PAA » Topics » Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates

This excerpt taken from the PAA 10-Q filed May 8, 2009.

Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates

 

For additional discussion regarding our critical accounting policies and estimates, see “Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates” under Item 7 of our 2008 Annual Report on Form 10-K.

 

This excerpt taken from the PAA 10-Q filed Nov 7, 2008.

Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates

 

SFAS 157 requires new disclosures regarding the level of pricing observability associated with financial instruments carried at fair value. Our assessment of the significance of a particular input to the fair value measurements requires judgment, and may affect the valuation of fair value assets and liabilities and their placement within the fair value hierarchy level.  Additional information relating to fair value measurement is discussed in Notes 2 and 10 to our Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.

 

For additional discussion regarding our critical accounting policies and estimates, see “Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates” under Item 7 of our 2007 Annual Report on Form 10-K.

 

This excerpt taken from the PAA 10-Q filed Aug 8, 2008.

Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates

 

SFAS 157 requires new disclosures regarding the level of pricing observability associated with financial instruments carried at fair value. Our assessment of the significance of a particular input to the fair value measurements requires judgment, and may affect the valuation of fair value assets and liabilities and their placement within the fair value hierarchy level.  Additional information relating to fair value measurement is discussed in Notes 2 and 10 to our Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.

 

For additional discussion regarding our critical accounting policies and estimates, see “Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates” under Item 7 of our 2007 Annual Report on Form 10-K.

 

This excerpt taken from the PAA 10-Q filed May 6, 2008.

Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates

 

SFAS 157 requires new disclosures regarding the level of pricing observability associated with financial instruments carried at fair value. Our assessment of the significance of a particular input to the fair value measurements requires judgment, and may affect the valuation of fair value assets and liabilities and their placement within the fair value hierarchy level.  Additional information relating to fair value measurement is discussed in Notes 2 and 10 to our Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.

 

For additional discussion regarding our critical accounting policies and estimates, see “Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates” under Item 7 of our 2007 Annual Report on Form 10-K.

 

These excerpts taken from the PAA 10-K filed Feb 29, 2008.
Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates
 
Critical Accounting Policies
 
We have adopted various accounting policies to prepare our consolidated financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States. These critical accounting policies are discussed in Note 2 to the Consolidated Financial Statements.
 
Critical Accounting Estimates
 
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, as well as the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities, at the date of the financial statements. Such estimates and assumptions also affect the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Although we believe these estimates are reasonable, actual results could differ from these estimates. The critical accounting estimates that we have identified are discussed below.
 
Purchase and Sales Accruals.  We routinely make accruals based on estimates for certain components of our revenues and cost of sales due to the timing of compiling billing information, receiving third party information and reconciling our records with those of third parties. Where applicable, these accruals are based on nominated volumes expected to be purchased, transported and subsequently sold. Uncertainties involved in these estimates include levels of production at the wellhead, access to certain qualities of crude oil, pipeline capacities and delivery times, utilization of truck fleets to transport volumes to their destinations, weather, market conditions and other forces beyond our control. These estimates are generally associated with a portion of the last month of each reporting period. We currently estimate that approximately 3% of total annual revenues and cost of sales are recorded using estimates. Accordingly, a variance from this estimate of 10% would impact the respective line items by less than 1% on an annual basis. In addition, we estimate that less than 5% of total operating income and less than 7% of total net income are recorded using estimates. Although the resolution of these uncertainties has not historically had a material impact on our reported results of operations or financial condition, because of the high volume, low margin nature of our business, we cannot provide assurance that actual amounts will not vary significantly from estimated amounts. Variances from estimates are reflected in the period actual results become known, typically in the month following the estimate.
 
Mark-to-Market Accrual.  In situations where we are required to mark-to-market derivatives pursuant to Statement of Financial Accounting Standards (“SFAS”) No. 133 “Accounting For Derivative Instruments and Hedging Activities,” as amended (“SFAS 133”), the estimates of gains or losses at a particular period end do not


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reflect the end results of particular transactions, and will most likely not reflect the actual gain or loss at the conclusion of a transaction. We reflect estimates for these items based on our internal records and information from third parties. A portion of the estimates we use are based on internal models or models of third parties because they are not quoted on a national market. Additionally, values may vary among different models due to a difference in assumptions applied, such as the estimate of prevailing market prices, volatility, correlations and other factors and may not be reflective of the price at which they can be settled due to the lack of a liquid market. Approximately 1% of total annual revenues are based on estimates derived from these models. Although the resolution of these uncertainties has not historically had a material impact on our results of operations or financial condition, we cannot provide assurance that actual amounts will not vary significantly from estimated amounts.
 
Accruals and Contingent Liabilities.  We record accruals or liabilities including, but not limited to, environmental remediation and governmental penalties, insurance claims, asset retirement obligations, taxes and potential legal claims. Accruals are made when our assessment indicates that it is probable that a liability has occurred and the amount of liability can be reasonably estimated. Our estimates are based on all known facts at the time and our assessment of the ultimate outcome. Among the many uncertainties that impact our estimates are the necessary regulatory approvals for, and potential modification of, our environmental remediation plans, the limited amount of data available upon initial assessment of the impact of soil or water contamination, changes in costs associated with environmental remediation services and equipment, costs of medical care associated with worker’s compensation and employee health insurance claims, and the possibility of existing legal claims giving rise to additional claims. Our estimates for contingent liability accruals are increased or decreased as additional information is obtained or resolution is achieved. A variance of 5% in our aggregate estimate for the contingent liabilities discussed above would have an approximate $5 million impact on earnings. Although the resolution of these uncertainties has not historically had a material impact on our results of operations or financial condition, we cannot provide assurance that actual amounts will not vary significantly from estimated amounts.
 
Fair Value of Assets and Liabilities Acquired and Identification of Associated Goodwill and Intangible Assets.  In conjunction with each acquisition, we must allocate the cost of the acquired entity to the assets and liabilities assumed based on their estimated fair values at the date of acquisition. We also estimate the amount of transaction costs that will be incurred in connection with each acquisition. As additional information becomes available, we may adjust the original estimates within a short time period subsequent to the acquisition. In addition, in conjunction with the adoption of SFAS No. 141 “Business Combinations,” we are required to recognize intangible assets separately from goodwill. Goodwill and intangible assets with indefinite lives are not amortized but instead are periodically assessed for impairment. The impairment testing entails estimating future net cash flows relating to the asset, based on management’s estimate of market conditions including pricing, demand, competition, operating costs and other factors. Intangible assets with finite lives are amortized over the estimated useful life determined by management. Determining the fair value of assets and liabilities acquired, as well as intangible assets that relate to such items as customer relationships, contracts, and industry expertise involves professional judgment and is ultimately based on acquisition models and management’s assessment of the value of the assets acquired and, to the extent available, third party assessments. Uncertainties associated with these estimates include changes in production decline rates, production interruptions, fluctuations in refinery capacity or product slates, economic obsolescence factors in the area and potential future sources of cash flow. Although the resolution of these uncertainties has not historically had a material impact on our results of operations or financial condition, we cannot provide assurance that actual amounts will not vary significantly from estimated amounts. We perform our goodwill impairment test annually (as of June 30) and when events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value may not be recoverable. We did not have any impairments in 2007, 2006 or 2005. See Note 3 to our Consolidated Financial Statements for discussion of our acquisitions.
 
Equity Compensation Plan Accruals.  We accrue compensation expense for outstanding equity awards granted under our various Long Term Incentive Plans as well as outstanding Class B units of Plains AAP, L.P. Under generally accepted accounting principles, we are required to estimate the fair value of our outstanding equity awards and recognize that fair value as compensation expense over the service period. For equity awards that contain a performance condition, the fair value of the equity award is recognized as compensation expense only if the attainment of the performance condition is considered probable.


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For equity awards granted under our various Long Term Incentive Plans, the total compensation expense recognized over the service period is determined by our unit price on the vesting date (or, in some cases, the average unit price for a range of dates preceding the vesting date) multiplied by the number of equity awards that are vesting, plus our share of associated employment taxes. Uncertainties involved in this estimate include the actual unit price at time of vesting, whether or not a performance condition will be attained and the continued employment of personnel with outstanding equity awards.
 
For the Class B units of Plains AAP, L.P., the total compensation expense recognized over the service period is equal to the grant date fair value of the Class B units that become earned. The Class B units become earned in 25% increments upon PAA achieving annualized distribution levels of $3.50, $3.75, $4.00 and $4.50 (or, in some cases, within six months thereof). When earned, the Class B units will be entitled to participate in distributions paid by Plains AAP, L.P. in excess of $11 million per quarter. Uncertainties involved in this estimate include the estimated date that PAA will achieve the annualized distribution levels required and the continued employment of personnel who have been awarded Class B units.
 
We recognized total compensation expense of approximately $49 million in 2007 and $43 million in 2006 related to equity awards granted under our various equity compensation plans. We cannot provide assurance that the actual fair value of our equity compensation awards will not vary significantly from estimated amounts. See Note 10 to our Consolidated Financial Statements.
 
Property, Plant and Equipment and Depreciation Expense.  We compute depreciation using the straight-line method based on estimated useful lives. We periodically evaluate property, plant and equipment for impairment when events or circumstances indicate that the carrying value of these assets may not be recoverable. The evaluation is highly dependent on the underlying assumptions of related cash flows. We consider the fair value estimate used to calculate impairment of property, plant and equipment a critical accounting estimate. In determining the existence of an impairment in carrying value, we make a number of subjective assumptions as to:
 
  •  whether there is an indication of impairment;
 
  •  the grouping of assets;
 
  •  the intention of “holding” versus “selling” an asset;
 
  •  the forecast of undiscounted expected future cash flow over the asset’s estimated useful life; and
 
  •  if an impairment exists, the fair value of the asset or asset group.
 
Impairments were not material in 2007, 2006 and 2005.
 
Critical
Accounting Policies and Estimates



 




Critical
Accounting Policies



 



We have adopted various accounting policies to prepare our
consolidated financial statements in accordance with generally
accepted accounting principles in the United States. These
critical accounting policies are discussed in Note 2 to the
Consolidated Financial Statements.


 




Critical
Accounting Estimates



 



The preparation of financial statements in conformity with
accounting principles generally accepted in the United States
requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the
reported amounts of assets and liabilities, as well as the
disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities, at the date of
the financial statements. Such estimates and assumptions also
affect the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the
reporting period. Although we believe these estimates are
reasonable, actual results could differ from these estimates.
The critical accounting estimates that we have identified are
discussed below.


 



Purchase and Sales Accruals.  We routinely make
accruals based on estimates for certain components of our
revenues and cost of sales due to the timing of compiling
billing information, receiving third party information and
reconciling our records with those of third parties. Where
applicable, these accruals are based on nominated volumes
expected to be purchased, transported and subsequently sold.
Uncertainties involved in these estimates include levels of
production at the wellhead, access to certain qualities of crude
oil, pipeline capacities and delivery times, utilization of
truck fleets to transport volumes to their destinations,
weather, market conditions and other forces beyond our control.
These estimates are generally associated with a portion of the
last month of each reporting period. We currently estimate that
approximately 3% of total annual revenues and cost of sales are
recorded using estimates. Accordingly, a variance from this
estimate of 10% would impact the respective line items by less
than 1% on an annual basis. In addition, we estimate that less
than 5% of total operating income and less than 7% of total net
income are recorded using estimates. Although the resolution of
these uncertainties has not historically had a material impact
on our reported results of operations or financial condition,
because of the high volume, low margin nature of our business,
we cannot provide assurance that actual amounts will not vary
significantly from estimated amounts. Variances from estimates
are reflected in the period actual results become known,
typically in the month following the estimate.


 



Mark-to-Market Accrual.  In situations where we
are required to mark-to-market derivatives pursuant to Statement
of Financial Accounting Standards (“SFAS”)
No. 133 “Accounting For Derivative Instruments and
Hedging Activities,” as amended (“SFAS 133”), the
estimates of gains or losses at a particular period end do not





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reflect the end results of particular transactions, and will
most likely not reflect the actual gain or loss at the
conclusion of a transaction. We reflect estimates for these
items based on our internal records and information from third
parties. A portion of the estimates we use are based on internal
models or models of third parties because they are not quoted on
a national market. Additionally, values may vary among different
models due to a difference in assumptions applied, such as the
estimate of prevailing market prices, volatility, correlations
and other factors and may not be reflective of the price at
which they can be settled due to the lack of a liquid market.
Approximately 1% of total annual revenues are based on estimates
derived from these models. Although the resolution of these
uncertainties has not historically had a material impact on our
results of operations or financial condition, we cannot provide
assurance that actual amounts will not vary significantly from
estimated amounts.


 



Accruals and Contingent Liabilities.  We record
accruals or liabilities including, but not limited to,
environmental remediation and governmental penalties, insurance
claims, asset retirement obligations, taxes and potential legal
claims. Accruals are made when our assessment indicates that it
is probable that a liability has occurred and the amount of
liability can be reasonably estimated. Our estimates are based
on all known facts at the time and our assessment of the
ultimate outcome. Among the many uncertainties that impact our
estimates are the necessary regulatory approvals for, and
potential modification of, our environmental remediation plans,
the limited amount of data available upon initial assessment of
the impact of soil or water contamination, changes in costs
associated with environmental remediation services and
equipment, costs of medical care associated with worker’s
compensation and employee health insurance claims, and the
possibility of existing legal claims giving rise to additional
claims. Our estimates for contingent liability accruals are
increased or decreased as additional information is obtained or
resolution is achieved. A variance of 5% in our aggregate
estimate for the contingent liabilities discussed above would
have an approximate $5 million impact on earnings. Although
the resolution of these uncertainties has not historically had a
material impact on our results of operations or financial
condition, we cannot provide assurance that actual amounts will
not vary significantly from estimated amounts.


 



Fair Value of Assets and Liabilities Acquired and
Identification of Associated Goodwill and Intangible
Assets.
  In conjunction with each acquisition, we
must allocate the cost of the acquired entity to the assets and
liabilities assumed based on their estimated fair values at the
date of acquisition. We also estimate the amount of transaction
costs that will be incurred in connection with each acquisition.
As additional information becomes available, we may adjust the
original estimates within a short time period subsequent to the
acquisition. In addition, in conjunction with the adoption of
SFAS No. 141 “Business Combinations,” we are
required to recognize intangible assets separately from
goodwill. Goodwill and intangible assets with indefinite lives
are not amortized but instead are periodically assessed for
impairment. The impairment testing entails estimating future net
cash flows relating to the asset, based on management’s
estimate of market conditions including pricing, demand,
competition, operating costs and other factors. Intangible
assets with finite lives are amortized over the estimated useful
life determined by management. Determining the fair value of
assets and liabilities acquired, as well as intangible assets
that relate to such items as customer relationships, contracts,
and industry expertise involves professional judgment and is
ultimately based on acquisition models and management’s
assessment of the value of the assets acquired and, to the
extent available, third party assessments. Uncertainties
associated with these estimates include changes in production
decline rates, production interruptions, fluctuations in
refinery capacity or product slates, economic obsolescence
factors in the area and potential future sources of cash flow.
Although the resolution of these uncertainties has not
historically had a material impact on our results of operations
or financial condition, we cannot provide assurance that actual
amounts will not vary significantly from estimated amounts. We
perform our goodwill impairment test annually (as of
June 30) and when events or changes in circumstances
indicate that the carrying value may not be recoverable. We did
not have any impairments in 2007, 2006 or 2005. See
Note 3 to our Consolidated Financial Statements for
discussion of our acquisitions.


 



Equity Compensation Plan Accruals.  We accrue
compensation expense for outstanding equity awards granted under
our various Long Term Incentive Plans as well as outstanding
Class B units of Plains AAP, L.P. Under generally accepted
accounting principles, we are required to estimate the fair
value of our outstanding equity awards and recognize that fair
value as compensation expense over the service period. For
equity awards that contain a performance condition, the fair
value of the equity award is recognized as compensation expense
only if the attainment of the performance condition is
considered probable.





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For equity awards granted under our various Long Term Incentive
Plans, the total compensation expense recognized over the
service period is determined by our unit price on the vesting
date (or, in some cases, the average unit price for a range of
dates preceding the vesting date) multiplied by the number of
equity awards that are vesting, plus our share of associated
employment taxes. Uncertainties involved in this estimate
include the actual unit price at time of vesting, whether or not
a performance condition will be attained and the continued
employment of personnel with outstanding equity awards.


 



For the Class B units of Plains AAP, L.P., the total
compensation expense recognized over the service period is equal
to the grant date fair value of the Class B units that
become earned. The Class B units become earned in 25%
increments upon PAA achieving annualized distribution levels of
$3.50, $3.75, $4.00 and $4.50 (or, in some cases, within
six months thereof). When earned, the Class B units
will be entitled to participate in distributions paid by Plains
AAP, L.P. in excess of $11 million per quarter.
Uncertainties involved in this estimate include the estimated
date that PAA will achieve the annualized distribution levels
required and the continued employment of personnel who have been
awarded Class B units.


 



We recognized total compensation expense of approximately
$49 million in 2007 and $43 million in 2006 related to
equity awards granted under our various equity compensation
plans. We cannot provide assurance that the actual fair value of
our equity compensation awards will not vary significantly from
estimated amounts. See Note 10 to our Consolidated
Financial Statements.


 



Property, Plant and Equipment and Depreciation
Expense.
  We compute depreciation using the
straight-line method based on estimated useful lives. We
periodically evaluate property, plant and equipment for
impairment when events or circumstances indicate that the
carrying value of these assets may not be recoverable. The
evaluation is highly dependent on the underlying assumptions of
related cash flows. We consider the fair value estimate used to
calculate impairment of property, plant and equipment a critical
accounting estimate. In determining the existence of an
impairment in carrying value, we make a number of subjective
assumptions as to:


 
























































  • 

whether there is an indication of impairment;
 
  • 

the grouping of assets;
 
  • 

the intention of “holding” versus “selling”
an asset;
 
  • 

the forecast of undiscounted expected future cash flow over the
asset’s estimated useful life; and
 
  • 

if an impairment exists, the fair value of the asset or asset
group.


 



Impairments were not material in 2007, 2006 and 2005.


 




This excerpt taken from the PAA 10-Q filed Aug 4, 2006.

Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates

For a discussion regarding our critical accounting policies and estimates, see Item 7 of our 2005 Annual Report on Form 10-K. Also, see Note 1 to our Consolidated Financial Statements.

34




 

This excerpt taken from the PAA 10-Q filed May 8, 2006.

Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates

For a discussion regarding our critical accounting policies and estimates, see Item 7 of our 2005 Form 10-K. Also, see Note 8 and Note 13 to our Consolidated Financial Statements.

This excerpt taken from the PAA 10-K filed Mar 3, 2005.

Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates

        Our critical accounting policies are discussed in Note 2 to the Consolidated Financial Statements. The preparation of financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, as well as the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities, at the date of the financial statements. Such estimates and assumptions also affect the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Although we believe these estimates are reasonable, actual results could differ from these estimates. The critical accounting policies that we have identified are discussed below.

44


        Purchase and Sales Accruals.    We routinely make accruals based on estimates for certain components of our revenues and cost of sales due to the timing of compiling billing information, receiving third-party information and reconciling our records with those of third parties. Where applicable, these accruals are based on nominated volumes expected to be purchased, transported and subsequently sold. Uncertainties involved in these estimates include levels of production at the wellhead, access to certain qualities of crude oil, pipeline capacities and delivery times, utilization of truck fleets to transport volumes to their destinations, weather, market conditions and other forces beyond our control. These estimates are generally associated with a portion of the last month of each reporting period. We currently estimate that less than 2% of total annual revenues and cost of sales are recorded using estimates and less than 5% of total quarterly revenues and cost of sales are recorded using estimates. Accordingly, a variance from this estimate of 10% would impact the respective line items by less than 1% on both an annual and quarterly basis. Although the resolution of these uncertainties has not historically had a material impact on our reported results of operations or financial condition, because of the high volume, low margin nature of our business, we cannot provide assurance that actual amounts will not vary significantly from estimated amounts. Variances from estimates are reflected in the period actual results become known, typically in the month following the estimate.

        Mark-to-Market Accrual.    In situations where we are required to make mark-to-market estimates pursuant to SFAS 133, the estimates of gains or losses at a particular period end do not reflect the end results of particular transactions, and will most likely not reflect the actual gain or loss at the conclusion of a transaction. We reflect estimates for these items based on our internal records and information from third parties. A portion of the estimates we use are based on internal models or models of third parties because they are not quoted on a national market. Additionally, values may vary among different models due to a difference in assumptions applied such as the estimate of prevailing market prices, volatility, correlations and other factors and may not be reflective of the price at which they can be settled due to the lack of a liquid market. Less than 1% of total revenues are based on estimates derived from these models. Although the resolution of these uncertainties has not historically had a material impact on our results of operations or financial condition, we cannot provide assurance that actual amounts will not vary significantly from estimated amounts.

        Contingent Liability Accruals.    We accrue reserves for contingent liabilities including, but not limited to, environmental remediation, insurance claims, asset retirement obligations and potential legal claims. Accruals are made when our assessment indicates that it is probable that a liability has occurred and the amount of liability can be reasonably estimated. Our estimates are based on all known facts at the time and our assessment of the ultimate outcome. Among the many uncertainties that impact our estimates are the necessary regulatory approvals for, and potential modification of, our remediation plans, the limited amount of data available upon initial assessment of the impact of soil or water contamination, changes in costs associated with environmental remediation services and equipment, costs of medical care associated with worker's compensation and employee health insurance claims, and the possibility of existing legal claims giving rise to additional claims. Our estimates for contingent liability accruals are increased or decreased as additional information is obtained or resolution is achieved. A variance of 10% in our aggregate estimate for the contingent liabilities discussed above would have an approximate $2.3 million impact on earnings. Although the resolution of these uncertainties has not historically had a material impact on our results of operations or financial condition, we cannot provide assurance that actual amounts will not vary significantly from estimated amounts.

        Fair Value of Assets and Liabilities Acquired and Identification of Associated Goodwill and Intangible Assets.    In conjunction with each acquisition, we must allocate the cost of the acquired entity to the assets and liabilities assumed based on their estimated fair values at the date of acquisition. We also estimate the amount of transaction costs that will be incurred in connection with each acquisition. As

45



additional information becomes available, we may adjust the original estimates within a short time period subsequent to the acquisition. In addition, in conjunction with the adoption of SFAS 141, we are required to recognize intangible assets separately from goodwill. Goodwill and intangible assets with indefinite lives are not amortized but instead are periodically assessed for impairment. The impairment testing entails estimating future net cash flows relating to the asset, based on management's estimate of market conditions including pricing, demand, competition, operating costs and other factors. Intangible assets with finite lives are amortized over the estimated useful life determined by management. Determining the fair value of assets and liabilities acquired, as well as intangible assets that relate to such items as customer relationships, contracts, and industry expertise involves professional judgment and is ultimately based on acquisition models and management's assessment of the value of the assets acquired and, to the extent available, third party assessments. Uncertainties associated with these estimates include changes in production decline rates, production interruptions, fluctuations in refinery capacity or product slates, economic obsolescence factors in the area and potential future sources of cash flow. Although the resolution of these uncertainties has not historically had a material impact on our results of operations or financial condition, we cannot provide assurance that actual amounts will not vary significantly from estimated amounts.

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