental regulators could assess penalties against us or issue a cease and desist order against our operations which are not in compliance.
Our rail and highway brokerage and Stacktrain operations are licensed by the DOT as a broker in arranging for the transportation of general commodities by motor vehicle. The DOT has established requirements for acting in this capacity, including insurance and surety bond requirements. Our truck services and local cartage operations are regulated as motor carriers by the DOT and various state agencies, subjecting these operations to insurance, surety bond, safety and other regulatory requirements. Our international freight forwarding operation is licensed as an ocean transportation intermediary by the U.S. Federal Maritime Commission. The Federal Maritime Commission regulates ocean freight forwarders and non-vessel operating common carriers like us that contract for space with the actual vessel operator and sell that space to commercial shippers and other non-vessel operating common carriers for freight originating or terminating in the United States. Non-vessel operating common carriers must publish and maintain tariffs for the movement of specified commodities into and out of the United States. The Federal Maritime Commission may enforce these regulations by instituting proceedings seeking the assessment of penalties for violations of these regulations. For ocean shipments not originating or terminating in the United States, the applicable regulations and licensing requirements typically are less stringent than in the United States. Our international freight forwarding operation is also licensed, regulated and subject to periodic audit as a customs broker by the Customs Service of the Department of Treasury in each United States customs district in which we do business. In other jurisdictions where we perform customs brokerage services, we are licensed, where necessary, by the appropriate governmental authority. Our failure to comply with the laws and regulations of any of these governmental regulators, and any resultant suspension or loss of our licenses, could result in penalties or a cease and desist order against any operations that are not in compliance. Such an occurrence would have an adverse effect on our consolidated results of operations, financial condition and liquidity.
Access to the funds available under our revolving credit facility and to the public capital markets could be adversely affected by the turmoil and uncertainty impacting credit markets generally.
As a result of current economic conditions, including turmoil and uncertainty in the capital markets, credit markets have tightened significantly such that the ability to obtain new capital has become more challenging and more expensive. In addition, several large financial institutions have either recently
failed or been dependent on the assistance of the U.S. federal government to continue to operate. Although we believe that the banks under our revolving credit facility have adequate capital and resources, we can provide no assurance that all of these banks will continue to operate as a going concern in the future. If any of the banks in our lending group were to fail or otherwise fail to provide us funds as required under our revolving credit facility, it is possible that the borrowing capacity under our credit facility would be reduced. In the event that the availability under our credit facility were reduced significantly, we could be required to obtain capital from alternate sources in order to finance our operations or capital needs. Our options for addressing such capital constraints would include, but not be limited to (i) obtaining commitments from the remaining banks in our lending group or from new banks to fund increased amounts under the terms of our credit facility, (ii) accessing the public capital markets, or (iii) delaying or reducing our capital expenditures or certain of our projects. If it became necessary to access additional capital, it is likely that any such alternatives in the current market would be on terms less favorable than under our existing revolving credit facility, which could have a material effect on our consolidated financial position, results of operations and cash flows.
The public capital markets are also currently experiencing a period of dislocation and instability as evidenced by a lack of liquidity in both the equity and debt capital markets, significant write-offs in the financial services sector, the re-pricing of credit risk in the broadly syndicated credit market and the failure of certain major financial institutions. These events have contributed to worsening general economic conditions that are materially and adversely impacting the broader financial and credit markets and reducing the availability of debt and equity capital for the market as a whole. If we were required to access the public equity or debt capital markets to fund our operations and capital expenditures or any acquisitions that we may decide to make, given the current economic environment, no assurance can be given that we would be able to do so on favorable terms or at all.
Volatility in our revenue stream and resultant operational results may result in stock price declines.
As discussed in this report, we are subject to a variety of events, such as economic conditions, customers business cycles, rate changes, rail network changes, severe weather and other rail service disruptions, strikes, interest rate and fuel cost fluctuations, and claims, over which we have little or no control. These factors may unexpectedly affect one or more quarters results. Any unexpected reduction in revenues or operating income for a particular quarter could cause our quarterly operating results to be below the expectations of public market analysts or stockholders. In this event, the trading price of our common stock may fall significantly.
Changes in shipping patterns that reduce container volumes into West Coast ports could adversely affect our revenues and operating results.
A significant portion of the intermodal shipments we handle are transcontinental moves originating from West Coast ports. For example, approximately 33% of our Stacktrain units total volumes in 2008 (32% in 2007) were from the West Coast ports. Furthermore, our warehouse and distribution operation is concentrated in Southern California, and a significant portion of our local cartage revenues derive from our Southern California terminals. Reductions in West Coast shipping volume can therefore have a material adverse effect on our operations and did adversely affect our revenues in 2008 as compared to 2007. The development of a Suez Canal route from China, the planned expansion of the Panama Canal that would allow an all-water route from China to East Coast ports, and/or onerous port and other West Coast regulations may result in the diversion of volumes from West Coast ports. Developments such as these and others that would reduce shipments into the West Coast ports could adversely affect our revenues and operating results.
We have determined that we have a material weakness in our internal controls over financial reporting. The lack of effective internal controls could adversely affect our financial condition and damage our reputation with stakeholders.
As discussed in Item 9A, Controls and Procedures of this Annual Report, our management team for financial reporting, under the supervision and with the participation of our chief executive officer and chief financial officer, conducted an evaluation of the effectiveness of the design and operation of our
internal controls over financial reporting. As of December 26, 2008, they concluded that our disclosure controls and procedures and our internal control over financial reporting were not effective as a result of a material weakness in our internal controls related to the preparation and review of certain balance sheet reconciliations. Although we believe that the circumstances that led to this weakness are not likely to recur and we have made and are continuing to make improvements in our internal controls, if we are unsuccessful in our effort to permanently and effectively remediate this weakness in our internal controls over financial reporting over time, our ability to report our financial condition and results of operations in the future accurately and in a timely manner may be adversely affected, which may adversely impact our reputation with stakeholders and the market price of our common stock.
If the markets in which we operate do not grow, our business could be adversely affected.
The failure of the transportation and logistics industries and their segments, including the third-party logistics market, to continue to grow may have a material adverse effect on our business and the market price of our common stock.
Our debt levels may limit our flexibility in obtaining additional financing and in pursuing other business opportunities.
As of December 26, 2008, our long-term debt was $44.6 million. We have the ability to incur new debt, subject to limitations in our credit agreement. Our level of indebtedness could have important consequences to us, including the following:
Our debt agreements contain operating and financial restrictions which may restrict our business and financing activities.
The operating and financial restrictions and covenants in our credit agreement and any future financing agreements could adversely affect our ability to finance future operations or capital needs or to engage in other business activities. In addition, our credit agreement restricts or limits our ability to: (1) pay dividends and redeem or repurchase capital stock; (2) prepay, redeem or purchase debt; (3) incur liens and engage in sale and leaseback transactions; (4) make loans and investments; (5) incur additional indebtedness; (6) amend or otherwise change debt and other material agreements; (7) make capital expenditures; (8) engage in mergers, acquisitions and asset sales; (9) enter into transactions with affiliates; and (10) change our primary business. Our credit facility also requires us to satisfy interest coverage and leverage ratios.
A breach of any of the restrictions, covenants, ratios or tests in our debt agreements could result in defaults under these agreements. A significant portion of our indebtedness then may become immediately due and payable. We might not have, or be able to obtain, sufficient funds to make these accelerated payments. In addition, our obligations under our credit agreement are secured by a pledge of all of the capital stock of our domestic subsidiaries and a portion of the capital stock or other equity interests of certain of our foreign subsidiaries.
We may not have sufficient cash to service our indebtedness.
Our ability to service our indebtedness will depend upon, among other things:
If our operating results and borrowings under our credit facility are not sufficient to service our current or future indebtedness, we will be forced to take actions such as reducing or delaying acquisitions, investments, strategic alliances or capital expenditures, selling assets, restructuring or refinancing our indebtedness, or seeking additional equity capital or bankruptcy protection. There is no assurance that we can affect any of these remedies on satisfactory terms, or at all.
If we lose key personnel and qualified technical staff, our ability to manage the day-to-day aspects of our business will be weakened which could adversely affect our operating results and ability to grow our business.
We believe that the attraction and retention of qualified personnel is critical to our success. If we lose key personnel or are unable to recruit qualified personnel, our ability to manage the day-to-day aspects of our business will be adversely affected. Our operations and prospects depend in large part on the performance of our senior management team. The loss of the services of one or more members of our senior management team could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operation, financial condition or cash flows. We face significant competition in attracting and retaining personnel who possess the skill sets that we seek. Because our senior management team has unique experience with our company and within the transportation industry, it would be difficult to replace them without adversely affecting our business operations. In addition to their unique experience, our management team has fostered key relationships with our suppliers and customers. Such relationships are especially important for an asset-light company such as ours. Loss of these relationships could have a material adverse effect on our profitability.
We have an extensive relationship with APL Limited, and we depend on APL Limited for essential services. Our business and consolidated results of operations could be adversely affected if APL Limited failed or refused to provide such services or terminated the relationship.
Pursuant to long-term contracts that expire in May 2019, APL Limited, the former owner of our Stacktrain services business, supplies us with chassis from its equipment fleet for the transport of international freight on behalf of other international shippers. In addition, we transport APL Limiteds international cargo on our Stacktrain network to locations in the United States using chassis and equipment supplied by APL Limited. The additional volume attributable to the transport of APL Limiteds international cargo contributes to our ability to obtain favorable provisions in our rail contracts. APL Limited pays us a fee for repositioning its empty containers within North America so that the containers can be reused in trans-Pacific shipping operations. In addition, APL Limited is currently providing us with computers, software and other information technology services necessary for the operation of our Stacktrain business pursuant to a long-term contract that expires in May 2019. We are in the process of replacing the information technology services provided by APL Limited with SAP software which will require substantial resources and time. If any of our contracts with APL Limited were terminated or if APL Limited were unwilling or unable to fulfill its obligations to us under the terms of these contracts, or if the
systems to be implemented with the SAP software do not operate as anticipated or contain unforeseen problems, our business, consolidated results of operations, financial condition and cash flows could be materially adversely affected.
If we make future acquisitions, they may be financed in a way that reduces our reported earnings or imposes additional restrictions on our business.
If we make future acquisitions, we may issue shares of capital stock that dilute other stockholders, incur debt, assume significant liabilities or create additional expenses related to intangible assets, any of which might reduce our reported earnings or reduce earnings per share and cause our stock price to decline. In addition, any financing that we might need for future acquisitions may be available to us only on terms that restrict our business.
If we are unable to identify, make and successfully integrate acquisitions, our profitability could be adversely affected.
Identifying, acquiring and integrating businesses require substantial management, financial and other resources and may pose risks with respect to customer service and market share. Further, acquisitions involve a number of special risks, some or all of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operation, financial condition and cash flows. These risks include:
We have acquired a number of businesses in the past and we may consider acquiring businesses in the future that provide complementary services to those we currently provide or that expand our geographic presence. We cannot predict whether we will be able to identify suitable acquisition candidates or to acquire them on reasonable terms or at all, and a failure to do so could limit our ability to expand our business. While we believe that we have sufficient financial and management resources and experience to successfully conduct our acquisition activities and integrate the acquired businesses into our operations, our acquisition activities involve more difficult integration issues than those of many other companies because the value of the companies we acquire comes mostly from their business relationships, rather than their tangible assets. The integration of business relationships poses more of a risk than the integration of tangible assets because relationships may suddenly weaken or terminate, or key personnel responsible for those relationships may depart. Further, logistics businesses that we have acquired and that we may acquire in the future compete with many customers of our Stacktrain operations, and these customers may shift their business elsewhere if they believe our logistics operations receive favorable treatment from our Stacktrain operations. If we are unable to successfully integrate any business that we may acquire in the future, we could experience difficulties with customers, personnel or others, and our acquisitions might not enhance our competitive position, business or financial prospects.
As we expand our services internationally, we may become subject to international economic and political risks.
A portion of our business is providing services internationally. International revenues accounted for approximately 11% to 12% of our revenues in each of 2008, 2007 and 2006. Doing business outside the United States subjects us to various risks, including changing economic and political conditions, major work stoppages, exchange controls, currency fluctuations, armed conflicts and unexpected changes in United States and foreign laws relating to tariffs, trade restrictions, transportation regulations, foreign investments and taxation. Significant expansion of our services in foreign countries will expose us to the increased effect of foreign currency fluctuations and exchange controls as well as longer accounts receivable payment cycles. We have no control over most of these risks and may be unable to anticipate changes in international economic and political conditions and, therefore, unable to alter our business practices in time to avoid the adverse effect of any of these changes.
Risks Related to Our Common Stock
Because we have various mechanisms in place to discourage takeover attempts, a change in control of our company that a stockholder may consider favorable could be prevented.
Provisions of our charter and bylaws or Tennessee law may discourage, delay or prevent a change in control of our company that a stockholder may consider favorable. These provisions could also discourage proxy contests and make it more difficult for stockholders to elect directors and take other corporate actions. These provisions include:
As a result, these provisions could limit the price that investors are willing to pay in the future for shares of our common stock. In addition, the Tennessee Greenmail Act and the Tennessee Control Share Acquisition Act may discourage, delay or prevent a change in control of our company.
We have suspended payment of the dividend on our common stock. Should we not declare and pay cash dividends in the future, our stock price could be negatively impacted.
We paid quarterly dividends of $0.15 per common share from October 2005 through January 2009. However, in view of the challenges we face in the current economic environment and in order to conserve cash, in February 2009 our Board of Directors decided to discontinue the payment of dividends.
The declaration of future dividends by the company and the amount thereof is in the discretion of our Board of Directors and will depend on our consolidated results of operations, financial condition, compliance with financial ratios and other limitations in our credit agreement, cash requirements, future prospects and other factors deemed relevant by the Board of Directors including prevailing and forecasted economic conditions. We cannot predict when we might resume paying dividends in the future, if ever, or whether any such dividends will be at the same level as in the past. The suspension of our dividend and the failure to pay dividends in the future may adversely affect the market price of our common stock.
ITEM 2. PROPERTIES
We lease space in office buildings in Concord, California for our Stacktrain operation and our corporate headquarters and an office building in Dublin, Ohio for our Pacer Transportation Solutions headquarters. We also lease space in office buildings in many other locations including Fort Worth, Texas, Oakbrook, Illinois, Commerce, California, DeSoto, Texas, Jacksonville, Florida, Lake Success, New York, Memphis, Tennessee, and Orange, California. We lease four facilities in Los Angeles, California for dock space, warehousing and parking for tractors and trailers. In addition, we lease terminal facilities for our cartage operations in approximately 23 cities across the U.S.
Our Stacktrain transportation network operates out of more than 80 railroad terminals across North America. Our integrated rail network, combined with our leased equipment fleet, enables us to provide our customers with single-company control over rail transportation to locations throughout North America.
Substantially all of the terminals we use are owned and managed by rail or highway carriers. However, we employ full-time personnel on-site at many major locations to ensure close coordination of the services provided at the facilities. In addition to these terminals, other locations throughout the eastern United States serve as stand-alone container depots, where empty containers can be picked up or dropped off, or supply points, where empty containers can be picked up only. In connection with our trucking services, agents provide marketing and sales, terminal facilities and driver recruiting, while operations centers provide, among other services, insurance, claims handling, safety compliance, credit, billing and collection and operating advances and payments to drivers and agents.
ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
We are subject to routine litigation arising in the ordinary course of business, none of which is expected to have a material adverse effect on our business, consolidated results of operations, financial condition or cash flows, except as described below. Most of the lawsuits to which the company is a party are covered by insurance and are being defended in cooperation with insurance carriers.
The Union Pacific Railroad has asserted two claims against us for retroactive and prospective rate adjustments for containers shipped on their railroad. Both claims are in an early stage of development. One claim is in the early stage of arbitration before the American Arbitration Association (AAA). If we are unable to resolve the second claim, it may be submitted for arbitration before the AAA as well. The information available to us at this time does not indicate that it is probable that a liability has been incurred as of the year ended December 26, 2008, and we cannot make an estimate of the amount, or range of amounts, of any liability that would be incurred if one or both claims were resolved against our favor. Accordingly, we have not accrued any liability for these claims in our financial statements at and for the year ended December 26, 2008. Union Pacifics calculation of the dollar amount of retroactive rate adjustments that it claims from us, which covers the period from January 1, 2005, through October 31, 2008, is approximately $90 million. We dispute these claims in their entirety and believe that we have meritorious defenses to them and that the Union Pacific Railroad is not entitled to any of the claimed rate adjustments. We intend to vigorously defend against these claims and pursue our other related rights and remedies. If these claims were to be adversely determined against us, the amount we could be required to pay could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and cash flows in the quarter in which such loss is incurred.
ITEM 4. SUBMISSION OF MATTERS TO A VOTE OF SECURITY HOLDERS
No matters were submitted to a vote of security holders during the fourth quarter of 2008.
EXECUTIVE OFFICERS OF THE REGISTRANT
The following table sets forth information regarding our executive officers.
Michael E. Uremovich has served as Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of our company since November 2006. He served as Vice Chairman of our company from October 2003 until his promotion to Chairman and Chief Executive Officer. Mr. Uremovich served as a consultant to our company from 1998 until October 2003. From 1991 until 1995, Mr. Uremovich was the Vice President of Marketing for the Southern Pacific Railroad. Prior to Southern Pacific Railroad, Mr. Uremovich held a variety of positions at American President Companies, including Vice President of Marketing and Logistics Services. Prior to employment at American President, he was a Principal at the consulting firm of Booz, Allen and Hamilton.
Daniel W. Avramovich joined our company effective as of June 30, 2008 as Retail Intermodal Services President. Prior to joining our company, Mr. Avramovich served as Executive Vice President, Sales & Marketing of Kansas City Southern, a rail carrier, from May 2006 to May 2008 and as President, Network Services Americas for Exel plc, a provider of contract logistics and supply chain management, from 2003 to 2006. From 2000 to 2003, he served as President, Exel Direct for Exel plc.
Adriene B. Bailey served as Executive Vice President, Strategy and Organizational Development from October 2007 until June 2008 when she was promoted to head the Wholesale Intermodal Services operation. From February 2007 until October 2007, she led our Development Team focused on cost efficiencies and organizational effectiveness across all of our companys operations. Since joining our company in 2000 as Vice President of Planning, Ms. Bailey has held several executive management positions with our Stacktrain operation, including Executive Vice President, Wholesale Product Development from November 2005 to February 2007, Executive Vice President, Business Development and Transportation Purchasing from November 2002 to November 2007, and Executive Vice President, Equipment and Logistics from January 2001 to November 2002. Prior to joining our company, her positions included Assistant Vice President for Service Planning and Operations Research for CSX Transportation, Vice President of Service Planning and Design for Southern Pacific Railroad, and consultant for Mercer Management Consulting and its predecessor firm, Temple, Barker & Sloane.
Jeffrey R. Brashares served as Executive Vice President, Chief Operating Officer Logistics Segment from June 2007, with a change in his title to Logistics Services Group President in October 2008. He served as Vice Chairman of Commercial Sales from January 2005 through May 2007. From December 2000 to December 2004, he served as President of Transportation Services of Pacer Transportation Solutions, Inc., which was formerly known as Pacer Global Logistics, Inc. From 1984 until its acquisition by our company in December 2000, Mr. Brashares was an owner and served as President of Rail Van, Inc. since 1984. Mr. Brashares joined Rail Van, Inc. as Regional Sales Manager in 1976.
Marc L. Jensen has served as Vice President, Corporate Controller since June 2007. From January 2006 until June 2007, he was Assistant Vice President, Internal Audit and Compliance. Before joining the company, Mr. Jensen was President of MLJ Consulting, Inc. from May 2000 to December 2005, providing
business process and systems consulting services, primarily to the company. Previously, Mr. Jensen served as Director of Worldwide System Support of ACS Logistics, Inc, a subsidiary of American President Lines, LTD, from 1998 to 2000 and as Director of Customer Information Support of ACS Logistics, Inc. from 1997 to 1998.
Brian C. Kane has served as Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer since September 2008. From June 2008 until September 2008, he served as Senior Vice President, Finance. From October 2006 until June 2008, he served as Executive Vice President and Chief Operating Officer of our Intermodal segment. Mr. Kane served as Vice President and Corporate Controller of our company from November 2003 until October 2006. Mr. Kane served as Vice President and Controller of Pacer Stacktrain from May 1999 until November 2003 and prior to that as Director of Financial Reporting from May 1998 until May 1999. Prior to joining our company, Mr. Kane was Vice President of Finance for the Shell Martinez Refining Company from November 1996 until May 1998 and Controller for Southern Pacific Transportation Company from April 1990 until November 1996.
Michael F. Killea has served as Executive Vice President, Chief Legal Officer and General Counsel of our company since August 2001. From October 1999 through July 2001, he was a partner at the law firm of Holland & Knight LLP in New York City and Jacksonville, Florida, and from September 1987 through September 1999, he was a partner and an associate at the law firm of OSullivan LLP (now OMelveny & Myers LLP) in New York City.
Donald C. Orris has served as an Executive Vice President of our company since January 2009 after stepping down from his role as Interim President, Intermodal Segment, in which he had served from November 2007 through December 2008. He served as our Chief Executive Officer and Chairman of the Board from May 1999 to November 2006 and as President from May 1999 through May 2006. He became Vice Chairman of the company in November 2006 with Mr. Uremovichs appointment as Chief Executive Officer and Chairman and temporarily retired as an executive officer of the company from April 2007 to November 2007. From January 1995 to September 1996, Mr. Orris served as President and Chief Operating Officer, and from 1990 until January 1995, he served as an Executive Vice President of Southern Pacific Transportation Company. Mr. Orris was the President and Chief Operating Officer of American President Domestic Company and American President Intermodal Company from 1982 until 1990.
Karen S. Rice has served as our Vice President, Human Resources since June 2008. She served as our Assistant Vice President, Human Resources between July 2006 and June 2008 and from December 2003 to July 2006 as Director, Human Resources to Pacer Transportation Solutions, Inc. Prior to joining Pacer, Ms. Rice worked in human resource management in the hospitality, banking, and financial services industries, including Adams Mark Hotel, an upscale hotel chain from June 2001 to December 2003. She served in a consulting capacity for NSB Retail Systems and Profound Communications from October 2000 to June 2001 and as the Director, Human Resources, for Kemba Columbus Credit Union from September 1999 to October 2000.
James E. Ward has served as Executive Vice President, Chief Information Officer of the company since April 2007. As an independent contractor, Mr. Ward served as acting Chief Information Officer for the company from August 2006 until joining the company as an employee. From May 2003 to April 2007, Mr. Ward served as a consultant to Dynotech, LLC, a consulting firm focusing on global ERP implementations, IT evaluations, offshore development, interim CIO positions, and data center outsourcing. During his time as a consultant, he also held interim CIO positions with Clark Steel framing, a steel framing manufacturer (from April 2005 to April 2007) and with Norton Lilly International, a provider of shipping, logistics and marine services in the United States, Canada, Panama and Caribbean ports (from May 2004 to December 2006). From July 1996 to April 2003, Mr. Ward served as Senior Vice President and Chief Information Officer of Inchcape Shipping Services, a leading marine services provider.
There is no family relationship between any of our executive officers or directors, and there are no arrangements or understandings between any of our executive officers or directors and any other person pursuant to which any of them was appointed or elected as an officer or director, other than arrangements or understandings with our directors or officers acting solely in their capacities as such.
ITEM 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANTS COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
Our common stock is listed and traded on The NASDAQ Stock Markets Global Select Market (NASDAQ) under the symbol PACR.
The following table sets forth, for our two most recent fiscal years, the per share range of high and low sales prices of our common stock as reported on NASDAQ and dividends declared.
As of December 26, 2008 there were approximately 36 record holders of our common stock.
We paid quarterly dividends of $0.15 per common share ($0.60 per common share per annum) from October 2005 through January 2009. However, in view of the challenges we face in the current economic environment and in order to conserve cash, in February 2009 our Board of Directors decided to discontinue the payment of dividends.
The declaration of future dividends and the amount thereof is in the discretion of our Board of Directors and will depend on our consolidated results of operations, financial condition, cash requirements, future prospects and other factors deemed relevant by the Board of Directors, including prevailing and forecasted economic conditions. In addition, our credit agreement imposes restrictions on our ability to pay cash dividends, including that no event of default has occurred, or would result therefrom and that we demonstrate to the administrative agent and the required lenders under the credit facility that as of the last day of the fiscal quarter most recently ended our leverage ratio on a pro forma basis after giving effect to the dividend was less than or equal to 2.50 to 1.00. The leverage ratio is calculated using earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization (EBITDA). As defined in the 2007 Credit Agreement, the calculation of EBITDA excludes non-recurring, non-cash items such as the goodwill impairment write-off taken in 2008.
Equity Compensation Plan Information
Information concerning our equity compensation plans is shown under Item 12. Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Recent Sales of Unregistered Securities
Purchases of Equity Securities by the Issuer and Affiliated Purchasers
On June 12, 2006, we announced that our Board of Directors had authorized the purchase of up to $60 million of our common stock, and, on April 3, 2007, we announced that our Board of Directors had authorized the purchase of an additional $100 million of our common stock. Both authorizations expire on June 15, 2009. We repurchased a total of 2,938,635 shares at an average price of $24.64 per share through December 28, 2007, and 19,039 shares at an average price of $21.54 per share during 2008. At December 26, 2008, $61.1 million remains available for the purchase of common stock under the current Board authorizations. We intend to make further share repurchases from time to time as market conditions warrant. Our credit agreement imposes restrictions on our ability to repurchase our capital stock, including that no event of default has occurred or would result therefrom and that we demonstrate to the administrative agent and the required lenders under the credit facility that as of the last day of the fiscal quarter most recently ended our leverage ratio on a pro forma basis after giving effect to the repurchase was less than or equal to 2.50 to 1.00. The leverage ratio is calculated using EBITDA. As defined in the 2007 Credit Agreement, the calculation of EBITDA excludes non-recurring, non-cash items such as the goodwill impairment write-off taken in 2008.
Common Stock Repurchases
There were no common stock repurchases during the fourth quarter of fiscal 2008.
The graph below shows, for the five years ended December 26, 2008, the cumulative total return on an investment of $100 assumed to have been made on December 26, 2003 (the last day of trading for the fiscal year ended December 26, 2003) in our common stock. The graph compares such return with that of comparable investments assumed to have been made on the same date in the Nasdaq Composite Index and the Nasdaq Transportation Index. Cumulative total stockholder returns for our common stock, the Nasdaq Composite Index and the Nasdaq Transportation Index are based on our fiscal year.
The total return for the assumed investment assumes the reinvestment of all dividends. We began paying dividends in October 2005 and continued through January 2009. In view of the challenges we face in the current economic environment and in order to conserve cash, in February 2009 our Board of Directors decided to discontinue the payment of dividends.
Our common stock is listed and traded on The NASDAQ Stock Markets Global Select Market (trading symbol: PACR).
The comparisons in the graph below are based upon historical data and are not indicative of, or intended to forecast, future performance of our common stock.
* The performance graph is not soliciting material, is not deemed filed with the SEC, and is not to be incorporated by reference into any filing of our company under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, whether made before or after the date hereof and irrespective of any general incorporation language contained in such filing.
ITEM 6. SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA
The following table presents, as of the dates and for the periods indicated, selected historical financial information for our company. The selected historical information at December 26, 2008 and December 28, 2007 and for the fiscal years ended December 26, 2008, December 28, 2007 and December 29, 2006 have been derived from, and should be read in conjunction with, our audited consolidated financial statements and related notes appearing elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. The selected historical information at December 29, 2006, December 30, 2005 and December, 31, 2004 and for the fiscal years ended December 30, 2005 and December 31, 2004 have been derived from our audited financial statements which are not included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
The following table should also be read in conjunction with Item 7. Managements Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
1/ 2007 includes $6.0 million for facility closings and other severance costs. See note 3 to the notes to our consolidated financial statements.
2/ Based upon the completed evaluation of software development work in our Stacktrain unit that had been performed by a developer, we determined to abandon the software and to write-off all $11.3 million of capitalized costs.
3/ 2008 includes $16.6 million and 2007 includes $10.6 million for a software license agreement with SAP America, Inc. See Note 9 to the notes to our consolidated financial statements.
4/ In accordance with SFAS 142, we recorded an $87.9 million pre-tax write-off of goodwill ($73.3 million after-tax or $2.11 per diluted share) related to the logistics segment in 2008.
ITEM 7. MANAGEMENTS DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
We are a leading asset-light North American third-party logistics provider offering a broad array of services to facilitate the movement of freight from origin to destination. We operate in two segments, the intermodal segment and the logistics segment. See Note 8 to the notes to our consolidated financial statements included in this report for segment information. Our intermodal segment provides intermodal rail transportation, local cartage and intermodal marketing services. Our logistics segment provides non-intermodal highway brokerage, truck services, warehousing and distribution, international freight forwarding and supply chain management services.
In 2008, Pacer continued to focus on four major initiatives designed to position our company for the future: (1) continuing the development of our best-in-class intermodal services, (2) redefining our relationships with our major rail suppliers, (3) improving performance in our logistics segment, and (4) implementing the SAP systems platform to improve productivity and rationalize our cost structure.
However, we have been challenged by the current economic environment, which is nearly unprecedented in recent times. In accordance with Statement of Financial Accounting Standards No. 142, Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets (SFAS 142), we performed the standard annual evaluation of our goodwill. Based on a combination of factors, including the current economic downturn, the steep, sustained decline in our stock price and market capitalization that has continued into 2009, and the operating results of our logistics reporting unit, we concluded that the carrying value of our logistics reporting unit (including goodwill) exceeded the fair value of our logistics reporting unit. As a result, we recorded a non-cash impairment charge of $87.9 million, $73.3 million net of tax, or $2.11 per share during 2008. As a result of our annual impairment analysis, we concluded that no impairment of our intermodal reporting unit had occurred, though the excess of that units fair value over its carrying value had decreased substantially. See below for further discussion.
We believe, however, that our sources of liquidity and low debt level will help us weather current economic conditions. Our operating cash flows continue to finance the majority of our capital requirements including costs associated with our SAP software project. We estimate that 2009 total capital expenditures will be $12.8 million, of which $8.2 million will relate to the SAP project. At December 26, 2008, we had an outstanding debt balance of $44.6 million and $184.6 million available under our 2007 Credit Agreement which expires on April 5, 2012. The 2007 Credit Agreement is supplied by a syndicate of eleven banks, led by Bank of America with a 22% funding commitment. No other bank in the syndicate has a funding commitment greater than 12%. We complied with all financial covenants in our 2007 Credit Agreement at December 26, 2008. The 2007 Credit Agreement includes an interest coverage ratio and a leverage ratio, both of which are calculated using EBITDA. As defined in the 2007 Credit Agreement, the calculation of EBITDA excludes non-recurring non-cash items such as the goodwill impairment write-off taken in 2008.
In 2008, our overall Stacktrain volumes declined 5.9% from 2007 and include an 11.3% automotive shipment decline, a 4.3% domestic decline and 2.6% international shipment decline, and our rail brokerage volumes were down 8.9% from the prior year, with most of the decrease occurring in the fourth quarter of 2008. These volume declines largely reflect the difficult conditions in a number of the industries we serve, particularly the automotive industry, but also consumer products and international shippers. In view of the current economic conditions, we expect that volumes will remain depressed and could decline further in 2009 placing added pressure on our rates and margins.
Our annual revenues continued to grow in both operating segments. Intermodal segment revenues were up 4.2% year-over-year and logistics segment revenues increased 13.4% due primarily to increased exports from our international unit. Fuel surcharges averaged 34.3% during 2008 compared to 21.0% during 2007. Operating income for the year was $1.8 million, and we incurred a net loss of $16.6 million,
both of which include the non-cash goodwill impairment charge. Excluding the goodwill impairment charge, our operating income was $89.7 million, or 5.1% lower than 2007. However, net income excluding the goodwill impairment was $56.7 million in 2008, or 4.4% higher than 2007, and included a non-recurring $3.5 million tax benefit ($0.10 per share) related to the resolution of open tax positions. See the table on page 48 reconciling the GAAP financial results to adjusted financial results excluding the goodwill impairment charge.
Operating income for the intermodal segment was up 1.2% compared to last year. The modest increase was due to the timing of the fuel surcharge changes offset by competitive pressures in the marketplace, higher costs associated with increased traffic on the higher cost BNSF Railway as well as increased PacerDirect volumes. Operating income for the logistics segment, excluding the impairment charge, was down almost 105% from 2007. The primary drivers of the decrease were excess capacity, declining prices and higher transportation and fuel costs affecting our truck services and truck brokerage units. Our investment in personnel to grow the truck brokerage operation and expand service offerings also reduced income from operations during 2008.
Our operating cash flows remained strong at $59.6 million for 2008. During 2008, we incurred $24.8 million of capital expenditures, primarily for the SAP software project, repaid $20.2 million of debt and capital lease obligations and paid $20.8 million of cash dividends. In view of the challenges we face in the current economic environment and in order to conserve cash, in February 2009 our Board of Directors decided to discontinue the payment of dividends.
In 2008, we implemented an initiative to unify our business units under a new single Pacer brand identity to more effectively connect customers to Pacers services capabilities and improve our customers ease of doing business with Pacer. This effort includes the reduction of eight legacy websites into the newly launched pacer.com website which we expect to improve our customers online experience and more effectively communicate the value of the entire Pacer portfolio of services.
We have also continued our investment in the SAP software project and during 2008 implemented the finance and accounting modules in all but one of our business units. The last business unit, Stacktrain, will go on-line with the financial and accounting modules during the first quarter of 2009. Other operational elements of the new system for the intermodal and logistics segments are expected to be implemented by the end of 2009 and in 2010, respectively, and include equipment management, pricing, billing and tracking and tracing applications.
During the fourth quarter of 2008, in response to the ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach implementing clean truck plans which ban trucks that do not meet certain emissions standards from entering the ports, assess fees on shipments moved with trucks that do not meet 2007 emission standards and impose other requirements on trucking companies serving these ports, we placed 230 new trucks meeting 2007 emission standards into service with owner-operators servicing the ports. The new trucks will reduce our customers exposure to new fees from the ports as well as meet the ports new truck emission standards.
We believe that the current U.S. and global recession will continue into 2009 impacting our business and financial results. Overall volumes are continuing to be depressed in 2009, especially with further cutbacks in the majority of the industries that we serve. For example, the number and length of automotive plant shutdowns is increasing in 2009. During economic downturns, demand for transportation services decreases and creates excess capacity and rate pressures which further impacts earnings. The severity of this recession, the length and depth of which can not be predicted, will continue to impact our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
Critical Accounting Policies
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with United States generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) requires management to make estimates and assumptions about future events that affect the amounts reported in the financial statements and accompanying notes. Future events and their effects cannot be predicted with absolute certainty. Therefore, the determination of estimates requires the exercise of judgment. Actual results inevitably will differ from those estimates, and such differences may be material to the financial statements. Management believes the following critical
accounting policies affect its more significant judgments and estimates used in the preparation of its consolidated financial statements.
We recognize revenue when all of the following conditions are met: persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists, delivery has occurred or services have been rendered, the price is determinable and collectability is reasonably assured. We maintain signed contracts with many of our customers and have bills of lading specifying shipment details including the rates charged for our services. Our Stacktrain operation recognizes revenue for loads that are in transit at the end of an accounting period on a percentage-of-completion basis. Revenue is recorded for the portion of the transit that has been completed because reasonably dependable estimates of the transit status of loads are available in our computer systems. Our intermodal segment cartage and rail brokerage operations and our logistics segment recognize revenue after services have been completed.
Both our intermodal and logistics segments estimate the cost of purchased transportation and services and accrue an amount on a load by load basis in a manner that is consistent with revenue recognition.
We maintain allowances for doubtful accounts for estimated losses resulting from the inability of our customers to make required payments. Estimates are used in determining this allowance based on our historical collection experience, current trends, credit policy and a percentage of our accounts receivable by aging category. If the financial condition of our customers were to deteriorate, resulting in an impairment of their ability to make payments, additional allowances could be required. The following table illustrates the allowance for doubtful accounts as a percentage of accounts receivable for 2008, 2007 and 2006 (in millions, except percentages):
Historically, our actual losses have been within the estimated allowances. However, unexpected or significant future events or changes in trends could result in a material impact to future consolidated results of operations. For example, in 2008 our allowance for doubtful accounts increased marginally from 2007 to reflect the current economic environment. While we have experienced additional customer bankruptcies in 2008, our days sales outstanding and delinquent accounts receivable remained consistent with prior years. Based on our results for the fiscal year ended December 26, 2008, a 25 percent deviation from our estimates would have resulted in an increase or decrease in expense of approximately $1.2 million. The following analysis demonstrates the potential effect that a 25 percent deviation from our estimates would have had on our consolidated results of operations and is not intended to provide an estimated range of exposure or expected deviation (in millions, except per share data):
We adopted Financial Accounting Standards Board Statement of Financial Accounting Standard No. 142, Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets (SFAS 142) on December 29, 2001 (the first day of our fiscal 2002). Our annual testing in 2008 in accordance with SFAS 142 resulted in an impairment in the value of goodwill assigned to our logistics reporting unit. Based on a combination of factors, including the current economic downturn, the steep, sustained decline in our stock price and resulting market capitalization, and the operating results of our logistics reporting unit, we concluded that the carrying value of our logistics reporting unit (including goodwill) exceeded the fair value of our logistics reporting unit. As a result, we recorded a non-cash goodwill impairment charge of $87.9 million, $73.3 million net of tax, or $2.11 per share during 2008. Based on our year-end 2008 annual impairment analysis, we concluded that no impairment of the goodwill assigned to our intermodal reporting unit had occurred; however, the excess of fair value of the intermodal reporting unit (including goodwill) over the carrying value of the intermodal reporting unit declined substantially, continuing the trend over the previous two years. The excess of fair value over carrying value of our intermodal reporting unit as of December 26, 2008, the annual testing date, was approximately $65 million, as compared to $288 million as of December 28, 2007 and $1.1 billion on December 29, 2006. The carrying amount of goodwill at December 26, 2008, after the impairment charge, assigned to our intermodal and logistics reporting units was $169.0 million and $31.4 million, respectively.
Goodwill and other intangible assets are subject to periodic testing, at least annually, for impairment, and recognition of impairment losses in the future could be required based on the methodology for measuring impairments described below. SFAS 142 requires a two-step method for determining goodwill impairment where step one is to compare the fair value of the reporting unit with the units carrying amount, including goodwill. If this test indicates that the fair value is less than the carrying value, then step two is required to compare the implied fair value of the reporting units goodwill with the carrying amount of the reporting units goodwill. We determine the fair value of each reporting unit based upon the average value determined using an income approach based on the present value of estimated future cash flows, and a market approach based on market price data of stocks of corporations engaged in similar businesses. If the carrying amount of the reporting units goodwill is greater than the implied fair value of its goodwill, an impairment loss must be recognized for the excess and charged to operations. We base our fair value estimates on projected financial information which we believe to be reasonable. However, actual future results may differ from those projections, and those differences may be material. The valuation methodology used to estimate the fair value of our total company and reporting units requires inputs and assumptions that reflect current market conditions as well as management judgment.
The valuation methodology used to estimate the fair value of our total company and reporting units requires inputs and assumptions that reflect current market conditions as well as management judgment. Solely for purposes of establishing inputs for the fair value calculations described above related to goodwill impairment testing, we made the following assumptions. We assumed that the current economic downturn would continue through 2009, followed by a recovery period beginning in 2010. We applied transportation margin assumptions reflecting our current estimates. We used our current estimate of operations for the forecast period and applied an 11.5% discount rate to these interim periods. We applied a 3.5% growth factor to our intermodal reporting unit and a 4% growth factor to our logistics reporting unit to calculate the terminal value of our reporting units under the income approach. The 11.5% discount rate was the weighted average cost of capital using comparable publicly traded companies. The sum of the fair values of our reporting units was reconciled to our current market capitalization plus an estimated control premium. Our fair value estimates based on these assumptions were used to prepare projected financial information which we believe to be reasonable. However, actual future results may differ from those projections, and those differences may be material.
The calculation of fair value for our intermodal and logistics reporting units could increase or decrease in the future depending on changes in the inputs and assumptions used, such as changes
in the reporting units future growth rates, control premium, discount rates, etc. In order to evaluate the sensitivity of the fair value calculations on the goodwill impairment test, we applied a hypothetical 5% decrease to the fair value of our intermodal reporting unit. This hypothetical 5% decrease would result in excess fair value over carrying value of $49 million for our intermodal reporting unit at December 26, 2008.
Use of Non-GAAP Financial Measures
From time to time in press releases regarding quarterly earnings, presentations and other communications, we may provide financial information determined by methods other than in accordance with GAAP. Recent non-GAAP financial measures have presented financial information excluding our goodwill impairment write-off in 2008, a non-cash charge. Management uses this non-GAAP measure in its analysis of the companys performance and regularly reports such information to our Board of Directors. Management believes that presentations of financial measures excluding the impact of this item provides useful supplemental information that is essential to a proper understanding of the operating results of our core businesses and allows investors, management and our Board to more easily compare operating results from period to period. However, the use of any such non-GAAP financial information should not be considered in isolation or as a substitute for net income, cash flows from operations or other income or cash flow data prepared in accordance with GAAP or as a measure of our profitability or liquidity.
Our intermodal segments Stacktrain operations fiscal year ends on the last Friday in December and the intermodal segments local cartage and rail brokerage operations fiscal year and our logistics segments fiscal year end on the last day in December. The following section describes some of our revenue and expense categories and is provided to facilitate investors understanding of the discussion of our historical financial results, including these revenue and expense items, discussed under the caption Results of Operations.
The intermodal segments revenues from Stacktrain operations are generated through rates, fuel surcharges and other fees charged to customers for the transportation of freight utilizing the rail transportation services that we purchase from rail carriers under our transportation agreements with North American railroads. The growth of these revenues is primarily driven by increases in volume of freight shipped and rate changes on a route-by-route basis. The average rate is impacted by product mix, rail routes utilized, fuel surcharge and market conditions. Also included in revenues are railcar rental income, container per diem charges and incentives paid by APL Limited and others for the repositioning of empty containers with domestic westbound (backhaul) loads. Revenues are reported net of volume discounts provided to customers. Our intermodal segment Stacktrain operation generates revenues from three lines of business: international (shipments tendered by ocean shipping companies), automotive (shipments tendered by intermediaries arranging transportation for automotive manufacturers and parts suppliers) and domestic (shipments tendered by intermodal marketing companies for shippers within North America). Growth in the intermodal segments revenues from local cartage operations, which primarily support our Stacktrain operations and intermodal marketing companies (including our rail brokerage unit) through the use of independent owner-operators, is driven primarily by increased volume as well as length of haul and the rates charged to the customer. Our rail brokerage unit generates revenues through intermodal marketing operations which involves arranging the movement of freight in containers and trailers utilizing truck and rail transportation. Increases in revenues from intermodal marketing operations are generated from increased volumes, rate increases, product mix and route changes.
The logistics segments revenues are generated through rates and other fees charged for our portfolio of freight transportation services, including highway brokerage, truck services, warehousing and distribution, international NVOCC, freight forwarding and supply chain management services. Overall growth in revenues for the logistics segment is driven by expanding our service offerings and marketing our broad array of transportation services to our existing customer base and to new customers. Growth in revenues from highway brokerage is driven primarily through increased volume and outsourcing by
companies of their transportation and logistics needs. Growth in revenues from truck services operations, which primarily provide specialized transportation services to customers through independent contractors and owner-operators, is driven primarily by increased volume as well as length of haul and the rate per mile charged to the customer. Increases in revenues for warehousing and distribution, which includes the handling, consolidation/deconsolidation and storage of freight on behalf of the shipper, are driven by increased outsourcing and import volumes and by shipping lines increased use of third-party containers, rather than their own containers, on the West Coast to move freight inland. Through our supply chain management services, we manage all aspects of the supply chain from inbound sourcing and delivery logistics through outbound shipment, handling, consolidation, deconsolidation, distribution, and just-in-time delivery of end products to our customers customers. Revenues for supply chain management services are recognized on a net basis and increases are driven by increased outsourcing. We also provide international freight forwarding services, which involves arranging transportation and other services necessary to move our customers freight to and from a foreign country. Increases in revenues for international freight forwarding are driven by increases in international trade volumes, rate increases, product mix and route changes.
Cost of Purchased Transportation and Services
The intermodal segments cost of purchased transportation and related services consists primarily of the amounts charged to us by railroads and local trucking companies under our agreements with these carriers. Third-party rail costs are charged through agreements with the railroads and are dependent upon the competitive environment, capacity constraints, fuel surcharges, product mix and traffic lanes. In addition, terminal and cargo handling services represent the variable expenses directly associated with handling freight at a terminal location. The cost of these services is variable in nature and is based on the volume of freight shipped and rates charged.
The logistics segments cost of purchased transportation and related services consists of amounts paid to third parties under our agreements with them to provide such services, such as independent contractor truck drivers, ocean carriers, freight terminal operators and dock workers. Sub-contracted or independent operators are paid on a percentage of revenues, mileage or a fixed fee from point-to-point or between zones.
Direct Operating Expenses
Direct operating expenses are both fixed and variable expenses directly relating to our Stacktrain operations and consist of equipment lease expense, equipment maintenance and repair costs, fixed terminal and cargo handling expenses and other direct variable expenses. Our fleet of leased equipment is financed through a variety of short- and long-term leases. Increases to our equipment fleet will primarily be through additional leases as the growth of our business dictates. Equipment maintenance and repair costs consist of the costs related to the upkeep of the equipment fleet, which can be considered semi-variable in nature, as a certain amount relates to the annual preventative maintenance costs in addition to amounts driven by fleet usage. Fixed terminal and cargo handling costs primarily relate to the fixed rent and storage expense charged to us by terminal operators and is expected to remain relatively fixed.
Selling, General and Administrative Expenses
The intermodal segments selling, general and administrative expenses consist of costs relating to customer acquisition, billing, customer service, salaries and related expenses of the executive and administrative staff, office expenses and professional fees, and includes the $10.6 million annual fee currently paid to APL Limited for information technology services under a long-term agreement (of which $3.4 million has been subject to a 3% compounded annual increase since May 2003).
The logistics segments selling, general and administrative expenses relate to the costs of customer acquisition, billing, customer service and salaries and related expenses of marketing, as well as the executive and administrative staffs compensation, office expenses and professional fees.
Corporate selling, general and administrative expenses relate to the costs of executive and administrative compensation, and internal audit, marketing, finance, legal, and human resources functions.
Results of Operations
Fiscal Year Ended December 26, 2008 Compared to Fiscal Year Ended December 29, 2007
The following table sets forth our historical financial data for the fiscal years ended December 26, 2008 and December 28, 2007.
Financial Data Comparison by Reportable Segment
Fiscal Years Ended December 26, 2008 and December 28, 2007
Revenues. Revenues increased $118.3 million, or 6.0%, for the fiscal year ended December 26, 2008 compared to the fiscal year ended December 28, 2007. Intermodal segment revenues increased $65.5 million, reflecting increases in our Stacktrain, and cartage operations offset in part by a decline in rail brokerage revenues. Stacktrain revenues increased $56.3 million in 2008 compared to 2007 and reflected increases in all three Stacktrain lines of business. Avoided repositioning cost, or ARC, revenues (the incremental revenue to Pacer for moving international containers in domestic service) were comparable between periods. The period-over-period increases in the three Stacktrain lines of business were as follows:
Rail brokerage revenues for 2008 were $1.1 million, or 0.3%, below 2007 due to an 8.9% decline in volumes related to the economic downturn, Midwest floods and loss of customers during 2008. While overall volumes were down compared to last year, traffic moved on our Stacktrain unit increased during 2008. This was partially offset by a 9.4% increase in the average revenue per load, due primarily to higher fuel surcharges. Cartage revenues were $10.2 million, or 10.0%, above 2007 due primarily to increased intra-segment revenues from our Stacktrain and rail brokerage units. Cartage volumes grew 7.9% in 2008, and increased use of our cartage services by our Stacktrain and rail brokerage units will continue to be a management focus in 2009. All three cartage regions, West, East and Midwest, recorded increased revenues from 2007.
Revenues in our logistics segment increased $53.8 million, or 13.4%, in 2008 compared to 2007, reflecting increased revenues in all logistic segment business units with the exception of the warehousing and distribution and supply chain services units. The 29.0% revenue increase in our international unit was due to strong export business coupled with increased agricultural shipments. Our truck services unit revenues increased 10.6% and included increases from owner/operator, brokerage and company truck operations as well as increased fuel surcharges (which partially offset increased fuel costs that could not be fully passed through to our customers). Our truck brokerage unit recorded a revenue increase of 2.7% due to the combination of traffic generated from a program implemented in October 2007 for additional personnel to expand service offerings and to fuel surcharges, partially offset by the loss of a customer in late 2007. Our warehousing and distribution units revenues decreased 0.2% due primarily to reductions resulting from a customer moving into their own distribution center and the closure of a container transload
facility. The transload facility did not achieve anticipated volumes as a result of increased inland transportation costs. Our transload business is handled at other existing facilities. This decrease was substantially offset by more year-round warehousing business compared to 2007. Our supply chain services unit revenues decreased 6.4% due to reduced management fees associated with the loss of a customer.
Cost of Purchased Transportation and Services. Cost of purchased transportation and services increased $122.0 million, or 7.9%, in 2008 compared to 2007. Despite declining volumes, the intermodal segments cost of purchased transportation and services increased $64.2 million, or 5.3%, in 2008 compared to 2007. Stacktrain experienced a 13.4% increase in the cost per container due to increased fuel costs from our underlying rail and other service providers, rate increases from our underlying rail carriers, increased traffic on the higher cost BNSF Railway and costs associated with some rerouting required due to the Midwest floods. Local dray costs from the ramp to customer location increased $10.8 million in 2008 compared to 2007 due to the increase in door-to-door PacerDirect product volumes. In addition, repositioning costs increased $6.4 million for required container and chassis repositioning reflecting the imbalances in the network, as well as additional costs associated with the increased traffic on the BNSF Railway. The increased cartage costs were related to the increased shipments noted above. The decreased rail brokerage costs were related to the decline in volumes associated with the economic downturn, Midwest floods and the loss of a customer in 2008.
The overall transportation margin percentage, revenues less the cost of purchased transportation divided by revenues, for the intermodal segment declined from 23.0% in 2007 to 22.1% in 2008. The decrease was due to the added local dray costs associated with the increase in door-to-door PacerDirect product volumes, increased traffic on the higher cost BNSF Railway, lower pricing to maintain equipment flow, minimize repositioning costs and maintain volume due to competitive pressures, and increases in underlying rail costs both in contract lanes pursuant to contract rate adjustment provisions and rail rate actions in non-contract lanes.
Cost of purchased transportation and services in our logistics segment increased $58.8 million, or 17.8%, in 2008 compared to 2007, reflecting increases in all business units with the exception of the warehousing and distribution and supply chain services units where costs were comparable between periods. The overall transportation margin percentage for our logistics businesses decreased from 17.8% in 2007 to 14.6% in 2008 due primarily to excess capacity affecting our truck services and truck brokerage units and higher purchased transportation and fuel costs affecting our truck services, truck brokerage and international units.
Direct Operating Expenses. Direct operating expenses, which are only incurred by our Stacktrain operations, increased $1.7 million, or 1.3%, in 2008 compared to 2007 due primarily to higher container lease costs partially offset by slightly lower equipment maintenance and repair costs related to a smaller fleet of chassis and newer containers requiring less maintenance. At December 26, 2008, we had 656, or 2.3%, more containers and 519, or 1.7%, fewer chassis than at December 28, 2007.
Selling, General and Administrative Expenses. Selling, general and administrative expenses decreased $0.6 million, or 0.3%, in 2008 compared to 2007. The decrease was due to $6.0 million incurred in 2007 for the severance of 134 personnel that did not recur in 2008, $1.1 million less stock based compensation costs as well as reduced professional fees during 2008. Substantially offsetting these decreases were increases of $5.5 million incurred related to our SAP software project, an increased performance incentive accrual and increased personal injury and cargo claims costs during 2008 at our truck services unit. In addition, in 2007 there was an arbitration settlement that reduced costs in our supply chain services and corporate units. The average employment level was 39 higher in 2008 compared to 2007 and reflected increases primarily in our truck brokerage unit associated with efforts to expand service offerings, and increases associated with our SAP software project.
Goodwill Impairment Write-Off. In accordance with SFAS 142, we conducted our annual goodwill impairment test at the end of 2008. Based on a combination of factors including the recent deterioration of the economy and the steep, sustained decline in our stock price and resulting market capitalization, and the operating results of our logistics reporting unit, we concluded that the carrying value of our logistics
reporting unit (including goodwill) exceeded the fair value of our logistics reporting unit. As a result, we recorded a non-cash goodwill impairment charge of $87.9 million, $73.3 million net of tax, or $2.11 per diluted share during 2008. Further information regarding the impairment is detailed in Note 1 of the notes to our consolidated financial statements.
Depreciation and Amortization. Depreciation and amortization expense was comparable between periods. As additional components of our SAP software project are placed in service in 2009 and 2010, we expect increases in depreciation expense.
Income/(loss) From Operations. Income from operations decreased $92.7 million, or 98.1% from $94.5 million in 2007 to $1.8 million in 2008.
Income from operations excluding goodwill impairment decreased $4.8 million, or 5.1%, from $94.5 million in 2007 to $89.7 million in 2008. See the table below reconciling the GAAP financial results to adjusted financial results excluding the goodwill impairment charge.
Intermodal segment income from operations increased $1.3 million. This relatively minor increase was due to downward margin pressures which were seen throughout the year resulting from increased pricing pressure, increasing operations on the higher cost BNSF network and volume declines which were substantial for all businesses in the fourth quarter, but were seen in the automotive line of business throughout the year. Offsetting these negatives were a positive margin impact of rising fuel prices where our rail contracts lag our market fuel surcharges, increasing cartage volumes and revenues and lower selling, general and administrative costs. The lower selling, general and administrative costs were due, in large part, to the absence in 2008 of $1.8 million in severance costs for the intermodal segment expensed during 2007 relating to our facility rationalization and severance program.
Logistics segment income from operations excluding goodwill impairment decreased $4.3 million to a loss of $0.2 million in 2008 compared to income of $4.1 million in 2007. The primary drivers of this decrease were excess capacity, declining prices and higher transportation and fuel costs affecting our truck services and truck brokerage units. Our investment in personnel to grow the truck brokerage operation also reduced income from operations during 2008. The decline in income from operations from our supply chain services unit was due to the loss of a customer. In addition, there was a $0.8 million increase in logistics segment costs related primarily to the SAP software project. Partially offsetting these declines in income from operations was increased income from operations from our warehousing and distribution unit due to higher year-round warehousing business and our international unit with increased export traffic. Segment operating income also reflected the absence of $2.1 million of severance costs incurred during 2007 from our facility rationalization and severance program.
Corporate expenses were $1.8 million higher than 2007 due to higher performance incentive accruals in 2008 compared to 2007, partially offset by lower stock based compensation costs and lower professional fees. Corporate expenses in 2008 also reflected the absence of $2.1 million of severance costs incurred in 2007 from our facility rationalization and severance program.
Interest (Expense)/Income. Interest (expense)/income decreased by $1.3 million for 2008 compared to 2007. This decrease reflects the lower average debt balance outstanding during 2008 and reduced interest rates. The outstanding debt balance at December 26, 2008 was $44.6 million compared to $64.0 million at December 28, 2007. The average interest rate during 2008 was 2.9% compared to 5.7% during 2007. In addition, during 2008, we capitalized $0.7 million of interest related to the SAP software project.
Loss on Extinguishment of Debt. On April 5, 2007, we completed the refinancing of our term loan and revolving credit facility with a new $250 million, five-year revolving credit facility. See the discussion under Liquidity and Capital Resources below. Charges totaling $1.8 million were incurred due to the write-off of existing deferred loan fees related to the prior credit facility.
Income Tax Expense. Income tax expense decreased $18.7 million in 2008 compared to 2007 due primarily to the tax impacts of the $87.9 million pre-tax goodwill impairment charge. Excluding the
goodwill impairment charge, income tax expense decreased by $4.1 million from 2007, and included a tax benefit from the release of $3.5 million in tax reserves resulting from the resolution of open tax positions. The effective tax rate, excluding the goodwill impairment charge and reserve adjustment, was comparable between periods.
Net Income/(loss). Net income decreased $70.9 million, or 130.6% from $54.3 million in 2007 to a loss of $16.6 million in 2008. Net income excluding goodwill impairment increased by $2.4 million, or 4.4%, from $54.3 million in 2007 to $56.7 million in 2008, reflecting reduced income from operations (down $4.8 million), reduced interest expense (down $1.3 million) and reduced income tax expense (down $4.1 million) as discussed above. Net income in 2008 also reflected an increase over 2007 due to a $1.8 million loss in extinguishment of debt incurred in 2007.
Reconciliation of GAAP Financial Results to Adjusted Financial Results Excluding the Goodwill Impairment Charge
For the Fiscal Year Ended December 26, 2008 (in millions, except share and per share amounts)
1/ Logistics segment goodwill impairment charge.
2/ Estimated tax impact at the statutory tax rate.
Fiscal Year Ended December 28, 2007 Compared to Fiscal Year Ended December 29, 2006
The following table sets forth our historical financial data for the fiscal years ended December 28, 2007 and December 29, 2006.
Financial Data Comparison by Reportable Segment
Fiscal Years Ended December 28, 2007 and December 29, 2006
Revenues. Revenues increased $81.6 million, or 4.3%, for the fiscal year ended December 28, 2007 compared to the fiscal year ended December 29, 2006. Intermodal segment revenues increased $76.2 million for 2007, reflecting increases in our Stacktrain, rail brokerage and cartage operations. Stacktrain revenues increased $58.8 million in 2007 compared to 2006 and reflected increases in all three Stacktrain lines of business, partially offset by lower avoided repositioning cost ARC revenues (the incremental
revenue to Pacer for moving international containers in domestic service) and lower container and chassis per diem revenues. The period-over-period increases in the three Stacktrain lines of business were as follows:
The $3.2 million decline in container and chassis per diem revenues in 2007 compared to 2006 reflected recoveries of container and chassis misuse charges from several third parties (a result of improved billing and collection practices) which benefited 2006 combined with a reduction in the number of days equipment was controlled by the customer. While the reduction in customer controlled days reduces per diem revenue, it provides an operational benefit allowing faster equipment reloading. Container and chassis per diem revenues have declined over the past two years due primarily to the reduction in the number of customer controlled days, and we anticipate that this reduction may continue but at a slower rate. Westbound ARC revenues for 2007 were $0.7 million below 2006 because of rate competition and the use by international shipping companies of their own equipment for export loading. Rail brokerage revenues for 2007 were $15.3 million, or 3.6%, above 2006 primarily due to a 4.3% increase in volume partially offset by competitive rate pressures. The average revenue per load for our rail brokerage unit declined by 0.6% in 2007 compared to 2006. Cartage revenues increased $2.1 million due primarily to increased revenues in the Midwest and Pacific Northwest regions including two additional business locations which began operations in the latter part of 2006, partially offset by reduced Southern California business including reduced container repositioning revenue as well as reduced port to rail terminal drayage related to decreases from two international customers.
Revenues in our logistics segment increased $5.1 million, or 1.3%, in 2007 compared to 2006 reflecting increased revenues in all units except the truck services and truck brokerage units. The warehousing and distribution units revenues increased 15.8% because of current customers requiring year-round storage and increased storage and warehouse handling revenues. In addition, this unit started a container transload facility in Southern California in June 2007, which, while not yet profitable, contributed to the revenue increase. Our supply chain services units revenues increased 44.8% principally due to the addition of a new customer, and our international units revenues increased 11.5% because of increased import/export business partially offset by reduced overseas aid cargo and agricultural shipments. Our truck services units revenues decreased by 5.4% as a result of lower truck counts and soft demand and our truck brokerage units revenues decreased by 30.3% in 2007 compared to 2006 due to fewer shipments and competitive rate pressures.
Cost of Purchased Transportation and Services. Cost of purchased transportation and services increased $91.3 million, or 6.3%, in 2007 compared to 2006. The intermodal segments cost of purchased transportation and services increased $86.2 million, or 7.7%, for 2007 compared to 2006 reflecting increases in Stacktrain and rail brokerage costs, partially offset by reduced cartage costs. The larger
percentage increase in intermodal segment purchased transportation and services costs compared to intermodal segment revenue was due to arbitration and other settlements benefiting 2006, increases in underlying service provider costs in 2007, increases in local dray costs and equipment repositioning costs discussed below. The Stacktrain increase was related to the increased shipments noted above combined with a 5.9% increase in the cost per container because of increased fuel costs and rates from our underlying service providers, and changes in business mix. Reducing the Stacktrain 2006 costs was a gross benefit of $5.3 million, related to expenses accrued in prior years, from the settlement of a series of arbitration cases and other rate disputes during 2006 that resulted in the reversal of prior year expense accruals in 2006. In addition, in connection with our periodic reconciliation and settlement of amounts owed to our carriers based on actual usage, during the first quarter of 2006 we reached favorable settlements of several prior period rail payables that resulted in lower reported transportation costs in 2006 compared to 2007. Local dray costs from the ramp to the customer location increased $5.1 million in 2007 compared to 2006 due primarily to the increase in PacerDirect product volumes and Stacktrain international volumes. Equipment repositioning costs were up 1.7% in 2007 compared to 2006 due to increased chassis repositioning costs to support our trailer-on-flatcar product. The increased rail brokerage costs were related to the increased shipments noted above combined with increased fuel costs and rates from our underlying service providers, and changes in business mix. The cartage decrease in costs is related to less ocean port to rail terminal and back type of movements, also known as landbridge movements. Ocean shipping lines are loading containers onto rail cars at the port rather than moving them inland to the rail terminal for loading to a larger extent in 2007 compared to 2006.
The overall transportation margin percentage, revenues less the cost of purchased transportation divided by revenues, for the intermodal segment decreased from 24.8% in 2006 to 23.0% in 2007 because of the arbitration and rail payable settlements in 2006 discussed above, competition and lower pricing to maintain equipment flow and minimize repositioning costs. Transportation margins were also impacted by increases in underlying rail costs both in contract lanes pursuant to market rate adjustment provisions and in non-contract lanes.
Cost of purchased transportation and services in our logistics business increased $4.8 million in 2007 compared to 2006 reflecting the increased business in the majority of the logistics segment units. The overall transportation margin percentage for our logistics segment decreased from 18.0% in 2006 to 17.8% in 2007 due primarily to business mix changes and competitive pressures primarily in our truck services unit due to the recent economic downturn. The transportation margin percentage in each of our other logistics segment units was slightly higher in 2007 compared to 2006.
Direct Operating Expenses. Direct operating expenses, which are only incurred by our Stacktrain operations, increased $7.4 million, or 6.0%, in 2007 compared to 2006 because of higher container and chassis lease costs for newer 53 ft. equipment and higher maintenance costs associated with increased per unit material costs and increased equipment velocity. Our overall fleet size declined in 2007 compared to 2006 due to the retirement of more 48-ft. equipment than the additional 53-ft. equipment leased during the year. At December 28, 2007, we had 1.9% or 533 fewer containers and 3.6% or 1,142 fewer chassis than at December 29, 2006. Container and chassis lease costs have increased over the last two years due to year-over-year increases in newer, higher cost equipment. This trend should continue into the near future as we continue to replace older 48-ft. equipment with newer 53-ft. equipment.
Selling, General and Administrative Expenses. Selling, general and administrative expenses increased $7.5 million, or 3.9%, in 2007 compared to 2006. During 2007, $6.0 million was incurred for the severance of 134 personnel and for facility exit activities ($2.1 million in the logistics segment, $2.1 million in corporate and $1.8 million in the intermodal segment), $3.0 million was incurred for performance bonus and discretionary retention and incentive payments and stock compensation cost increased by $1.4 million in 2007 compared to 2006. The stock compensation cost increase was due to the initial years vesting and dividends related to the June 2006 and August 2007 restricted stock awards under the 2006 Long-Term Incentive Plan as approved by shareholders in May 2007. The timing of the shareholders approval resulted in a full year of vesting during 2007, with the initial dividends prior to shareholder approval treated as compensation expense. On an on-going basis, the compensation cost related to current awards will be approximately $2.0 million per year with dividends charged to retained earnings. There were neither severance or facility exit costs nor bonus accruals during 2006. Selling,
general and administrative expenses in 2006 also benefited from the adjustment of previously accrued expenses for third party vendor services that were determined would not be payable under the contract with the provider. Our cartage and warehousing and distribution units also incurred increased damage claim costs in 2007 compared to 2006.
Partially offsetting the increase in 2007 was reduced employment in both of our operating segments and reduced legal fees during 2007 compared to 2006. Our overall average employment level decreased by 122, or 7.6%, in 2007 compared to 2006 due to our cost reduction efforts and normal attrition, with reductions across all business units. Average employment levels for 2007 were down 71 in our logistics segment and 53 in our intermodal segment. The average corporate employment level increased by two for 2007 compared to 2006. In addition, during the 2006 period, we settled a motor vehicle accident case adversely impacting our truck services units and corporate results in that period.
Depreciation and Amortization. Depreciation and amortization expenses decreased $0.8 million for 2007 compared to 2006 as a result of normal property retirements.
Income From Operations. Income from operations decreased $23.8 million, or 20.1%, from $118.3 million in 2006 to $94.5 million in 2007. Corporate expenses were $5.7 million above 2006 of which $3.0 million represented the 2007 performance bonus and discretionary retention and incentive payments and $2.1 million was for severance costs. Corporate expenses were also affected in 2007 by increased stock compensation costs. Intermodal segment income from operations decreased $20.6 million reflecting a $12.0 million decrease in Stacktrain income from operations, an $8.8 million decrease in rail brokerage income from operations and a $0.2 million increase in cartage income from operations. The Stacktrain decrease was due, in part, to the 2006 transactions that benefited that year but did not recur in 2007, including the recoveries of chassis misuse charges from several third parties (a result of improved billing and collection efforts), various settlements of prior period rail payables, the adjustment of a previously accrued expense for third party vendor services and the 2006 arbitration and rate dispute settlements, combined with higher direct operating expenses, reduced ARC business and reduced margins in the 2007 period. The rail brokerage decrease was due to competitive rate pressures and increases in underlying service provider costs and an increase in lower average revenue westbound business to balance traffic flows. The increase in our cartage unit was because of additional business including two additional locations in 2007 and additional business from our Stacktrain and rail brokerage units compared to 2006, partially offset by increased personal injury/property damage costs during 2007. Income from operations in 2007 for the intermodal segment was reduced by severance costs of $1.8 million.
Logistics segment income from operations improved $2.5 million to $4.1 million in 2007 compared to $1.6 million in 2006 reflecting increases in all business units except the truck services and truck brokerage units. The $0.5 million increase in our warehousing and distribution unit was because of additional storage and handling business partially offset by start-up related costs from the new Southern California transload facility and higher cargo claims costs. Our supply chain services unit increase of $3.6 million was due primarily to the addition of a new customer, and included $0.6 million in severance and facility closure costs. Our international units increase of $0.1 million reflected strong import/export business partially offset by reduced overseas aid and agricultural shipments and $0.4 million of severance and facility closure costs. The $0.3 million decrease for our truck services unit was due primarily to lower truck counts in 2007 and soft demand, and included $0.3 million of severance and facility closure costs. The $1.4 million decrease in our truck brokerage units income from operations was due to decreased shipments and competitive rate pressure, and included $0.8 million of severance and facility closure costs. In total, the logistics segments income from operations in 2007 was reduced by severance and facility closure costs of $2.1 million.
Interest Expense/Income. Interest expense, net, decreased by $2.9 million, or 43.9%, for 2007 compared to 2006 reflecting the award of $1.6 million of interest as part of an arbitration settlement during 2007 coupled with a lower average debt balance outstanding during 2007 as compared to 2006 during which we repaid approximately $31.0 million of long-term debt, and lower interest rates. At December 28, 2007, total long-term debt was $64.0 million compared to $59.0 million at December 29, 2006. The average interest rate during 2007 was 5.7% compared to 6.9% during 2006.
Loss on Extinguishment of Debt. On April 5, 2007, we completed the refinancing of our term loan and revolving credit facility with a new $250 million, five-year revolving credit facility. See the discussion under Liquidity and Capital Resources below. Charges totaling $1.8 million were incurred due to the write-off of existing deferred loan fees related to the prior credit facility.
Income Tax Expense. Income tax expense decreased $8.7 million in 2007 compared to 2006 because of lower pre-tax income in 2007. The effective tax rate was equivalent between years. In October 2007, Mexico enacted a new tax law which replaces the existing asset tax with a new flat tax to supplement the regular income tax in that country. The new tax was effective on January 1, 2008, and did not have, and in the future is not expected to have, a material impact on our results of operations and financial condition.
Net Income. Net income decreased by $14.0 million, or 20.5%, from $68.3 million in 2006 to $54.3 million in 2007 reflecting the lower income from operations (down $23.8 million, of which $6.0 million related to severance and facility closure costs and $3.0 million to bonuses) as discussed above, and the write-off of loan fees associated with the refinancing of debt ($1.8 million), partially offset by reduced net interest costs (down $2.9 million) including interest income from the settlement of an arbitration case. Net income in 2007 also reflected lower income tax expense (down $8.7 million) related to a lower pre-tax income.
Liquidity and Capital Resources
Cash provided by operating activities was $59.6 million, $108.0 million and $66.7 million for the fiscal years ended December 26, 2008, December 28, 2007 and December 29, 2006, respectively. The decrease in cash provided by operating activities in 2008 was due to the combination of the 2007 settlement of the Del Monte arbitration case increasing cash from operations in 2007 and the impact of lower traffic volumes in 2008 compared to 2007. While our balances of accounts receivable and accounts payable both declined in 2008 compared to 2007, our overall days sales outstanding on trade receivables and our days payable outstanding on trade payables remained consistent between years. In addition, in 2008 there were amounts paid related to our 2007 restructuring program and higher tax payments. Tax payments were $32.6 million in 2008 compared to $24.1 million in 2007. The lower payment in the 2007 period was due to a lower federal extension payment which is based on the timing of earnings during the year.
The increase in cash provided by operating activities in 2007 compared to 2006 was due primarily to the increase in accounts payable and other accrued liabilities compared to 2006. During 2006 there was a bonus payout (related to and accrued in the 2005 fiscal year) as well as increased payouts in 2006 compared to 2007 for taxes and litigation settlements. In addition, accounts payable was higher in 2007 due to the increase in business in 2007. As mentioned above, the Del Monte arbitration settlement, which was received in the second quarter of 2007, increased cash from operations in 2007 compared to 2006. Also contributing to the increased cash flow from operating activities in 2007 were $24.1 million of tax payments in 2007 compared to $37.4 million during 2006.
Cash generated from operating activities is typically used for working capital purposes, to fund capital expenditures, to repurchase common stock from time to time, to repay debt, and in the future would be available to fund any acquisitions or dividend payments we decide to make. We utilize a revolving credit facility in lieu of maintaining large cash reserves. In general, we prefer to reduce debt and minimize our interest expense rather than to maintain large cash balances and incur increased interest costs. However, because of favorable market conditions, we may from time to time repurchase common stock rather than reducing debt. Interest paid was $3.2 million, $4.7 million and $6.7 million in 2008, 2007 and 2006, respectively.
We had working capital of $46.4 million and $34.5 million at December 26, 2008 and December 28, 2007, respectively.
Our operating cash flows are also the primary source for funding our contractual obligations. The table below summarizes as of December 26, 2008, our major commitments (in millions).
Long-term debt is the amount outstanding on our revolving credit agreement. The capital lease obligations were incurred in 2008 and are related to our SAP software project. Cash interest expense on long-term debt was estimated using current rates for all periods based upon the current outstanding balance. The majority of the operating lease obligations relate to our intermodal segments lease of railcars, containers and chassis, but also include operating leases for tractors used in our truck services and local trucking operations. Each year a portion of the operating leases must be renewed or can be terminated based upon equipment requirements. Partially offsetting these lease payment requirements are railcar and container per diem revenues (not reflected in the table above) which were $60.9 million in 2008, $66.2 million in 2007 and $69.5 million in 2006. The dividends reflected in the table were paid on January 12, 2009. Volume incentives (which are recorded as a reduction of revenues in our consolidated financial statements) relate to amounts payable to companies that ship on our Stacktrain unit that met certain volume shipping commitments for the year 2008. Our APL IT agreement is a long-term contract expiring in May 2019. The amounts in the table above are based on the contractual annual increases in costs of this agreement through expiration. The agreement, however, is cancelable by us on 120 days notice without penalty. Accordingly, upon any such termination, our obligation under the contract would be limited to only $3.6 million. The SAP IT agreement reflects commitments for on-going maintenance and support detailed further below. The Other IT agreements reflect a telecommunications commitment for voice, data and frame relay services and IT licensing, hosting and maintenance commitments. The human resources agreements reflect our human resources benefit system and payroll processing contract. Income tax contingencies relate to uncertain tax positions, including accrued interest, as of December 26, 2008 (see Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements below). The severance liability relates to amounts to be paid related to our 2007 severance and facility exit program. The purchased transportation amount reflects our estimate of the cost of transportation purchased by our segments that is in process at year-end but not yet completed and minimum container commitments to ocean carriers made by our non-vessel operating common carrier operation.
Based upon the current level of operations, management believes that estimated operating cash flow and availability under the 2007 Credit Agreement will be adequate to meet our working capital, capital expenditure, dividend and other cash needs during 2009, although no assurance can be given in this regard. Should the economic downturn continue or worsen, our operating cash flows may be adversely impacted. Continued disruption of the credit markets, the failure of banks in our lending group or their inability or refusal to provide funds under our credit facility and instability in capital markets could reduce the availability of funding under our 2007 Credit Agreement or for operating lease transactions.
Cash flows used in investing activities were $23.0 million, $13.1 million and $3.5 million for 2008, 2007 and 2006, respectively. The use of cash in 2008 included $16.6 million of cash capital expenditures related to the SAP project discussed below. An additional $4.6 million of capital expenditure was incurred for the purchase of 450 new 53-foot chassis as part of our effort to rationalize our equipment fleet. The remaining 2008 capital expenditures of $3.6 million were primarily for normal computer replacement items, partially offset by net proceeds of $1.8 million from the sale of primarily 48-foot chassis and containers. The use of cash in 2007 included $10.6 million related to the SAP project as discussed below. The remaining 2007 capital expenditures of $3.4 million were primarily for normal computer replacement items, partially offset by net proceeds of $0.9 million from the sale of property. The use of cash in 2006 was primarily for normal computer replacement items, partially offset by net proceeds of $0.2 million from the sale of property.
On September 30, 2007, we entered into a software license agreement with SAP under which we licensed an enterprise suite of applications, including the latest release of SAPs transportation management solution. Under the agreement, we were granted a perpetual license for the suite of SAP software, and agreed to a two-year maintenance and support commitment for an annual fee of $2 million. During 2008, total cash expenditures for the SAP project were $22.4 million, $16.6 million of which was capitalized and $5.8 million was included in the Selling, General and Administrative line item of the Consolidated Statement of Operations. In addition, $0.8 million of capital lease obligations related to the SAP project were incurred in 2008. During 2007, total expenditures for the SAP project were $10.9 million, $10.6 million of which was capitalized (including the initial license fee of $9.3 million) and $0.3 million was included in the Selling, General and Administrative line item of the Consolidated Statement of Operations. During 2008, the finance and accounting modules of the new system were implemented at all business units with the exception of our Stacktrain unit. These modules will be implemented at our Stacktrain unit during the first quarter of 2009. Other operational elements of the new system for the intermodal and logistics segments are expected to be implemented by the end of 2009 and in 2010, respectively, and include equipment management, pricing, billing and tracking and tracing applications. Total capital investment for the remaining portions of the new system still to be implemented will range from $5 million to $10 million (not reflected in the above table) over the course of the project. It is anticipated that these amounts will be financed from a combination of operating cash flows and borrowings under our revolving credit agreement. We will continue to avail ourselves of the services and support under our existing long-term technology services agreement with APL Limited until such time as the SAP implementation project is completed. Accordingly, the table above assumes payments in respect of both the SAP and APL IT agreements over the 5-year period even though we currently expect that the new SAP system will be operational and replace the APL system prior to the end of the 5-year period.
Capital expenditures for 2009 are budgeted at $12.8 million including $8.2 million for the SAP implementation project and $4.6 million primarily for normal computer and equipment replacement items.
Cash flows used in financing activities were $38.1 million, $87.9 million and $72.1 million for 2008, 2007 and 2006, respectively. During the 2008 period, we repaid $20.0 million on our revolving credit facility and $0.2 million of capital lease obligations related to the SAP software project, and paid $20.8 million for cash dividends. Options to purchase 274,865 shares of our common stock were exercised in 2008 for total proceeds of $3.0 million. The excess tax benefit associated with the exercise of the options and the vesting of restricted stock pursuant to SFAS No. 123 (R) was $0.2 million. Also during the 2008 period, 19,039 shares of our common stock were surrendered for payment of employee taxes due upon the annual June 1, 2008 vesting of restricted stock. These shares were retired, thereby reducing stockholders equity by $0.3 million. During 2007, we refinanced our prior bank revolving credit and term loan facility and the $59.0 million outstanding thereunder with a new $250 million revolving credit facility (see the discussion below). During 2007, we borrowed an additional net $5.0 million under the new facility to repurchase common stock and for general corporate purposes. During 2007, options to purchase 169,132 shares of our common stock were exercised for total proceeds of $1.8 million. The excess tax benefit associated with the exercise of the options and vesting of restricted stock was $0.2 million. Also during the 2007 period, 2,938,635 shares of our common stock were repurchased and retired for $72.5 million and we paid $21.6 million in common stock cash dividends. During 2006, we repaid $31.0 million of long-term debt, paid $22.5 million in common stock cash dividends and repurchased and retired $26.8 million of our common stock under a stock repurchase program announced in June 2006. During 2006, options to
purchase 647,117 shares of our common stock were exercised for total proceeds to the company of $4.4 million. The excess tax benefit associated with the exercise of options was $3.8 million during 2006.
On April 5, 2007, we entered into a new $250 million, five-year revolving credit agreement (the 2007 Credit Agreement). We have utilized $59.0 million of the 2007 Credit Agreement to repay the principal balance due under the term loan portion of our prior bank credit facility, which was terminated. In connection with the refinancing, we paid $0.8 million of fees and expenses ($0.6 million to lenders and $0.2 million to other third parties) and $0.5 million of interest due under the prior credit facility at closing. We also charged to expense $1.8 million for the write-off of existing deferred loan fees related to the prior credit facility. The 2007 Credit Agreement is supplied by a syndicate of eleven banks, led by Bank of America with a 22% funding commitment. No other bank in the syndicate has a funding commitment greater than 12%. While we believe that the funds available under the 2007 Credit Agreement will be provided by our syndicate of lenders as and when required by us and will be adequate to meet our cash needs during 2009, no assurance in this regard can be given.
Borrowings under the 2007 Credit Agreement bear interest, at our option, at a base rate plus a margin between 0.0% and 0.5% per annum, or at a Eurodollar rate plus a margin between 0.625% and 1.75% per annum, in each case depending on our leverage ratio. The base rate is the higher of the prime lending rate of the administrative agent or the federal funds rate plus 1/2 of 1%. Our obligations under the 2007 Credit Agreement are guaranteed by all of our direct and indirect domestic subsidiaries, and are secured by a pledge of all of the stock or other equity interests of our domestic subsidiaries and a portion of the stock or other equity interest of certain of our foreign subsidiaries.
The 2007 Credit Agreement also provides for letter of credit fees between 0.625% and 1.75%, and a commitment fee payable on the unused portion of the facility, which accrues at a rate per annum ranging from 0.125% to 0.350%, in each case depending on our leverage ratio.
The 2007 Credit Agreement contains affirmative, negative and financial covenants customary for such financings, including, among other things, limits on the incurrence of debt, the incurrence of liens, and mergers and consolidations and leverage and interest coverage ratios. We were in compliance with these covenants at December 26, 2008. It also contains customary representations and warranties. Breaches of the covenants, representations or warranties may give rise to an event of default. Other events of default include our failure to pay certain debt, the acceleration of certain debt, certain insolvency and bankruptcy proceedings, certain ERISA events or unpaid judgments over a specified amount, or a change in control of the company as defined in the 2007 Credit Agreement.
As noted above, the 2007 Credit Agreement requires us to satisfy a minimum interest coverage ratio and a maximum leverage ratio. The interest coverage ratio which is tested at the end of every quarter on a trailing four quarter basis, can be no less than 3:00:1.00. The maximum leverage ratio cannot exceed 3.00:1.00 at any time during any period of four consecutive fiscal quarters. Both ratios are based on our consolidated EBITDA for the applicable period adjusted to add-back non-recurring, non-cash charges, such as the goodwill impairment charge we recorded in 2008, that reduce our consolidated net income. As of December 26, 2008, we were in compliance with both the minimum interest coverage ratio and the maximum leverage ratio requirements.
At December 26, 2008, we had $184.6 million available under the 2007 Credit Agreement, net of $44.0 million outstanding and $21.4 million of outstanding letters of credit. At December 26, 2008, borrowings under the 2007 Credit Agreement bore a weighted average interest rate of 2.9% per annum.
During 2008, we received 3,079 primarily 53-ft. leased containers and 3,038 53-ft., 48-ft. and 40-ft. primarily leased chassis, and returned 2,423 primarily 48-ft. leased containers, 2,275 primarily 48-ft. and 40-ft. leased chassis, and sold 1,282 48-ft. owned chassis in an effort to continue to align our container and chassis fleets. During 2008, one leased railcar was destroyed.
During 2007, we received 1,658 primarily 53-ft. leased containers and 1,072 53-ft., 48-ft. and 40-ft. leased chassis, and we returned 2,191 primarily 48-ft. leased containers, 1,596 primarily 48-ft. and 40-ft. leased chassis, and sold 618 48-ft. owned chassis in an effort to more closely align our container and chassis fleets. During 2007, four railcars were destroyed.
During 2006, we received 2,360 53-ft. leased containers and 4,552 53-ft. and 40-ft. leased chassis, and we returned 2,033 primarily 48-ft. leased containers and 1,684 primarily 48-ft. and 40-ft. leased chassis. During 2006, four railcars were destroyed.
Common Stock Repurchase Program
On June 12, 2006, we announced that our Board of Directors had authorized the purchase of up to $60 million of our common stock, and, on April 3, 2007, the company announced that our Board of Directors had authorized the purchase of an additional $100 million of our common stock. Both authorizations expire on June 15, 2009. We repurchased a total of 2,938,635 shares at an average price of $24.64 per share through December 28, 2007, and 19,039 shares at an average price of $21.54 per share during 2008. At December 26, 2008, $61.1 million remains available for the purchase of common stock under the current Board authorizations. We may make further share repurchases from time to time as market conditions warrant.
Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements
We have not entered into any transactions with unconsolidated entities whereby the company has financial guarantees, subordinated retained interests, derivative instruments, or other contingent arrangements that expose us to material continuing risks, contingent liabilities, or any other obligation under a variable interest in an unconsolidated entity that provides financing, liquidity, market risk, or credit risk support to us.
Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements
In June 2008, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) issued Staff Position No. EITF 03-6-1, Determining Whether Instruments Granted in Share-Based Payment Transactions Are Participating Securities (FSP 03-6-1). Under FSP 03-6-1, unvested share-based payment awards that contain rights to receive non-forfeitable dividends or dividend equivalents (whether paid or unpaid) are participating securities, and thus should be included in the two-class method of computing earnings per share. The FSP is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2008 and requires that all prior period earnings per share data be adjusted retroactively. We adopted FSP 03-6-1 on December 27, 2008 (the first day of our 2009 fiscal year). The 2009 fiscal year adoption and retroactive application is not expected to have a material impact on our disclosure of earnings per share.
In May 2008, the FASB issued Statement of Financial Accounting Standards (SFAS) No. 162, The Hierarchy of Generally Accepted Accounting Principles. SFAS No. 162 identifies a consistent framework, or hierarchy, for selecting accounting principles to be used in preparing financial statements that are presented in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States for nongovernmental entities. The hierarchy within SFAS No. 162 is consistent with that previously defined in the AICPA Statement on Auditing Standards No. 69, The Meaning of Present Fairly in Conformity With Generally Accepted Accounting Principles. SFAS No. 162 is effective 60 days following the September 16, 2008 United States Securities and Exchange Commissions approval of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board amendments to AU Section 411, The Meaning of Present Fairly in Conformity With Generally Accepted Accounting Principles. The adoption of SFAS No. 162 is not expected to have a material impact on our results of operations or financial condition.
In March 2008, the FASB issued SFAS No. 161, Disclosures about Derivative Instruments and Hedging Activities an amendment of SFAS No. 133. SFAS No. 161 is intended to improve financial reporting about derivative instruments and hedging activities by requiring enhanced disclosures to enable investors to better understand their effects on an entitys financial position, financial performance, and cash flows. The provisions of SFAS No. 161 are effective for financial statements issued for fiscal years and interim periods beginning after November 15, 2008. Due to our limited use of derivative instruments, the adoption of SFAS No. 161 is not expected to have a material impact on our results of operations or financial condition.
In December 2007, the FASB issued SFAS No. 141 (revised 2007), Business Combinations, which establishes principles and requirements for how an acquirer recognizes and measures assets
acquired, liabilities assumed including any non-controlling interest, and goodwill or gain from a bargain purchase. It also establishes the information to disclose regarding the nature and financial effects of a business combination. SFAS No. 141 (revised 2007) was effective for us on December 27, 2008 (the first day of our 2009 fiscal year). The adoption of SFAS No. 141 (revised 2007) is not expected to have a material impact on our results of operations or financial condition.
In December 2007, the FASB issued SFAS No. 160, Noncontrolling Interests in Consolidated Financial Statements, an amendment of ARB No. 51, which establishes accounting and reporting standards that require: ownership interests held by parties other than the parent to be clearly identified and presented in the consolidated statement of financial position within equity, but separate from the parents equity; consolidated net income attributable to the parent and to the noncontrolling interest be identified and presented on the face of the consolidated statement of income; and that changes in ownership interest while the parent retains its controlling interest be accounted for consistently and disclosed. SFAS No. 160 was effective for us on December 27, 2008 (the first day of our 2009 fiscal year). The adoption of SFAS No. 160 is not expected to have a material impact on our results of operations or financial condition.
In September 2006, the FASB issued SFAS No. 157, Fair Value Measurements, which defines fair value, establishes a framework for measuring fair value under generally accepted accounting principles in the United States of America and expands disclosures about fair value measurements. The financial asset and liability portion of SFAS No. 157 was adopted by us on December 29, 2007 (the first day of our 2008 fiscal year) with no impact on results of operations and financial condition. The remaining portion of SFAS No. 157 related to nonfinancial assets and nonfinancial liabilities that are recognized or disclosed at fair value in the financial statements on a nonrecurring basis was applicable on December 27, 2008 (the first day of our 2009 fiscal year). The adoption of SFAS No. 157 is not expected to have a material impact on our results of operations or financial condition, with the exception of the step two analyses under SFAS No. 142 for goodwill impairment which is still being assessed. Beginning in 2009, we will measure any identified goodwill impairment using the principles in SFAS No. 157 and SFAS No. 141 (revised 2007). These principles differ from the methods used to measure goodwill impairment in prior years and could result in a different amount of impairment than would have been measured under our previous methodology.
We contract with railroads and independent truck operators for our transportation requirements. These third parties are responsible for providing their own diesel fuel. To the extent that changes in fuel prices are passed along to us, we have historically passed these changes along to our customers. There is no guarantee, however, that this will be possible in the future.
ITEM 7A. QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK
Our market risk is affected primarily by changes in interest rates. Under our policies, we may use hedging techniques and derivative financial instruments to reduce the impact of adverse changes in market prices. The quantitative information presented below and the additional qualitative information presented above in Item 7. Managements Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations and Notes 1 and 2 to the notes to our consolidated financial statements included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K describe significant aspects of our financial instrument programs which have market risk.
We have market risk in interest rate exposure, primarily in the United States. We manage interest exposure through floating rate debt. Interest rate swaps may be used to adjust interest rate exposure when appropriate based on market conditions. No interest rate swaps were outstanding at December 26, 2008 or December 28, 2007.
Based upon the average variable interest rate debt outstanding during 2008, a 100 basis point change in our variable interest rates would have affected our 2008 pre-tax earnings by approximately $0.5 million. For 2007, a 100 basis point change in our variable interest rates would have affected our 2007 pre-tax earnings by approximately $0.6 million. For 2006, a 100 basis point change in our variable interest rates would have affected our 2006 pre-tax earnings by approximately $0.8 million.
As our foreign business expands, we will be subjected to greater foreign currency risk.
ITEM 8. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA
The consolidated financial statements, including supplementary data and the accompanying report of independent registered public accounting firm, are listed in the Index to Consolidated Financial Statements and Financial Statement Schedules on page F-1 filed as part of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
ITEM 9A. CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES
Disclosure Controls and Procedures
Evaluation of Disclosure Controls. We evaluated the effectiveness of the design and operation of the companys disclosure controls and procedures as defined in Rules 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e) under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the Exchange Act) as of December 26, 2008. This evaluation (the disclosure controls evaluation) was done under the supervision and with the participation of management, including our chief executive officer (CEO) and chief financial officer (CFO). Rules adopted by the SEC require that in this section of our Annual Report on Form 10-K we present the conclusions of the CEO and the CFO about the effectiveness of our disclosure controls and procedures as of December 26, 2008 based on the disclosure controls evaluation.
Objective of Controls. Our disclosure controls and procedures are designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed in our reports filed or submitted under the Exchange Act, such as this Annual Report on Form 10-K, is recorded, processed, summarized and reported within the time periods specified in the SECs rules and forms. Our disclosure controls and procedures are also intended to ensure that such information is accumulated and communicated to our management, including the CEO and CFO, as appropriate to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosure. There are inherent limitations to the effectiveness of any system of disclosure controls and procedures, including the possibility of human error and the circumvention or overriding of the controls and procedures. Accordingly, even effective disclosure controls and procedures can only provide reasonable assurance of achieving their control objectives, and management necessarily is required to use its judgment in evaluating the cost-benefit relationship of possible disclosure controls and procedures.
Conclusion. Based upon the disclosure controls evaluation and the identification of a material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting, which we view as an integral part of our disclosure controls and procedures as further discussed below under Managements Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting, our CEO and CFO have concluded that as of December 26, 2008, our disclosure controls and procedures were not effective to provide reasonable assurance that the foregoing objectives are achieved.
However, giving full consideration to the material weakness described below, additional analyses and other procedures have been performed in order to provide assurance that our Consolidated Financial Statements included in this Annual Report were prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) and present fairly, in all material respects, our financial position, results of operations and cash flows for the periods presented in conformity with GAAP. As a result of our consideration of the events and circumstances giving rise to the material weakness and these procedures, we concluded that the Consolidated Financial Statements included in this Annual Report present fairly, in all material respects, our financial position, results of operations and cash flows for the periods presented in conformity with GAAP.
Managements Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting
The management of Pacer is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting as such term is defined in Rules 13a-15(f) and 15d-15(f) under the
Exchange Act. Our internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America. Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.
Management of the company, under the supervision and with participation of the CEO and CFO, has assessed the effectiveness of the companys internal control over financial reporting as of December 26, 2008. In making its assessment of internal control over financial reporting, management used the criteria described in Internal Control Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO).
A material weakness is a deficiency, or a combination of deficiencies, in internal control over financial reporting, such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of the companys annual or interim financial statements will not be prevented or detected on a timely basis.
We did not maintain effective internal controls over the preparation and review of certain balance sheet reconciliations. Specifically, we did not timely identify and resolve reconciling items in certain cash accounts pertaining to Pacer Cartage and in various intercompany accounts among our intermodal segment operations. This control deficiency resulted in audit adjustments to certain balance sheet accounts in the companys consolidated financial statements for the year ended December 26, 2008. Additionally, this control deficiency could result in misstatements of the aforementioned accounts and other financial statement accounts and disclosures that would result in a material misstatement of the consolidated financial statements that would not be prevented or detected. Accordingly, our management has determined that this control deficiency constitutes a material weakness.
Because of this material weakness, management concluded that the company did not maintain effective internal control over financial reporting as of December 26, 2008, based on criteria in Internal Control Integrated Framework issued by the COSO.
The effectiveness of the companys internal control over financial reporting as of December 26, 2008 has been audited by PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, as stated in their report beginning on page F-2.
Changes in Internal Control Over Financial Reporting
As previously discussed, in September 2007 we acquired an enterprise suite of software applications from SAP that will provide an integrated, streamlined platform across business units and provide better management information, eliminate duplicated work effort and enhance customer service and communications. During the quarter ended December 26, 2008, we converted all but one of our business units to the accounting modules of the SAP software. This conversion will continue for the next few months as we convert all of our business units to the SAP accounting modules. As part of this conversion, we are modifying, as necessary, the design and documentation of internal control processes and procedures relating to the new systems to supplement and complement existing internal controls over financial reporting. These control changes include the automation of access controls and segregation of duties that were previously accomplished with manual processes. The conversion to the SAP accounting system was undertaken as part of an SAP project to integrate systems and improve information and process flow, and not in response to any actual or perceived deficiencies in our internal control over financial reporting. There were no additional changes in the companys internal control over financial reporting during the quarter ended December 26, 2008 that have materially affected, or are reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting.
We are in the process of developing and implementing remediation plans to address our material weakness. The control deficiency arose in part due to the transition to the new SAP accounting modules as
our Pacer Cartage accounting group in Commerce, California experienced delays in the normal processing of payments as they were learning the new system. As our personnel become more experienced in using the system, the issues that contributed to the material weakness should be mitigated. Furthermore, we are undertaking enhanced analysis of balance sheet accounts to identify and reexamine period to period fluctuations and avoid reclassifications. Similarly, we are developing enhanced management review procedures around the bank reconciliation process that include more timely review and subsequent resolution of reconciling items. As we continue to implement the common SAP accounting platform, we also plan to consolidate, centralize and streamline accounting activities performed at various operating unit field locations, which should allow for better work dispersal among accounting personnel, improve compliance with processes and enhance monitoring of controls.
ITEM 9B. OTHER INFORMATION
On February 11, 2009, the companys Board of Directors expanded the size of the Board to eight members and appointed Robert J. Grassi to the Board, with such appointment to be effective March 1, 2009. The Board determined that Mr. Grassi qualifies as an audit committee financial expert as defined under SEC regulations and appointed him to serve as a member of the audit committee. Mr. Grassis term will begin on March 1, 2009 and continue until the 2009 annual meeting of the shareholders, at which time he will be considered for election for a three-year term expiring at the 2012 annual meeting of shareholders.
Mr. Grassis compensation for his services as a director will be consistent with that of our other non-employee directors, as described in our definitive proxy statement with respect to our 2008 annual meeting of shareholders filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on March 12, 2008, including, consistent with past practice, the grant, as of March 1, 2009, of a nonqualified stock option to purchase 12,000 shares of the companys common stock under the 2006 Long-Term Incentive Plan. Such grant will vest in four equal annual installments beginning on March 1, 2010, the first anniversary of the grant date. Other than the foregoing standard compensation arrangements, there are no arrangements or understandings between Mr. Grassi and any other person pursuant to which he was appointed as a director. Mr. Grassi is not a party to any transaction with the Company that would require disclosure under Item 404(a) of Regulation S-K.
Also on February 11, 2009, the Compensation Committee of the companys Board of Directors approved the payment of bonuses to the companys employees, including the named executive officers, under the companys 2008 Performance Bonus Plan (the 2008 Plan), which was filed as Exhibit 10.28 to our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 28, 2007. Under the 2008 Plan, the payment of bonuses to the companys named executive officers, all of whom are currently employees of our corporate unit, was contingent on the companys fiscal year 2008 consolidated earnings per share (calculated before accrual of bonus payments) falling within specified minimum and maximum consolidated earnings per share targets established by the Compensation Committee and the Board at the beginning of the year, and bonus payments were capped at 100% of a participants bonus opportunity (stated as a percentage of base salary). In approving the bonus payments to all of our employees, including the named executive officers, the Compensation Committee, pursuant to its discretionary authority under the 2008 Plan, decided to exclude the impact of the 2008 non-cash goodwill impairment charge in determining the companys EPS for purposes of the 2008 Plan, which resulted in the company achieving the maximum EPS target in the 2008 Plan, but at the same time the Committee also decided to reduce the amount of bonuses otherwise payable under the 2008 Plan to the named executive officers. The Compensation Committee also awarded a discretionary bonus to the Interim President, Intermodal Segment, Mr. Orris, who was not originally included as a participant in the 2008 Plan, in an amount equal to the reduced bonus amount awarded to the Chief Executive Officer, Mr. Uremovich, in recognition of Mr. Orris efforts as Interim President, Intermodal Segment, and the segments performance in 2008. The cash bonuses payable to the named executive officers for 2008 are as follows: the Chief Executive Officer, Mr. Uremovich $405,508; the Interim President, Intermodal Segment, Mr. Orris $405,508; the Chief Financial Officer through September 14, 2008, Mr. Yarberry $132,297; the Chief Financial Officer beginning September 15, 2008, Mr. Kane $88,000; the General Counsel, Mr. Killea $132,921; and the Logistics Services Group President, Mr. Brashares $127,745.
Pacer will provide additional information regarding the compensation of its executive officers in its proxy statement for its 2009 annual meeting of shareholders.
ITEM 10. DIRECTORS, EXECUTIVE OFFICERS AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE
ITEM 11. EXECUTIVE COMPENSATION.
The information required by this Item, with respect to compensation of our directors and executive officers, is incorporated herein by reference to the discussions under the headings 2008 Director Compensation, Executive Compensation and Compensation Committee Interlocks and Insider
Participation in our Proxy Statement for our 2009 annual meeting of shareholders which is expected to be filed with the SEC no later than 120 days after the end of our 2008 fiscal year. The information required under Item 407(e)(5) of Regulation S-K is set forth under the heading Compensation Committee Report in our Proxy Statement for our 2009 annual meeting of shareholders, and is being furnished in this Annual Report on Form 10-K and is not incorporated herein by reference.
ITEM 12. SECURITY OWNERSHIP OF CERTAIN BENEFICIAL OWNERS AND MANAGEMENT AND RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS
EQUITY COMPENSATION PLAN INFORMATION
(1) Under our 1999 Stock Option Plan, options to purchase 237,850 shares of our common stock were outstanding as of December 26, 2008, our fiscal year end, and no further option grants can be made under that plan. Under our 2002 Stock Option Plan, options to purchase 312,200 shares of our common stock were outstanding as of December 26, 2008, and no further option grants can be made under that plan. As of December 26, 2008, options to purchase 12,000 shares of our common stock were outstanding under our 2006 Long-Term Incentive Plan (the 2006 Plan). In addition, at December 26, 2008, 200,875 restricted shares of common stock had been issued and were outstanding under the 2006 Plan. As of December 26, 2008, we have available 2,178,750 shares of our common stock for future issuance under the 2006 Plan.
The Board has reserved a total of 2.5 million shares of common stock for issuance under the 2006 Plan. The 2.5 million shares authorization is subject to adjustment for a stock split, reverse stock split, stock dividend, combination or reclassification of the shares, or any other similar transaction (but not the issuance or conversion of convertible securities). If an award, other than a Substitute Award (defined below), is forfeited or otherwise terminates without the issuance or delivery of some or all of the shares underlying the award to the grantee, or becomes unexercisable without having been exercised in full, the remaining shares that were subject to the award will become available for future awards under the 2006 Plan (unless the 2006 Plan has terminated). The grant of a stock appreciation right will not reduce the number of shares that may be subject to awards, but the number of shares issued upon the exercise of a stock appreciation right will so reduce the available number of shares.
Substitute Awards will not reduce the number of shares available for issuance under the 2006 Plan. Substitute Awards are awards granted in assumption of or in substitution for outstanding awards previously granted by a company acquired by or merged into the Company or any of its subsidiaries or with which the Company or any of its subsidiaries.
The other information required by this Item, with respect to security ownership of certain of our beneficial owners and management, is incorporated herein by reference to the discussion under the heading Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management in our Proxy Statement for our 2009 annual meeting of shareholders which is expected to be filed with the SEC no later than 120 days after the end of our 2008 fiscal year.
ITEM 13. CERTAIN RELATIONSHIPS AND RELATED TRANSACTIONS, AND DIRECTOR INDEPENDENCE
The information required by this Item is incorporated herein by reference to the discussion under the headings Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, Review, Approval or Ratification of Transactions with Related Persons and Director Independence in our Proxy Statement for our 2009 annual meeting of shareholders which is expected to be filed with the SEC no later than 120 days after the end of our 2008 fiscal year.
ITEM 14. PRINCIPAL ACCOUNTANT FEES AND SERVICES
The information required by this Item is incorporated herein by reference to the discussion under the headings Fees Billed by Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm and Pre-Approval of Audit and Non-Audit Services in our Proxy Statement for our 2009 annual meeting of shareholders which is expected to be filed with the SEC no later than 120 days after the end of our 2008 fiscal year.
ITEM 15. EXHIBITS AND FINANCIAL STATEMENT SCHEDULES.
* Furnished herewith, but not deemed filed for purposes of Section 18 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or otherwise subject to liability under that section. Such certification will not be deemed to be incorporated by reference into any filing under the Securities Act or the Exchange Act, except to the extent that we explicitly incorporate it by reference.
+ Management contract or compensatory plan or arrangement.
Pursuant to the requirements of Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, the Registrant has duly caused this report to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized.
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, this report has been signed below by the following persons on behalf of the Registrant in the capacities and on the dates indicated.
AND FINANCIAL STATEMENT SCHEDULES
All other schedules are omitted because they are not applicable or because the required information is shown in the consolidated financial statements or the notes thereto. Columns omitted from schedules filed have been omitted because the information is not applicable.
Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
To Board of Directors and Stockholders of Pacer International, Inc.:
In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements listed in the accompanying index present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of Pacer International, Inc. and its subsidiaries at December 26, 2008 and December 28, 2007, and the results of their operations and their cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 26, 2008 in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America. In addition, in our opinion, the financial statement schedule listed in the accompanying index presents fairly, in all material respects, the information set forth therein when read in conjunction with the related consolidated financial statements. Also in our opinion, the Company did not maintain, in all material respects, effective internal control over financial reporting as of December 26, 2008, based on criteria established in Internal ControlIntegrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO) because a material weakness in internal control over the preparation and review of certain balance sheet reconciliations existed as of that date. A material weakness is a deficiency, or a combination of deficiencies, in internal control over financial reporting, such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of the annual or interim financial statements will not be prevented or detected on a timely basis. The material weakness referred to above is described in Managements Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting appearing under Item 9A. We considered this material weakness in determining the nature, timing, and extent of audit tests applied in our audit of the December 26, 2008 consolidated financial statements, and our opinion regarding the effectiveness of the Companys internal control over financial reporting does not affect our opinion on those consolidated financial statements. The Companys management is responsible for these financial statements and financial statement schedule, for maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting and for its assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting included in managements report referred to above. Our responsibility is to express opinions on these financial statements, on the financial statement schedule, and on the Companys internal control over financial reporting based on our integrated audits. We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States). Those standards require that we plan and perform the audits to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement and whether effective internal control over financial reporting was maintained in all material respects. Our audits of the financial statements included examining, on a test basis, evidence supporting the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements, assessing the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, and evaluating the overall financial statement presentation. Our audit of internal control over financial reporting included obtaining an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, assessing the risk that a material weakness exists, and testing and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of internal control based on the assessed risk. Our audits also included performing such other procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinions.
A companys internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. A companys internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (i) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the company; (ii) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the company; and (iii) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the companys assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.
Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.
/s/ PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP
San Francisco, CA
February 16, 2009
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
The accompanying notes are an integral part of the consolidated financial statements.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS
The accompanying notes are an integral part of the consolidated financial statements.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF STOCKHOLDERS EQUITY
The accompanying notes are an integral part of the consolidated financial statements.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS