Pepsi Bottling Group 10-K 2009
Documents found in this filing:
UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
Commission file number 1-14893
(Exact name of Registrant as Specified in its Charter)
Registrants telephone number, including area code: (914) 767-6000
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes þ No o
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes o No þ
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports) and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes þ No o
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrants knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K. þ
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of large accelerated filer, accelerated filer and smaller reporting company in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes o No þ
The number of shares of Common Stock and Class B Common Stock of The Pepsi Bottling Group, Inc. outstanding as of February 6, 2009 was 211,583,553 and 100,000, respectively. The aggregate market value of The Pepsi Bottling Group, Inc. Capital Stock held by non-affiliates of The Pepsi Bottling Group, Inc. (assuming for the sole purpose of this calculation, that all executive officers and directors of The Pepsi Bottling Group, Inc. are affiliates of The Pepsi Bottling Group, Inc.) as of June 13, 2008 was $4,301,872,063 (based on the closing sale price of The Pepsi Bottling Group, Inc.s Capital Stock on that date as reported on the New York Stock Exchange).
The Pepsi Bottling Group, Inc. (PBG) was incorporated in Delaware in January, 1999, as a wholly owned subsidiary of PepsiCo, Inc. (PepsiCo) to effect the separation of most of PepsiCos company-owned bottling businesses. PBG became a publicly traded company on March 31, 1999. As of January 23, 2009, PepsiCos ownership represented 33.1% of the outstanding common stock and 100% of the outstanding Class B common stock, together representing 40.2% of the voting power of all classes of PBGs voting stock. PepsiCo also owned approximately 6.6% of the equity interest of Bottling Group, LLC, PBGs principal operating subsidiary, as of January 23, 2009. When used in this Report, PBG, we, us, our and the Company each refers to The Pepsi Bottling Group, Inc. and, where appropriate, to Bottling Group, LLC, which we also refer to as Bottling LLC.
PBG operates in one industry, carbonated soft drinks and other ready-to-drink beverages, and all of our segments derive revenue from these products. We conduct business in all or a portion of the United States, Mexico, Canada, Spain, Russia, Greece and Turkey. PBG manages and reports operating results through three reportable segments: U.S. & Canada, Europe (which includes Spain, Russia, Greece and Turkey) and Mexico. Operationally, the Company is organized along geographic lines with specific regional management teams having responsibility for the financial results in each reportable segment.
In 2008, approximately 75% of our net revenues were generated in the U.S. & Canada, 15% of our net revenues were generated in Europe, and the remaining 10% of our net revenues were generated in Mexico. See Managements Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations and Note 14 in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information regarding the business and operating results of our reportable segments.
PBG is the worlds largest manufacturer, seller and distributor of Pepsi-Cola beverages. In addition, in some of our territories we have the right to manufacture, sell and distribute soft drink products of companies other than PepsiCo, including Dr Pepper, Crush and Squirt. We also have the right in some of our territories to manufacture, sell and distribute beverages under trademarks that we own, including Electropura, e-pura and Garci Crespo. The majority of our volume is derived from brands licensed from PepsiCo or PepsiCo joint ventures.
We have the exclusive right to manufacture, sell and distribute Pepsi-Cola beverages in all or a portion of 42 states and the District of Columbia in the United States, nine Canadian provinces, Spain, Greece, Russia, Turkey and 23 states in Mexico.
In 2008, approximately 74% of our sales volume in the U.S. & Canada was derived from carbonated soft drinks and the remaining 26% was derived from non-carbonated beverages, 69% of our sales volume in Europe was derived from carbonated soft drinks and the remaining 31% was derived from non-carbonated beverages, and 52% of our Mexico sales volume was derived from carbonated soft drinks and the remaining 48% was derived from non-carbonated beverages. Our principal beverage brands include the following:
No individual customer accounted for 10% or more of our total revenues in 2008, although sales to Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. and its affiliated companies were 9.9% of our revenues in 2008, primarily as a result of transactions in the U.S. & Canada segment. We have an extensive direct store distribution system in the United States, Canada and Mexico. In Europe, we use a combination of direct store distribution and distribution through wholesalers, depending on local marketplace considerations.
We purchase the concentrates to manufacture Pepsi-Cola beverages and other beverage products from PepsiCo and other beverage companies.
In addition to concentrates, we purchase various ingredients, packaging materials and energy such as sweeteners, glass and plastic bottles, cans, closures, syrup containers, other packaging materials, carbon dioxide, some finished goods, electricity, natural gas and motor fuel. We generally purchase our raw materials, other than concentrates, from multiple suppliers. PepsiCo acts as our agent for the purchase of such raw materials in the United States and Canada and, with respect to some of our raw materials, in certain of our international markets. The Pepsi beverage agreements, as described below, provide that, with respect to the beverage products of PepsiCo, all authorized containers, closures, cases, cartons and other packages and labels may be purchased only from manufacturers approved by PepsiCo. There are no materials or supplies used by PBG that are currently in short supply. The supply or cost of specific materials could
be adversely affected by various factors, including price changes, economic conditions, strikes, weather conditions and governmental controls.
Franchise and Venture Agreements
We conduct our business primarily under agreements with PepsiCo. These agreements give us the exclusive right to market, distribute, and produce beverage products of PepsiCo in authorized containers and to use the related trade names and trademarks in specified territories.
Set forth below is a description of the Pepsi beverage agreements and other bottling agreements to which we are a party.
Terms of the Master Bottling Agreement. The Master Bottling Agreement under which we manufacture, package, sell and distribute the cola beverages bearing the Pepsi-Cola and Pepsi trademarks in the United States was entered into in March of 1999. The Master Bottling Agreement gives us the exclusive and perpetual right to distribute cola beverages for sale in specified territories in authorized containers of the nature currently used by us. The Master Bottling Agreement provides that we will purchase our entire requirements of concentrates for the cola beverages from PepsiCo at prices, and on terms and conditions, determined from time to time by PepsiCo. PepsiCo may determine from time to time what types of containers to authorize for use by us. PepsiCo has no rights under the Master Bottling Agreement with respect to the prices at which we sell our products.
Under the Master Bottling Agreement we are obligated to:
The Master Bottling Agreement requires us to meet annually with PepsiCo to discuss plans for the ensuing year and the following two years. At such meetings, we are obligated to present plans that set out in reasonable detail our marketing plan, our management plan and advertising plan with respect to the cola beverages for the year. We must also present a financial plan showing that we have the financial capacity to perform our duties and obligations under the Master Bottling Agreement for that year, as well as sales, marketing, advertising and capital expenditure plans for the two years following such year. PepsiCo has the right to approve such plans, which approval shall not be unreasonably withheld. In 2008, PepsiCo approved our plans.
If we carry out our annual plan in all material respects, we will be deemed to have satisfied our obligations to push vigorously the sale of the cola beverages, increase and fully meet the demand for the cola beverages in our territories and maintain the financial capacity required under the Master Bottling Agreement. Failure to present a plan or carry out approved plans in all material respects would constitute an event of default that, if not cured within 120 days of notice of the failure, would give PepsiCo the right to terminate the Master Bottling Agreement.
If we present a plan that PepsiCo does not approve, such failure shall constitute a primary consideration for determining whether we have satisfied our obligations to maintain our financial capacity, push vigorously the sale of the cola beverages and increase and fully meet the demand for the cola beverages in our territories.
If we fail to carry out our annual plan in all material respects in any segment of our territory, whether defined geographically or by type of market or outlet, and if such failure is not cured within six months of notice of the failure, PepsiCo may reduce the territory covered by the Master Bottling Agreement by eliminating the territory, market or outlet with respect to which such failure has occurred.
PepsiCo has no obligation to participate with us in advertising and marketing spending, but it may contribute to such expenditures and undertake independent advertising and marketing activities, as well as cooperative advertising and sales promotion programs that would require our cooperation and support. Although PepsiCo has advised us that it intends to continue to provide cooperative advertising funds, it is not obligated to do so under the Master Bottling Agreement.
The Master Bottling Agreement provides that PepsiCo may in its sole discretion reformulate any of the cola beverages or discontinue them, with some limitations, so long as all cola beverages are not discontinued. PepsiCo may also introduce new beverages under the Pepsi-Cola trademarks or any modification thereof. When that occurs, we are obligated to manufacture, package, distribute and sell such new beverages with the same obligations as then exist with respect to other cola beverages. We are prohibited from producing or handling cola products, other than those of PepsiCo, or products or packages that imitate, infringe or cause confusion with the products, containers or trademarks of PepsiCo. The Master Bottling Agreement also imposes requirements with respect to the use of PepsiCos trademarks, authorized containers, packaging and labeling.
If we acquire control, directly or indirectly, of any bottler of cola beverages, we must cause the acquired bottler to amend its bottling appointments for the cola beverages to conform to the terms of the Master Bottling Agreement. Under the Master Bottling Agreement, PepsiCo has agreed not to withhold approval for any acquisition of rights to manufacture and sell Pepsi trademarked cola beverages within a specific area currently representing approximately 10.63% of PepsiCos U.S. bottling system in terms of volume if we have successfully negotiated the acquisition and, in PepsiCos reasonable judgment, satisfactorily performed our obligations under the Master Bottling Agreement. We have agreed not to acquire or attempt to acquire any rights to manufacture and sell Pepsi trademarked cola beverages outside of that specific area without PepsiCos prior written approval.
The Master Bottling Agreement is perpetual, but may be terminated by PepsiCo in the event of our default. Events of default include:
An event of default will also occur if any person or affiliated group acquires any contract, option, conversion privilege, or other right to acquire, directly or indirectly, beneficial ownership of more than 15% of any class or series of our voting securities without the consent of PepsiCo. As of February 13, 2009, to our knowledge, no shareholder of PBG, other than PepsiCo, held more than 5% of our common stock.
We are prohibited from assigning, transferring or pledging the Master Bottling Agreement, or any interest therein, whether voluntarily, or by operation of law, including by merger or liquidation, without the prior consent of PepsiCo.
The Master Bottling Agreement was entered into by us in the context of our separation from PepsiCo and, therefore, its provisions were not the result of arms-length negotiations. Consequently, the agreement contains provisions that are less favorable to us than the exclusive bottling appointments for cola beverages currently in effect for independent bottlers in the United States.
Terms of the Non-Cola Bottling Agreements. The beverage products covered by the non-cola bottling agreements are beverages licensed to us by PepsiCo, including Mountain Dew, Aquafina, Sierra Mist, Diet Mountain Dew, Mug Root Beer and Mountain Dew Code Red. The non-cola bottling agreements contain provisions that are similar to those contained in the Master Bottling Agreement with respect to pricing, territorial restrictions, authorized containers, planning, quality control, transfer restrictions, term and related matters. Our non-cola bottling agreements will terminate if PepsiCo terminates our Master Bottling Agreement. The exclusivity provisions contained in the non-cola bottling agreements would prevent us from manufacturing, selling or distributing beverage products that imitate, infringe upon, or cause confusion with, the beverage products covered by the non-cola bottling agreements. PepsiCo may also elect to discontinue the manufacture, sale or distribution of a non-cola beverage and terminate the applicable non-cola bottling agreement upon six months notice to us.
Terms of Certain Distribution Agreements. We also have agreements with PepsiCo granting us exclusive rights to distribute AMP and Dole in all of our territories, SoBe in certain specified territories and Gatorade and G2 in certain specified channels. The distribution agreements contain provisions generally similar to those in the Master Bottling Agreement as to use of trademarks, trade names, approved containers and labels and causes for termination. We also have the right to sell Tropicana juice drinks in the United States and Canada, Tropicana juices in Russia and Spain, and Gatorade in Spain, Greece and Russia and in certain limited channels of distribution in the United States and Canada. Some of these beverage agreements have limited terms and, in most instances, prohibit us from dealing in similar beverage products.
Terms of the Master Syrup Agreement. The Master Syrup Agreement grants us the exclusive right to manufacture, sell and distribute fountain syrup to local customers in our territories. We have agreed to act as a manufacturing and delivery agent for national accounts within our territories that specifically request direct delivery without using a middleman. In addition, PepsiCo may appoint us to manufacture and deliver fountain syrup to national accounts that elect delivery through independent distributors. Under the Master Syrup Agreement, we have the exclusive right to service fountain equipment for all of the national account customers within our territories. The Master Syrup Agreement provides that the determination of whether an account is local or national is at the sole discretion of PepsiCo.
The Master Syrup Agreement contains provisions that are similar to those contained in the Master Bottling Agreement with respect to concentrate pricing, territorial restrictions with respect to local customers and national customers electing direct-to-store delivery only, planning, quality control, transfer restrictions and related matters. The Master Syrup Agreement had an initial term of five years which expired in 2004 and was renewed for an additional five-year period. The Master Syrup Agreement will automatically renew for additional five-year periods, unless PepsiCo terminates it for cause. PepsiCo has the right to terminate the Master Syrup Agreement without cause at any time upon twenty-four months notice. In the event PepsiCo terminates the Master Syrup Agreement without cause, PepsiCo is required to pay us the fair market value of our rights thereunder.
Our Master Syrup Agreement will terminate if PepsiCo terminates our Master Bottling Agreement.
Terms of Other U.S. Bottling Agreements. The bottling agreements between us and other licensors of beverage products, including Dr Pepper Snapple Group for Dr Pepper, Crush, Schweppes, Canada Dry, Hawaiian Punch and Squirt, the Pepsi/Lipton Tea Partnership for Lipton Brisk and Lipton Iced Tea, and the North American Coffee Partnership for Starbucks Frappuccino®, contain provisions generally similar to those in the Master Bottling Agreement as to use of trademarks, trade names, approved containers and labels, sales of imitations and causes for termination. Some of these beverage agreements have limited terms and, in most instances, prohibit us from dealing in similar beverage products.
Terms of the Country-Specific Bottling Agreements. The country-specific bottling agreements contain provisions generally similar to those contained in the Master Bottling Agreement and the non-cola bottling agreements and, in Canada, the Master Syrup Agreement with respect to authorized containers, planning, quality control, transfer restrictions, term, causes for termination and related matters. These bottling agreements differ from the Master Bottling Agreement because, except for Canada, they include both fountain syrup and non-fountain beverages. Certain of these bottling agreements contain provisions that have been modified to reflect the laws and regulations of the applicable country. For example, the bottling agreements in Spain do not contain a restriction on the sale and
shipment of Pepsi-Cola beverages into our territory by others in response to unsolicited orders. In addition, in Mexico and Turkey we are restricted in our ability to manufacture, sell and distribute beverages sold under non-PepsiCo trademarks.
Terms of the Russia Venture Agreement. In 2007, PBG together with PepsiCo formed PR Beverages Limited (PR Beverages), a venture that enables us to strategically invest in Russia to accelerate our growth. We contributed our business in Russia to PR Beverages, and PepsiCo entered into bottling agreements with PR Beverages for PepsiCo beverage products sold in Russia on the same terms as in effect for us immediately prior to the venture. PepsiCo also granted PR Beverages an exclusive license to manufacture and sell the concentrate for such products.
Terms of Russia Snack Food Distribution Agreement. Effective January 2009, PR Beverages entered into an agreement with Frito-Lay Manufacturing, LLC (FLM), a wholly owned subsidiary of PepsiCo, pursuant to which PR Beverages purchases Frito-Lay snack products from FLM for sale and distribution in the Russian Federation. This agreement provides FLM access to the infrastructure of our distribution network in Russia and allows us to more effectively utilize some of our distribution network assets. This agreement replaced a similar agreement, which expired on December 31, 2008.
Sales of our products are seasonal, particularly in our Europe segment, where sales volumes tend to be more sensitive to weather conditions. Our peak season across all of our segments is the warm summer months beginning in May and ending in September. In 2008, approximately 50% of our volume was generated during the second and third quarters and approximately 90% of cash flow from operations was generated in the third and fourth quarters.
The carbonated soft drink market and the non-carbonated beverage market are highly competitive. Our competitors in these markets include bottlers and distributors of nationally advertised and marketed products, bottlers and distributors of regionally advertised and marketed products, as well as bottlers of private label soft drinks sold in chain stores. Among our major competitors are bottlers that distribute products from The Coca-Cola Company including Coca-Cola Enterprises Inc., Coca-Cola Hellenic Bottling Company S.A., Coca-Cola FEMSA S.A. de C.V. and Coca-Cola Bottling Co. Consolidated. Our market share for carbonated soft drinks sold under trademarks owned by PepsiCo in our U.S. territories ranges from approximately 21% to approximately 41%. Our market share for carbonated soft drinks sold under trademarks owned by PepsiCo for each country outside the United States in which we do business is as follows: Canada 44%; Russia 21%; Turkey 17%; Spain 10% and Greece 10% (including market share for our IVI brand). In addition, market share for our territories and the territories of other Pepsi bottlers in Mexico is 18% for carbonated soft drinks sold under trademarks owned by PepsiCo. All market share figures are based on generally available data published by third parties. Actions by our major competitors and others in the beverage industry, as well as the general economic environment, could have an impact on our future market share.
We compete primarily on the basis of advertising and marketing programs to create brand awareness, price and promotions, retail space management, customer service, consumer points of access, new products, packaging innovations and distribution methods. We believe that brand recognition, market place pricing, consumer value, customer service, availability and consumer and customer goodwill are primary factors affecting our competitive position.
Our operations and properties are subject to regulation by various federal, state and local governmental entities and agencies in the United States as well as foreign governmental entities and agencies in Canada, Spain, Greece, Russia, Turkey and Mexico. As a producer of food products, we are subject to production, packaging, quality, labeling and distribution standards in each of the countries where we have operations, including, in the United States, those of the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act and the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act. The operations of our production and distribution facilities are subject to laws and regulations relating to the protection of our employees health and safety and the environment in the countries in which we do business. In the United States, we are subject to the laws and regulations of various governmental entities, including the Department of Labor, the Environmental Protection Agency and the Department of Transportation, and various federal, state and local occupational, labor and employment and environmental laws. These laws and regulations include the Occupational Safety and Health Act, the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act, the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Act and the Fair Labor Standards Act.
We believe that our current legal, operational and environmental compliance programs are adequate and that we are in substantial compliance with applicable laws and regulations of the countries in which we do business. We do not anticipate making any material expenditures in connection with environmental remediation and compliance. However, compliance with, or any violation of, future laws or regulations could require material expenditures by us or otherwise have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
Bottle and Can Legislation. Legislation has been enacted in certain U.S. states and Canadian provinces where we operate that generally prohibits the sale of certain beverages in non-refillable containers unless a deposit or levy is charged for the container. These include California, Connecticut, Delaware, Hawaii, Iowa, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, New York,
Oregon, West Virginia, British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Quebec. Legislation prohibited the sale of carbonated beverages in non-refillable containers in Prince Edwards Islands in 2007, but this law was repealed in May 2008.
Massachusetts and Michigan have statutes that require us to pay all or a portion of unclaimed container deposits to the state and Connecticut has
enacted a similar statute effective in 2009. Hawaii and California impose a levy on beverage containers to fund a waste recovery system.
In addition to the Canadian deposit legislation described above, Ontario, Canada currently has a regulation requiring that at least 30% of all soft drinks sold in Ontario be bottled in refillable containers.
The European Commission issued a packaging and packing waste directive that was incorporated into the national legislation of most member states. This has resulted in targets being set for the recovery and recycling of household, commercial and industrial packaging waste and imposes substantial responsibilities upon bottlers and retailers for implementation. Similar legislation has been enacted in Turkey.
Mexico adopted legislation regulating the disposal of solid waste products. In response to this legislation, PBG Mexico maintains agreements with local and federal Mexican governmental authorities as well as with civil associations, which require PBG Mexico, and other participating bottlers, to provide for collection and recycling of certain minimum amounts of plastic bottles.
We are not aware of similar material legislation being enacted in any other areas served by us. The recent economic downturn has resulted in reduced tax revenue for many states and has increased the need for some states to identify new revenue sources. Some states may pursue additional revenue through new or amended bottle and can legislation. We are unable to predict, however, whether such legislation will be enacted or what impact its enactment would have on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
Soft Drink Excise Tax Legislation. Specific soft drink excise taxes have been in place in certain states for several years. The states in which we operate that currently impose such a tax are West Virginia and Arkansas and, with respect to fountain syrup only, Washington.
Value-added taxes on soft drinks vary in our territories located in Canada, Spain, Greece, Russia, Turkey and Mexico, but are consistent with the value-added tax rate for other consumer products. In addition, there is a special consumption tax applicable to cola products in Turkey. In Mexico, bottled water in containers over 10.1 liters are exempt from value-added tax, and we obtained a tax exemption for containers holding less than 10.1 liters of water. The tax exemption currently also applies to non-carbonated soft drinks.
We are not aware of any material soft drink taxes that have been enacted in any other market served by us. The recent economic downturn has resulted in reduced tax revenue for many states and has increased the need for some states to identify new revenue sources. Some states may pursue additional revenue through new or amended soft drink or similar excise tax legislation. We are unable to predict, however, whether such legislation will be enacted or what impact its enactment would have on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
Trade Regulation. As a manufacturer, seller and distributor of bottled and canned soft drink products of PepsiCo and other soft drink manufacturers in exclusive territories in the United States and internationally, we are subject to antitrust and competition laws. Under the Soft Drink Interbrand Competition Act, soft drink bottlers operating in the United States, such as us, may have an exclusive right to manufacture, distribute and sell a soft drink product in a geographic territory if the soft drink product is in substantial and effective competition with other products of the same class in the same market or markets. We believe that there is such substantial and effective competition in each of the exclusive geographic territories in which we operate.
School Sales Legislation; Industry Guidelines. In 2004, the U.S. Congress passed the Child Nutrition Act, which required school districts to implement a school wellness policy by July 2006. In May 2006, members of the American Beverage Association, the Alliance for a Healthier Generation, the American Heart Association and The William J. Clinton Foundation entered into a memorandum of understanding that sets forth standards for what beverages can be sold in elementary, middle and high schools in the United States (the ABA Policy). Also, the beverage associations in the European Union and Canada have recently issued guidelines relating to the sale of beverages in schools. We intend to comply fully with the ABA Policy and these guidelines. In addition, legislation has been proposed in Mexico that would restrict the sale of certain high-calorie products, including soft drinks, in schools and that would require these products to include a label that warns consumers that consumption abuse may lead to obesity.
California Carcinogen and Reproductive Toxin Legislation. A California law requires that any person who exposes another to a carcinogen or a reproductive toxin must provide a warning to that effect. Because the law does not define quantitative thresholds below which a warning is not required, virtually all manufacturers of food products are confronted with the possibility of having to provide warnings due to the presence of trace amounts of defined substances. Regulations implementing the law exempt manufacturers from providing the required warning if it can be demonstrated that the defined substances occur naturally in the product or are present in municipal water used to manufacture the product. We have assessed the impact of the law and its implementing regulations on our beverage products and have concluded that none of our products currently requires a warning under the law. We cannot predict whether or to what extent food industry efforts to minimize the laws impact on food products will succeed. We also cannot predict what impact, either in terms of direct costs or diminished sales, imposition of the law may have.
Mexican Water Regulation. In Mexico, we pump water from our own wells and we purchase water directly from municipal water companies pursuant to concessions obtained from the Mexican government on a plant-by-plant basis. The concessions are generally for ten-year terms and can generally be renewed by us prior to expiration with minimal cost and effort. Our concessions may be terminated if, among other things, (a) we use materially more water than permitted by the concession, (b) we use materially less water than required by the concession, (c) we fail to pay for the rights for water usage or (d) we carry out, without governmental authorization, any material construction on or improvement to, our wells. Our concessions generally satisfy our current water requirements and we believe that we are generally in compliance in all material respects with the terms of our existing concessions.
As of December 27, 2008, we employed approximately 66,800 workers, of whom approximately 32,700 were employed in the United States. Approximately 8,700 of our workers in the United States are union members and approximately 16,200 of our workers outside the United States are union members. We consider relations with our employees to be good and have not experienced significant interruptions of operations due to labor disagreements.
We maintain a website at www.pbg.com. We make available, free of charge, through the Investor Relations Financial Information SEC Filings section of our website, our annual report on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, and any amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, as soon as reasonably practicable after such reports are electronically filed with, or furnished to, the Securities and Exchange Commission (the SEC).
Additionally, we have made available, free of charge, the following governance materials on our website at www.pbg.com under Investor Relations Company Information Corporate Governance: Certificate of Incorporation, Bylaws, Corporate Governance Principles and Practices, Worldwide Code of Conduct (including any amendment thereto), Director Independence Policy, the Audit and Affiliated Transactions Committee Charter, the Compensation and Management Development Committee Charter, the Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee Charter, the Disclosure Committee Charter and the Policy and Procedures Governing Related-Person Transactions. These governance materials are available in print, free of charge, to any PBG shareholder upon request.
We operate in one industry, carbonated soft drinks and other ready-to-drink beverages, and all of our segments derive revenue from these products. PBG has three reportable segments: U.S. & Canada, Europe (which includes Spain, Russia, Greece and Turkey) and Mexico. Operationally, the Company is organized along geographic lines with specific regional management teams having responsibility for the financial results in each reportable segment.
For additional information, see Note 14 in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in Item 7 below.
ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS
Our business and operations entail a variety of risks and uncertainties, including those described below.
We may not be able to respond successfully to consumer trends related to carbonated and non-carbonated beverages.
Consumer trends with respect to the products we sell are subject to change. Consumers are seeking increased variety in their beverages, and there is a growing interest among the public regarding the ingredients in our products, the attributes of those ingredients and health and wellness issues generally. This interest has resulted in a decline in consumer demand for carbonated soft drinks and an increase in consumer demand for products associated with health and wellness, such as water, enhanced water, teas and certain other non-carbonated beverages. Consumer preferences may change due to a variety of other factors, including the aging of the general population, changes in social trends, the real or perceived impact the manufacturing of our products has on the environment, changes in consumer demographics, changes in travel, vacation or leisure activity patterns or a downturn in economic conditions. Any of these changes may reduce consumers demand for our products. For example, the recent downturn in economic conditions has adversely impacted sales of certain of our higher margin products, including our products sold for immediate consumption in restaurants.
Because we rely mainly on PepsiCo to provide us with the products we sell, if PepsiCo fails to develop innovative products and packaging that respond to consumer trends, we could be put at a competitive disadvantage in the marketplace and our business and financial results could be adversely affected. In addition, PepsiCo is under no obligation to provide us distribution rights to all of its products in all of the channels in which we operate. If we are unable to enter into agreements with PepsiCo to distribute innovative products in all of these channels or otherwise gain broad access to products that respond to consumer trends, we could be put at a competitive disadvantage in the marketplace and our business and financial results could be adversely affected.
Our retail customers are consolidating, leaving fewer customers with greater overall purchasing power and, consequently, greater influence over our pricing, promotions and distribution methods. Because we do not operate in all markets in which these customers operate, we must rely on PepsiCo and other Pepsi bottlers to service such customers outside of our markets. The inability of PepsiCo or Pepsi bottlers as a whole, to meet the product, packaging and service demands of our largest customers could lead to a loss or decrease in business from such customers and have a material adverse effect on our business and financial results.
Our business requires a significant supply of raw materials and energy, the limited availability or increased costs of which could adversely affect our business and financial results.
The production and distribution of our beverage products is highly dependent on certain ingredients, packaging materials, other raw materials, and energy. To produce our products, we require significant amounts of ingredients, such as beverage concentrate and high fructose corn syrup, as well as access to significant amounts of water. We also require significant amounts of packaging materials, such as aluminum and plastic bottle components, such as resin (a petroleum-based product). In addition, we use a significant amount of electricity, natural gas, motor fuel and other energy sources to operate our fleet of trucks and our bottling plants.
If the suppliers of our ingredients, packaging materials, other raw materials or energy are impacted by an increased demand for their products, business
downturn, weather conditions (including those related to climate change), natural disasters, governmental regulation, terrorism, strikes or other events, and we are not able to effectively obtain the products from another supplier, we could incur an interruption in the supply of such products or increased costs of such products. Any sustained interruption in the supply of our ingredients, packaging materials, other raw materials or energy, or increased costs thereof, could have a material adverse effect on our business and financial results.
The prices of some of our ingredients, packaging materials, other raw materials and energy, including high fructose corn syrup and motor fuel, are experiencing unprecedented volatility, which can unpredictably and substantially increase our costs. We have implemented a hedging strategy to better predict our costs of some of these products. In a volatile market, however, such strategy includes a risk that, during a particular period of time, market prices fall below our hedged price and we pay higher than market prices for certain products. As a result, under certain circumstances, our hedging strategy may increase our overall costs.
If there is a significant or sustained increase in the costs of our ingredients, packaging materials, other raw materials or energy, and we are unable to pass the increased costs on to our customers in the form of higher prices, there could be a material adverse effect on our business and financial results.
Changes in the legal and regulatory environment, including those related to climate change, could increase our costs or liabilities or impact the sale of our products.
Our operations and properties are subject to regulation by various federal, state and local governmental entities and agencies as well as foreign governmental entities. Such regulations relate to, among other things, food and drug laws, competition laws, labor laws, taxation requirements (including soft drink or similar excise taxes), bottle and can legislation (see above under Governmental Regulation Applicable to PBG), accounting standards and environmental laws.
There is also a growing consensus that emissions of greenhouse gases are linked to global climate change, which may result in more regional, federal and/or global legal and regulatory requirements to reduce or mitigate the effects of greenhouse gases. Until any such requirements come into effect, it is difficult to predict their impact on our business or financial results, including any impact on our supply chain costs. In the interim, we are working to improve our systems to record baseline data and monitor our greenhouse gas emissions and, during the process of developing our business strategies, we consider the impact our plans may have on the environment.
We cannot assure you that we have been or will at all times be in compliance with all regulatory requirements or that we will not incur material costs or liabilities in connection with existing or new regulatory requirements, including those related to climate change.
As of January 23, 2009, PepsiCo owned approximately 40.2% of the combined voting power of our voting stock (with the balance owned by the public). PepsiCo will be able to significantly affect the outcome of PBGs shareholder votes, thereby affecting matters concerning us.
Because we depend upon PepsiCo to provide us with concentrate, certain funding and various services, changes in our relationship with PepsiCo could adversely affect our business and financial results.
We conduct our business primarily under beverage agreements with PepsiCo. If our beverage agreements with PepsiCo are terminated for any reason, it would have a material adverse effect on our business and financial results. These agreements provide that we must purchase all of the concentrate for such beverages at prices and on other terms which are set by PepsiCo in its sole discretion. Any significant concentrate price increases could materially affect our business and financial results.
PepsiCo has also traditionally provided bottler incentives and funding to its bottling operations. PepsiCo does not have to maintain or continue these incentives or funding. Termination or decreases in bottler incentives or funding levels could materially affect our business and financial results.
Under our shared services agreement, we obtain various services from PepsiCo, including procurement of raw materials and certain administrative services. If any of the services under the shared services agreement were terminated, we would have to obtain such services on our own. This could result in a disruption of such services, and we might not be able to obtain these services on terms, including cost, that are as favorable as those we receive through PepsiCo.
We may have potential conflicts of interest with PepsiCo, which could result in PepsiCos objectives being favored over our objectives.
Our past and ongoing relationship with PepsiCo could give rise to conflicts of interests. In addition, two members of our Board of Directors are executive officers of PepsiCo, and one of the three Managing Directors of Bottling LLC, our principal operating subsidiary, is an officer of PepsiCo, a situation which may create conflicts of interest.
These potential conflicts include balancing the objectives of increasing sales volume of PepsiCo beverages and maintaining or increasing our profitability. Other possible conflicts could relate to the nature, quality and pricing of services or products provided to us by PepsiCo or by us to PepsiCo.
Conflicts could also arise in the context of our potential acquisition of bottling territories and/or assets from PepsiCo or other independent Pepsi bottlers. Under our Master Bottling Agreement with PepsiCo, we must obtain PepsiCos approval to acquire any independent Pepsi bottler. PepsiCo has agreed not to withhold approval for any acquisition within agreed-upon U.S. territories if we have successfully negotiated the acquisition and, in PepsiCos reasonable judgment, satisfactorily performed our obligations under the Master Bottling Agreement. We have agreed not to attempt to acquire any independent Pepsi bottler outside of those agreed-upon territories without PepsiCos prior written approval.
Our acquisition strategy may be limited by our ability to successfully integrate acquired businesses into ours or our failure to realize our expected return on acquired businesses.
We intend to continue to pursue acquisitions of bottling assets and territories from PepsiCos independent bottlers. The success of our acquisition strategy may be limited because of unforeseen costs and complexities. We may not be able to acquire, integrate successfully or manage profitably additional businesses without substantial costs, delays or other difficulties. Unforeseen costs and complexities may also prevent us from realizing our expected rate of return on an acquired business. Any of the foregoing could have a material adverse effect on our business and financial results.
We may not be able to compete successfully within the highly competitive carbonated and non-carbonated beverage markets.
The carbonated and non-carbonated beverage markets are highly competitive. Competitive pressures in our markets could cause us to reduce prices or forego price increases required to off-set increased costs of raw materials and fuel, increase capital and other expenditures, or lose market share, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business and financial results.
If we are unable to fund our substantial capital requirements, it could cause us to reduce our planned capital expenditures and could result in a material adverse effect on our business and financial results.
We require substantial capital expenditures to implement our business plans. If we do not have sufficient funds or if we are unable to obtain financing in the amounts desired or on acceptable terms, we may have to reduce our planned capital expenditures, which could have a material adverse effect on our business and financial results.
The level of our indebtedness requires us to dedicate a substantial portion of our cash flow from operations to payments on our debt. This could limit our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business and place us at a competitive disadvantage compared to competitors that have less debt. Our indebtedness also exposes us to interest rate fluctuations, because the interest on some of our indebtedness is at variable rates, and makes us vulnerable to general adverse economic and industry conditions. All of the above could make it more difficult for us, or make us unable to satisfy our obligations with respect to all or a portion of such indebtedness and could limit our ability to obtain additional financing for future working capital expenditures, strategic acquisitions and other general corporate requirements.
We are unable to predict the impact of the recent downturn in the credit markets and the resulting costs or constraints in obtaining financing on our business and financial results.
Our principal sources of cash come from our operating activities and the issuance of debt and bank borrowings. The recent and extraordinary disruption in the credit markets has had a significant adverse impact on a number of financial institutions and has affected the cost of capital available to us. At this point in time, our liquidity has not been materially impacted by the current credit environment and management does not expect that it will be materially impacted in the near future. We will continue to closely monitor our liquidity and the credit markets. The recent economic downturn has also had an adverse impact on some of our customers and suppliers. We will continue to closely monitor the credit worthiness of our customers and suppliers and adjust our allowance for doubtful accounts, as appropriate. We cannot predict with any certainty the impact to us of any further disruption in the credit environment or any resulting material impact on our liquidity, future financing costs or financial results.
Our foreign operations are subject to social, political and economic risks and may be adversely affected by foreign currency fluctuations.
In the fiscal year ended December 27, 2008, approximately 34% of our net revenues were generated in territories outside the United States. Social, economic and political developments in our international markets (including Russia, Mexico, Canada, Spain, Turkey and Greece) may adversely affect our business and financial results. These developments may lead to new product pricing, tax or other policies and monetary fluctuations that may adversely impact our business and financial results. The overall risks to our international businesses also include changes in foreign governmental policies. In addition, we are expanding our investment and sales and marketing efforts in certain emerging markets, such as Russia. Expanding our business into emerging markets may present additional risks beyond those associated with more developed international markets. For example, Russia has been a significant source of our profit growth, but is now experiencing an economic downturn, which if sustained may have a material adverse impact on our business and financial results. Additionally, our cost of goods, our results of operations and the value of our foreign assets are affected by fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates. For example, the recent weakening of foreign currencies negatively impacted our earnings in 2008 compared with the prior year.
If we are unable to maintain brand image and product quality, or if we encounter other product issues such as product recalls, our business may suffer.
Maintaining a good reputation globally is critical to our success. If we fail to maintain high standards for product quality, or if we fail to maintain high ethical, social and environmental standards for all of our operations and activities, our reputation could be jeopardized. In addition, we may be liable if the consumption of any of our products causes injury or illness, and we may be required to recall products if they become contaminated or are damaged or mislabeled. A significant product liability or other product-related legal judgment against us or a widespread recall of our products could have a material adverse effect on our business and financial results.
Our success depends on key members of our management, the loss of whom could disrupt our business operations.
Our success depends largely on the efforts and abilities of key management employees. Key management employees are not parties to employment agreements with us. The loss of the services of key personnel could have a material adverse effect on our business and financial results.
If we are unable to renew collective bargaining agreements on satisfactory terms, or if we experience strikes, work stoppages or labor unrest, our business may suffer.
Approximately 31% of our U.S. and Canadian employees are covered by collective bargaining agreements. These agreements generally expire at various dates over the next five years. Our inability to successfully renegotiate these agreements could cause work stoppages and interruptions, which may adversely impact our operating results. The terms and conditions of existing or renegotiated agreements could also increase our costs or otherwise affect our ability to increase our operational efficiency.
Our profitability and cash flow is substantially affected by the costs of pension, postretirement medical and employee medical and other benefits. Recently, these costs have increased significantly due to factors such as declines in investment returns on pension assets, changes in discount rates used to calculate pension and related liabilities, and increases in health care costs. Although we actively seek to control increases, there can be no assurance that we will succeed in limiting future cost increases, and continued upward pressure in these costs could have a material adverse affect on our business and financial performance.
Our failure to effectively manage our information technology infrastructure could disrupt our operations and negatively impact our business.
We rely on information technology systems to process, transmit, store and protect electronic information. Additionally, a significant portion of the communications between our personnel, customers, and suppliers depends on information technology. If we do not effectively manage our information technology infrastructure, we could be subject to transaction errors, processing inefficiencies, the loss of customers, business disruptions and data security breaches.
Demand for our products is influenced to some extent by the weather conditions in the markets in which we operate. Weather conditions in these markets, such as unseasonably cool temperatures, could have a material adverse effect on our sales volume and financial results.
Catastrophic events in the markets in which we operate could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition.
Natural disasters, terrorism, pandemic, strikes or other catastrophic events could impair our ability to manufacture or sell our products. Failure to take adequate steps to mitigate the likelihood or potential impact of such events, or to manage such events effectively if they occur, could adversely affect our sales volume, cost of raw materials, earnings and financial results.
ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
Our corporate headquarters is located in leased property in Somers, New York. In addition, we have a total of 591 manufacturing and distribution facilities, as follows:
We also own or lease and operate approximately 38,500 vehicles, including delivery trucks, delivery and transport tractors and trailers and other trucks and vans used in the sale and distribution of our beverage products. We also own more than two million coolers, soft drink dispensing fountains and vending machines.
With a few exceptions, leases of plants in the U.S. & Canada are on a long-term basis, expiring at various times, with options to renew for additional periods. Our leased facilities in Europe and Mexico are generally leased for varying and usually shorter periods, with or without renewal options. We believe that our properties are in good operating condition and are adequate to serve our current operational needs.
From time to time we are a party to various litigation proceedings arising in the ordinary course of our business, none of which, in the opinion of management, is likely to have a material adverse effect on our financial condition or results of operations.
ITEM 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANTS COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
Our common stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol PBG. Our Class B common stock is not publicly traded. On February 6, 2009, the last sales price for our common stock on the New York Stock Exchange was $21.02 per share. The following table sets forth the high and low sales prices per share of our common stock during each of our fiscal quarters in 2008 and 2007.
Shareholders As of February 6, 2009, there were approximately 56,777 registered and beneficial holders of our common stock. PepsiCo is the holder of all of our outstanding shares of Class B common stock.
Dividend Policy Quarterly cash dividends are usually declared in late January or early February, March, July and October and paid at the end of March, June, and September and at the beginning of January. The dividend record dates for 2009 are expected to be March 6, June 5, September 4 and December 4.
We declared the following dividends on our common stock during fiscal years 2008 and 2007:
Performance Graph The following performance graph compares the cumulative total return of our common stock to the Standard & Poors 500 Stock Index and to an index of peer companies selected by us (the Bottling Group Index). The Bottling Group Index consists of Coca-Cola Hellenic Bottling Company S.A., Coca-Cola Bottling Co. Consolidated, Coca-Cola Enterprises Inc., Coca-Cola FEMSA ADRs, and PepsiAmericas, Inc. The graph assumes the return on $100 invested on December 27, 2003 until December 27, 2008. The returns of each member of the Bottling Group Index are weighted according to each members stock market capitalization as of the beginning of the period measured and includes the subsequent reinvestment of dividends.
PBG Purchases of Equity Securities We did not repurchase shares in the fourth quarter of 2008. We repurchased approximately 15.0 million shares of PBG common stock during fiscal year 2008. Since the inception of our share repurchase program in October 1999 and through the end of fiscal year 2008, approximately 146.5 million shares of PBG common stock have been repurchased. Our share repurchases for the fourth quarter of 2008 are as follows:
Unless terminated by resolution of our Board, each share repurchase program expires when we have repurchased all shares authorized for repurchase thereunder.
ITEM 6. SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA
SELECTED FINANCIAL AND OPERATING DATA
in millions, except per share data
ITEM 7. MANAGEMENTS DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
MANAGEMENTS FINANCIAL REVIEW
AUDITED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
MANAGEMENTS FINANCIAL REVIEW
Tabular dollars in millions, except per share data
The Pepsi Bottling Group, Inc. is the worlds largest manufacturer, seller and distributor of Pepsi-Cola beverages. When used in these Consolidated Financial Statements, PBG, we, our, us and the Company each refers to The Pepsi Bottling Group, Inc. and, where appropriate, to Bottling Group, LLC (Bottling LLC), our principal operating subsidiary.
We have the exclusive right to manufacture, sell and distribute Pepsi-Cola beverages in all or a portion of the U.S., Mexico, Canada, Spain, Russia, Greece and Turkey. PBG manages and reports operating results through three reportable segments: U.S. & Canada, Europe (which includes Spain, Russia, Greece and Turkey) and Mexico. As shown in the graph below, the U.S. & Canada segment is the dominant driver of our results, generating 68 percent of our volume and 75 percent of our net revenues.
The majority of our volume is derived from brands licensed from PepsiCo, Inc. (PepsiCo) or PepsiCo joint ventures. These brands are some of the most recognized in the world and consist of carbonated soft drinks (CSDs) and non-carbonated beverages. Our CSDs include brands such as Pepsi-Cola, Diet Pepsi, Diet Pepsi Max, Mountain Dew and Sierra Mist. Our non-carbonated beverages portfolio includes brands with Starbucks Frapuccino in the ready-to-drink coffee category; Mountain Dew Amp and SoBe Adrenaline Rush in the energy drink category; SoBe and Tropicana in the juice and juice drinks category; Aquafina in the water category; and Lipton Iced Tea in the tea category. We continue to strengthen our powerful portfolio highlighted by our focus on the hydration category with SoBe Life Water, Propel fitness water and G2 in the U.S. In some of our territories we have the right to manufacture, sell and distribute soft drink products of companies other than PepsiCo, including Dr Pepper, Crush and Squirt. We also have the right in some of our territories to manufacture, sell and distribute beverages under brands that we own, including Electropura, e-pura and Garci Crespo. See Part I, Item 1 of this report for a listing of our principal products by segment.
We sell our products through cold-drink and take-home channels. Our cold-drink channel consists of chilled products sold in the retail and foodservice channels. We earn the highest profit margins on a per-case basis in the cold-drink channel. Our take-home channel consists of unchilled products that are sold in the retail, mass merchandiser and club store channels for at-home consumption.
Our products are brought to market primarily through direct store delivery (DSD) or third-party distribution, including foodservice and vending distribution networks. The hallmarks of the Companys DSD system are customer service, speed to market, flexibility and reach. These are all critical factors in bringing new products to market, adding accounts to our existing base and meeting increasingly diverse volume demands.
Our customers range from large format accounts, including large chain foodstores, supercenters, mass merchandisers, chain drug stores, club stores and military bases, to small independently owned shops and foodservice businesses. Changing consumer shopping trends and on-the-go lifestyles are shifting more of our volume to fast-growing channels such as supercenters, club and dollar stores. Retail consolidation continues to increase the strategic significance of our large-volume customers. In 2008, sales to our top five retail customers represented approximately 19 percent of our net revenues.
PBGs focus is on superior sales execution, customer service, merchandising and operating excellence. Our goal is to help our customers grow their beverage business by making our portfolio of brands readily available to consumers at every shopping occasion, using proven methods to grow not only PepsiCo brand sales, but the overall beverage category. Our objective is to ensure we have the right product in the right package to satisfy the ever changing needs of todays consumers.
We measure our sales in terms of physical cases sold to our customers. Each package, as sold to our customers, regardless of configuration or number of units within a package, represents one physical case. Our net price and gross margin on a per-case basis are impacted by how much we charge for the product, the mix of brands and packages we sell, and the channels through which the product is sold. For example, we realize a higher net revenue and gross margin per case on a 20-ounce chilled bottle sold in a convenience store than on a 2-liter unchilled bottle sold in a grocery store.
Our financial success is dependent on a number of factors, including: our strong partnership with PepsiCo, the customer relationships we cultivate, the pricing we achieve in the marketplace, our market execution, our ability to meet changing consumer preferences and the efficiencies we achieve in manufacturing and distributing our products. Key indicators of our financial success are: the number of physical cases we sell, the net price and gross margin we achieve on a per-case basis, our overall cost productivity which reflects how well we manage our raw material, manufacturing, distribution and other overhead costs, and cash and capital management.
The discussion and analysis throughout Managements Financial Review should be read in conjunction with the Consolidated Financial Statements and the related accompanying notes. The preparation of our Consolidated Financial Statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (U.S. GAAP) requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts in our Consolidated Financial Statements and the related accompanying notes, including various claims and contingencies related to lawsuits, taxes, environmental and other matters arising from the normal course of business. We apply our best judgment, our knowledge of existing facts and circumstances and actions that we may undertake in the future, in determining the estimates that affect our Consolidated Financial Statements.
We evaluate our estimates on an on-going basis using our historical experience as well as other factors we believe appropriate under the circumstances, such as current economic conditions, and adjust or revise our estimates as circumstances change. As future events and their effect cannot be determined with precision, actual results may differ from these estimates.
Significant accounting policies are discussed in Note 2 in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements. Management believes the following policies, which require the use of estimates, assumptions and the application of judgment, to be the most critical to the portrayal of PBGs results of operations and financial condition. We applied our critical accounting policies and estimation methods consistently in all material respects and have discussed the selection of these policies and related disclosures with the Audit and Affiliated Transactions Committee of our Board of Directors.
Our intangible assets consist primarily of franchise rights, distribution rights, licensing rights, brands and goodwill and principally arise from the allocation of the purchase price of businesses acquired. These intangible assets, other than goodwill, are classified as either finite-lived intangibles or indefinite-lived intangibles.
The classification of intangibles and the determination of the appropriate useful life require substantial judgment. The determination of the expected life depends upon the use and underlying characteristics of the intangible asset. In our evaluation of the expected life of these intangible assets, we consider the nature and terms of the underlying agreements; our intent and ability to use the specific asset; the age and market position of the products within the territories in which we are entitled to sell; the historical and projected growth of those products; and costs, if any, to renew the related agreement.
Intangible assets that are determined to have a finite life are amortized over their expected useful life, which generally ranges from five to twenty years. For intangible assets with finite lives, evaluations for impairment are performed only if facts and circumstances indicate that the carrying value may not be recoverable.
Goodwill and other intangible assets with indefinite lives are not amortized; however, they are evaluated for impairment at least annually or more frequently if facts and circumstances indicate that the assets may be impaired. Prior to 2008, the Company completed this test in the fourth quarter. During 2008, the Company changed its impairment testing of goodwill and intangible assets with indefinite useful lives to the third quarter, with the exception of Mexicos intangible assets. Impairment testing of Mexicos intangible assets with indefinite useful lives was completed in the fourth quarter to coincide with the completion of our strategic review of the business.
We evaluate goodwill for impairment at the reporting unit level, which we determined to be the countries in which we operate. We evaluate goodwill for impairment by comparing the fair value of the reporting unit, as determined by its discounted cash flows, with its carrying value. If the carrying value of a reporting unit exceeds its fair value, we compare the implied fair value of the reporting units goodwill with its carrying amount to measure the amount of impairment loss.
We evaluate other intangible assets with indefinite useful lives for impairment by comparing the fair values of the assets with their carrying values. The fair value of our franchise rights, distribution rights and licensing rights is measured using a multi-period excess earnings method that is based upon estimated discounted future cash flows. The fair value of our brands is measured using a multi-period royalty savings method, which reflects the savings realized by owning the brand and, therefore, not requiring payment of third party royalty fees.
Considerable management judgment is necessary to estimate discounted future cash flows in conducting an impairment analysis for goodwill and other intangible assets. The cash flows may be impacted by future actions taken by us and our competitors and the volatility of macroeconomic conditions in the markets in which we conduct business. Assumptions used in our impairment analysis, such as forecasted growth rates, cost of capital and additional risk premiums used in the valuations, are based on the best available market information and are consistent with our long-term strategic plans. An inability to achieve strategic business plan targets in a reporting unit, a change in our discount rate or other assumptions could have a significant impact on the fair value of our reporting units and other intangible assets, which could then result in a material non-cash impairment charge to our results of operations. The recent volatility in the global macroeconomic conditions has had a negative impact on our business results. If this volatility continues to persist into the future, the fair value of our intangible assets could be adversely impacted.
As a result of the 2008 impairment test for goodwill and other intangible assets with indefinite lives, the Company recorded a $412 million non-cash impairment charge relating primarily to distribution rights and brands for the Electropura water business in Mexico. The impairment charge relating to these intangible assets was based upon the findings of an extensive strategic review and the finalization of restructuring plans for our Mexican business. In light of the weakening macroeconomic conditions and our outlook for the business in Mexico, we lowered our expectation of the future performance, which reduced the value of these intangible assets and triggered the impairment charge. After recording the above mentioned impairment charge, Mexicos remaining net book value of goodwill and other intangible assets is approximately $367 million.
For further information about our goodwill and other intangible assets see Note 6 in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
We sponsor pension and other postretirement medical benefit plans in various forms in the United States and similar pension plans in our international locations, covering employees who meet specified eligibility requirements. The assets, liabilities and expenses associated with our international plans were not significant to our worldwide results of operations or financial position, and accordingly, assumptions, expenses, sensitivity analyses and other data regarding these plans are not included in any of the discussions provided below.
In the U.S., the non-contributory defined benefit pension plans provide benefits to certain full-time salaried and hourly employees. Benefits are generally based on years of service and compensation, or stated amounts for each year of service. Effective January 1, 2007, newly hired salaried and non-union hourly employees are not eligible to participate in these plans. Additionally, effective April 1, 2009, benefits from these plans will no longer continue to accrue for certain salaried and non-union employees that do not meet age and service requirements. The impact of these plan changes will significantly reduce the Companys future long-term pension obligation, pension expense and cash contributions to the plans. Employees not eligible to participate in these plans or employees whose benefits will be discontinued will receive additional Company retirement contributions under the Companys defined contribution plans.
Substantially all of our U.S. employees meeting age and service requirements are eligible to participate in our postretirement medical benefit plans.
Effective for the 2008 fiscal year, the Company adopted the measurement date provisions of Statement of Financial Accounting Standards (SFAS) No. 158, Employers Accounting for Defined Benefit Pension and Other Postretirement Plans (SFAS 158). As a result of adopting SFAS 158, the Companys measurement date for plan assets and benefit obligations was changed from September 30 to its fiscal year end.
The determination of pension and postretirement medical plan obligations and related expenses requires the use of assumptions to estimate the amount of benefits that employees earn while working, as well as the present value of those benefit obligations. Significant assumptions include discount rate; expected return on plan assets; certain employee-related factors such as retirement age, mortality, and turnover; rate of salary increases for plans where benefits are based on earnings; and for retiree medical plans, health care cost trend rates.
On an annual basis we evaluate these assumptions, which are based upon historical experience of the plans and managements best judgment regarding future expectations. These assumptions may differ materially from actual results due to changing market and economic conditions. A change in the assumptions or economic events outside our control could have a material impact on the measurement of our pension and postretirement medical benefit expenses and obligations as well as related funding requirements.
The discount rates used in calculating the present value of our pension and postretirement medical benefit plan obligations are developed based on a yield curve that is comprised of high-quality, non-callable corporate bonds. These bonds are rated Aa or better by Moodys; have a principal amount of at least $250 million; are denominated in U.S. dollars; and have maturity dates ranging from six months to thirty years, which matches the timing of our expected benefit payments.
The expected rate of return on plan assets for a given fiscal year is based upon actual historical returns and the long-term outlook on asset classes in the pension plans investment portfolio. In connection with the pension plan design change we changed our asset allocation targets. The current target asset allocation for the U.S. pension plans is 65 percent equity investments, of which approximately half is to be invested in domestic equities and half is to be invested in foreign equities. The remaining 35 percent is to be invested primarily in long-term corporate bonds. Based on our revised asset allocation, historical returns and estimated future outlook of the pension plans portfolio, we changed our 2009 estimated long-term rate of return on plan assets assumption from 8.5 percent to 8.0 percent.
Differences between the assumed rate of return and actual rate of return on plan assets are deferred in accumulated other comprehensive loss in equity and amortized to earnings utilizing the market-related value method. Under this method, differences between the assumed rate of return and actual rate of return from any one year will be recognized over a five year period to determine the market related value.
Other gains and losses resulting from changes in actuarial assumptions and from differences between assumed and actual experience are determined at each measurement date and deferred in accumulated other comprehensive loss in equity. To the extent the amount of all unrecognized gains and losses exceeds 10 percent of the larger of the benefit obligation or plan assets, such amount is amortized to earnings over the average remaining service period of active participants.
The cost or benefit from benefit plan changes is also deferred in accumulated other comprehensive loss in equity and amortized to earnings on a straight-line basis over the average remaining service period of the employees expected to receive benefits.
Net unrecognized losses and unamortized prior service costs relating to the pension and postretirement plans in the United States, totaled $969 million and $449 million at December 27, 2008 and December 29, 2007, respectively.
The following tables provide the weighted-average assumptions for our 2009 and 2008 pension and postretirement medical plans expense:
During 2008, our ongoing defined benefit pension and postretirement medical plan expenses totaled $87 million, which excludes one-time charges of approximately $27 million associated with restructuring actions and our pension plan design change. In 2009, these expenses are expected to increase by approximately $11 million to $98 million as a result of the following factors:
change in assumption will increase our 2009 pension expense by approximately $18 million.
In addition, we expect our defined contribution plan expense will increase by $10 million to $15 million due to additional contributions to this plan for employees impacted by the pension design change.
It is unlikely that in any given year the actual rate of return will be the same as the assumed long-term rate of return. The following table provides a summary for the last three years of actual rates of return versus expected long-term rates of return for our pension plan assets:
Sensitivity of changes in key assumptions for our pension and postretirement plans expense in 2009 are as follows:
We make contributions to the pension trust to provide plan benefits for certain pension plans. Generally, we do not fund the pension plans if current contributions would not be tax deductible. Effective in 2008, under the Pension Protection Act, funding requirements are more stringent and require companies to make minimum contributions equal to their service cost plus amortization of their deficit over a seven year period. Failure to achieve appropriate funded levels will result in restrictions on employee benefits. Failure to contribute the minimum required contributions will result in excise taxes for the Company and reporting to the regulatory agencies. During 2008, the Company contributed $85 million to its pension trusts. The Company expects to contribute an additional $150 million to its pension trusts in 2009, of which approximately $54 million is to satisfy minimum funding requirements. These amounts exclude $23 million and $35 million of contributions to the unfunded plans for the years ended December 27, 2008 and December 26, 2009, respectively.
For further information about our pension and postretirement plans see Note 12 in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
Due to the nature of our business, we require insurance coverage for certain casualty risks. In the United States, we use a combination of insurance and self-insurance mechanisms, including a wholly owned captive insurance entity. This captive entity participates in a reinsurance pool for a portion of our workers compensation risk. We provide self-insurance for the workers compensation risk retained by the Company and automobile risks up to $10 million per occurrence, and product and general liability risks up to $5 million per occurrence. For losses exceeding these self-insurance thresholds, we purchase casualty insurance from third-party providers.
At December 27, 2008, our net liability for casualty costs was $235 million, of which $70 million was considered short-term in nature. At December 29, 2007, our net liability for casualty costs was $222 million, of which $65 million was considered short-term in nature.
Our liability for casualty costs is estimated using individual case-based valuations and statistical analyses and is based upon historical experience, actuarial assumptions and professional judgment. We do not discount our loss expense reserves. These estimates are subject to the effects of trends in loss severity and frequency and are subject to a significant degree of inherent variability. We evaluate these estimates periodically during the year and we believe that they are appropriate; however, an increase or decrease in the estimates or events outside our control could have a material impact on reported net income. Accordingly, the ultimate settlement of these costs may vary significantly from the estimates included in our financial statements.
Our effective tax rate is based on pre-tax income, statutory tax rates, tax laws and regulations and tax planning strategies available to us in the various jurisdictions in which we operate. Significant management judgment is required in evaluating our tax positions and in determining our effective tax rate.
Our deferred tax assets and liabilities reflect our best estimate of the tax benefits and costs we expect to realize in the future. We establish valuation
allowances to reduce our deferred tax assets to an amount that will more likely than not be realized.
As required under the provisions of Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) Interpretation No. 48, Accounting for Uncertainty in Income Taxes (FIN 48), which we adopted as of the beginning of fiscal year 2007, we recognize the impact of our tax positions in our financial statements if those positions will more likely than not be sustained on audit, based on the technical merits of the position. A number of years may elapse before an uncertain tax position for which we have established a tax reserve is audited and finally resolved, and the number of years for which we have audits that are open varies depending on the tax jurisdiction. While it is often difficult to predict the final outcome or the timing of the resolution of an audit, we believe that our reserves for uncertain tax benefits reflect the outcome of tax positions that is more likely than not to occur. Nevertheless, it is possible that tax authorities may disagree with our tax positions, which could have a significant impact on our results of operations, financial position and cash flows. The resolution of a tax position could be recognized as an adjustment to our provision for income taxes and our deferred taxes in the period of resolution, and may also require a use of cash.
For further information about our income taxes see Income Tax Expense in the Results of Operations and Note 13 in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
PepsiCo is a related party due to the nature of our franchise relationship and its ownership interest in our company. More than 80 percent of our volume is derived from the sale of PepsiCo brands. At December 27, 2008, PepsiCo owned approximately 33.2 percent of our outstanding common stock and 100 percent of our outstanding class B common stock, together representing approximately 40.2 percent of the voting power of all classes of our voting stock. In addition, at December 27, 2008, PepsiCo owned 6.6 percent of the equity of Bottling LLC and 40 percent of PR Beverages Limited (PR Beverages), a consolidated venture for our Russian operations. We fully consolidate the results of Bottling LLC and PR Beverages and present PepsiCos share as minority interest in our Consolidated Financial Statements.
On March 1, 2007, together with PepsiCo, we formed PR Beverages, a venture that enables us to strategically invest in Russia to accelerate our growth. PBG contributed its business in Russia to PR Beverages, and PepsiCo entered into bottling agreements with PR Beverages for PepsiCo beverage products sold in Russia on the same terms as in effect for PBG immediately prior to the venture. PR Beverages has an exclusive license to manufacture and sell PepsiCo concentrate for such products. Increases in gross profit and operating income resulting from the consolidation of the venture are offset by minority interest expense related to PepsiCos share. Minority interest expense is recorded below operating income.
Our business is conducted primarily under beverage agreements with PepsiCo, including a master bottling agreement, non-cola bottling agreements, distribution agreements and a master syrup agreement. These agreements provide PepsiCo with the ability, at its sole discretion, to establish prices, and other terms and conditions for our purchase of concentrates and finished products from PepsiCo. PepsiCo provides us with bottler funding to support a variety of trade and consumer programs such as consumer incentives, advertising support, new product support and vending and cooler equipment placement. The nature and type of programs, as well as the level of funding, vary annually. Additionally, under a shared services agreement, we obtain various services from PepsiCo, which include services for information technology maintenance and the procurement of raw materials. We also provide services to PepsiCo, including facility and credit and collection support.
Because we depend on PepsiCo to provide us with concentrate which we use in the production of CSDs and non-carbonated beverages, bottler incentives and various services, changes in our relationship with PepsiCo could have a material adverse effect on our business and financial results.
For further information about our relationship with PepsiCo and its affiliates see Note 15 in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
ITEMS AFFECTING COMPARABILITY OF OUR FINANCIAL RESULTS
The year-over-year comparisons of our financial results are affected by the following items included in our reported results:
Items impacting comparability described below are shown in the year the action was initiated.
During the fourth quarter of 2008, the Company recorded a $412 million non-cash impairment charge relating primarily to distribution rights and brands for the Electropura water business in Mexico. For further information about the impairment charges, see section entitled Other Intangible Assets, net and Goodwill, in our Critical Accounting Policies.
In the fourth quarter of 2008, we announced a restructuring program to enhance the Companys operating capabilities in each of our reportable segments. The programs key objectives are to strengthen customer service and selling effectiveness; simplify decision making and streamline the organization; drive greater cost productivity to adapt to current macroeconomic challenges; and rationalize the Companys supply chain infrastructure. We anticipate the program to be substantially complete by the end of 2009 and the program is expected to result in annual pre-tax savings of approximately $150 million to $160 million.
The Company expects to record pre-tax charges of $140 million to $170 million over the course of the restructuring program, which is primarily for severance and related benefits, pension and other employee-related costs and other charges, including employee relocation and asset disposal costs. As part of the restructuring program, approximately 3,150 positions will be eliminated including 750 positions in the U.S. & Canada, 200 positions in Europe and 2,200 positions in Mexico. The Company will also close four facilities in the U.S., as well as three plants and approximately 30 distribution centers in Mexico. The program will also include the elimination of approximately 700 routes in Mexico. In addition, the Company will modify its U.S. defined benefit pension plans, which will generate long-term savings and significantly reduce future financial obligations.
During 2008, the Company incurred pre-tax charges of $83 million, of which $53 million was recorded in the U.S. & Canada segment, $27 million was recorded in our Europe segment and the remaining $3 million was recorded in the Mexico segment. All of these charges were recorded in selling, delivery and administrative expenses. During 2008, we eliminated approximately 1,050 positions across all reportable segments and closed three facilities in the U.S. and two plants in Mexico and eliminated 126 routes in Mexico.
The Company expects about $130 million in pre-tax cash expenditures from these restructuring actions, of which $13 million was paid in the fourth quarter of 2008, with the balance expected to occur in 2009 and 2010.
For further information about our restructuring charges see Note 16 in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
In the third quarter of 2007, we announced a restructuring program to realign the Companys organization to adapt to changes in the marketplace, improve operating efficiencies and enhance the growth potential of the Companys product portfolio. We substantially completed the organizational realignment during the first quarter of 2008, which resulted in the elimination of approximately 800 positions. Annual cost savings from this restructuring program are approximately $30 million. Over the course of the program we incurred a pre-tax charge of approximately $29 million. During 2007, we recorded pre-tax charges of $26 million, of which $18 million was recorded in the U.S. & Canada segment and the remaining $8 million was recorded in the Europe segment. During the first half of 2008, we recorded an additional $3 million of pre-tax charges primarily relating to relocation expenses in our U.S. & Canada segment. We made approximately $24 million of after-tax cash payments associated with these restructuring charges.
In the fourth quarter of 2007, we implemented and completed an additional phase of restructuring actions to improve operating efficiencies. In addition to the amounts discussed above, we recorded a pre-tax charge of approximately $4 million in selling, delivery and administrative expenses, primarily related to employee termination costs in Mexico, where an additional 800 positions were eliminated as a result of this phase of the restructuring. Annual cost savings from this restructuring program are approximately $7 million.
In the fourth quarter of 2007, we adopted a Full Service Vending (FSV) Rationalization plan to rationalize our vending asset base in our U.S. & Canada segment by disposing of older underperforming assets and redeploying certain assets to higher return accounts. Our FSV business portfolio consists of accounts where we stock and service vending equipment. This plan, which we completed in the second quarter of 2008, was part of the Companys broader initiative to improve operating income margins of our FSV business.
Over the course of the FSV Rationalization plan, we incurred a pre-tax asset disposal charge of approximately $25 million, the majority of which was non-cash. The charge included costs associated with the removal of these assets from service, disposal costs and redeployment expenses. Of this amount, we recorded a pre-tax charge of approximately $23 million in 2007 with the remainder being recorded in 2008. This charge is recorded in selling, delivery and administrative expenses.
For further information about PR Beverages see Relationship with PepsiCo.
During 2007, PBG recorded a net non-cash benefit of approximately $46 million to income tax expense related to the reversal of reserves for uncertain tax benefits resulting from the expiration of the statute of limitations on the IRS audit of our U.S. 2001 and 2002 tax returns.
During 2007, tax law changes were enacted in Canada and Mexico, which required us to re-measure our deferred tax assets and liabilities. The impact of the reduction in tax rates in Canada was partially offset by the tax law changes in Mexico which decreased our income tax expense on a net basis.
After the impact of minority interest, net income increased approximately $10 million as a result of these tax law changes.
During 2006, PBG recorded a tax gain from the reversal of approximately $55 million of tax contingency reserves. These reserves, which related to the IRS audit of PBGs 1999-2000 income tax returns, resulted from the expiration of the statute of limitations for this IRS audit on December 30, 2006.
During 2006, tax law changes were enacted in Canada, Turkey and in various state jurisdictions in the United States which decreased our income tax expense. After the impact of minority interest, net income increased by approximately $10 million as a result of these tax law changes.
Volume Decrease of four percent versus the prior year driven by declines in each of our segments due to the soft economic conditions globally which have negatively impacted the liquid refreshment beverage category.
Net revenues Increase of two percent versus the prior year is driven by strong increases in net price per case in each of our segments, partially offset by volume declines. Net price per case increased six percent due primarily to rate increases and includes one percentage point of growth from foreign currency.
Cost of sales Increase of three percent versus the prior year due to rising raw material costs partially offset by volume declines. Cost of sales per case increased seven percent, which includes one percentage point from foreign currency. Increase in costs of sales per case was driven by plastic bottle components, sweetener and concentrate.
Gross profit Growth was flat driven by rate increases offset by volume declines and higher raw material costs. Rate gains more than offset higher raw material costs driving a four percent increase in gross profit per case.
Selling, Delivery and Administrative (SD&A) expenses Flat results versus the prior year include one percentage point of growth relating to restructuring and asset disposal charges taken in the current and prior year. The remaining one percentage point improvement in SD&A expenses was driven by lower operating costs due to decreases in volume and continued cost and productivity improvements across all our segments, partially offset by the negative impact from strengthening foreign currencies during the first half of the year.
Operating income Decrease of 39 percent versus the prior year was driven primarily by the impairment, restructuring and asset disposal charges taken in the current and prior year, which together contributed 41 percentage points to the operating income decline for the year. The remaining two percentage points of growth in operating income were driven by increases in Europe and the U.S. & Canada. During 2008, we captured over $170 million of productivity gains reflecting an increased focus on cost containment across all of our businesses. Savings include productivity from manufacturing and logistics coupled with reduced headcount and decreased discretionary spending. Operating income growth includes one percentage point of growth from foreign currency translation.
Net income Net income for the year of $162 million includes a net after-tax charge of $338 million, or $1.53 per diluted share, from impairment and asset disposal charges, and restructuring initiatives discussed above. In addition, net income reflects higher interest and foreign currency transactional expenses versus the prior year. For 2007, net income of $532 million included a net after-tax gain of $21 million, or $0.09 per diluted share, from tax items, restructuring charges and asset disposal charges.
Except where noted, tables and discussion are presented as compared to the prior fiscal year. Growth rates are rounded to the nearest whole percentage.
2008 vs. 2007
In our U.S. & Canada segment, volume decreased four percent due to declining consumer confidence and spending, which has negatively impacted the liquid refreshment beverage category. Cold-drink and take-home channels both declined by four percent versus last year. The decline in the take-home channel was driven primarily by our large format stores, which was impacted by the overall declines in the liquid refreshment beverage category as well as pricing actions taken to improve profitability in our take-home packages including our unflavored water business. Decline in the cold-drink channel was driven by our foodservice channel, including restaurants, travel and leisure and workplace, which has been particularly impacted by the economic downturn in the United States.
In our Europe segment, volume declined by three percent resulting from a soft volume performance in the second half of the year. Results reflect overall weak macroeconomic environments throughout Europe with high
single digit declines in Spain and flat volume growth in Russia. Despite the slowing growth in Russia, we showed improvements in our energy and tea categories, partially offset by declines in the CSD category. In Spain, there were declines across all channels due to a weakening economy and our continued focus on improving revenue and gross profit growth.
In our Mexico segment, volume decreased five percent driven by slower economic growth coupled with pricing actions taken by the Company to drive improved margins across its portfolio. This drove single digit declines in our jug water and multi-serve packages, which was partially offset by one percent improvement in our bottled water package.
2007 vs. 2006
In our U.S. & Canada segment, volume was unchanged, driven primarily by flat volume in the U.S. Our performance in the U.S. reflected growth in the take-home channel of approximately one percent, driven primarily by growth in supercenters, wholesale clubs and mass merchandisers. This growth was offset by a decline of three percent in the cold-drink channel, as a result of declines in our small format and foodservice channels. From a brand perspective, our U.S. non-carbonated portfolio increased six percent, reflecting significant increases in Trademark Lipton and water, coupled with strong growth in energy drinks. The growth in our U.S. non-carbonated portfolio was offset by declines in our CSD portfolio of three percent, driven primarily by declines in Trademark Pepsi.
In Canada, volume grew two percent, driven primarily by three percent growth in the cold-drink channel and two percent growth in the take-home channel. From a brand perspective, our non-carbonated portfolio increased 13 percent, reflecting a 12 percent increase in Trademark Lipton and a five percent increase in water.
In our Europe segment, overall volume grew four percent. This growth was driven primarily by 17 percent growth in Russia, partially offset by declines of eight percent in Spain and two percent in Turkey. Volume increases in Russia were strong in all channels, led by growth of 40 percent in our non-carbonated portfolio.
In our Mexico segment, overall volume increased one percent, driven primarily by acquisitions, partially offset by a decrease of two percent in base business volume. This decrease was primarily attributable to four percent declines in both CSD and jug water volumes, mitigated by nine percent growth in bottled water and greater than 40 percent growth in non-carbonated beverages.
2008 vs. 2007
In our U.S. & Canada segment, net revenues were flat versus the prior year driven by net price per case improvement offset by volume declines. The four percent improvement in net price per case was primarily driven by rate increases taken to offset rising raw material costs and to improve profitability in our take-home packages including our unflavored water business.
In our Europe segment, growth in net revenues for the year reflects an increase in net price per case and the positive impact of foreign currency translation, partially offset by volume declines. Net revenue per case grew in every country in Europe led by double-digit growth in Russia and Turkey due mainly to rate increases.
In our Mexico segment, net revenues were flat versus the prior year reflecting increases in net price per case offset by declines in volume and the negative impact of foreign currency translation. Growth in net price per case was primarily due to rate increases taken within our multi-serve CSDs, jugs and bottled water packages.
2007 vs. 2006
In our U.S. & Canada segment, four percent growth in net revenues was driven mainly by increases in net price per case as a result of rate gains. The favorable impact of Canadas foreign currency translation added slightly less than one percentage point of growth to the segments four percent increase. In the U.S., we achieved revenue growth as a result of a net price per case improvement of four percent.
In our Europe segment, 22 percent growth in net revenues reflected exceptionally strong increases in net price per case, strong volume growth in Russia and the positive impact of foreign currency translation. Growth in net revenues in Europe was mainly driven by a 44 percent increase in Russia.
In our Mexico segment, eight percent growth in net revenues reflected strong increases in net price per case, and the impact of acquisitions, partially offset by declines in base business volume.
2008 vs. 2007
In our U.S. & Canada segment, operating income was $886 million in 2008, decreasing one percent versus the prior year. Restructuring and asset disposal charges taken in the current and prior year together contributed a decrease of two percentage points to the operating income decline. The remaining one percentage point of growth includes increases in gross profit per case and lower operating costs, partially offset by lower volume in the United States.
Gross profit per case improved two percent versus the prior year in our U.S. & Canada segment. This includes growth in net revenue per case, which was offset by a six percent increase in cost of sales per case. Growth in cost of sales per case includes higher concentrate, sweetener and packaging costs.
SD&A expenses improved three percent versus the prior year in our U.S. & Canada segment due to lower volume and pension costs and cost productivity initiatives. These productivity initiatives reflect a combination of headcount savings, reduced discretionary spending and leveraged manufacturing and logistics benefits. Results also include one percentage point of growth due to restructuring and asset disposal charges taken in the current and prior year.
In our Europe segment, operating income was $101 million in 2008, decreasing five percent versus the prior year. The net impact of restructuring and impairment charges contributed 20 percentage points to the decline for the year. The remaining 14 percentage point increase in operating income growth for the year reflects improvements in gross profit per case and the positive impact from foreign currency translation, partially offset by higher SD&A expenses.
Gross profit per case in Europe increased 16 percent versus the prior year due to net price per case increases and foreign currency translation, partially offset by higher sweetener and packaging costs. Foreign currency contributed six percentage points of growth to gross profit for the year.
SD&A expenses in Europe increased 16 percent due to additional operating costs associated with our investments in Europe coupled with charges in Russia due to softening volume and weakening economic conditions in the fourth quarter. Foreign currency contributed five percentage points to SD&A growth. Restructuring charges taken in the current and prior year contributed approximately two percentage points of growth to SD&A expenses for the year.
In our Mexico segment, we had an operating loss of $338 million in 2008 driven primarily by impairment and restructuring charges taken in the current and prior years. The remaining one percent decrease in operating income growth for the year was driven by volume declines, partially offset by increases in gross profit per case and the positive impact from foreign currency translation.
Gross profit per case improved six percent versus the prior year driven by improvements in net revenue per case, as we continue to improve our segment profitability in our jug water and multi-serve packages. Cost of sales per case in Mexico increased by five percent due primarily to rising packaging costs.
SD&A remained flat versus the prior year driven by lower volume and reduced operating costs as we focus on route productivity, partially offset by cost inflation.
2007 vs. 2006
In our U.S. & Canada segment, operating income increased two percent versus the prior year. Growth in operating income includes a five
percentage point negative impact from restructuring and asset disposal charges. The remaining seven percentage point improvement in operating income growth was the result of increases in gross profit, coupled with cost productivity improvements. These improvements were partially offset by higher SD&A expenses.
Gross profit for our U.S. & Canada segment increased three percent driven by net price per case improvement, which was partially offset by a five percent increase in cost of sales. Increases in cost of sales are primarily due to growth in cost of sales per case resulting from higher concentrate and sweetener costs and a one percentage point negative impact from foreign currency translation.
SD&A in the U.S. & Canada segment increased four percent driven primarily by strategic initiatives in connection with the hydration category, partially offset by cost productivity improvements.
In our Europe segment, operating income increased 86 percent versus the prior year. Operating income growth includes 35 percentage points of growth from the consolidation of PR Beverages and restructuring charges taken during the year. The remaining 52 percentage points of growth reflect strong increases in volume, gross profit per case, cost productivity improvements and an 11 percentage point positive impact of foreign currency translation. This growth was partially offset by higher operating expenses in Russia.
Gross profit per case in Europe grew 26 percent versus the prior year. This growth was driven by improvements in net revenue per case partially offset by a 16 percent increase in cost of sales. Increases in cost of sales reflected a nine percentage point impact from foreign currency translation, cost per case increases resulting from higher raw material costs, shifts in package mix and strong volume growth. These increases were partially offset by a three percentage point impact from consolidating PR Beverages in our financial results.
SD&A costs in Europe increased 25 percent versus the prior year, which includes a nine percentage point negative impact from foreign currency translation. The remaining increase in SD&A costs is due to higher operating expenses in Russia due to its growth during the year.
In our Mexico segment, operating income decreased 13 percent as a result of declines in base business volume and higher SD&A expenses. Restructuring charges and the impact of acquisitions together contributed a two percentage point impact to the operating income decline for the year.
Gross profit per case in Mexico grew five percent versus the prior year due primarily to increases in net revenue per case partially offset by a nine percent increase in cost of sales. Increase in cost of sales reflects cost per case increases resulting from significantly higher sweetener costs and the impact of acquisitions, partially offset by base volume declines.
SD&A expenses in Mexico grew eight percent versus the prior year, which includes three percentage points of growth from acquisitions. The remaining growth is driven by higher operating expenses versus the prior year.
2008 vs. 2007
Net interest expense increased by $16 million largely due to higher average debt balances throughout the year and our treasury rate locks that were settled in the fourth quarter. These increases were partially offset by lower effective interest rates from interest rate swaps which convert our fixed-rate debt to variable-rate debt.
2007 vs. 2006
Net interest expense increased by $8 million largely due to higher effective interest rates and additional interest associated with higher average debt balances throughout the year.
2008 vs. 2007
Other net non-operating expenses were $25 million in 2008 as compared to $6 million of net non-operating income in 2007. Foreign currency transactional losses in 2008 resulted primarily from our U.S. dollar and euro purchases in Mexico and Russia, reflecting the impact of the weakening peso and ruble during the second half of 2008.
2007 vs. 2006
Other net non-operating income was $6 million in 2007 as compared to $11 million of net non-operating expenses in 2006. Income in 2007 was primarily a result of foreign exchange gains due to the strength of the Canadian dollar, Turkish lira, Russian ruble and euro. The expense position in 2006 was primarily a result of foreign exchange losses associated with the devaluation of the Turkish lira.
2008 vs. 2007
Minority interest primarily reflects PepsiCos ownership in Bottling LLC of 6.6 percent, coupled with their 40 percent ownership in the PR Beverages venture. The $34 million decrease versus the prior year was primarily driven by lower operating results due to the impairment and restructuring charges taken in the fourth quarter of 2008.
2007 vs. 2006
The $35 million increase in 2007 was primarily driven by PepsiCos minority interest in the PR Beverages venture. The remaining increase was a result of higher operating results in Bottling LLC.
2008 vs. 2007
Our effective tax rates for 2008 and 2007 were 40.7 percent and 25.0 percent, respectively. The increase in our effective tax rate is primarily due to year-over-year comparability associated with the following:
2007 vs. 2006
Our effective tax rates for 2007 and 2006 were 25.0 percent and 23.4 percent, respectively. The increase in our effective tax rate is primarily due to year-over-year comparability associated with the reversal of tax contingency reserves resulting from the expiration of the statute of limitations on the IRS audits in 2007 versus 2006. The tax law changes enacted in 2007 and 2006 that required us to re-measure our deferred taxes had approximately the same impact in both years.
Diluted weighted-average shares outstanding includes the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding plus the potential dilution that could occur if equity awards from our stock compensation plans were exercised and converted into common stock.
Our diluted weighted-average shares outstanding for 2008, 2007 and 2006 were 220 million, 233 million and 242 million, respectively. The decrease in shares outstanding for 2008 reflects the effect of our share repurchase program, which began in October 1999, partially offset by share issuances from the exercise of equity awards. The amount of shares authorized by the Board of Directors to be repurchased totals 175 million shares, of which we have repurchased approximately 15 million shares in 2008 and 146 million shares since the inception of our share repurchase program. For further discussion on our earnings per share calculation see Note 3 in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
LIQUIDITY AND FINANCIAL CONDITION
2008 vs. 2007
PBG generated $1,284 million of net cash from operations, a decrease of $153 million from 2007. The decrease in net cash provided by operations was driven primarily by a change in working capital due largely to timing of accounts payable disbursements and higher payments relating to promotional activities and pensions.
Net cash used for investments was $1,758 million, an increase of $875 million from 2007. The increase in cash used for investments primarily reflects $742 million of payments associated with our investment in JSC Lebedyansky and payments for acquisitions of Lane Affiliated Companies, Inc., Sobol-Aqua JSC and Pepsi-Cola Batavia Bottling Corp., partially offset by lower capital expenditures.
Net cash provided by financing activities was $850 million, an increase of $1,414 million as compared to a use of cash of $564 million in 2007. This increase in cash from financing reflects proceeds from the issuance of $1.3 billion in senior notes to partially pre-fund the February 2009 bond maturity of $1.3 billion. Also reflected in financing activities was $308 million of cash received from PepsiCo for their proportional share in the acquisition of JSC Lebedyansky and Sobol-Aqua JSC by PR Beverages.
2007 vs. 2006
Net cash provided by operations increased by $209 million to $1,437 million in 2007. Increases in net cash provided by operations were driven by higher cash profits and favorable working capital.
Net cash used for investments increased by $152 million to $883 million, driven by higher capital spending due to strategic investments in the U.S. and Russia, including the building of new plants in Las Vegas and Moscow and additional dedicated water lines in the U.S.
Net cash used for financing increased by $193 million to $564 million, driven primarily by lower net proceeds from long-term debt, partially offset by lower share repurchases in 2007.
Our business requires substantial infrastructure investments to maintain our existing level of operations and to fund investments targeted at growing our business. Capital expenditures included in our cash flows from investing activities totaled $760 million, $854 million and $725 million during 2008, 2007 and 2006, respectively. Capital expenditures decreased $94 million in 2008 as a result of lower investments due to the economic slowdown, primarily in the United States.
Our principal sources of cash include cash from our operating activities and the issuance of debt and bank borrowings. We believe that these cash inflows will be sufficient for the foreseeable future to fund capital expenditures, benefit plan contributions, acquisitions, share repurchases, dividends and working capital requirements.
The recent and extraordinary disruption in the world credit markets in 2008 had a significant adverse impact on a number of financial institutions. At this point in time, the Companys liquidity has not been materially impacted by the current credit environment and management does not expect that it will be materially impacted in the near-future. Management will continue to closely monitor the Companys liquidity and the credit markets. However, management cannot predict with any certainty the impact to the Company of any further disruption in the credit environment.
We completed a joint acquisition with PepsiCo of Russias leading branded juice company JSC Lebedyansky (Lebedyansky) for approximately $1.8 billion. Lebedyansky was acquired 58.3 percent by PepsiCo and 41.7 percent by PR Beverages, our Russian venture with PepsiCo. We have recorded an equity investment for PR Beverages share in Lebedyansky. In addition, we have recorded minority interest for PepsiCos proportional contribution to PR Beverages relating to Lebedyansky.
During 2008, we acquired Pepsi-Cola Batavia Bottling Corp and Lane Affiliated Companies, Inc. (Lane), Pepsi-Cola franchise bottlers which serve certain New York counties and portions of Colorado, Arizona and New Mexico. In addition we acquired Sobol-Aqua JSC (Sobol), a company that manufactures Sobol brands and co-packs various Pepsi products in Siberia and Eastern Russia. The total cost of acquisitions during 2008 was approximately $279 million.
During the fourth quarter, we issued $1.3 billion in senior notes with a coupon rate of 6.95 percent, maturing in 2014. A portion of this debt was used to repay our senior notes due in 2009 at their maturity on February 17, 2009. In the interim, these proceeds were placed in short-term investments. In addition, we used a portion of the proceeds to finance the Lane acquisition and repay short-term commercial paper debt, a portion of which was used to finance our acquisition of Lebedyansky.
In addition, during the first quarter of 2009 we issued an additional $750 million in senior notes, with a coupon rate of 5.125 percent, maturing in 2019. The net proceeds of the offering, together with a portion of the proceeds from the offering of our senior notes issued in the fourth quarter of 2008, were used to repay our senior notes due in 2009, at their scheduled maturity on February 17, 2009. Any excess proceeds of this offering will be used for general corporate purposes. The next significant scheduled debt maturity is not until 2012.
We have a committed revolving credit facility of $1.1 billion and an uncommitted credit facility of $500 million. Both of these credit facilities are guaranteed by Bottling LLC and are used to support our $1.2 billion commercial paper program and working capital requirements. At December 27, 2008, we had no outstanding commercial paper. At December 29, 2007, we had $50 million in outstanding commercial paper with a weighted-average interest rate of 5.3 percent.
In addition to the revolving credit facilities discussed above, we had available bank credit lines of approximately $772 million at December 27, 2008, of which the majority was uncommitted. These lines were primarily used to support the general operating needs of our international locations. As of year-end 2008, we had $103 million outstanding under these lines of credit at a weighted-average interest rate of 10.0 percent. As of year-end 2007, we had available short-term bank credit lines of approximately $748 million, of which $190 million was outstanding at a weighted-average interest rate of 5.3 percent.
Our peak borrowing timeframe varies with our working capital requirements and the seasonality of our business. Additionally, throughout the year, we may have further short-term borrowing requirements driven by other operational needs of our business. During 2008, borrowings from our commercial paper program in the U.S. peaked at $702 million. Borrowings from our line of credit facilities peaked at $484 million, reflecting payments for working capital requirements.
Certain of our senior notes have redemption features and non-financial covenants that will, among other things, limit our ability to create or assume liens, enter into sale and lease-back transactions, engage in mergers or consolidations and transfer or lease all or substantially all of our assets. Additionally, certain of our credit facilities and senior notes have financial covenants. These requirements are not, and it is not anticipated they will become, restrictive to our liquidity or capital resources. We are in compliance with all debt covenants. For a discussion of our covenants, see Note 9 in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
Our credit ratings are periodically reviewed by rating agencies. Currently our long-term ratings from Moodys and Standard and Poors are A2 and A, respectively. Changes in our operating results or financial position could impact the ratings assigned by the various agencies resulting in higher or lower borrowing costs.
During 2009, we expect to contribute $185 million to fund our U.S. pension and postretirement plans. For further information about our pension and postretirement plan funding see section entitled Pension and Postretirement Medical Benefit Plans in our Critical Accounting Policies.
On March 27, 2008, the Companys Board of Directors approved an increase in the Companys quarterly dividend from $0.14 to $0.17 per share on the outstanding common stock of the Company. This action resulted in a 21 percent increase in our quarterly dividend.
The following table summarizes our contractual obligations as of December 27, 2008:
This table excludes our pension and postretirement liabilities recorded on the balance sheet. For a discussion of our future pension contributions, as well as expected pension and postretirement benefit payments see Note 12 in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
There are no off-balance sheet arrangements that have or are reasonably likely to have a current or future material effect on our results of operations, financial condition, liquidity, capital expenditures or capital resources.
MARKET RISKS AND CAUTIONARY STATEMENTS
In the normal course of business, our financial position is routinely subject to a variety of risks. These risks include changes in the price of commodities purchased and used in our business, interest rates on outstanding debt and currency movements impacting our non-U.S. dollar denominated assets and liabilities. We are also subject to the risks associated with the business environment in which we operate. We regularly assess all of these risks and have strategies in place to reduce the adverse effects of these exposures.
Our objective in managing our exposure to fluctuations in commodity prices, interest rates and foreign currency exchange rates is to minimize the volatility of earnings and cash flows associated with changes in the applicable rates and prices. To achieve this objective, we have derivative instruments to hedge against the risk of adverse movements in commodity prices, interest rates and foreign currency. We monitor our counterparty credit risk on an ongoing basis. Our corporate policy prohibits the use of derivative instruments for trading or speculative purposes, and we have procedures in place to monitor and control their use. See Note 11 in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information relating to our derivative instruments.
A sensitivity analysis has been prepared to determine the effects that market risk exposures may have on our financial instruments. These sensitivity analyses evaluate the effect of hypothetical changes in commodity prices, interest rates and foreign currency exchange rates and changes in our stock price on our unfunded deferred compensation liability. Information provided by these sensitivity analyses does not necessarily represent the actual changes in fair value that we would incur under normal market conditions because, due to practical limitations, all variables other than the specific market risk factor were held constant. As a result, the reported changes in the values of some financial instruments that are affected by the sensitivity analyses are not matched with the offsetting changes in the values of the items that those instruments are designed to finance or hedge.
We are subject to market risks with respect to commodities because our ability to recover increased costs through higher pricing may be limited by the competitive business environment in which we operate. We use future and option contracts to hedge the risk of adverse movements in commodity
prices related primarily to anticipated purchases of raw materials and energy used in our operations. With respect to commodity price risk, we currently have various contracts outstanding for commodity purchases in 2009 and 2010, which establish our purchase prices within defined ranges. We estimate that a 10 percent decrease in commodity prices with all other variables held constant would have resulted in a change in the fair value of our financial instruments of $14 million and $7 million at December 27, 2008 and December 29, 2007, respectively.
Interest rate risk is inherent to both fixed- and floating-rate debt. We effectively converted $1.1 billion of our senior notes to floating-rate debt through the use of interest rate swaps. Changes in interest rates on our interest rate swaps and other variable debt would change our interest expense. We estimate that a 50 basis point increase in interest rates on our variable rate debt and cash equivalents, with all other variables held constant, would have resulted in an increase to net interest expense of $1 million and $2 million in fiscal years 2008 and 2007, respectively.
In 2008, approximately 34 percent of our net revenues were generated from outside the United States. Social, economic and political conditions in these international markets may adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition and cash flows. The overall risks to our international businesses include changes in foreign governmental policies and other social, political or economic developments. These developments may lead to new product pricing, tax or other policies and monetary fluctuations that may adversely impact our business. In addition, our results of operations and the value of our foreign assets and liabilities are affected by fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates.
As currency exchange rates change, translation of the statements of operations of our businesses outside the U.S. into U.S. dollars affects year-over-year comparability. We generally have not hedged against these types of currency risks because cash flows from our international operations have been reinvested locally. We have foreign currency transactional risks in certain of our international territories for transactions that are denominated in currencies that are different from their functional currency. We have entered into forward exchange contracts to hedge portions of our forecasted U.S. dollar cash flows in these international territories. A 10 percent weaker U.S. dollar against the applicable foreign currency, with all other variables held constant, would result in a change in the fair value of these contracts of $5 million and $6 million at December 27, 2008 and December 29, 2007, respectively.
In 2007, we entered into forward exchange contracts to economically hedge a portion of intercompany receivable balances that are denominated in Mexican pesos. A 10 percent weaker U.S. dollar versus the Mexican peso, with all other variables held constant, would result in a change of $4 million and $9 million in the fair value of these contracts at December 27, 2008 and December 29, 2007, respectively.
Our unfunded deferred compensation liability is subject to changes in our stock price, as well as price changes in certain other equity and fixed-income investments. Employee investment elections include PBG stock and a variety of other equity and fixed-income investment options. Since the plan is unfunded, employees deferred compensation amounts are not directly invested in these investment vehicles. Instead, we track the performance of each employees investment selections and adjust the employees deferred compensation account accordingly. The adjustments to the employees accounts increases or decreases the deferred compensation liability reflected on our Consolidated Balance Sheet with an offsetting increase or decrease to our selling, delivery and administrative expenses in our Consolidated Statements of Operations. We use prepaid forward contracts to hedge the portion of our deferred compensation liability that is based on our stock price. Therefore, changes in compensation expense as a result of changes in our stock price are substantially offset by the changes in the fair value of these contracts. We estimate that a 10 percent unfavorable change in the year-end stock price would have reduced the fair value from these forward contract commitments by $1 million and $2 million at December 27, 2008 and December 29, 2007, respectively.
Except for the historical information and discussions contained herein, statements contained in this annual report on Form 10-K and in the annual report to the shareholders may constitute forward-looking statements as defined by the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. These forward-looking statements are based on currently available competitive, financial and economic data and our operating plans. These statements involve a number of risks, uncertainties and other factors that could cause actual results to be materially different. Among the events and uncertainties that could adversely affect future periods are:
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS
See accompanying notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
See accompanying notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
See accompanying notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CHANGES IN SHAREHOLDERS EQUITY
Fiscal years ended December 27, 2008, December 29, 2007 and December 30, 2006
See accompanying notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
Tabular dollars in millions, except per share data
The Pepsi Bottling Group, Inc. is the worlds largest manufacturer, seller and distributor of Pepsi-Cola beverages. We have the exclusive right to manufacture, sell and distribute Pepsi-Cola beverages in all or a portion of the U.S., Mexico, Canada, Spain, Russia, Greece and Turkey. When used in these Consolidated Financial Statements, PBG, we, our, us and the Company each refers to The Pepsi Bottling Group, Inc. and, where appropriate, to Bottling Group, LLC (Bottling LLC), our principal operating subsidiary.
At December 27, 2008, PepsiCo, Inc. (PepsiCo) owned 70,166,458 shares of our common stock, consisting of 70,066,458 shares of common stock and all 100,000 authorized shares of Class B common stock. This represents approximately 33.2 percent of our outstanding common stock and 100 percent of our outstanding Class B common stock, together representing 40.2 percent of the voting power of all classes of our voting stock. In addition, PepsiCo owns approximately 6.6 percent of the equity of Bottling LLC and 40 percent of PR Beverages Limited (PR Beverages), a consolidated venture for our Russian operations, which was formed on March 1, 2007.
The common stock and Class B common stock both have a par value of $0.01 per share and are substantially identical, except for voting rights. Holders of our common stock are entitled to one vote per share and holders of our Class B common stock are entitled to 250 votes per share. Each share of Class B common stock is convertible into one share of common stock. Holders of our common stock and holders of our Class B common stock share equally on a per-share basis in any dividend distributions.
Our Board of Directors has the authority to provide for the issuance of up to 20,000,000 shares of preferred stock, and to determine the price and terms, including, but not limited to, preferences and voting rights of those shares without stockholder approval. At December 27, 2008, there was no preferred stock outstanding.
Note 2 Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
The preparation of our consolidated financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (U.S. GAAP) often requires management to make judgments, estimates and assumptions that affect a number of amounts included in our financial statements and related disclosures. We evaluate our estimates on an on-going basis using our historical experience as well as other factors we believe appropriate under the circumstances, such as current economic conditions, and adjust or revise our estimates as circumstances change. As future events and their effect cannot be determined with precision, actual results may differ from these estimates.
Basis of Consolidation We consolidate in our financial statements entities in which we have a controlling financial interest, as well as variable interest entities where we are the primary beneficiary. Minority interest in earnings and ownership has been recorded for the percentage of these entities not owned by PBG. We have eliminated all intercompany accounts and transactions in consolidation.
Fiscal Year Our U.S. and Canadian operations report using a fiscal year that consists of 52 weeks, ending on the last Saturday in December. Every five or six years a 53rd week is added. Fiscal years 2008, 2007 and 2006 consisted of 52 weeks. Our remaining countries report on a calendar-year basis. Accordingly, we recognize our quarterly business results as outlined below:
Revenue Recognition Revenue, net of sales returns, is recognized when our products are delivered to customers in accordance with the written sales terms. We offer certain sales incentives on a local and national level through various customer trade agreements designed to enhance the growth of our revenue. Customer trade agreements are accounted for as a reduction to our revenues.
Customer trade agreements with our customers include payments for in-store displays, volume rebates, featured advertising and other growth incentives. A number of our customer trade agreements are based on quarterly and annual targets that generally do not exceed one year. Amounts recognized in our financial statements are based on amounts estimated to be paid to our customers depending upon current performance, historical experience, forecasted volume and other performance criteria.
Advertising and Marketing Costs We are involved in a variety of programs to promote our products. We include advertising and marketing costs in selling, delivery and administrative expenses. Advertising and marketing costs were $437 million, $424 million and $403 million in 2008, 2007 and 2006, respectively, before bottler incentives received from PepsiCo and other brand owners.
Bottler Incentives PepsiCo and other brand owners, at their discretion, provide us with various forms of bottler incentives. These incentives cover a variety of initiatives, including direct marketplace support and advertising support. We classify bottler incentives as follows: