Portugal Telecom SGPS, S.A . 20-F 2007
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PORTUGAL TELECOM, SGPS S.A.
The Portuguese Republic
Av. Fontes Pereira de Melo, 40, 1069-300 Lisboa Codex, Portugal
Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Indicate the number of outstanding shares of each of the issuer's classes of capital or common stock as of the close of the period covered by the annual report.
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes ý No o
If this report is an annual or transition report, indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. Yes o No ý
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ý No o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, or a non-accelerated filer. See definition of "accelerated filer and large accelerated filer" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act (check one):
Large accelerated filer ý Accelerated filer o Non-accelerated filer o
Indicate by check mark which financial statement item the registrant has elected to follow. Item 17 o Item 18 ý
If this is an annual report, indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes o No ý
Unless the context otherwise requires, the term "Portugal" refers to the Republic of Portugal, including the Madeira Islands and the Azores Islands; the term "Portuguese Government" refers to the government of the Republic of Portugal and, where the context requires, includes the Portuguese state; the term "Parliament" refers to the Assembly of the Republic of Portugal, the legislative body of the Portuguese state; the term "EU" refers to the European Union; the term "EC Commission" refers to the Commission of the European Communities; the terms "United States" and "U.S." refer to the United States of America; the term "Portugal Telecom" refers to Portugal Telecom, SGPS S.A.; and unless indicated otherwise, the terms "we," "our" or "us" refer to Portugal Telecom and its consolidated subsidiaries.
Our audited consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards, or IFRS, as adopted by the European Commission for use in the European Union. IFRS differs in significant respects from U.S. GAAP. For a discussion of the principal differences between IFRS and U.S. GAAP, as they relate to us, see "U.S. GAAP Reconciliation and Recent Accounting Pronouncements" below and Notes 47, 48 and 49 to our audited consolidated financial statements.
We publish our financial statements in Euro, the single European currency adopted by certain participating member countries of the European Union, including Portugal, as of January 1, 1999. Unless otherwise specified, references to "Euros," "EUR" or "€" are to the Euro. References herein to "U.S. dollars," "$" or "US$" are to United States dollars. References to "Escudos" or "PTE" are to Portuguese Escudos. References to "Real," "Reais" or "R$" are to Brazilian Reais. The Federal Reserve Bank of New York's noon buying rate in the City of New York for Euros was €0.7466 = US$1.00 on June 21, 2007, and the noon buying rate on that date for Reais was R$1.9197 = US$1.00. For convenience and comparability, figures previously stated in Escudos have been converted to figures in Euros based on the fixed Escudo/Euro exchange rate of PTE 200.482 = €1.00. We are not representing that the Euro, US$ or R$ amounts shown herein could have been or could be converted at any particular rate or at all. See "Item 3Key InformationExchange Rates" for further information regarding the rates of exchange between Euros and U.S. dollars and between Reais and U.S. dollars.
This Form 20-F includes, and documents incorporated by reference herein and future public filings and oral and written statements by our management may include, statements that constitute "forward-looking statements" within the meaning of the United States Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. These statements are based on the beliefs and assumptions of our management and on information available to management at the time such statements were made. Forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to: (a) information concerning possible or assumed future results of our operations, earnings, industry conditions, demand and pricing for our products and other aspects of our business under "Item 4Information on the Company," "Item 5Operating and Financial Review and Prospects" and "Item 11Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk"; and (b) statements that are preceded by, followed by or include the words "believes," "expects," "anticipates," "intends," "is confident," "plans," "estimates," "may," "might," "could," "would," the negatives of such terms or similar expressions.
Forward-looking statements are not guarantees of performance. They involve risks, uncertainties and assumptions. Although we make such statements based on assumptions that we believe to be reasonable, there can be no assurance that actual results will not differ materially from our expectations. Many of the factors that will determine these results are beyond our ability to control or predict. We do not intend to review or revise any particular forward-looking statements referenced in this Form 20-F in light of future events or to provide reasons why actual results may differ. Investors are cautioned not to put undue reliance on any forward-looking statements.
Any of the following important factors, and any of those important factors described elsewhere in this or in other of our SEC filings, among other things, could cause our results to differ from any results that might be projected, forecast or estimated by us in any such forward-looking statements:
Sonae Tender Offer
The tender offer launched by Sonaecom, SGPS S.A. and Sonaecom, B.V. ("Sonaecom") for PT and PT Multimédia lapsed on March 2, 2007, as the proposed removal of the voting limitation in the bylaws of PT, which was a condition for the tender offer to succeed, was rejected by the majority of the votes cast at our general meeting of shareholders.
Proposed Spin-Off of PT Multimédia
On August 3, 2006, PT announced its intent to spin off its 58.43% interest in PT MultimédiaServiços de Telecomunicações e Multimédia, SGPS, S.A. ("PT Multimédia") through a distribution to shareholders, subject to shareholder approval. On March 21, 2007, the Board of Directors proposed to the shareholders a dividend in kind corresponding to 4 PT Multimédia shares for each 25 PT shares owned, rounded down, to be carried out under the specific terms to be determined by the Board of Directors. This spin-off proposal was approved by the shareholders at the Annual General Meeting held on April 27, 2007.
PT's management has concluded that the separation of PT Multimédia from PT should positively contribute to the development of the telecommunications market in Portugal, allowing the market to develop increasingly innovative and convergent services to consumers. The resulting market structure should provide regulatory relief for PT's wireline business, giving it flexibility to offer more and better services to its customers, while PT Multimédia would be able to pursue its own competitive strategy, domestically and abroad. By allowing the management of each company to focus on its core competencies, PT believes that this strategy is more likely to create greater value for shareholders over time. The proposed separation also addresses the long-standing objectives of the Portuguese regulators.
The spin-off proposal approved by the shareholders grants the Board of Directors the authority to determine all the terms and conditions of the spin-off to the extent not otherwise contained in the shareholder approval. These terms and conditions are expected to include non-opposition from the competent regulatory authorities, including the Portuguese Securities Commission (Comissão do Mercado de Valores MobiliáriosCMVM), and we cannot assure you that these conditions will be met or that they will be met on a timely basis. In addition, the implementation of the proposal will be subject to market conditions and the financial and accounting situation of Portugal Telecom. The spin-off also involves the suppression of the special rights attributed to the class A shares of PT Multimédia held by Portugal Telecom by means of their conversion into ordinary shares or by other means, but we cannot assure you that this condition will be met.
Before the effective date of the spin-off, we expect to issue an information statement to holders of American Depositary Shares ("ADSs") representing ordinary shares of Portugal Telecom and to U.S. resident holders of Portugal Telecom's ordinary shares describing the spin-off. The information statement is expected to include, among other things, information regarding the spin-off; the business, financial condition and results of operations of PT Multimédia; certain tax considerations for holders of Portugal Telecom ADSs and U.S. holders of Portugal Telecom ordinary shares; certain relationships between Portugal Telecom and PT Multimédia; the expected management of PT Multimédia; and a description of the ordinary shares of PT Multimédia. We urge you to review the Information Statement when it is distributed.
The information statement will describe a number of risks relating to the spin-off. See also "Item 3Key InformationRisk FactorsRisks Relating to Our Wireline and Domestic Mobile BusinessesAfter the Completion of the Proposed Spin-Off of PT Multimédia, the Competitive Strategy of PT Multimédia Could Adversely Affect Our Revenues and Cash Flows."
We are not required to provide the information called for by Item 1.
We are not required to provide the information called for by Item 2.
The selected consolidated balance sheet data as of December 31, 2004, 2005 and 2006 and selected consolidated statement of income and cash flow data for each of the years ended December 31, 2004, 2005 and 2006 have been derived from our audited consolidated financial statements included herein prepared in accordance with IFRS.
IFRS differs in significant respects from U.S. GAAP. For a discussion of the principal differences between IFRS and U.S. GAAP, as they relate to us, see "U.S. GAAP Reconciliation and Recent Accounting Pronouncements" below and Note 47, 48 and 49 to our audited consolidated financial statements.
We have provided, in the information below, amounts in accordance with U.S. GAAP of operating revenues, operating income, net income, net income per share, total assets, total liabilities and shareholders' equity as of and for the years ended December 31, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005 and 2006.
The information set forth below is qualified by reference to, and should be read in conjunction with, our audited consolidated financial statements and the notes thereto and also "Item 5Operating and Financial Review and Prospects" included in this Form 20-F.
Our consolidated balance sheet data as of December 31, 2005 and 2006 proportionally consolidate 50% of Vivo's assets and liabilities. Our consolidated statement of income and cash flow data for the years ended December 31, 2004, 2005 and 2006 proportionally consolidate 50% of Vivo's income and cash flows. See "Presentation of Financial Information".
Effective January 1, 1999, Portugal joined ten other member countries of the European Union in adopting the Euro as the common currency. During the transition period between January 1, 1999 and
December 31, 2001, the Escudo remained legal tender in Portugal as a denomination of the Euro, and public and private parties paid for goods and services in Portugal using either the Euro or the Escudo. On January 1, 2002, the Euro entered into cash circulation, and from January 1, 2002 through February 28, 2002, both the Euro and the Escudo were in circulation in Portugal. From March 1, 2002, the Euro became the sole circulating currency in Portugal.
For the years ended December 31, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005 and 2006, the majority of our revenues, assets and expenses were denominated in Euro, although a significant portion of our assets and liabilities are denominated in Brazilian Reais. We have published our audited consolidated financial statements in Euros, and our shares trade in Euros on the regulated market Eurolist by Euronext Lisbon. Our financial results could be affected by exchange rate fluctuations in the Brazilian Real. See "Item 5Operating and Financial Review and ProspectsExchange Rate Exposure to the Brazilian Real".
Our future dividends, when paid in cash, will be denominated in Euros. As a result, exchange rate fluctuations have affected and will affect the U.S. dollar amounts received by holders of ADSs on conversion of such dividends by The Bank of New York as the ADS depositary. The Bank of New York converts dividends it receives in foreign currency into U.S. dollars upon receipt, by sale or such other manner as it has determined, and distributes such U.S. dollars to holders of ADSs, net of The Bank of New York's expenses of conversion, any applicable taxes and other governmental charges. Exchange rate fluctuations may also affect the U.S. dollar price of the ADSs on the New York Stock Exchange.
The following tables show, for the period and dates indicated, certain information regarding the U.S. dollar/Euro exchange rate. The information is based on the noon buying rate in the City of New York for cable transfers in Euro as certified for United States customs purposes by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York. On June 21, 2007, the Euro/U.S. dollar exchange rate was €0.7466 per US$1.00.
None of the 25 member countries of the European Union has imposed any exchange controls on the Euro.
Although the majority of our revenues, assets and expenses are denominated in Euros, most of the revenues, assets and expenses from our Brazilian investments are denominated in Brazilian Reais. Consequently, exchange rate fluctuations between the Euro and the Brazilian Real affect our revenues.
The Brazilian government may impose temporary restrictions on the conversion of Reais into foreign currencies and on the remittance to foreign investors of proceeds from their investments in Brazil. Brazilian law permits the government to impose these restrictions whenever there is a serious imbalance in Brazil's balance of payments or reason to foresee a serious imbalance.
The following tables show, for the periods and date indicated, certain information regarding the Real/U.S. dollar exchange rate. On June 21, 2007, the Real/U.S. dollar exchange rate was R$1.9197 per US$1.00. The information is based on the noon buying rate in the City of New York for cable transfers in Brazilian Reais as certified for United States customs purposes by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
As of January 1, 2002, we ceased to use the Escudo. For the years ended December 31, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005 and 2006 the majority of our revenues, assets and expenses were denominated in Euros. All figures previously stated in Escudos have been converted to figures in Euro based on the fixed Escudo/Euro exchange rate, established on January 1, 1999, of PTE 200.482 per €1.00, or approximately €0.005 per PTE 1.00. See "Euro".
General Risks Relating to Our Company
We May Not Achieve Our Announced Shareholder Remuneration Goals
In February 2007, in connection with our response to the tender offer by Sonaecom, we announced a shareholder remuneration package comprised of a €2.1 billion share buyback, a €0.475 per share dividend related to the year 2006, a €0.575 per share dividend related to years 2007 and 2008, and the spin-off of PT Multimédia. As of the date of filing of this annual report, we have paid the dividend relating to the year 2006, and as at June 15, 2007, we had entered into equity swap agreements with several financial institutions in connection with our share buyback program for 45,686,311 shares for a notional amount of €464.3 million, representing 4.05% of our share capital. In addition, our shareholders approved the spin-off of PT Multimédia at the annual general shareholders' meeting on April 22, 2007, but the spin-off has not yet been completed and is subject to conditions.
The completion of the remaining shareholder remuneration goals will depend on our ability to continue to generate cash flow in our domestic businesses, assumes that we are able to obtain regulatory relief for our domestic wireline business and that we are able to continue to streamline our operations to reduce our costs. In addition, our announced shareholder remuneration package assumes that the Real/Euro exchange rate will remain stable. The Real fluctuated significantly in relation to the Euro in recent years. See "Risks Related to Our Brazilian Mobile BusinessMacroeconomic Factors in Brazil Could Reduce Expected Returns on Our Brazilian Investments and Potentially Lead to Impairment Charges" and "Fluctuations in the Real and increases in interest rates".
If any of the assumptions described in the preceding paragraph proves not to be the case or if any other circumstances (including any risks described in this "Risk Factors" section) impedes our ability to generate cash and distributable reserves, you may not receive the full remuneration we have announced, and the price of our ordinary shares and ADSs could suffer.
The Portuguese State Holds All of Our A Shares, Which Afford It Special Approval Rights
All of our 500 A shares are held by the Portuguese State. Under our articles of association, the Portuguese State, as the holder of all of our A shares, may veto a number of actions of our shareholders, including the following:
In addition, the election of one-third of the total number of directors, including the Chairman of the Board of Directors, requires the votes issued by the State, in its capacity as holder of Class A shares.
In April 2006, the European Commission sent to the Portuguese State a formal request to abandon the special rights it held as the sole owner of our A shares. The European Commission believes that the special powers granted to the Portuguese State through the sole ownership of our A shares act as a disincentive for investment by companies from other EU Member States in a manner that violates European Community Treaty rules. Should the Portuguese State not take satisfactory steps to remedy this alleged infringement of EU Law, the European Commission may decide to refer the case to the European Court of Justice.
Our Recent Ratings Downgrades and Any Future Downgrades May Impair Our Ability to Obtain Financing and May Significantly Increase Our Cost of Debt
Immediately after the announcement by Sonaecom on February 6, 2006 of the tender offer for Portugal Telecom, Standard & Poor's placed our credit rating on CreditWatch with negative implications, while Moody's placed our credit rating on review for possible downgrade, due to the possible increased leverage that would result from the transaction. Following the presentation by our board of directors of an alternative shareholders' remuneration plan, increasing our indebtedness, Standard & Poor's and Moody's downgraded our ratings to BBB+ and Baa1, respectively, on March 8, 2006. On August 3, 2006, Standard & Poor's and Moody's downgraded our ratings to BBB- and Baa2, respectively, following the announcement of a further step-up in the shareholder remuneration plan. After the failure of the tender offer, the rating agencies confirmed our credit ratings as BBB- (Standard & Poor's) and Baa2 (Moody's), both with stable outlook.
We have four loans from the European Investment Bank (EIB) totaling €365 million as of December 31, 2006 that contain a provision under which the EIB has the right to require us to provide a guarantee acceptable to EIB in the event our ratings were downgraded to BBB/Baa2. In that circumstance, and after notice from the EIB, we would have 60 days to present an acceptable guarantee. If we fail to provide EIB the required guarantee, the EIB would have the right to accelerate the repayment of the loans. As a result of our ratings downgrade on August 3, 2006 to BBB- by S&P, to Baa2 by Moody's and to BBB by Fitch, we negotiated with EIB revised terms and conditions for these loans. The agreement with the EIB, signed on February 23, 2007, allows us to present the guarantee mentioned above only in the case of a downgrade from the current rating (BBB- by S&P, Baa2 by Moody's and BBB by Fitch).
Our recent ratings downgrades could adversely affect our ability to obtain future financing to fund our operations and capital needs. The downgrades could affect the marketability of any new debt securities we may wish to issue. As part of the agreement with EIB described above, the spreads on our EIB loans increased by between 1 and 28 basis points, increasing our interest expenses. In addition, the downgrades could affect the pricing terms we are able to obtain in any new bank financing or issuance of debt securities. In addition, any further downgrade of our ratings could have even more significant effects on our ability to obtain financing and therefore on our liquidity.
Risks Relating to Our Wireline and Domestic Mobile Businesses
Competition From Mobile Telephony and From Other Wireline Operators Has Significantly Reduced Our Fixed Telephone Revenues and Is Likely to Continue to Adversely Affect Our Revenues
During 2006, approximately 30.1% of our consolidated revenues were derived from services provided by our wireline business in Portugal. As a result of the trend toward the use of mobile services instead of fixed telephone services, combined with the increase in competition from other wireline operators, we have experienced, and may continue to experience, erosion of market share of both access lines and of outgoing domestic and international traffic. The number of active mobile telephone cards in Portugal has overtaken the number of wireline main lines, and more than 61% of the total Portuguese voice traffic is originated in mobile networks. Some of our wireline customers are using mobile services as an alternative to wireline telephone services. Mobile operators can bypass our international wireline network by interconnecting directly with wireline and mobile networks either in our domestic network or abroad. Competition is also forcing down the prices of our wireline telephone services for long distance and international calls. Lowering our international call prices has caused a significant decline in our revenues from international wireline telephone services.
The decrease in wireline traffic and lower tariffs resulting from competition has significantly affected our overall revenues, and we expect these factors to continue to negatively affect our revenues. See "Item 4Information on the CompanyCompetitionCompetition Facing our Wireline Business".
After the Completion of the Proposed Spin-off of PT Multimédia, the Competitive Strategy of PT Multimédia Could Adversely Affect Our Revenues and Cash Flows
Following the spin-off of PT Multimédia, PT Multimédia's management may develop a business strategy that could conflict with the strategies of our wireline and domestic mobile businesses. In an attempt to gain market share in voice services, for example, management of PT Multimédia could pursue a price strategy that could place downward pressure on prices and adversely affect the revenues and cash flows of our wireline and domestic mobile businesses. PT Multimédia has significant market share in its businesses, and it could be a strong competitor of our wireline and domestic mobile businesses in Internet access and voice telephony after the completion of the proposed spin-off.
The Development of Voice over Internet Protocol Services May Reduce Our Voice Telephony Revenues
As existing Voice over Internet Protocol, or VoIP, technology develops and new technologies emerge, competition from VoIP services is likely to intensify. VoIP has a significantly more advantageous cost structure when compared to Public Switched Telephony Networks, or PSTN. Currently, some VoIP-based providers are able to offer cost-free calls between VoIP users, as well as call prices to PSTN and mobile networks at significant discounts to our tariffs. Competition from VoIP-based operators is likely to increase price pressure on voice tariffs and reduce wireline and mobile traffic, which could harm significantly our voice telephony revenues.
In addition, in November 2005, ANACOM began a period of consultation regarding regulation of these services, and issued a report on the subject in February 2006. Since then, some operators, including affiliates of Portugal Telecom, have launched fixed and roaming VoIP commercial services.
Reduced Interconnection Rates Have Negatively Affected Our Revenues for Our Mobile and Wireline Businesses and May Continue to Do So
In February 2005, ANACOM declared all mobile operators to have significant market power in call termination in the mobile networks market. ANACOM has accordingly imposed price controls on interconnection rates for the termination of calls on mobile networks. In 2005, interconnection rates (both fixed-to-mobile and mobile-to-mobile) were reduced by an average of 23.5% compared with 2004
rates. In 2006, these rates were further reduced by an average of 18.5% compared to the 2005 rates. These reductions have had a significant impact on TMN's interconnection revenues and consequently its earnings. Both fixed-to-mobile and mobile-to-mobile interconnection rates reached €0.11 per minute in October 2006 and have not decreased since then. See "Item 5Operating and Financial Review and ProspectsResults of Operations". ANACOM is in the process of determining who has significant market power in call origination in the mobile networks market. We cannot predict the outcome of this process, and ANACOM's decision could negatively impact our revenues and results of operations.
ANACOM's price controls on fixed-to-mobile interconnection may also negatively affect our wireline retail revenues because we are required to reflect the reduction in these interconnection charges in our retail prices for calls from our fixed line network. We expect that the reduction in interconnection charges will continue to have a significant impact on our wireline retail revenues.
In addition, the lower interconnection rates have also reduced revenues for our wholesale wireline business because our wholesale wireline unit records revenue from incoming operating calls through our network that terminate on the networks of mobile operators. The prices we charge to international operators (and hence our revenues) depends on the interconnection fees charged by mobile operators for international incoming calls terminating on their networks, and these fees have been decreasing. We expect that the lower interconnection rates in 2007 will continue to have a negative impact on our wholesale wireline revenues.
ANACOM issued a decision in December 2006 requiring our wireline business to offer flat rate interconnection, which we believe will negatively affect our wholesale wireline revenues in the future.
Increased Competition in the Portuguese Mobile Markets May Result in Decreased Tariffs and Loss of Market Share
We operate in the highly competitive Portuguese mobile telecommunications market. We believe that our existing mobile competitors, Vodafone and Optimus (owned by Sonae and France Telecom) will continue to market their services aggressively. In mid-2005, Optimus introduced a low-cost brand "Rede 4" in response to our new brand "Uzo". Vodafone also launched a product called Directo in mid-2005 targeting the same market as Uzo and Rede 4.
In addition, the commercial introduction in Portugal of third generation mobile services has heightened competition and reduced the profitability of providing third generation services. Moreover, ANACOM may open the mobile market to mobile virtual network operators, or MVNOs, which do not have their own network infrastructure and thus would not have the fixed cost burdens facing our current GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) and UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System) services. We expect competition from VoIP-based operators also to place increasing price pressure on voice tariffs and lead to reductions in mobile voice traffic. Competition from companies providing wireless local-area network, or WLAN, services, which can deliver wireless data services more cheaply than UMTS in concentrated areas, may also affect the market and pricing for third generation services. See "Item 4Information on the CompanyCompetitionCompetition Facing TMN in Portugal".
The Broadband Market in Portugal is Highly Competitive and It May Become More Competitive in the Future
At the end of 2006, we had 685 thousand retail broadband subscribers using ADSL lines in our wireline business, which represented a growth of 17.1% over the number of broadband subscribers at the end of 2005. Some of our competitors have been improving their commercial offer in broadband Internet, with most of them offering triple-play bundled packages (voice telephony, broadband Internet and pay-TV subscription), including TV Cabo, a subsidiary of PT Multimédia whose triple-play service will compete against that of our wireline business, especially after the completion of the proposed
spin-off of PT Multimédia. We believe that with competition in Internet broadband access intensifying, and with the development of existing technologies such as broadband wireless access and mobile broadband through UMTS, we may face loss of market share in the broadband market, which could result in a loss of subscribers and a loss in revenues.
The European Commission's Review of Roaming Charges May Lead to a Reduction in Domestic Mobile Revenues
We receive approximately 7.1% of our domestic mobile revenues from incoming and outgoing roaming charges. The European Commission has determined that roaming prices in Europe should be reduced and has published new regulations that are effective June 30, 2007. These regulations set maximum roaming charges that may be charged in the wholesale market and the retail market. In the wholesale market, a maximum roaming charge of €0.30 per minute will apply from the date two months after the effective date of the regulations through the first anniversary of the effective date, a maximum roaming charge of €0.28 per minute will apply in the second year, and a maximum roaming charge of €0.26 per minute will apply thereafter.
In the retail market, maximum roaming charges of €0.24 per minute (for received calls) and €0.49 per minute (for outgoing calls) will apply in the first year, maximum roaming charges of €0.22 per minute (for received calls) and €0.46 (for outgoing calls) will apply in the second year, and maximum roaming charges of €0.19 per minute (for received calls) and €0.43 per minute (for outgoing calls) will apply thereafter. Under the new regulations, operators must inform their customers of these charges within one month from the effective date of the regulations and give their customers a two-month period to choose whether to be subject to these maximum charges or to an alternative pricing scheme offered by the operator.
We believe these regulations will have an adverse effect on the revenues of our domestic mobile business and of our company as a whole.
In addition, within the EU regulatory framework for electronic communications approved in 2002, the Portuguese telecommunications regulator has been analyzing concentrations of market power in various telecommunications markets in Portugal. Among the markets that the regulator has not yet analyzed is the market for roaming charges, and it is expected to do so after the European Commission's decision on the regulation of roaming prices. This decision could lead to the introduction of further price controls, both in the retail and in the wholesale market, which could adversely affect the revenues and results of our domestic mobile business and of our company as a whole.
Burdensome Regulation in an Open Market May Put Us at a Disadvantage to Our Competitors and Could Adversely Affect Our Business
The Portuguese electronic communications sector is now fully open to competition. However, many regulatory restrictions and obligations are still imposed on us. The Portuguese telecommunications regulator, ANACOM, is conducting a market analysis to determine the regulatory obligations that should be imposed on operators with significant market power in the provision of electronic communications pursuant to a new EU regulatory framework for electronic communications networks and services. In all but one of the 15 markets for which ANACOM has completed its analysis, the Portugal Telecom group has been found by ANACOM to have significant market power and consequently is subject to regulatory restrictions and obligations. Not all of these obligations and restrictions have been imposed on other telecommunications operators and service providers. The substantial resources we must commit to fulfill these obligations could adversely affect our ability to compete. See "Item 4Information on the CompanyRegulationPortugal."
Regulatory Investigations and Litigation May Lead to Fines or Other Penalties
We are regularly involved in litigation, regulatory inquiries and investigations involving our operations. ANACOM, the Portuguese telecommunications regulator, the European Commission and the Autoridade da Concorrência, the Portuguese competition authority, can make inquiries and conduct investigations concerning our compliance with applicable laws and regulations. Current inquiries and investigations include several complaints before the Autoridade da Concorrência related to alleged anti-competitive practices in our wireline and multimedia businesses, including complaints against:
See "Item 4Information on the CompanyRegulationPortugalRegulatory Institutions" and "Item 8Financial InformationLegal ProceedingsRegulatory Proceedings".
If we are found to be in violation of applicable laws and regulations in these or other regulatory inquiries, investigations, or litigation proceedings, that are currently pending against us or which may be brought against us in the future, we may become subject to penalties, fines, damages or other sanctions. Any adverse outcome could have a material adverse effect on our operating results or cash flows.
The Portuguese Government Could Terminate or Fail to Renew Our Wireline Concession, Our Licenses and Our Authorization for Data Services
We provide a significant number of services under a Concession granted to us by the Portuguese government and under licenses and authorizations granted to us by ANACOM. See "Item 4Information on the CompanyRegulationPortugal". The Concession runs until 2025. The Portuguese government can revoke the Concession after 2010 if it considers the revocation to be in the public interest. It can also terminate our Concession at any time if we fail to comply with our obligations under the Concession. The Portuguese government can also terminate our licenses under certain circumstances. If the Portuguese government took such actions, we would not be able to conduct the activities authorized by the Concession or the relevant licenses. This loss would eliminate an important source of our revenues.
Risks Related to Our Brazilian Mobile Business
We Are Exposed to Exchange Rate and Interest Rate Fluctuations
We are exposed to exchange rate fluctuation risks, mainly due to the significant level of our investments in Brazil. These investments are not hedged against exchange rate fluctuations. We are required to make adjustments to our equity on our balance sheet in response to fluctuations in the value of foreign currencies in which we have made investments. For example, as of December 31, 2006, cumulative foreign currency translation adjustments related to investments in Brazil were positive €652.3 million. A devaluation in the Brazilian Real in the future could result in negative adjustments to our balance sheet. See "Item 5Operating and Financial Review and ProspectsLiquidity and Capital ResourcesEquity" and "Exchange Rate Exposure to the Brazilian Real".
We are also exposed to interest rate fluctuation risks. We have entered into financial instruments to reduce the impact on our earnings of an increase in market interest rates, but these financial instruments may not prevent unexpected and material fluctuations of interest rates from having any material adverse effect on our earnings.
In addition, the purchase and sale of foreign currency in Brazil is subject to governmental control. In the past, the Central Bank has centralized certain payments of principal on external obligations. Many factors could cause the Brazilian government to institute a more restrictive exchange control policy, including, without limitation, the extent of Brazilian foreign currency reserves, the availability of sufficient foreign exchange, the size of Brazil's debt service burden relative to the economy as a whole and political constraints to which Brazil may be subject. A more restrictive policy could affect the ability of Brazilian debtors (including Vivo) to make payments outside of Brazil to meet foreign currency-denominated obligations.
Macroeconomic Factors in Brazil Could Reduce Expected Returns on Our Brazilian Investments and Potentially Lead to Impairment Charges
A material portion of our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations is dependent on general economic conditions in Brazil. In particular, it depends on economic growth and its impact on demand for telecommunications and other related services. The major factors that could have a material adverse effect on our investments and results of operations in Brazil, include:
Adverse political and economic conditions. The Brazilian government has exercised, and continues to exercise, significant influence over the Brazilian economy. The Brazilian government has utilized salary and price controls, currency devaluation and foreign exchange controls as tools in its previous attempts to stabilize the Brazilian economy and control inflation. Changes in the government's exchange control policy, or in general economic conditions in Brazil, could have a material adverse effect on the results of our operations in Brazil. Deterioration in economic and market conditions in other countries (mainly in other Latin American and emerging market countries) may adversely affect the Brazilian economy and our business.
Fluctuations in the Real and increases in interest rates. The Brazilian currency has historically experienced frequent devaluations. The Real devalued against the Euro by 12.8% in 2001 and by 81.4% in 2002. During 2002, the Real underwent significant devaluation due in part to political uncertainty in connection with the elections and the global economic slowdown. In the period leading up to, and after, the general election in 2002, there was substantial uncertainty relating to the policies that the new government would pursue, including the potential implementation of macroeconomic policies that would differ significantly from those of the prior administration. This uncertainty resulted in a loss of confidence in the Brazilian capital markets, and the continued devaluation of the Real until the end of 2002. The Real appreciated against the Euro by 1.3%, 1.4% and 31.7% in 2003, 2004 and 2005 respectively, and depreciated 1.97% against the Euro in 2006. Any substantial negative reaction to the policies of the Brazilian government could have a negative impact, including devaluation. The devaluation of the Real could negatively affect the stability of the Brazilian economy and accordingly could negatively affect the profitability and results of our operations. It would also increase costs associated with financing our operations in Brazil. In addition, a devaluation of the Real relative to the U.S. dollar may increase the costs of imported products and equipment. Our operations in Brazil rely on imported equipment and, as a result of such devaluation, such equipment would be more expensive to purchase.
During 2004 and 2005, the Brazilian Central Bank tightened its monetary policy to contain inflationary pressures resulting from high international prices for oil and other commodities, and increased the SELIC basic interest by 125 basis points to 17.75% at the end of 2004, 18.05% at the end of 2005 and 13.19% at the end of 2006. Since then, the Brazilian Central Bank has eased its monetary policy, decreasing the SELIC basic interest rate to 13.25% at the end of 2006. However, an increase in interest rates could negatively affect our profitability and results of operations and would increase the costs associated with financing our operations in Brazil. In addition, an increase would raise our interest costs since most of the interest on Vivo's debt is floating.
Inflation in Brazil. Brazil has historically experienced extremely high rates of inflation. Inflation, as well as governmental measures put in place to combat inflation, have had a material adverse effect on the Brazilian economy. Since the implementation of the Real Plan in 1994, the rate of inflation has been substantially lower than in previous periods. However, inflationary pressures persist, and actions taken in an effort to curb inflation, coupled with public speculation about possible future governmental actions, have contributed to economic uncertainty in Brazil and heightened volatility in the Brazilian securities market. The general price index, or the IGP-DI (the Índice Geral de PreçosDisponibilidade Interna), an inflation index developed by the Fundação Getúlio Vargas, a private Brazilian economic organization, reflected inflation of 3.8% in 2006 compared to 1.2% in 2005, 12.1% in 2004, 7.7% in 2003 and 26.4% in 2002. If Brazil experiences significant inflation, Vivo may be unable to increase service rates to its customers in amounts that are sufficient to cover its increasing operating costs, and its business may be adversely affected, which could in turn have an adverse effect on our results of operations.
We could be required to record impairment charges relating to goodwill for our investment in Vivo. Under IFRS, we are required to test our goodwill for impairment at least annually. If the carrying value of our investment exceeds the related recoverable amount, we are required to write down our goodwill. The recoverable amount is the higher of the estimated selling price of the asset less the related selling costs and value in use. See "Item 5Operating and Financial Review and ProspectsOverviewCritical Accounting Policies and International Financial Reporting Standards". An increase in interest rates or other macroeconomic events (or an adverse event affecting the operations of Vivo) could decrease the estimated future cash flows from our investment in Vivo. An event that causes us to reduce our estimates of the future cash flows of Vivo could require us to record an impairment of this goodwill, and, depending on the size of the impairment, this could have a material adverse effect on our balance sheet and our results of operations.
Our Strategy of Enhancing Our Mobile Operations in Brazil Through Our Joint Venture With Telefonica Moviles May Not Be Successful
The successful implementation of our strategy for our mobile operations in Brazil depends on the development of our mobile services joint venture company with Telefónica. On December 27, 2002, we and Telefónica transferred our direct and indirect interests in Brazilian mobile operators to the mobile services joint venture company, Brasilcel, operating under the brand name Vivo, with headquarters in the Netherlands.
As in any joint venture, it is possible that we and Telefónica will not agree on Vivo's strategy, operations or other matters. Any inability of Telefónica and us to operate Vivo jointly could have a negative impact on Vivo's operations, which could have a negative impact on our strategy in Brazil and could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations. In addition, we cannot be sure that Vivo will be able to take advantage of its position in the Brazilian market to increase the scope and scale of its operations or that any anticipated benefits of the joint venture will be realized. See "Item 4Information on the CompanyStrategic AlliancesAlliance with Telefónica".
Regulation May Have a Material Adverse Effect on Vivo's Results
Our mobile business in Brazil is subject to extensive regulation, including certain regulatory restrictions and obligations relating to licenses, competition, taxes and rates (including interconnection rates) applicable to mobile telephone services. Changes in the regulatory framework in the mobile telecommunications sector may have a negative impact on Vivo's revenues and results of operations. Moreover, Vivo is restricted from increasing some of the rates that they charge for services provided even if a devaluation of the Real or an increase of interest rates by the Brazilian government increases their costs. Such circumstances may limit Vivo's flexibility in responding to market conditions,
competition and changes in its cost structure, which could have a material adverse effect on its results of operations and in turn adversely affect our results of operations.
Brazilian Tax Reforms May Affect Vivo's Prices
The Brazilian government has proposed tax reforms that are currently being considered by the Brazilian Congress. If Vivo experiences a higher tax burden as a result of the tax reform, it may have to pass the cost of that tax increase to its customers. This increase may have a material negative impact on the dividends paid by Vivo's subsidiary to it and on its revenues and operating results.
The Conditions Applying to Vivo Under the SMP Licensing Regime May Result in Reducing Our Revenues and Results of Operations
In September 2000, ANATEL, the Brazilian telecommunications regulator, introduced a new mobile services licensing regime, referred to as the SMP regime. The SMP regime permits existing mobile service providers operating under concessions to migrate to the SMP regime and become SMP license holders. Vivo has migrated to the SMP regime and now holds a SMP license instead of their previous concessions.
In 2003, SMP operators were required to implement long distance carrier selection codes to allow customers to choose their carrier for domestic long distance services (for both "VC2" and "VC3" calls) and international cellular calls. VC2 calls are calls made to parties outside a caller's area code but inside the same state, and VC3 calls are calls made to parties outside the caller's state. As a result, Vivo no longer receives revenues from long distance services but instead receive revenues from interconnection fees paid by wireline long distance operators for wireline long distance traffic originating and terminating on their networks. The interconnection fees do not fully compensate, however, for the loss of long distance revenues that Vivo formerly received from VC2 and VC3 calls, and this has had a negative impact on the overall revenues of Vivo. If Vivo were able to offer wireline long distance services in addition to mobile services, it might be able to mitigate the impact of carrier selection codes on its revenues. However, because ANATEL considers Vivo to be affiliated with Telefónica, which provides wireline long distance services in the state of São Paulo and was awarded a license to provide such services nationwide, ANATEL will not award a wireline long distance license to Vivo.
We cannot predict whether the current regulatory regime will remain in place or whether any future regulatory change could have an adverse effect on our results of operations. See "Item 4Information on the CompanyRegulationBrazilSMP Regulation".
Interconnection Fees and Regulated Adjustments to Those Fees May Not Result in Sufficiently Remunerative Revenues for Terminating Calls on the Mobile Networks of Vivo's Subsidiaries and May Negatively Affect our Revenues and Results of Operations
Under the new SMP regime, interconnection fees for the termination of calls on mobile networks are determined through free negotiation between Vivo and other telecommunications operators. If the parties do not reach an agreement, the matter is determined through arbitration, which is conducted by ANATEL. Interconnection agreements must be approved by ANATEL and may be rejected if they are contrary to the principles of free competition and applicable regulations relating to traffic capacity, use of the interconnection infrastructure by requesting parties and other matters.
In 2005, ANATEL approved provisional agreements among the local fixed line and mobile operators to determine the interconnection fees for local calls (known as "VC1" calls). These agreements provide for a 4.5% annual adjustment of interconnection fees for these calls. In March 2006, ANATEL approved a provisional agreement for interconnection fees for VC2 and VC3 long distance calls that also provides for a 4.5% annual adjustment to interconnection fees. The annual
adjustments under these agreements may not be sufficient to cover Vivo's costs and preserve its margins from interconnections with Vivo's network. In particular, because a significant number of mobile subscribers use prepaid mobile services and generally receive more calls than they make, Vivo derives an important part of their revenues from the interconnection fees paid to them by the wireline operators for traffic originating on wireline networks and terminating on the subsidiaries' mobile networks.
In addition, ANATEL may further modify the regulatory regime governing interconnection fees. ANATEL has proposed to replace the partial Bill & Keep regime with a model based on the costs of mobile operators. ANATEL has proposed to implement this new model in mid-2007. We cannot predict whether this proposed model will be implemented and whether it will have an adverse effect on our operations. If this model were to result in lower annual adjustments to interconnection fees than under the provisional agreements reached in 2005 described above, our revenues and results of operations could be adversely affected. In July 2006, the partial Bill & Keep regime was discontinued, and now Vivo is under a "full billing" regime described in "Item 4Information on the CompanyRegulationBrazilSMP Regulation".
ANATEL has also published specific proposals for regulations regarding interconnection charges that could adversely affect Vivo's revenues and results of operations. These proposals include (1) a proposal that two SMP operators controlled by the same economic group receive only one interconnection charge for calls originated and terminated on their networks rather than the current two charges, (2) a proposal for new negotiation rules for interconnection charges under which ANATEL would have a role in determining the charges rather than the current free negotiation of the charges and (3) a proposal for interconnection charge unification among SMP providers of the same economic group having significant market power according to criteria still to be defined. If new regulations along these lines take effect, they could have an adverse effect on Vivo's results of operations because (1) interconnection charges could drop significantly, thereby reducing Vivo's revenues, (2) ANATEL may allow favorable prices for economic groups without significant market power and (3) the prices Vivo charges in some regions in which it operates are higher than those in some other regions, and consolidation of those prices, competitive pressures and other factors could reduce Vivo's average prices and its revenues.
Vivo Faces Substantial Competition in Each of its Markets that May Reduce its Market Share and Harm Our Financial Performance
Competition may continue to intensify for Vivo as a result of the strategies of existing competitors, the possible entrance of new competitors and the rapid development of new technologies, products and services. Vivo's ability to compete successfully will depend on its marketing techniques and on its ability to anticipate and respond to various competitive factors affecting the industry, including new services that may be introduced, changes in consumer preferences, demographic trends, economic conditions and discount pricing strategies by its competitors. If Vivo does not keep pace with technological advances, or if it fails to respond timely to changes in competitive factors in its industry, it could continue to lose market share, and Vivo could suffer a decline in its revenue. Competition from other SMP communications service providers in the regions in which Vivo operates has also affected, and may continue to affect, its financial results by causing, among other things, a decrease in its customer growth rate, decreases in prices and increases in selling expenses.
These factors have already contributed to a negative effect on Vivo's market share and results of operations and could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations in the future. As a result of competitive pressures, for example, Vivo's market share decreased from 44.4% as of December 31, 2005 to 38.2% as of December 31, 2006, and Vivo's market share of net additions to its customer base decreased from 21.8% for the year ended December 31, 2005 to a negative percentage of 8.5% for the year ended December 31, 2006, based on information received from ANATEL.
Recently, there has been consolidation in the Brazilian telecommunications market, and we believe this trend may continue. Consolidation may result in increased competitive pressures within Vivo's market. Vivo may be unable to respond adequately to pricing pressures resulting from consolidation, which would adversely affect its business, financial condition and results of operations and could adversely affect our results of operations.
Vivo's Results of Operations Have Been Negatively Affected by a Decrease in Its Customer Growth and Could Also Be Affected if Its Rate of Customer Turnover Increases
Vivo's rate of acquisition of new customers has declined significantly, primarily due to competition and increased market penetration. For example, Vivo's net additions of customers decreased to a loss of 752 thousand customers in 2006, as compared to a gain of 3,262 thousand customers in 2005. This negative evolution was mainly due to a decrease in the rate of addition of new prepaid customers with a loss of 517,373 in 2006, compared to the addition of 2,703,995 new prepaid customers in the prior year. This decrease in the rate of new additions of customers has negatively affected Vivo's results of operations and could continue to do so in the future. In addition, if Vivo's rate of customer turnover were to increase significantly, its results of operations and or competitive position could be adversely affected. Several factors in addition to competitive pressures could influence Vivo's rate of acquisition of new customers and rate of customer turnover, including limited network coverage, lack of sufficient reliability of our services and economic conditions in Brazil.
Risks Relating to PT Multimédia
The risks relating to PT Multimédia below relate to PT Multimédia's ongoing operations prior to the completion of the proposed spin-off of PT Multimédia. As described in "Recent Developments," we expect to issue an information statement to holders of Portugal Telecom's ADSs and to U.S. resident holders of Portugal Telecom's ordinary shares. The information statement will include a description of certain risks relating to the spin-off.
The spin-off proposal approved by the shareholders grants the Board of Directors the authority to determine all the terms and conditions of the spin-off to the extent not otherwise contained in the shareholder approval. These terms and conditions are expected to include non-opposition from the competent regulatory authorities, including the Portuguese Securities Commission (Comissão do Mercado de Valores MobiliáriosCMVM), and we cannot assure you that these conditions will be met or that they will be met on a timely basis. In addition, the implementation of the proposal will be subject to market conditions and the financial and accounting situation of Portugal Telecom. The spin-off also involves the suppression of the special rights attributed to the class A shares of PT Multimédia held by Portugal Telecom by means of their conversion into ordinary shares or by other means, but we cannot assure you that this condition will be met.
PT Multimédia's Success Depends on Its Ability to Offer New Products and Services and to Keep Up with Advances in Technology
PT Multimédia has introduced and continues to introduce new products and services, such as high speed Internet access via cable and TV services, including improving channel offer and introducing services through digital signal transmission. If it is not successful in marketing and selling such products and services, its business, financial position and results of operations may be harmed. In addition, PT Multimédia cannot be sure that there will be adequate demand for its system upgrades or new product and service offerings. Because technology changes very rapidly, it is not possible to ensure that the technology PT Multimédia uses or will use in offering its products and services will not be rendered obsolete by new and superior technology. In addition, many of the new products and services that PT Multimédia intends to offer may also be offered by its competitors. Therefore, these new products and
services may fail to generate revenue or attract and retain the level of customers that we currently anticipate.
PT Multimédia is Subject to Competition in Each of Its Business Areas, which is Expected to Intensify
PT Multimédia faces competition in all its business areas. As existing technology develops and new technologies emerge, competition is likely to intensify in all these areas, particularly with regard to products and services related to subscription TV and Internet. PT Multimédia's cable and satellite TV services face competition from broadband local loop access based on broadband wireless access. In 2005, AR Telecom (formerly Jazztel), a direct competitor of Portugal Telecom's wireline business, launched broadband wireless access service in Lisbon and Oporto and is expected to invest considerably in its network in the coming years. Video over ADSL is also expected to be a competitor of PT Multimédia's television services. Sonaecom, a direct competitor of Portugal Telecom's wireline business, has launched an IP television offer that competes with PT Multimédia's television services. When licenses are granted in the future, terrestrial digital television will be a direct competitor of PT Multimédia's subscription TV business. In its audiovisuals business, PT Multimédia also faces competition at the film distribution, film rights marketing and film screening levels. If PT Multimédia is unable to compete successfully, its business, financial position and results of operations could be significantly harmed. See "Item 4Information on the CompanyCompetitionCompetition Facing PT Multimédia's Pay TV and Broadband Internet Business" and "Competition Facing PT Multimédia's Audiovisuals Business".
Regulatory Investigations May Lead to Fines or Other Penalties
In September 2005, the Autoridade da Concorrência brought allegations against PT Multmédia and TV Cabo for practices allegedly in violation of Article 4 of Law 18/2003 (the Portuguese Competition Law) following the execution in 2000 of a partnership agreement among PTM, TV Cabo and SICSociedade Independente de Cominicação, S.A. (SIC) in connection with SIC's acquisition of Lisboa TVInformação e Multimédia, S.A. In response to this accusation, PT Multimédia and TV Cabo contested the allegations of the Autoridade da Concorrência. However, in August 2006, the Autoridade da Concorrência imposed a fine of €2.5 million on PT Multimédia. PT Multimédia and TV Cabo appealed to the Commerce Court of Lisbon on September 8, 2006. This appeal suspended the decision of the Portuguese competition authority.
Risks Relating to Our ADSs
An ADS Holder May Face Disadvantages Compared to an Ordinary Shareholder When Attempting to Exercise Voting Rights
Holders of our ADSs may instruct the depositary to vote the ordinary shares underlying the ADSs. For the depositary to follow the voting instructions, it must receive them on or before the date specified in our voting materials. The depositary must try, as far as practical, subject to Portuguese law and our articles of association, to vote the ordinary shares as instructed. In most cases, if the ADS holder does not give instructions to the depositary, it may vote the ordinary shares in favor of proposals supported by Portugal Telecom's board of directors, or, when practicable and permitted, give a discretionary proxy to a person designated by us. We cannot be certain that ADS holders will receive voting materials in time to ensure that they can instruct the depositary to vote the underlying ordinary shares. Also, the depositary is not responsible for failing to carry out voting instructions or for the manner of carrying out voting instructions. This means that ADS holders may not be able to exercise their right to vote and there may be nothing they can do if their ordinary shares or other deposited securities are not voted as requested.
Portugal Telecom's legal and commercial name is Portugal Telecom, SGPS S.A. Portugal Telecom is a limited liability holding company, organized as a Sociedade Gestora de Participações Sociais under the laws of the Republic of Portugal. The company was originally incorporated as Portugal Telecom, SGPS S.A., a sociedade anónima in June 1994. Our principal offices are located at Avenida Fontes Pereira de Melo, 40, 1069-300 Lisboa, Portugal. Our telephone number is +351 21 500 1701, and our facsimile number is +351 21 500 0800. Portugal Telecom's agent for service of process in the United States is Puglisi & Associates at 850 Library Avenue, Suite 204, Newark, Delaware 19711. Our home page is located at www.telecom.pt. The information on our website is not part of this report. The website address is included as an indicative textual reference only.
We provide telecommunications and multimedia services in Portugal and Brazil. Our services include:
In Portugal, we are the leading provider of all of these services according to data provided by ANACOM. The provision of wireline services in Portugal continues to account for a larger proportion of our revenues (30.1% during 2006) as compared to revenues derived from any other line of business in our group. In Brazil, we have a leading position in the mobile market according to data provided by ANATEL. To strengthen our position in the Brazilian mobile telecommunications market, we entered into a strategic alliance with Telefónica, pursuant to which we created, on December 27, 2002, a mobile telecommunications services company in Brazil, Brasilcel, which was rebranded Vivo on April 8, 2003. See "Our BusinessesBrazilian Mobile Business", below.
The telecommunications market is increasingly characterized by new technological developments resulting in new opportunities and risks for telecommunications operators, the growth in demand for Internet-related services and the increasing use of information technology in telecommunications services. The key elements of our strategy include:
Our specific strategies in our domestic market include the following:
In addition, we continue to seek avenues for growing our business in a manner consistent with the promotion of competition in the Portuguese telecommunications market.
One of such initiatives consists of the spin-off of PT Multimédia from the Portugal Telecom Group, which shall positively contribute to the development of the telecommunications market in Portugal, allowing the market to develop increasingly innovative and convergent services to consumers. The resulting market structure should provide regulatory relief for PT's wireline business, giving it flexibility to offer more and better services to its customers, while PT Multimédia would be able to pursue its own competitive strategy, domestically and abroad. By allowing the management of each company to focus on its core competencies, PT believes that this strategy is more likely to create greater value for shareholders over time. The proposed separation of PT Multimédia from PT also addresses the long-standing objectives of the Portuguese regulators.
For information regarding our current and historic principal capital expenditures and divestitures, see "Item 5Operating and Financial Review and ProspectsCapital Investment and Research and Development".
In addition, in 2006 and early 2007, we articulated a strategy for PT Multimédia based on the following points:
Following the completion of the proposed spin-off of PT Multimédia, that company will develop its own independent strategy that may differ from the strategy we have articulated.
Our market is characterized by increasing competition and rapid technological change. Portugal Telecom's business unit subsidiaries are held directly and indirectly by Portugal Telecom in its role as holding company. The diagram below presents our different businesses as of December 31, 2006.
For additional information on Portugal Telecom's significant subsidiaries, see Exhibit 8.1, which is incorporated herein by reference.
Our wireline business consists of four operating companies, PT Comunicações, PT Prime, PT.com and PT Corporate, which provide the following services on our wireline network:
PT Comunicações holds and operates our fixed line network, providing fixed line telephone services, wholesale services, directories and sales of telecommunications equipment. PT Comunicações provides fixed line telephone services pursuant to a Concession granted to us by the Portuguese government and transferred to PT Comunicações pursuant to Decree Law 219/2000. On December 11, 2002, PT Comunicações entered into a definitive agreement to acquire full ownership of the basic telecommunications network from the Portuguese government. Since then, PT Comunicações has owned the basic telecommunications network.
PT Prime offers corporate customers in Portugal data and corporate services through a "one-stop-shop" for a variety of flexible, efficient and innovative solutions using information technology, telecommunications, Internet and outsourcing. Before October 2003, we held 87.5% of the share capital of PT Prime. In October 2003, we acquired the remaining share capital of PT Prime from SIBSSociedade Interbancária de Serviços, S.A., a Portuguese entity operating the ATM network and the inter-bank payment system in Portugal, for €39 million.
PT.com is the leading Internet company in Portugal, operating as an Internet Service Provider, or ISP, using our fixed line network and the brands SAPO and Telepac, as well as in portal and related activities through sapo.pt, Portugal's leading Internet portal. PT.com was formed as PT Multimédia.com, or PTM.com, in March 2000 by PT Multimédia to aggregate all of its Internet activities focused on the residential and small and medium-sized enterprise markets. In October 2002, we entered into an agreement with PT Multimédia to acquire its 100% interest in PTM.com. The sale of PT Multimédia's Internet business to us was intended to encourage the continued growth of our broadband businesses and increase the loyalty of fixed line subscribers, while providing a single platform for investment and development of on-line services and content for the Portugal Telecom group. The results from our services provided through PTM.com, renamed PT.com in November 2004, have been included in our wireline business segment since 2003.
PT Corporate, launched in July 2003, serves the largest economic groups and government-related entities in Portugal, and acts as a single interface for every company within the PT Group, with the authority to represent, negotiate and sign in the name of each PT Group company. PT Corporate offers these large corporate customers solutions for fixed and mobile telecommunications, internet, technologies and information systems and outsourcing. Due to the size and specific business requirements of its clients, PT Corporate was created to contribute to its clients' business success by assuring the integrated and optimized development of their systems and information processes.
Fixed Line Network. We had 4.404 million telephone and ADSL access lines in service at December 31, 2006, excluding external supplementary lines, direct extensions and active multiple numbers. We break down our fixed line network into traditional main lines (PSTN), ISDN lines and asymmetric digital subscriber lines (ADSL) lines. Because of their large capacity, we count ISDN lines, which transmit voice and data at higher rates than analog lines, as equivalent to either two or up to 30 (depending on whether they are basic or primary ISDN lines) traditional main lines. We offer high-speed Internet access through ADSL lines. As of December 31, 2006, we had 749 thousand ADSL lines, of which 685 thousand were attributable to our ADSL retail business (which is operated by PT.com), and 3,316 thousand PTSN/ISDN lines, of which 74% were residential/small office home office clients, 18% were business and the remainder were mainly payphones, wholesale lines and other.
The following table shows the number of our main lines by category.
Over past years, we have made significant investments to meet subscriber demand for lines and to modernize our fixed line network. As a result, the number of PSTN/ISDN lines per 100 inhabitants has almost doubled from 20.9 fixed line main lines at the end of 1989 to approximately 40.4 fixed line main lines at the end of 2006.
We have offered ISDN services commercially since 1994. We offer a basic-rate service, which provides two communications channels, and a primary-rate service, which provides up to 30 communications channels. At the end of December 2006, we had 249,069 accesses to our basic-rate ISDN service and 7,640 accesses to its primary-rate ISDN service. By the end of 2006, ISDN lines represented 21.9% of our total equivalent fixed line main lines, as compared with 20.1% in 2005. The conversion of traditional main lines to ISDN lines results in increased quality of service, and our ISDN subscribers tend to produce higher levels of usage per line than traditional main line subscribers.
In September 1999, the number of active mobile cards (the mobile equivalent of main lines) overtook the number of fixed line main lines in Portugal, and traffic that once was transmitted in whole or in part on our fixed line network is being carried on our mobile network or on the network of other mobile operators. We are addressing this trend by encouraging increased use of our fixed line network for other data services.
All of our local switches in Portugal have been digital since 1999. Digital technology is used on all long distance and trunk connections. This level of digitalization of our fixed line network permits us to market and provide network-based value-added services, such as call waiting, call forwarding and voice mail, resulting in increased line usage. By the end of December 2006, PT Comunicações was providing approximately 1,089 thousand voicemail boxes.
We launched ADSL service in Lisbon and Oporto in 2002 and now cover virtually all of Portugal. We offer ADSL lines both to retail customers, such as residential customers and small and medium-sized businesses, and to wholesale customers. During 2004, we focused on customer retention and loyalty in order to turn around the wireline business. The aggressive rollout of ADSL was central to this strategy. Throughout 2004, new broadband products and offers were launched, including the launch of one of the first broadband prepaid offers in Europe and the revamping of the ADSL product brand, Sapo ADSL. In 2005, we continued to improve the quality of services and customer care and to innovate, launching electronic billing with legal validity, VoIP and video services on SAPO Messenger, the group's instant messenger service. In 2006, we continued to deploy ADSL as one of our principal strategies, increasing geographic coverage to almost all of Portugal and increasing transmission speeds, namely through the launch of ADSL2+ services. We also introduced new pricing plans targeted to specific customer needs. The following chart shows the evolution of our ADSL retail and wholesale customer base for the periods indicated.
We had 0.2 billing complaints per 1,000 bills and 12.9 reported faults per 100 main lines in the year ended December 31, 2006. The percentage of faults repaired in less than 12 working hours was 77.7% in 2006, compared with 79.4% in 2005. We offer residential customers detailed billing on request without extra charge.
Traffic. Total traffic originated on the network has been decreasing since 2002, primarily because consumers have increasingly used mobile services instead of fixed line services and because of the migration of dial-up Internet users to ADSL. The chart below sets forth the rate of growth or decrease of traffic originated on our fixed line network in terms of the percentage change in minutes.
The following table shows the breakdown of fixed line traffic originated on our fixed line network among mobile, Internet and data and other domestic and international traffic for the periods indicated.
We offer other ISPs access to our network under one of two regulated access regimes that may be chosen by the ISP: (1) the Reference Offer for Internet Access, which allows ISPs either to pay us a call origination charge and a fee for invoicing customers on their behalf or to pay a wholesale flat rate and bill their customers directly or (2) the Reference Interconnection Offer, which offers two different billing structures based on call origination, with variations based on the manner in which the ISPs' infrastructures are connected to our network and billing arrangements. For additional information, see "RegulationPortugalInterconnectionInternet Access". Traffic under these access regimes is included in the line "Other" in the table above.
We are required to provide carrier selection to our customers for all kinds of traffic. See "RegulationPortugalNumber Portability and Carrier Selection". Carrier selection has been an additional factor that has contributed to the reduction in traffic on our network. In addition, in January 2006, ANACOM published regulations permitting carrier pre-selection of non-geographic services, such as toll-free numbers.
Except for customer pre-selection and Internet traffic, we account for traffic originating on our network in our fixed line telephone services unit, and we allocate the revenue billed to customers to that unit. Traffic originating on other networks but terminating on our network, and the related revenue, is allocated to our wholesale unit.
Marketing. We have increased our marketing efforts aimed at customer loyalty and promoting increased use of our wireline telephone services.
Promotional Efforts and Market Analysis. We aggressively promoted the sale of products and services targeted to specific customers in 2006 through, among other things:
We use market research programs to evaluate customer satisfaction and service quality and to help develop new products. We focus our marketing on different segments of the residential and business market. We have an advanced billing and customer information system and a marketing information database that combines usage and other data.
Customer Care. To provide support and marketing services to our residential and business customers, we have developed a network of regional organizations and retail service centers. In addition, we have separate call centers dedicated to increasing services to our residential and business customers. The call centers are interconnected and cover the whole country. This system allows our customer service representatives to access the history of customers' telephone use and commercial dealings with us.
Increased Selling Efforts. We have developed a distribution network through our retail service centers and agents such as supermarkets and other retail outlets. Our customer support system allows us to develop and implement strategies to sell new and expanded services to our customers. We often use telemarketing to both the residential and small and medium-sized enterprise market segments to develop closer relationships with our customers.
In 2006, we continued to pursue our strategy of market segmentation, namely our residential and business market segments, and established partnerships between subsidiaries of Portugal Telecom to offer integrated telecommunications solutions to corporate customers, including simpler voice services and integrated website solutions. We also executed agreements with corporate associations to benefit small businesses.
Fixed Line Telephone Services. We provide public fixed line telephone services in Portugal to retail customers, primarily through our subsidiary PT Comunicações. This business area provided €1,173.5 million and €1,318.8 million to our wireline operating revenues during 2006 and 2005, respectively. We distinguish between two principal sources of revenue in the provision of fixed telephone services:
We divide traffic into domestic and international traffic. Domestic traffic consists of domestic telephone services provided directly to subscribers that originate or terminate calls on our fixed line network. International traffic consists of international telephone services provided directly to users that originate calls on our fixed line network.
Since 2000, public switched fixed line telephone services in Portugal have been fully open to competition. As a result of this competition, as well as the trend toward use of mobile services instead of fixed line services, we have experienced, and expect to continue to experience, erosion of market share of both access lines and of outgoing domestic and international traffic. See "CompetitionCompetition Facing Our Wireline Business".
Our fixed charges to domestic fixed line telephone subscribers include a one-time installation charge and a monthly line rental fee. These fixed charges provided €568.1 million and €618.8 million to our wireline operating revenues during 2006 and 2005, respectively.
In July 2005, we created two different tariffsone for the residential market and another for the business market. The installation charge remained the same for both markets, €71.83. The standard line rental fee was €12.66 for the residential market and €12.98 for the business market. The fee for basic ISDN lines was €26.46 per month for both markets. The chart below illustrates changes in our prices and fees from 2002 through 2006. All prices are in Euros and exclude VAT.
Traffic contributed €425.1 million and €534.6 million to our wireline operating revenues during 2006 and 2005, respectively. Measured in minutes, total fixed line retail traffic originating on our fixed line network decreased by 17% during 2006 compared with 2005. The decrease was primarily due to the continuing effects of the trend toward use of mobile services instead of fixed line services and the migration of Internet users to ADSL.
Domestic. Domestic traffic contributed €372.7 million and €469.2 million to our wireline business's operating revenues in 2006 and 2005, respectively.
Prices. Since July 2006, we have had two domestic tariffs: local (former local + regional) and national. Between the end of 2001 and the end of 2006, weighted average prices for domestic fixed line telephone services decreased by 0.83% per year in nominal terms. Compared with 2005, domestic prices decreased a further 1.0% over the course of 2006 in nominal, annualized terms. See "RegulationPortugalPricing of Wireline Services".
The chart below illustrates changes in our prices from 2002 through 2006. The call prices from 2002 through 2006 are for a three-minute call at peak rates in 2006 constant prices. All prices are in Euros and exclude VAT.
Our pricing structure has come more into line with pricing structures in the rest of the EU over the last ten years. The following table compares our estimates of average domestic services prices per minute, excluding VAT, for a three-minute call at peak rates in the EU with average prices in Portugal in effect at December 31, 2006.
To increase its price competitiveness, we are promoting innovative differentiated pricing plans for market segments, including various plans specially designed for business customers and residential customers. We also offer a prepaid card and pricing plans suited for Internet users, as well as plans aimed at the development of education and the information society.
International. Revenues from international fixed line telephone services come primarily from charges to our individual and business subscribers in Portugal for outgoing calls. Revenues from international fixed line telephone services have generally decreased in recent years as a result of decreases in international traffic and prices for outgoing international calls, although traffic increased in 2005 as a result of growth in traffic from prepaid international calling cards.
Accounting Rates. Historically, the amount of incoming traffic has been significantly greater than the amount of outgoing traffic. As a result of this imbalance, we receive higher payments from other international telecommunications operators than we pay out to these operators. We periodically renegotiate the amount of the payments with these operators.
In recent years, the billing rates among operators have been declining steadily, both for incoming and outgoing traffic. We estimate that, on an aggregate basis in Euros, termination rates for international traffic at the end of 2006 decreased by a weighted average of approximately 17.0% for incoming traffic and 18.4% for outgoing traffic compared to the end of 2005.
With the opening of the Portuguese market to competition in 2000, international telecommunications operators are now able to provide services directly in Portugal. They can lease lines from us or obtain international lines from other operators and then interconnect with our fixed line network. The revenues we receive from these services are interconnection fees and thus fall into the wholesale business category of our wireline business. As a result, while our share of the international market has declined, increases in our wholesale business have, to some extent, offset this decline.
Prices. We set traffic charges for international fixed line telephone services by groups of countries. Within each group, we charge different prices according to the time of day and the day of the week that the customer makes the call. Between the end of 2002 and the end of 2006, we experienced aggregate reductions in real terms of 3.7% in international traffic prices.
The table below shows changes in prices for our international fixed line telephone services to selected destinations since 2002. The prices for 2002 through 2006 are peak rate prices per minute on the basis of a three-minute call, set at 2006 constant prices. They are in Euros and exclude VAT.
We are the leader in providing Internet access in Portugal. As at December 31, 2006, we had approximately 685 thousand ADSL retail customers, which represented an overall increase of 17% over the previous year. We also offer dial-up paid and free Internet access services. In 2006, revenues from ADSL services grew 13% to €170.1 million, more than offsetting a 31.5% decline in dial-up revenues to €10.2 million as increasing numbers of people switched to broadband services.
Application Service Provider (ASP). We also provide ASP services in Portugal, which include remote applications services, web hosting and web design services to small and medium-sized enterprises. We had approximately 2,589 customers for our ASP business at December 31, 2006.
ISP Traffic Revenues. PT.com offers Internet access through the lines of PT's fixed line network. PT.com retains all of the revenues from Internet traffic and pays PT Comunicações for use of the fixed line network.
Our wireline wholesale services business, which are provided primarily through PT Comunicações, consist of:
Wholesale services provided €464.2 million and €457.7 million to our wireline operating revenues in 2006 and 2005, respectively.
Traffic. Interconnection and narrowband Internet access traffic comprises about 45% of our wholesale business in terms of revenues. The service providers who purchase interconnection services include fixed and mobile network operators, telephony and data communications service providers, ISPs, value- added service providers and service providers whose international calls are terminated on or carried by our network. Providing interconnection services means allowing third parties to connect their networks to our network, and vice versa. We have interconnection rates for call termination, call origination, transits and international interconnection. In 2006, interconnection rates per minute for call termination included local transit rates equal to €0.0064, single transit rates equal to €0.0093 and double transit rates equal to €0.0144, each based on a three-minute call made during peak hours. We published the latest version of our reference offer for unbundled access to our local loops in September 2006 and since then have made available to its competitors, where technical and space conditions are available, all of our local switches, 191 of which are co-located. Co-location means providing space and technical facilities to competitors to the extent necessary to reasonably accommodate and connect the relevant equipment of the competitor. See "RegulationPortugalUnbundling of the Local Loop" and "RegulationPortugalNumber Portability and Carrier Selection".
Wholesale traffic is generated by the interconnection portion of our wholesale business, which decreased by 6.5% in 2006 compared with 2005. This decrease was primarily due to a decrease in Internet traffic, which was partially compensated for by increases in indirect access traffic. The
following table sets forth the total amount of wholesale domestic traffic on our fixed line network during the period 2002 through 2006.
Leased Lines. We lease lines to other telecommunications providers for fixed, mobile and data communications services, including our other subsidiaries and competitors. Since 1996, we have been leasing lines to resellers who offer voice services to corporate networks and closed user groups. Leased line services involve making a permanent point-to-point connection with dedicated and transparent capacity between two geographically separate points. We offer a minimum set of leased lines (up to 2 Mbps) at the retail level to medium and large businesses, plus larger capacities on a commercial basis. In addition, we offer terminating segments and trunk segments at the wholesale level to telecommunications providers. Our Concession requires us to provide leased lines to third parties.
The three current mobile telephone operators in Portugal, which include our subsidiary TMN, Vodafone Portugal, Optimus and our subsidiary TV Cabo, are among our wireline business's largest leased line customers. Our wireline business leases lines to TMN and TV Cabo on a basis that does not discriminate against other customers.
Prices. The net prices and fees we receive from providing access to our fixed line network on a wholesale basis are less per minute than those we charge for domestic and international fixed line telephone services.
Domestic interconnection revenue per minute for calls terminated on our network declined by 7.8% in nominal terms in 2006 compared with 2005. International interconnection revenue per minute declined by 21.0% in nominal terms in 2006 compared with 2005. In accordance with EU and Portuguese regulations, our interconnection prices are based on our costs (which are audited by ANACOM) plus a margin.
Data and Corporate
We provide data and corporate services within our wireline business to top corporate and business customers that need complex telecommunications solutions, including:
We are the leading supplier of the full range of these services in Portugal. Data and corporate operating revenues contributed €250.5 million and €244.9 million to our wireline operating revenues in 2006 and 2005, respectively.
Services. We have developed a full range of telecommunications services for businesses, and we integrate these services (together with other services we offer, such as fixed line services and domestic mobile services) to provide our customers with service packages. By combining our communications capabilities with our software-based integrated systems and applications, we offer integrated voice, data and image solutions, virtual private networks, convergence solutions, consultancy and outsourcing. We believe we are the primary service provider in Portugal capable of offering customers a full range of integrated and customized services. Despite increasing competition, overall demand for data and corporate services has been increasing. As a result of competition, we have reduced our prices for leased lines and data services.
We offer services in partnership with leading operators and service providers such as Telefónica, British Telecom, Orange and BT-Infonet. We use systems and networks in partnership with Siemens, Alcatel, Cisco Systems, Motorola, Nortel Networks and Matra/EADS Telecom.
We lease lines and broadband capacity to large businesses for data communications and other private uses and provide related services. We also provide integrated voice and data services to corporate customers. We offer X.25/X.32 synchronous services and X.28 asynchronous services and other switched and non-switched data communications services, such as frame relay, virtual private networks over IP for data communications, broadband services, security/firewall services and VSAT satellite communications services. In addition, we offer a new range of data, voice and Internet services, such as Intranet, Extranet and managed services, including VoIP. We use IP-based solutions to improve interconnections between companies and their employees and between customers and commercial partners through remote access. These solutions enable customers to integrate voice, video and data services in a flexible cost-effective manner with add-on capacity. The offering of web contact center solutions represents an evolution of the classic call center for customers.
We provide a range of broadband solutions to corporate customers. The type of solution depends on the type (voice, data or image), volume, priority level and stability of information flow required by our customers.
We also provide reporting services targeted to special customers to control service level agreements and the overall performance of the network.
In addition, we provide outsourced corporate network services for our customers. For example, we operate and manage the SIBS network, as well as the corporate networks of our strategic partners Caixa Geral de Depósitos, Banco Espírito Santo and CATT.
Networks. We provide services over the largest IP/MPLS backbone in Portugal, with PT Prime leasing the necessary fixed line capacity from PT Comunicações. We have points of presence in all major cities throughout Portugal, and we link our network to our customers' premises through switches and access points that we own. This broadband data transmission network provides high capacity, flexibility and security and can progressively incorporate current voice and data infrastructures at lower costs than alternative networks. We also provide high speed Internet access through ADSL and ADS. PT Prime supplies full IP and broadband connectivity for the entire PT group.
When we receive revenues from services offered through lines leased by PT Prime from PT Comunicações, we typically divide the revenues between PT Prime's own direct billings to its customers and leased line revenues from the wholesale business of PT Comunicações. Revenues from fixed line voice services for corporate customers are not reflected in PT Prime's revenues, as they are included in retail revenues.
Systems Integration. We offer an integrated range of telecommunications and information technology services to the business market. Our goal is to service all of our customers' telecommunications needs and to leverage the traditional offering of products and services from our group.
We have a strong and competitive position in the development of information technology solutions where communications are an integral part of the services provided. To reinforce our position as a leader in this area, we are pursuing a partnership strategy with the primary information technology suppliers in the market, particularly software and hardware providers.
To support these new services and to respond to the increasing demand of e-business integrators, we developed Corporate Internet Data Centers in Lisbon and Oporto, and we are currently upgrading the Lisbon center. These facilities allow us to provide services, such as co-location, sophisticated web hosting, ISP services, data storage, disaster recovery and ASP services.
We also offer services focused on the integrated management of networks ranging from local area networks, or LANs, to software applications, including PC management.
Marketing and Customer Care. We focus significant resources on marketing and customer care. Account managers are given clear incentives to meet and exceed sales targets. We are upgrading our sophisticated customer relationship management platform to increase focus on market and Internet efficiency.
We seek to compete in Portugal on the basis of the quality of our services as well as our position as the leading supplier of integrated telecommunications and IT services. We price our various service offerings on the basis of volume, the duration of service agreements and the scope of the services offered to each customer.
We offer our corporate customers services available from other companies in our group. Our subsidiary PT.com, for example, provides significant support for product development and the marketing of Internet and ADSL access.
Other Wireline Services
Other wireline services include primarily our directories business and sales of telecommunications equipment.
Directories. Operating revenues from our directories business amounted to €108.9 million in 2006 and €120.4 million in 2005. We subcontract to Páginas Amarelas (an associated company 25% owned
by us) for the publication and distribution of telephone directories throughout Portugal in return for an annual payment of approximately 64% of its gross revenues from the sale of advertising space.
Sales of Telecommunications Equipment. Revenues from sales of telecommunications equipment amounted to €32.8 million in 2006 and €34.2 million in 2005, including the sale of handsets, modems and other telecommunications equipment.
Domestic Mobile Business
TMN, our Portuguese mobile operating company, is the leading provider of mobile voice, data and Internet services in Portugal in terms of the number of active mobile telephone cards connected to its network and by revenues, margins and profits.
TMN contributed €1,502.4 million and €1,557.1 million to our domestic mobile business operating revenues in 2006 and 2005, respectively.
The use of mobile services has grown considerably in Portugal in recent years. As of December 31, 2006, there were approximately 115.7 active mobile telephone cards per 100 Portuguese inhabitants, according to ANACOM. This was more than the number of wireline main lines per 100 Portuguese inhabitants as of December 31, 2006, which was 39%, according to ANACOM. The table below provides statistical information relating to TMN.
Services. TMN provides mobile telephone services using the GSM and UMTS technologies. GSM and UMTS are European and worldwide standards using digital technology. Through roaming agreements, TMN's subscribers can use GSM and UMTS services to make and receive mobile calls throughout Europe and in many other countries around the world.
TMN provides GSM services in the 900 MHZ and 1800 MHZ band spectrums. TMN began to offer GSM 1800 services in 1998 in addition to the GSM 900 service it already offered. TMN's strategy has been to use GSM 1800 services to offer an increased number of channels in high traffic density areas without compromising the quality of the network. Dual-band handsets, which select available channels from either frequency band, enable users to benefit from the wider range of available channels.
In 2000, the Portuguese government opened a tender for licenses for UMTS services, and TMN received one of these licenses. Licenses were also awarded to Vodafone Portugal and Optimus. In 2004, TMN began providing UMTS services to its customers, with an emphasis on new services, such as video telephony and high-speed data. In 2004, 2005 and 2006, we have pursued a strategy of gradual improvements to network coverage, using existing GSM sites where possible in order to minimize the need to install costly new sites. At the end of 2006, TMN's UMTS population coverage was approximately 80%, and its geographic coverage was about 33%, or 3,633 municipalities out of a total of 4,252 in Portugal, including every municipality with over five thousand inhabitants.
In April 2006, TMN launched HSDPA (High Speed Downlink Packet Access), the first step in the evolution of mobile broadband UMTS services. This technology will evolve in the coming years, positioning mobile operators as competitors in the high speed internet services market.
TMN paid spectrum fees in 2005 and 2006 of €27 million and €26 million, respectively, for the use of its 900 MHZ and 1800 MHZ GSM network and its UMTS network. These spectrum fees are recorded as an operating expense under "indirect taxes" in our financial statements.
We expect the development of third generation services to require additional investments. TMN made direct investments of €77.1 million in 2005 and €114.2 million in 2006 in building out its third generation network and services. In 2006, the investments made by TMN in connection with UMTS represented more than 61% of its total capital expenditures in 2006.
During 2005 and 2006, TMN continued to introduce new products and services in Portugal, such as:
Peer-to-peer, or P2P, messaging services via SMS or MMS continue to account for a significant portion of TMN's data revenues and are an area where TMN continues to experience significant growth, particularly through MMS, as MMS-enabled handsets are made available to a larger number of customers. In addition, TMN offers a wide range of other services in its data service portfolio, such as a multimedia mobile portal (I9-Inove) and a standard mobile portal (myTMN), multimedia content services (including Logos & Ring Tones or Java games), access to third-party branded content, connectivity to e-mail or the Internet via GPRS/UMTS, corporate solutions and mobile payment services. GPRS, or General Packet Radio Service, is a mobile data service standard for GSM handsets.
TMN's multimedia portal I9-Inove optimizes the current capabilities of GPRS/UMTS systems to provide customers with faster, easier access and a wider range of services and content, such as Java Games, mobile TV, messaging services, goals from the Portuguese football league in video, TV Cabo's programming guide and the Lusomundo cinema ticketing service, the first m-commerce service in Portugal. As of December 31, 2006, I9-Inove had reached approximately 1.8 million TMN customers. On the myTMN website (www.mytmn.pt), TMN customers can also access and buy a wide range of content (such as logos, ring tones and alerts), allowing personalization of their mobile phones.
In keeping with its emphasis on innovation, TMN has a strong focus on offering services that meet customers' expectations. TMN recently launched a service called "tmn Backup", which provides remote backup of all personal content on a handset (such as contacts, SMS messages, photos, ring tones, games and other downloads) that would be lost if the handset were stolen or misplaced. In March 2006, TMN launched the "Waiting Rings" service, which allows customers to personalize ring tones when calling a TMN customer. The launch of "Mobile TV" in April 2006 is another example of TMN's focus on innovation, allowing customers to watch TV on their mobile phones wherever they are.
Another innovative service is the 12400 Video service, launched in 2004, which provides news and entertainment programs from the major Portuguese TV stations to customers through videocall. The 12400 Video is simple, practical and functional and is still the only such service in Portugal. To access the service, TMN's 3G clients need only make a videocall to the number 12400 and choose the content they wish from a simplified menu.
TMN also offers a variety of Internet access and multimedia services, such as Wi-Fi, GPRS and UMTS Internet access and the ability to receive or send a fax over a mobile handset. The launch of HSDPA in April 2006, which allows speeds of up to 1.9 Mbps, improved mobile Internet access. In October 2006, TMN made available speeds of up to 3.6 Mbps.
TMN offers data services specifically focused on the corporate segment, such as SMS Express and the POS Mobile service. SMS Express allows users to send messages to a mailing list in a quick, automatic and easy form. POS Mobile allows TMN corporate clients to use POS (point of sale) mobile equipment to receive debit or credit payments at any place with total security. TMN also launched Localliz, which is a location-based service that allows mobile management and localization of a company's resources (such as handsets, cars, machines and containers) through an Internet website.
TMN offers an m-payment service called Telemultibanco that allows the payment of utility bills by mobile phone.
Data service usage has grown considerably as customers have become increasingly familiar with TMN data services, service offerings have been expanded and access speed has increased through the introduction of UMTS. We are working to further increase data speeds to improve performance and the attractiveness of the TMN package of products, which we expect will result in a higher contribution of data services (beyond P2P messaging) to overall revenues in the future.
In June 2005, TMN introduced a low-cost brand "Uzo" that targets low cost subscribers and uses TMN's GSM network. Uzo offers a very simple service to its customers with no obligatory recharges and one tariff for voice calls and SMS to all networks of 16 cents per minute and 8 cents per message, respectively. However, if the customer recharges its card with €15 or more, he or she is allowed to
speak and to send messages to all networks for 12 cents per minute and 6 cents per message, respectively, for a period of 30 days. Uzo focuses primarily on selling SIM cards and low-cost mobile phones to its customers. Uzo's products and services are offered through the Internet, Uzo's call centers (which are separate from TMN's call centers) and independent news stands and shops located throughout Portugal.
Subscribers and Traffic. TMN is the market leader in mobile services in Portugal. At December 31, 2006, TMN had approximately 5.7 million subscribers, representing an increase of 7.4% from December 31, 2005. At December 31, 2006, TMN's subscribers represented 46.7% of the total mobile subscribers in Portugal. During 2006, TMN's share of new mobile subscribers (net additions) was 50.2%, according to ANACOM.
In addition to the increase in the number of subscribers, mobile usage grew during 2006. TMN's voice traffic in terms of minutes grew by 4.2% to 7,802 billion minutes in 2006, compared to 7,486 billion minutes in 2005. Average monthly usage per subscriber decreased 1.1% to 120.3 minutes in 2006, compared to 121.6 minutes in 2005. In terms of traffic from data transmission services, SMS increased by 148.4% during 2006, and there were an average of 59.9 SMS messages per month per user in 2006, 135.6% more than the average of 25.4 SMS messages per month per user in 2005. Traffic from WAP services supported by GPRS and UMTS networks increased by 46.9% in 2006.
Prices and Revenue Breakdown. We believe that mobile services in Portugal are priced lower than the European average and are among the lowest in Europe. Mobile telephone charges are not regulated. Traffic charges, sales of handsets and connection and subscription fees represented approximately 90.2%, 8.6% and 1.2%, respectively, of TMN's revenues in 2006, and approximately 88.5%, 9.4% and 2.1%, respectively, of TMN's revenues in 2005. Monthly subscription fees range from €8.26 (+Perto; Plano) to €40.91 (Extra), excluding VAT.
However, fixed-to-mobile and mobile-to-mobile interconnection charges are regulated by ANACOM and have a significant impact on TMN's business. In February 2005, ANACOM declared all mobile operators to have significant market power in call termination in mobile networks market. ANACOM has accordingly imposed price controls on interconnection rates for the termination of calls on mobile networks. In 2005, interconnection rates (both fixed-to-mobile and mobile-to-mobile) were reduced by an average of 23.5% compared with 2004 rates. In 2006, these rates were reduced by an average of 18.5% compared to the 2005 rates. These reductions have had, and are expected to continue to have, a significant impact on TMN's interconnection revenues and consequently its earnings.
Products and Marketing. TMN offers a variety of innovative products. It was the first operator in the world to offer pre-paid services, and its prepaid and discount products are popular. We estimate that at the end of 2006, approximately 80.6% of its subscribers were using TMN's prepaid products. In order to improve customer retention and segmentation, TMN redesigned its entire offer of prepaid pricing plans in 2004. TMN has been expanding its subscriber base through increased advertising and the use of its own distribution network. TMN has recently focused on encouraging the use of mobile services by young people through SMS incentive packages. TMN experienced a 17.5% increase in the number of postpaid subscribers in 2006 as a result of a promotional campaign aimed at stimulating a switch from prepaid to postpaid services and also as a result of continued marketing efforts directed at corporations and in the middle and high-end segment of the market.
TMN markets its services through more than 2,000 points of sale, including TMN's sales force, Portugal Telecom retail shops, TMN shops, supermarket chains and independent dealers.
Network and Capital Investment. In recent years, TMN has made significant investments in its second and third generation networks. As a result of its investments, TMN has a technologically advanced high capacity network that provides extensive coverage across Portugal. As of the end of 2006, TMN's digital network had 4,181 GSM base stations, including 79 base stations added during
2006, and 2,227 UMTS B nodes, including 333 B nodes added during 2006. As of December 31, 2006, these GSM base stations covered more than 98% of continental Portugal and 99% of the Portuguese population, and the UMTS B nodes covered approximately 33% of continental Portugal and 80% of the Portuguese population.
Since November 2005, TMN has been one of 18 operators in the world that are members of the Global Certification Forum, an industry group aimed at ensuring compatibility of mobile telecommunications systems.
Roaming. Roaming agreements between operators allow their subscribers to make and receive voice calls automatically, send and receive data, or access other services when traveling outside the geographical coverage area of the home network, by using a visited network. As of the end of 2006, TMN had entered into GSM roaming agreements with a total of 340 operators (in 192 countries or regions), 145 GPRS roaming agreements (in 101 countries or regions) and 62 3G roaming agreements (in 36 countries or regions).
Equipment Sales. TMN sells mobile phones and related equipment in Portugal. Equipment sales contributed €129.7 million and €146.3 million to TMN's operating revenues in 2006 and 2005, respectively.
We provide multimedia services in Portugal through our subsidiary PT Multimédia and its subsidiaries. PT Multimédia and its subsidiaries contributed €666.5 million and €628.5 million to our multimedia business operating revenues in 2006 and 2005, respectively.
Proposed Spin-Off. On August 3, 2006, we announced our intent to spin off our 58.43% interest in PT Multimédia through a distribution to shareholders, subject to shareholder approval. On March 21, 2007, the Board of Directors proposed to the shareholders a dividend in kind of 4 PT Multimédia shares for each PT 25 shares owned, rounded down. This spin-off proposal was approved by the shareholders at the Annual General Meeting held on April 27, 2007.
Our management has concluded that the separation of PT Multimédia from PT should positively contribute to the development of the telecommunications market in Portugal, allowing the market to develop increasingly innovative and convergent services to consumers. The resulting market structure should provide regulatory relief for our wireline business, giving it flexibility to offer more and better services to our customers, while PT Multimédia would be able to pursue its own competitive strategy, domestically and abroad. By allowing the management of each company to focus on its core competencies, we believe that this strategy is more likely to create greater value for shareholders over time. The proposed separation also addresses the long-standing objectives of the Portuguese regulators.
Notwithstanding these potential benefits to PT Multimédia, the spin-off of PT Multimédia could have a negative impact on our wireline and mobile business performance. See "Item 3Key InformationRisk FactorsRisk Relating to Our Wireline and Domestic Mobile Businesses."
Incorporation and Development. Portugal Telecom formed PT Multimédia in July 1999 and transferred to the new company certain of its cable and satellite pay-TV activities, as well as its Internet-related activities focused on residential customers and the small office home office and small-and medium-sized enterprise markets, including:
Since its initial public offering in November 1999, PT Multimédia's ordinary shares have been traded publicly in Portugal. During the course of 2002 and 2003, we acquired 2.43% and 1.08%, respectively, of PT Multimédia in the open market. As of December 31, 2005, and following the capital reduction after the share buyback program completed in May 2005, Portugal Telecom held 58.43% of PT Multimédia.
On February 28, 2005, PT Multimédia announced the disposal of its 100% interest in Lusomundo Serviços, SGPS, S.A., including an 80.91% shareholding in Lusomundo Media, a media and entertainment company, through the execution of a promissory sale and purchase agreement with Controlinveste, SGPS, S.A. Through these companies, PT Multimédia previously ran a newspaper publishing and distribution business and a radio programming business. The sale was completed on August 25, 2005 after approval by the Portuguese Media Authority (Alta Autoridade para a Comunicação Social) and the Portuguese Competition Authority (Autoridade da Concorrência). The proceeds for PT Multimédia from the sale were €173.8 million, of which €10.1 million was paid to Portugal Telecom in connection with the acquisition of its 5.94% interest in Lusomundo Media, which was agreed prior to the closing of the transaction.
Overview. PT Multimédia's segments consist of:
The diagram below shows PT Multimédia's major lines of business and the subsidiaries operating in each of those businesses as of December 31, 2006.
TV Cabo. PT Multimédia provides cable television and direct-to-home satellite television services through TV Cabo, its wholly owned subsidiary, and TV Cabo's subsidiaries in Madeira and Azores. TV Cabo is also involved in advertising sales. In addition, it provides multimedia services, such as broadband cable Internet access and certain interactive digital television services. On January 23, 2007, TV Cabo launched telephony services, establishing itself as an integrated triple-play operator. The bundled triple play offer comprises Pay TV, broadband Internet and telephony. PT Multimédia expects that the sale of voice services to existing broadband customers should allow TV Cabo to further grow ARPU, increase broadband penetration, reduce churn and better segment its offers to meet customer demands.
Cable Television and Direct-to-Home Satellite Television Services. TV Cabo is the leading cable television operator in Portugal. At December 31, 2006, TV Cabo's cable network passed, or provided potential access to, approximately 2.852 million homes, representing approximately 63% of the total TV households in Portugal. TV Cabo's cable television subscribers are charged an installation fee, a monthly subscription fee for programming packages and, for those with access to premium channels, an annual or monthly rental fee for set-top boxes.
Since September 1998, TV Cabo has also distributed a direct-to-home, or DTH, satellite television service in Portugal. TV Cabo distributes its DTH satellite service using Hispasat Satellite broadcasting capabilities. TV Cabo's DTH satellite service is the principal DTH digital multi-channel service specifically marketed in Portugal. TV Cabo's DTH satellite subscribers are charged an installation fee and a monthly subscription fee and are required either to purchase or rent from TV Cabo a satellite dish and a digital set-top box. TV Cabo's DTH satellite service is mainly targeted at people whose homes are not served by TV Cabo's cable television network.
Because it offers cable and DTH satellite services, TV Cabo can distribute programming and advertising across Portugal. As of December 31, 2006, TV Cabo had approximately 1,480 thousand customers, of which 421 thousand were DTH satellite subscribers. At December 31, 2006, approximately 53% of TV Cabo's subscribers subscribed to its premium channels, for which it charges additional fees.
Programming Content. As of December 31, 2006, TV Cabo offered 65 channels in its extended basic package (of which 40 were included in its basic package) and nine premium channels to cable and
DTH satellite subscribers in continental Portugal. Over half of the channels distributed by TV Cabo, including Lusomundo channels (Premium, Gallery, Action and Happy) and Sport TV, which is described below, consist principally of programming that is in Portuguese or that has been dubbed or subtitled in Portuguese. The rest of the channels are mainly in English, with some channels in other European languages such as Spanish, French and German.
Broadband Internet Service. As of December 31, 2006, TV Cabo had approximately 362 subscribers for its broadband Internet access product. In addition to its postpaid service, TV Cabo launched the first prepaid broadband product in Portugal in 2004 under the brand name "Zzt". TV Cabo was also the first operator to offer 1Mbps downstream speed. In 2006, TV Cabo enhanced its position by being the first ISP to lift the traffic limits on its 4Mbps and 8Mbps products. TV Cabo launched a 24Mbps Internet access product, positioning Netcabo as the fastest broadband service in the Portuguese market. Simultaneously, the broadband portfolio was updated with the launch of a 1Mbps product and the doubling to 8Mbps of the download speed of the Netcabo standard broadband product, known as "Netcabo Mega Plus".
Digitalization. Throughout 2006, PT Multimédia continued its efforts to digitalize its Pay TV services. Digitalization provides higher security levels in controlling illegal access to content (TV Cabo uses NAGRA's ALADIN conditional access system) and will allow PT Multimédia to make available to customers additional TV channels and services, such as VoD (video-on-demand), EPG (electronic programming guide), multi-game and multi-camera services, which add value to customers and create a competitive advantage. PT Multimédia aims to stimulate the migration of its clients from analog to digital services by offering a greater selection of content and services, as in the introduction of its Funtastic Life package in 2005. TV Cabo completed the digitalization of its set top boxes during the first half of 2006, with the total number of digital set top boxes reaching 682 thousand at the end of December 2006. In 2006, "TV Cabo Funtastic Life", TV Cabo's 65-channel digital package, performed strongly and continued to drive new customer additions as well as ARPU expansion by enhancing the quality of the existing customer base. The digital package reached 270 thousand subscribers by the end of December 2006, with 160 thousand net additions in 2006.
Network. TV Cabo has made significant investments in the development of a hybrid fiber-coaxial broadband distribution network. TV Cabo's television signals are transmitted through fiber optic cables owned by our fixed line business under a service agreement regulated by ANACOM. In addition, TV Cabo has used PT Comunicações' existing ducts, wherever possible, to build its network. The network has a bandwidth of 750 MHz and 860 MHz in certain areas, and is sufficient to permit gradual migration to digital signals. The current design of the network allows it to increase capacity without significant additional capital expenditure. TV Cabo continued to invest in the expansion and upgrade of its network during 2006. The implementation of the "fiber to the hub" access network architecture in the greater Lisbon area was concluded, and five high-capacity optical fiber rings are now fully functional. At present, 97.1% of homes passed are bi-directional and therefore broadband-enabled, over 90% are digital TV-enabled and 80% are VoIP-compliant.
Marketing. TV Cabo is pursuing aggressive marketing campaigns. It is promoting its premium channels, and highlighting the high level of Portuguese-language content on its channels, the new Funtastic Life service and its broadband Internet access (NetCabo). TV Cabo markets its services through door-to-door selling, telemarketing and through Portugal Telecom shops, its own shops, supermarkets and other retail shops. We believe the alliance with SIC, Sport TV and other content producers has been contributing to the increased penetration of TV Cabo, as the agreement contemplates cross promotions between free and cable TV, and increased advertising initiatives.
PT Conteúdos. PT Multimédia created PT Conteúdos to manage the Portuguese-language audiovisual programming activities previously managed by TV Cabo. After restrictions on cable operators engaging in any programming business were lifted in 1997, TV Cabo formed two joint
ventures to develop programming channels in Portugal (Sport TV and Premium TV) and launched SIC Notícias, as described above. These ventures were aggregated under PT Conteúdos, which is 100% owned by PT Multimédia.
Until June 2003, PT Conteúdos owned 54% of Premium TV, a partnership with Globo and SIC. In June 2003, PT Conteúdos acquired the remaining 46% of the share capital of Premium TV held by Globo and SIC, which produced two premium movie channelsTelecine Premium and Telecine Galleryusing the film libraries of Globo. Until May 2003, these channels were distributed via cable and satellite, through TV Cabo's platforms. In June 2003, PT Conteúdos replaced Telecine Premium and Telecine Gallery with two premium movie channels (Lusomundo Premium and Lusomundo Gallery), produced in-house using the film libraries of Lusomundo. PT Conteúdos launched Lusomundo Action in 2004 and Lusomundo Happy in 2005, as described above, and in December 2004, Premium TV was merged into PT Conteúdos and ceased to exist as a separate company.
PT Conteúdos also owns 50% of Sport TV Portugal, S.A., or Sport TV, a joint venture with Sportinveste, SGPS, S.A., a subsidiary of Olivedesportos, a Portuguese sports marketing firm. This joint venture produces Sport TV, a premium sports channel, which is distributed by Portuguese cable and satellite operators in exchange for a per-subscriber fee. Sport TV holds a license to distribute most league matches of Portugal's leading football league through 2008 and certain other European football leagues through 2006. Until November 2003, 33.33% of Sport TV was owned by each of PT Conteúdos, PPTV and Rádio Televisão Portuguesa, S.A., or RTP, the Portuguese state television operator. In November 2003, PT Multimédia entered into an agreement to purchase, through PT Conteúdos, an additional 16.67% stake in Sport TV from RTP for €16.3 million, thereby increasing its ownership in Sport TV to 50%. The remaining 50% is now held by PPTV. The purchase was completed in April 2004. The agreement guarantees Sport TV exclusive broadcasting rights to Portuguese football league matches from 2004 through 2008.
PT Conteúdos also holds PT Multimédia's 40% interest in Lisboa TV, the owner of SIC Notícias. See "TV Cabo", above.
PT Conteúdos is engaged in the wholesale business for content. From 2002 onwards, this company has been responsible for negotiations with content producers of the acquisition of rights to carry pay TV channels and other content. It resells that content to different distribution platforms, including TV Cabo's pay TV and Internet platforms, as well as those of other operators.
PT Conteúdos sells advertising on some of the channels it distributes, where it has acquired the right to sell advertising as part of its content acquisition contracts. PT Conteúdos also manages the sale of advertising for TV Cabo's channels in exchange for an agency fee.
Lusomundo Audiovisuais. Lusomundo Audiovisuais acquires rights for cinema, DVD, video, pay-per-view and television and also produces its own Pay TV premium movie channels and distributes DVDs and videos. Lusomundo Audiovisuais has the right to distribute the following audiovisual content in Portugal:
In 2006, PT Multimédia reinforced its market position in the area of cinema distribution, increasing its share from 46% in 2005 to 50% in 2006, primarily due to the launch of a significant number of films with high potential and the increase in the number of films released. In 2006, PT Multimédia had 13 of the top 20 most seen films, compared to 10 films in 2005, and PT Multimédia released 122 films in 2006, compared to 95 in 2005.
Lusomundo Cinemas. Lusomundo Cinemas is the market leader in Portuguese cinema exhibition, with a 48.6% market share. In 2006, PT Multimédia continued its policy of market analysis, seeking opportunities for expansion and increased profitability of its business. As a result, PT Multimédia closed four unprofitable cinemas and opened 23 new cinemas in high population density areas. At the end of 2006, PT Multimédia had 86 film complexes, with a total of 195 screens. PT Multimédia's actions in the area of film exhibition were characterized by the steady improvement in the quality of its services: three complexes were renovated, improvements in ticket purchasing systems were introduced (with the innovation of the launch of the M-Ticket in collaboration with TMN), and the first cinema in Portugal equipped for 3D digital exhibition was opened, using advanced digital exhibition standards. In 2006, the number of tickets sold in Portugal increased 10.7%, reaching 8,026 thousand tickets.
As discussed above under "Multimedia Business," PT Multimédia completed the disposal of its interest in Lusomundo Serviços in August 2005, following clearance from the Portuguese competition authority. As from that date, PT Multimédia ceased to operate in the newspapers and magazine publishing and distribution business and in the radio programming business.
Brazilian Mobile Business
We provide mobile telecommunications services in Brazil through Vivo Participações S.A., or Vivo, the leading mobile company in Brazil with a total of 29,053 million active mobile telephones at December 31, 2006. We hold 50% of Vivo, which is a joint venture with Telefónica. The joint venture operates in 19 states in Brazil and in the Federal district of Brasília, which provide more than 83.1% of Brazil's GDP. In its areas of operation, Vivo had an estimated market share of approximately 38.2% at the end of 2006. We believe that the joint venture facilitates our ability to serve our Brazilian subscribers on a seamless basis throughout Brazil.
History and Organizational Structure. Until 2002, our mobile operations in Brazil, a country with a population of about 177 million people, had been active only in the states of São Paulo, Paraná and Santa Catarina. In January 2001, we entered into a strategic agreement with Telefónica Móviles (the former mobile subsidiary of Telefónica, which has since merged with and into Telefónica) to combine all of our mobile assets in Brazil to the extent permitted under Brazilian law. The strategic agreement was approved by the European Commission in March 2001. See "RegulationBrazil." In December 2002, ANATEL formally approved the migration of our Brazilian mobile subsidiaries from the former Mobile Cellular Service (SMC) regime to the SMP regime and the transfer of all of our direct and indirect interests in Brazilian mobile services companies to the mobile joint venture company.
On December 27, 2002, PT Móveis, which holds our interests in Brazilian mobile services companies, and Telefónica Móviles transferred their direct and indirect interests in Brazilian mobile services companies to the joint venture company, named Brasilcel N.V. We and Telefónica Móviles transferred to this company all our and their interests in:
We have described the arrangements by which we and Telefónica own and manage the joint venture and related issues below in "Strategic AlliancesAlliance with Telefónica". We have described certain regulatory restrictions applicable to Vivo and its subsidiaries which result from their relationship with Telefónica, including the inability of Vivo and its subsidiaries to provide wireline long distance services in Brazil, below in "RegulationBrazilSMP Regulation".
Before the transfer of these assets to the joint venture, TCP had acquired an 81.61% indirect economic interest in Global Telecom in 2001 through the acquisition of 49% of the voting shares and 100% of the non-voting shares of each of three holding companies that controlled Global Telecom. The total purchase price was R$902.6 million. On December 27, 2002, the same day as the transfer of the assets to the joint venture, TCP acquired the remaining 51% of the voting shares of the three holding companies that owned Global Telecom for US$82.0 million. TCP then owned 100% of the voting and non-voting shares of Global Telecom.
Although we transferred all of our interests in mobile telecommunications companies in Brazil to Vivo on December 27, 2002, our consolidated statements of income and cash flows for the year ended December 31, 2002 continued to fully consolidate TCP's results. However, our balance sheet as of December 31, 2002 proportionally consolidates all the assets and liabilities of Vivo. Both our consolidated statements of income and cash flow for the years ended December 31, 2003, 2004, 2005 and 2006 and our balance sheet as of December 31, 2003, 2004, 2005 and 2006 proportionally consolidate the results of Vivo.
On April 25, 2003, TCP acquired 61.1% of the voting capital stock of TCO (a band A operator in the midwestern and northern regions of Brazil) from Fixcel, a Brazilian company, for R$1,529 million. As a result, TCO's assets and liabilities as of December 31, 2004, 2005 and 2006 are reflected in our consolidated balance sheets for these years through our proportional consolidation of Vivo, and TCO's income and cash flows for the years ended December 31, 2004, 2005 and 2006 are reflected in our consolidated statements of income and cash flows for the year ended December 31, 2004, 2005 and 2006 through our proportional consolidation of Vivo's statements of income and cash flows.
On November 18, 2003, TCP acquired an additional 25.5% of the common shares of TCO in a tender offer to TCO minority shareholders for R$538.8 million. Following the tender offer, TCP held 86.6% of the voting capital stock and 28.9% of the total capital stock of TCO, including treasury shares held by TCO.
In October 2004, TCP successfully completed a tender offer for additional shares of TCO, thereby increasing its economic interest in TCO to 50.6%, for total consideration of approximately R$902 million. Concurrently with this transaction, Avista, a holding company owned by Vivo, was created for the purpose of acquiring additional interests in Vivo's operating companies. On October 8, 2004, Avista completed a tender offer for additional shares of Tele Sudeste, Tele Leste and Celular CRT Participações. As a result of the successful completion of the tender offer, Vivo increased its interest in Tele Sudeste to 91.0%, in Tele Leste to 50.7% and in Celular CRT Participações to 67.4%, for a total of approximately R$607 million.
On February 22, 2006, the requisite percentages of the voting shareholders of the Vivo companies approved a corporate reorganization. The corporate reorganization consisted of a merger of shares under Brazilian law (incorporação de ações) of TCO with TCP and the merger of companies under Brazilian law (incorporação de empresas) of Tele Leste, Tele Sudeste and Celular CRT Participações with TCP. In connection with these mergers, TCP was renamed "Vivo Participações S.A." On March 31, 2006, common shares and preferred shares of Vivo began trading on the São Paulo Stock
Exchange under the ticker symbols "VIVO3" and "VIVO4", respectively, and ADSs of Vivo began trading on the New York Stock Exchange under the ticker symbol "VIV". Vivo undertook these mergers in order to align the interests of shareholders of the Vivo companies, to increase the liquidity of the securities held by those shareholders, to simplify the shareholding and organizational structure of the Vivo business and expand its shareholder base, and to take advantage of important synergies among the companies.
In October 2006, Vivo completed a further restructuring with the merger into Global Telecom (the company that provided mobile services in the states of Paraná and Santa Catarina and that was fully owned by TCP) of all other companies of Vivo that provided mobile services in the other states mentioned above. In connection with this transaction, Global Telecom was renamed "Vivo S.A."
The diagram below presents the simplified ownership structure of Vivo as of December 31, 2006:
As of December 31, 2006, Brasilcel held 88.85% of the common shares of Vivo Participações, 47.76% of its preferred shares and 62.77% of its total share capital.
Regions. Vivo provides mobile telecommunications services on the A and B Band frequency in 19 Brazilian states in addition to the federal district, representing a total of approximately 7.3 million square kilometers, or 85.6% of the Brazilian territory. This area includes more than 138.8 million people, representing 73.8% of Brazil's population, and 212 municipalities with a population in excess of 100,000.
The following table sets forth population, gross domestic product (GDP), and per capita income statistics for each state in Vivo's service regions at the dates and for the years indicated:
Source: Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE)
Services. Vivo provides cellular telecommunications services using GSM/EDGE, CDMA and TDMA technologies. Its network provides both CDMA digital service and AMPS, an analog service that has been substantially phased out. All services are provided on the 850 MHz frequency.
Vivo provides voice and ancillary services, including voicemail and voicemail notification, call forwarding, three-way calling, caller identification, short messaging, limitation on the number of used minutes, cellular chat room, and data services such as wireless application protocol ("WAP") service through which clients can access WAP sites and portals. Vivo offers direct access to the Internet through either PCMCIA cards (Personal Computer Memory Card International Association, an organization consisting of some 500 companies that has developed small, standardized credit card-sized devices called PC Cards) designed to connect compatible PDAs (Personal Digital Assistant, a handheld device that combines computing, telephone/fax, Internet and networking features) and laptops or cellular phones through a cable connection that offers corporate subscribers secure access to their intranet and office resources. Vivo also offers some new services like Multimedia Message Service and MExE (Mobile Execution Environment), which enables the mobile handset to download applications and execute them along with a user interface for easier access to Vivo's services.
In 2006, Vivo launched:
Vivo has also improved its current product offerings, as follows:
Vivo offers roaming services through agreements with local mobile service providers throughout Brazil and other countries that allow its subscribers to make and receive calls while out of its concession areas. Vivo also provides reciprocal roaming services to subscribers of those mobile service providers while they are in its concession areas. See "Roaming".
Subscribers and Traffic. At the end of 2006, there were approximately 99,918 million wireless subscribers in Brazil, and there was an estimated total market penetration rate of approximately 53% in Brazil as a whole, according to information published by ANATEL. In 2006, the Brazilian market experienced a 16% increase in the number of wireless subscribers and a 13% increase in those areas where Vivo operates. The greatest increase in subscribers was in the Brazilian states of São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Sul and the Centro Oeste region. As of December 31, 2006, Vivo had approximately 29.1 million wireless subscribers, with an estimated market share of 38.2% in its areas of operation and 29.1% in Brazil.
The subscriber growth in Vivo's operating companies was also supported by the launch of new products and services, including prepaid products and new messaging services, the growth of the digital capacity of the network, the improvement in CRM systems, marketing campaigns and promotions, and the restructuring and expansion of sales networks.
Marketing and Sales. Vivo closely follows developments in the markets where it operates and often launches new segment-specific promotions through direct marketing, including mailing and telemarketing campaigns, as well as promotions to its competitors' major customers. Efforts to acquire new customers for the pre-paid and post-paid services were mostly made through voice and data services promotions designed to increase on-net traffic and stimulate the use of data services. With the simultaneous goal of maintaining its existing customer base, Vivo's promotions were also open to existing customers who wanted to change their mobile handsets. Vivo's operators were actively involved in a high-value customer loyalty program, offering competitive discounts on mobile phones through direct marketing actions.
As of December 31, 2006, Vivo had 307 sales outlets (94 in São Paulo, 50 in the states of Rio de Janeiro and Espírito Santo, 33 in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, 37 in the states of Paraná and Santa Catarina, 24 in the states of Bahia and Sergipe, and 69 in the states that make up the midwestern and northern regions of Brazil). Vivo also has a network of 7,837 authorized retail and resales dealerships with a total of 8,144 points of sale.
Prepaid telephone card recharging was available at 322,863 locations, including Vivo's own stores, dealers, lottery shops, physical and online card distributors, and at smaller shops, drugstores, newspaper stands, book stores, bakeries, gas stations, bars and restaurants. Online recharging is also provided by several banks' websites.
Customer Service. In 2006, Vivo continued to outsource customer service, while maintaining management oversight. Customer service is available 24 hours from Vivo's call center and website.
Vivo's customer satisfaction is evaluated by regular satisfaction surveys. In the second half of 2006, 3,200 customers of Vivo and 2,200 customers of other non-affiliated companies were interviewed throughout Brazil about customer assistance, products and services. Vivo was ranked 8.21 on a scale from 1 to 10 for customer satisfaction, with the market average being 8.27. One of Vivo's most important objectives in 2006 was to retain its customers by increasing customer satisfaction. Towards this objective, Vivo took several actions. For example, one of the most frequent complaints from Vivo's customers was related to billing. Therefore, Vivo re-worked the billing process from the call center to the back office in order to speed up customer response time, to assure the quality of customer service and to increase the likelihood of first-call resolution. In addition, Vivo designed a new administrative structure to better track its premium customers and to suggest ways to improve retention.
Network. In 2006, Vivo began to implement a GSM network. Digitalization offers certain advantages, such as greater network capacity and additional revenue through the sale of value-added services. By December 31, 2006, Vivo's telecommunications network in the state of São Paulo, which provides both CDMA digital and GSM digital services, covered 100% of the municipalities. Vivo's network is connected primarily through a fiber-optic and radio transmission system, parts of which any owned and parts of which are leased, mainly from Telecomunicações de São Paulo S.A., or Telesp. The network consists of cellular switches, base stations and other network elements such as voicemail, prepaid service, Short Message Service, Home Location Registers, Signaling Transfer Point, PDSN and gateways. NEC do Brasil S.A., Nortel NetworksNorthern Telecom do Brasil, Motorola do Brasil Ltda., Lucent Technologies do Brasil, Ind. e Com. Ltda., Huawei do Brasil Telecomunicações Ltda. and Ericsson Telecomunicações S.A. are Vivo S.A.'s main suppliers in the state of São Paulo.
As of December 31, 2006, the telecommunications network in Parana and Santa Catarina, which provides both CDMA digital and GSM digital services, covered 59.8% of the municipalities, or 92.6% of the population, in its region. The Parana-Santa Catarina network is primarily connected by a fiber-optic and radio transmission system, parts of which are owned and parts of which are leased, mainly from fixed operating companies (Brasil Telecom and Embratel) and CopelCompanhia Paranaense de Energia S.A. The network consists of cellular switches, base stations and other network elements, such as voicemail, prepaid service, Home Location Registers, Signaling Transfer Points and gateways. Motorola do Brasil Ltda., Huawei do Brasil Telecomunicações Ltda., Alcatel Telecomunicações S/A and Ericsson Telecomunicações S.A. are Vivo's main suppliers in the Paraná-Santa Catarina network.
As of December 31, 2006, Vivo provided CDMA Digital, GSM digital, TDMA digital and AMPS analog services in the midwestern and northern regions, covering 45.8% of the municipalities, or 80.9% of the population in its region. Vivo's network is connected primarily through a fiber-optic and radio transmission system, parts of which are owned and parts of which are leased, from incumbent wireline companies. The network consists of cellular switches, base-stations and other network elements such as voicemail, prepaid service, Short Message Service, Home Location Registers, Signaling Transfer Point
and gateways. Nortel NetworksNorthern Telecom do Brasil, Motorola do Brasil Ltda. (presently Motorola Industrial Ltda. and Motorola Services Ltda.), Huawei do Brasil Telecomunicações Ltda. and Ericsson Telecomunicações are Vivo's main suppliers in the midwestern and northern region.
As of December 31, 2006, the telecommunications network of Vivo in Bahia and Sergipe covered 44.7% of the municipalities, or 77.6% of the population, in its region. Its network provides both CDMA digital, GSM digital and AMPS analog services. The network is connected primarily through a fiber-optic and radio transmission system, parts of which are owned and parts of which are leased, mainly from Tele Norte Leste Participações S.A., or Telemar. The network includes cellular switches, base stations and other communication devices such as voicemail, prepaid service, Short Message Service and Home Location Registers. NEC do Brasil S.A., Ericsson Telecomunicações S.A., Nortel NetworksNorthern Telecom do Brasil, Motorola Industrial Ltda., Motorola Services Ltda. and Lucent Technologies do Brasil, Ind. e Com. Ltda. are Vivo's main suppliers in the Bahia and Sergipe regions.
As of December 31, 2006, the telecommunications network of Vivo in the states of Rio de Janeiro and Espirito Santo covered 100% of the municipalities in its area. Its network provides both CDMA digital, GSM digital and AMPS analog services. This network is connected primarily through a fiber-optic and radio transmission system, parts of which are owned and parts of which are leased, mainly from the incumbent wireline companies, and consists of cellular switches, base stations and other communication devices such as voicemail, prepaid service, Short Message Service, Home Location Registers, Signaling Transfer Point, PDSN and gateways. NEC do Brasil S.A., Nortel NetworksNorthern Telecom do Brasil, Ericsson Telecomunicações S.A., Huawei do Brasil Telecomunicações Ltda. and Lucent Technologies do Brasil, Ind. e Com. Ltda. are Vivo's main suppliers in Rio de Janeiro and Espirito Santo.
As of December 31, 2006, Vivo's network in the state of Rio Grande do Sul provides CDMA, GSM digital and TDMA digital and AMPS analog services, covering 70.1% of the municipalities, or 96.0% of the population, of this region. The Rio Grande do Sul network is connected primarily through a fiber-optic and radio transmission system, parts of which are owned and parts of which are leased, mainly from Brasil Telecom. The network consists of cellular switches, base stations and other communication devices such as voicemail, prepaid service, Short Message Service, Home Location Registers and gateways. Nortel NetworksNorthern Telecom do Brasil, Huawei do Brasil Telecomunicações Ltda., and Ericsson Telecomunicações S.A. are Vivo's main suppliers in Rio Grande do Sul.
Vivo's advanced network management technology increasingly ensures global management and supervision of all its network processes and network performance. The network management centers are located in São Paulo and Brasília. The network management center in São Paulo monitors the critical network operational parameters of São Paulo, Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul. The network management center in Brasília monitors the critical network operational parameters in the midwestern and northern regions, Rio de Janeiro, Espirito Santo, Bahia and Sergipe. These centers are able to identify abnormalities in both our network and in third parties' networks, using failure and signaling monitoring systems. In addition, quality and service standards are constantly monitored. The network management centers are integrated with maintenance and operations teams that maintain and operate cellular and radio network elements, computing bases, service platforms and communications backbones.
Vivo's network is prepared to provide continuity of service for its customers in the event of network interruptions. Vivo has developed contingency plans for potential catastrophes in our switching centers, power supply interruptions and security breaches.
Vivo is required to meet certain requirements for service quality and annual network expansion. See "Regulation of the Brazilian Telecommunications IndustryObligations of Telecommunications Companies." Vivo achieved all of its required network expansion obligations for 2006.
Capital Expenditures. The following table sets forth Vivo's total capital expenditures for the periods indicated:
Vivo's capital expenditures over the past three years have related primarily to increasing Vivo's network capacity and coverage. Vivo continued its projects for the improvement and expansion of the capacity of services rendered, which provided support to increase the CDMA 1XRTT and EVDO network, expansion of transmission routes, system centralization and integration (billing, collection and CRM, among others), development of new services and opening and renovating points of sale and terminals for the corporate segment.
In the aggregate, R$2,113.0 million were invested during the year ended December 31, 2006, which included investments in the GSM/EDGE network and in the current CDMA/EV-DO network. This amount represented 18.4% of Vivo's net operating revenues.
Vivo's capital expenditures for 2007, estimated at R$1.7 billion, are expected to include investments in network expansion (the GSM/EDGE overlay), introduction of new products and services to maximize the use of cellular phones, expansion of stores and improvement in the quality of services provided to customers. Vivo intends to pay these expenses with funds generated by operations and its available borrowing capacity.
Interconnection Charges. Vivo earns revenue from any call that originates from another cellular or fixed-line service provider's network connecting one of Vivo's customers. Vivo charges the service provider from whose network the call originates a network usage charge for every minute that Vivo's network is used in connection with the call. See "Business OverviewOperating AgreementsInterconnection Agreements". Tariff increases are subject to ANATEL review and approval.
In 2003, ANATEL adopted "Bill & Keep" rules for interconnection charges for traffic between the networks of SMP operators. Under these rules, an SMP mobile operator pays for the use of another SMP mobile operator's network in the same authorization area only if the traffic carried from the first operator to the second exceeds 55% of the total traffic exchanged between them (known as a partial "Bill & Keep" regime). In that case, only those calls that have surpassed the 55% level will be subject to payment for network usage. In 2005, this regulatory regime contributed to a decrease in Vivo's revenues from interconnection fees charged to other companies. In July 2006, the Bill & Keep regime was discontinued. The current rule is "full billing," pursuant to which the SMP operator pays the entire call termination fee of the other mobile network. The partial "Bill and Keep" rule is still used between the SMP and SME (trunking) networks.
Roaming Fees. Vivo has agreements with major fixed-line providers for automatic roaming with all mobile service providers in Brazil and with some wireless service operators abroad. These contracts allow its subscribers to access the network of other mobile service providers when traveling outside its coverage area without having to change their handsets or mobile numbers. Vivo provides reciprocal services to subscribers of other mobile service providers when they are within its coverage area. The agreements require the contracting parties to provide service to roaming subscribers on the same basis as they provide service to their own subscribers. See "Operating AgreementsRoaming Agreements".
License. Under the SMP regime, Vivo converted its former concessions to SMP licenses. These SMP licenses have substantially the same terms and conditions as the other SMP licenses issued under the SMP regime, although some of the terms of Vivo's former concessions, such as limits on prices charged to subscribers under its postpaid service plan (the Basic Plan), continue to apply despite conversion to SMP licenses. See "RegulationBrazilSMP Regulation".
By converting its concessions to SMP licenses, Vivo was required to introduce carrier selection on its network to give its subscribers the choice to use another carrier for long distance and international calls. The introduction of carrier selection increased the competitive pressures on Vivo's business. In addition, because the SMP regime permits commercial negotiation of the interconnection rates it charges to wireline operators, Vivo may be forced to reduce these rates in the future. Vivo's SMP licenses expire on the same dates as the concessions will expire. Vivo has the same right to apply for renewal as other SMP license holders that migrate to the SMP regime from their existing concessions.
Equipment Sales. Vivo sells CDMA dual-mode (800MHz CDMA-1xRTT/AMPS and 800MHz CDMA/AMPS), GSM and tri-mode (800/1900 CDMA and 800MHz AMPs), and dual technology (CDMA and GSM) cellular handsets and data devices in CDMA EVDO technology (PCMCIA, USB and deskmodem) through its stores and dealers. Vivo has overlayed its TDMA network with a CDMA network and has stopped selling TDMA handsets. Although Vivo still has some customers using analog service (approximately 0.1% of its total customer base as of December 31, 2006), Vivo has implemented a series of actions, such as providing discounts on digital handsets, discounts on monthly fees for digital services, digital handset rentals and free digital handsets, to encourage analog and TDMA customers to transfer to CDMA service. Vivo's current suppliers for handsets are Motorola, LG, Samsung, Nokia, Pantech, SonyEricsson, BenQ-Siemens, Aiko and Kyocera.
Management. In accordance with the shareholders' agreement between Portugal Telecom and Telefónica, Portugal Telecom is responsible for the appointment of Vivo's chief executive officer and Telefónica is responsible for the appointment of Vivo's chief financial officer. Following the mergers in February 2006, Vivo Participações S.A. (formerly TCP) continues to be managed by a Board of Directors and a Board of Executive Officers. Vivo's shareholders elect the members of the board of directors. The Board of Directors must have between three and twelve members, each serving a three-year term. The Board of Vivo Participações S.A. continues to consist of nine members, and the terms of the current members of the Board will expire in April 2009. The board of directors holds regular quarterly meetings, and the chairman or two board members may call special meetings.
Vivo has agreements with major fixed-line and mobile operators in Brazil in order to lease physical space, real estate, air conditioning, energy, security and cleaning services. Vivo also leases transmission capacity necessary to complete the construction of our network infrastructure.
Interconnection Agreements. The terms of Vivo's interconnection agreements include provisions with respect to the number of connection points and traffic signals. See "Regulation of the Brazilian Telecommunications IndustryObligations of Telecommunications Companies" and "Regulation of the Brazilian Telecommunications IndustryInterconnection".
Roaming Agreements. Vivo is a member of the Brazilian Roaming Association, a group composed of all companies providing cellular services in Brazil. This association was created to standardize roaming services in Brazil and elsewhere. The roaming agreements require Vivo and the other cellular service providers to provide service to roaming customers on the same basis that each member provides to its own customers, and to carry out a monthly reconciliation of roaming customer usage charges. Vivo offers CDMA automatic international roaming in the United States, Argentina, Uruguay, Chile, Canada, China, Mexico, Venezuela, Puerto Rico, New Zealand, the Dominican Republic and South Korea. Vivo also provides international GSM services through third-party partners using GSM handsets in most parts of Europe, Africa, the Americas, Asia and Oceania.
In 2004, we created Portugal Telecom Investimentos InternacionaisConsultoria Internacional, S.A., or PT II, to manage all of our international businesses other than our investment in Vivo described above.
Investments in Brazil
We have certain additional investments in Brazil, in addition to our investment in Vivo described above, including, most significantly, Mobitel, a call center company, and UOL, a leading Internet Service Provider.
Mobitel. Mobitel provides call center services in Brazil primarily to Vivo. Mobitel's gross operating revenues were R$267 million in 2006 (€98 million) and R$255 million in 2005 (€84 million). At the end of 2006, our participation in Mobitel was 100%.
UOL. UOL is a leading Internet Service Provider in Brazil. In December 2005, we sold a 16% stake in UOL in its initial public offering in Brazil and received net proceeds of R$201.0 million. At the end of 2006, our participation in UOL was 29%. Revenues in 2006 were R$480.7 million.
Investments in Africa
We have certain investments in Africa, including most significantly, our investments in Angola, Cape Verde Islands, Namibia and Morocco.
Unitel in Angola. At the end of 2000, we acquired 25% of the share capital of Unitel, a GSM mobile operator in Angola. Unitel's other shareholders are Sonangol, which holds 25%, and other local partners, which hold the remaining 50%. We are the operational manager of the venture, which began operations in Luanda in April 2001. As of December 31, 2006, Unitel had 2,049 thousand subscribers of which 99.6% were prepaid cards.
Unitel's total gross operating revenues were US$649.3 million in 2006 (€517.1 million) and US$445 million in 2005 (€357.5 million).
Cabo Verde Telecom. We own 40% of the share capital of Cabo Verde Telecom. Cabo Verde Telecom provides fixed, mobile and data services in the Cabo Verde Islands, a Portuguese-speaking country off the coast of West Africa.
At December 31, 2006, Cabo Verde Telecom had 73.1 thousand fixed lines in service, which represents approximately 15 fixed main lines per 100 inhabitants. Cabo Verde Telecom had 108.9 thousand active mobile telephone cards at December 31, 2006 (approximately 22 active mobile telephone cards per 100 inhabitants), of which 99.5% were prepaid customers. At December 31, 2006, Cabo Verde Telecom reached 7.4 thousand active Internet users.
Cabo Verde Telecom's total gross operating revenues were €63.3 million in 2006 and €55.3 million in 2005.
MTC in Namibia. In September 2006, Portugal Telecom acquired 34% of the capital of MTC, the Namibian mobile operator. In connection with this transaction, we entered into an agreement with the other shareholders of MTC that allows us to set and control the financial and operating policies of this company. As of December 31,2006, MTC had 610,000 customers, of which 91.6% were customers under prepaid plans. MTC revenues were 999.6 million Namibian dollars (€116 million) in 2006 and 824.8 million Namibian dollars (€104.3 million) in 2005.
Medi Telecom in Morocco. In August 1999, Medi Telecom, a consortium made up of Portugal Telecom, Telefónica Móviles and certain Moroccan entities, bid for and won a license to operate a GSM mobile network in Morocco. This was the second such license issued by the Moroccan government. The license fee was 9.0 billion Moroccan dirhams (€929 million). Medi Telecom entered into a €1 billion project financing facility. We initially held 34.5% of Medi Telecom, having invested approximately €166 million, but in January 2000 we sold 4% of our interest in compliance with a condition of the bid process for the same license. At the end of 2002, following a capital increase, Portugal Telecom raised its equity share to 31.34%, equal to Telefónica's position. During the fourth quarter of 2003, following another share capital increase, Portugal Telecom raised its equity share to 32.18%. At the end of 2005, Medi decreased its share capital from 8.834 million Dirhams (€803.0 million) to 4.683 million Dirhams (€425.0 million) in order to fulfill required capital ratios in Morocco. Portugal Telecom's share of Medi Telecom's capital remained the same (32.18%).
Medi Telecom began operations at the end of March 2000. By the end of 2006, it had 5,169 thousand subscribers, which corresponds to an estimated market share of approximately 32.6%. Approximately 97.1% of its active mobile telephone cards are prepaid. We manage the operations of Medi Telecom jointly with Telefónica.
Medi Telecom's total gross operating revenues were 4,691 million Dirhams (€425.1 million) in 2006 and 4,373 million Dirhams (€397.0 million) in 2005.
Investments in Asia
We have certain investments in Asia, including, most significantly, our investment in CTM.
CTM. We have a 28% interest in Companhia de Telecomunicações de Macau, or CTM, the exclusive provider of fixed line services and a provider of mobile telephone services in Macau. Macau, an enclave situated near Hong Kong on the coast of the Guangzhou Province, China, was a territory administered by the Portuguese government until December 1999 when its administration was transferred to the People's Republic of China. The other shareholders of CTM are Cable & Wireless plc and CITIC Pacific.
At December 31, 2006, CTM had 177.3 thousand fixed main lines in service. This figure represents approximately 39 fixed main lines per 100 inhabitants. CTM's mobile telephone services are growing rapidly, with 297 thousand active mobile telephone cards at December 31, 2006 and 66 active mobile telephone cards per 100 inhabitants. CTM uses GSM digital mobile technology.
CTM's total gross operating revenues were 2,101 million Patacas (€209.1 million) in 2006 and 1,895 million Patacas (€190.0 million) in 2005.
PT SI. PT SI is the group unit responsible for data centers, information systems and information technology activities of our business units in Portugal. PT SI provides integrated information systems and information technology services to our business units in Portugal, as well as to our existing and new customers. We hold 100% of the share capital of PT SI. In recent years, PT SI has subcontracted certain information technology services to DCSI-Dados, Computadores e Soluções Informáticas, or DCSI, an information technology company controlled by IBM. In March 2006, we signed a contract with IBM to purchase DCSI.
PT Inovação. PT Inovação is the group unit responsible for research and development activities. Our research and development programs focus on intelligent networks, network management systems, advanced services and systems and network integration. Our research and development activities have been responsible for the introduction of innovative products and services and for the development of in-house technology. These activities have allowed our employees to remain up-to-date in terms of technology and technological development in the telecommunications sector on both a European and a worldwide level. PT Inovação's activities have been a driving force behind the development of new products and services, telecommunications infrastructure and information systems.
PT Contact. PT Contact is the group unit responsible for call center operations in Portugal. PT Contact takes advantage of economies of scale and process alignments to reduce costs in our call center operations.
PT PRO. In February 2003, we created PT PRO to aggregate all our back-office activities in Portugal. PT PRO takes advantage of economies of scale and process alignments throughout our group to reduce costs in back-office activities. The creation of PT PRO has also allowed for a reduction of the execution risk of our financial reporting function through standardization of processes and implementation of best practices.
PT Compras. In May 2003, we created PT Compras and we transferred our newly created central purchasing unit to this company. PT Compras is optimizing our purchasing function on an integrated basis. Taking advantage of scale and specialization, PT Compras is increasing pressure in reducing suppliers' prices and improving the levels of quality and service.
For a list of Portugal Telecom's significant subsidiaries, see Exhibit 8.1 to this Annual Report of Form 20-F, which exhibit is incorporated herein by reference. For further details on our percentage interest in our subsidiaries and their business activities, see the exhibits to our audited consolidated financial statements.
We have summarized below our principal existing and planned alliances and joint ventures.
Alliance with Telefónica. In 1997, we entered into a cooperation agreement with Telefónica. This agreement focused principally on cooperation in international investments, particularly in Latin America. In 1998 we acquired interests, together with Telefónica, in Brazil. In 1999 we commenced operations with Telefónica in Morocco. See "International InvestmentsInvestments in AfricaMedi Telecom in Morocco".
On January 23, 2001, we entered into a strategic agreement with Telefónica to create a mobile joint venture company that would aggregate all our Brazilian mobile assets with the Brazilian assets of Telefónica Móviles, the mobile subsidiary of Telefónica, to the extent permitted under Brazilian law. On December 27, 2002, we and Telefónica transferred all of our respective interests in Brazilian mobile services companies to the joint venture, named Brasilcel and operating under the brand name Vivo since April 2003, with its head office in the Netherlands. We hold our interest in Brasilcel through PT
Móveis, and Telefónica holds its interest through Telefónica Móviles. Our agreements governing the ownership and management of Brasilcel have been entered into by those entities.
Brasilcel is managed by a Managing Board of four members and a Supervisory Board of 12 members. We and Telefónica each appoint two members of the Managing Board and six members of the Supervisory Board, and in each case the Chairman is appointed by Telefónica and the Vice Chairman is appointed by us. The Managing Board acts by unanimous decision so long as each party holds at least a 40% interest in Brasilcel, and for certain important decisions, the Managing Board requires the approval of the Supervisory Board. The Supervisory Board acts by majority vote, except that generally so long as each party holds at least a 40% interest in Brasilcel and for six months following the dilution of a party's interest below 40% due to a capital increase, at least one member of the Supervisory Board appointed by each party must approve any action by the Supervisory Board.
In the event that either our or Telefónica's interest is diluted below 50%, but not lower than 40%, due to a capital increase, the diluted party can re-build its interest to 50% within 12 months from the date of dilution. During such period, Brasilcel would be managed on an equal basis. We or Telefónica can maintain our share ownership percentage by contributing with cash or liquid assets. Should the percentage of the share capital in Brasilcel that we or Telefónica holds fall below 40% and remain below 40% for six consecutive months thereafter, our respective numbers of directors on the board will be changed to reflect our proportional shareholdings and the diluted shareholder will lose its right to appoint the CEO or CFO of Brasilcel's subsidiaries, as applicable, as described below.
If a deadlock over an important issue in the decision-making of Brasilcel cannot be resolved by the chairmen and CEOs of us and Telefónica, then the issue will be settled by reference to a committee of third party "wise persons".
Potential acquisitions of wireless and mobile telephone operators in Brazil may be pursued by Brasilcel or by us or Telefónica and subsequently contributed to Brasilcel. New acquisitions by Brasilcel require the approval of a majority of the board of directors of Brasilcel. If either we or Telefónica acquire a mobile operator in Brazil, the acquiring party must offer the right to a 50% participation in the acquisition to the other party.
Under the agreement, we select the CEO of each subsidiary of Brasilcel, including Vivo Participações S.A. (formerly known as TCP), and Telefónica selects the CFO. So long as the board of directors of any subsidiary of Brasilcel consists of nine members (as is the case with Vivo Participações S.A.), we and Telefónica will each nominate three members to the board of directors. We and Telefónica have agreed to coordinate our votes for meetings of the boards of directors of Brasilcel's subsidiaries at the level of Brasilcel.
In the event of a change of control of either us or Telefónica, the unaffected party shall have the right to sell the shares that it owns in Brasilcel to the affected party at a value determined pursuant to an independent appraisal. A change of control occurs if 15% or more of the voting rights of Portugal Telecom or Telefónica S.A. are acquired by another telecom operator not acting in concert with the other party, if a corporate transaction is affected by virtue of which the voting share capital of Portugal Telecom or Telefónica S.A. is at least doubled and there is a change in the majority of the board of directors of that party or, in the case of any entity or affiliate of the Portugal Telecom or Telefónica group that holds an interest in Brasilcel (other than Portugal Telecom and Telefónica S.A.), if the majority of the voting rights of that entity or affiliate is transferred to another telecom operator and there is a change in the majority of its board of directors. In addition, if we are diluted to below a 40% interest in Brasilcel and fail to increase our interest to 40% within a six-month period, we will have the right to sell our interest in Brasilcel to Telefónica within one year from the expiration of the applicable six-month period at a price to be determined by a third party.
If either party wishes or is required to transfer all or part of its equity interest in Brasilcel to a third party, the non-transferring party will have a right of first refusal to purchase the equity interest or, alternatively, a tag-along right to sell its equity interest under specified conditions.
As part of our initial agreement with Telefónica, we acquired 1.0% of Telefónica's share capital and Telefónica acquired 3.5% of our share capital. We and Telefónica also gave each other a right of first refusal on any transfer of our respective interests. In addition, a member of our board who is an executive officer is serving on Telefónica's board as a non-executive director, and a member of Telefónica's board who is an executive officer is serving on our board as a non-executive director. Under the terms of our strategic agreement with Telefónica, we may acquire up to 1.5% of Telefónica's share capital, and Telefónica may increase its ownership interest in our share capital up to 10%. As of December 31, 2006, Telefónica's interest in our share capital was 9.96%. As of December 31, 2006, neither party controls the operations or management of the other.
Alliance with Banco Espírito Santo and Caixa Geral de Depósitos. In April 2000, we signed a strategic partnership agreement with the Banco Espírito Santo group, or BES, and Caixa Geral de Depósitos, or Caixa, to develop "new economy" initiatives. Pursuant to this agreement, BES increased its stake in Portugal Telecom to 6% of Portugal Telecom's share capital, and in August 2000 we acquired a stake in BES of 3% of its share capital. As of December 31, 2006, BES owned 7.77% of Portugal Telecom's share capital. In accordance with this arrangement, an executive officer of BES serves as a non-executive member of Portugal Telecom's board of directors. An executive member of Portugal Telecom's board of directors also serves as a non-executive member of the board of directors of BES.
Under this strategic partnership agreement, we launched various initiatives in business-to-consumer and business-to-business e-commerce and new mobile service areas in business-to consumer and e-finance, business-to-business and M-commerce and payment services.
Our principal properties consist of buildings and telecommunications installations. These include various sizes of exchanges, transmission equipment, cable networks, base stations for mobile networks and equipment for radio communications. They are located throughout Portugal and internationally.
We own several office buildings in Portugal. Our main proprietary office space is located at the following addresses:
We also have some leased offices, which are located at the following addresses:
We have registered our important trademarks, such as "Portugal Telecom," "PT Comunicações," "PT Prime," "Telepac," "Sapo," "TMN," "PT Multimédia," "TV Cabo," "Netcabo", and their related logos, in Portugal. We have also applied for a European Community trademark for "Portugal Telecom" and our logo. Telesp Celular has registered its important trademarks in Brazil. Brasilcel, through one of its Brazilian subsidiaries, is in the process of registering the trademark "Vivo" in Brazil and Spain; in Portugal, the trademark "Vivo" was approved in 2004. Trademarks registered in Brazil may be subject to less legal protection in Brazil than registered trademarks in Portugal or the United States. We do not own any registered patents or copyrights which are material to our business as a whole.
We face substantial and increasing competition. The Portuguese telecommunications sector has been open fully to competition since January 1, 2000. We have competitors able to compete with us in each of our service areas. We describe the competitive conditions of each of our business segments below.
Competition Facing Our Wireline Business
Since January 1, 2000, we no longer have the exclusive right to provide domestic and international public switched fixed line telephone services or to install and operate the related telecommunications networks in Portugal.
Retail. Our wireline business faces increasingly strong competition from new fixed-line operators as well as from mobile telephone service providers, including our own mobile service provider TMN. The number of subscribers to mobile services in Portugal now outnumbers the number of wire lines in Portugal. At the end of 2006, there were approximately 115.7 active mobile telephone cards per 100 inhabitants in the Portuguese market. This growth is a result of residential subscribers adding mobile cards for family members and businesses adding mobile cards for their employees. Vodafone Portugal and Optimus are already marketing their mobile services as an alternative to our wireline telephone services, and we compete with them for market share. For example, Optimus and Vodafone have launched services called "Optimus Home" and "Vodafone Casa," respectively, that use their GSM mobile networks but use fixed line phone numbers. TMN requested an authorization to launch a similar service and received that authorization in 2007. The low-cost brands launched by TMN, (Uzo) Optimus, (Rede 4) and Vodafone (Directo) are designed to reach the lower end segment of the mobile
market and have also had an effect on our fixed line retail service, exacerbating the trend among consumers toward switching from fixed line to mobile service.
Vodafone Portugal and Optimus (owned by Sonae and France Telecom) have major shareholders that can provide them with substantial resources. In addition to strengthening their position in the mobile telephone market, these resources enable them to compete directly and aggressively with our fixed-line telephone services.
According to ANACOM figures, on December 31, 2006, PT Comunicações, which provides retail services as part of our wireline business, had an estimated 78.7% market share of access lines (89.3% in 2005). According to ANACOM figures and our estimates at December 31, 2006, PT Comunicações had an estimated 78.2% market share of total outgoing traffic (in minutes), a decrease of 6.3 percentage points from December 31, 2005. In addition, PT Comunicações had an estimated 70.5% market share of domestic outgoing voice traffic (in minutes), a decrease of five percentage points from December 31, 2005.
Our primary competitors in the wireline voice market include Tele 2, Novis (owned by Sonae and France Telecom), Oni TelecomInfocomunicações, S.A. (owned by certain investment funds), AR Telecom (formerly Jazztel) and Colt. All of the new entrants have focused on providing their customers national and international services over their networks without direct interconnection. These customers must still connect to our competitors' services through our fixed lines.
The cable operator, Cabovisão, offers a package of Internet, cable TV and voice services to the residential segment. Cabovisão has attracted some of our local customer market and may continue to do so.
Measures such as call-by-call selection (introduced on January 1, 2000) and carrier pre-selection (introduced on October 1, 2000), as well as number portability (introduced on July 1, 2001), make it easier for our competitors to attract our customers to their services. At December 31, 2006, we estimate that there were approximately 430 thousand lines in pre-selection. For example, Tele 2 has been effective in using carrier pre-selection to increase its market share.
We are losing revenues from our international telephone services because we no longer have the exclusive right to provide fixed-line telephone services, and large telecommunications users lease lines through which they connect to networks outside Portugal. At December 31, 2006, according to ANACOM data and our estimates, PT Comunicações had an estimated 76.4% market share of international traffic (in minutes), an increase of 4.7 percentage points from December 31, 2005, although the market share of PT Comunicações decreased by an estimated 4.4 percentage points from December 31, 2004 to December 31, 2005. In addition, we are losing revenues from our international telephone services as mobile operators establish direct international interconnections with mobile or fixed-line networks outside of Portugal, enabling them to offer international telephone services without using our network. We also face indirect competition in international fixed-line telephone services from calling cards and rerouting of calls by other international operators. Together with falling international call prices worldwide, these factors put pressure on us to reduce international fixed-line telephone prices.
In response to full competition, we have been lowering the prices of our wireline telephone services. In 2006, prices reduced by 5.9% for regional calls and 16.0% for domestic long distance on average, compared with 2005. We believe our price structure is now competitive and that we are meeting the challenge of full competition.
The overall effect of full competition partly depends on the prices that other mobile and wireline network operators pay us to interconnect with our network. Portuguese law requires us to lease lines to our competitors. It also obliges us to interconnect our network with our competitors' networks or lines leased by them. Our interconnection rates are subject to regulatory review. See "Regulation
PortugalPricing of Wireline ServicesInterconnection Prices". New entrants and resellers of lines leased from existing operators have made very rapid inroads into other EU telecommunications markets that have also opened up to full competition, and we see the same trends in Portugal.
Wholesale. Mobile operators, other than TMN, are establishing direct international interconnections with mobile or wireline operators outside Portugal, enabling them to offer international telephone services without using our network. This is reducing our wholesale revenues generated from connecting mobile operators in Portugal to operators abroad.
Our interconnection business faces more direct competition now that other operators may install and operate their own public wireline telephone networks. Mobile and wireline networks, which are our interconnection customers, can interconnect with these new networks rather than with ours. Other competitors may also establish local networks using other technologies such as local radio systems, fiber optic technologies and new mobile systems that may be used to complete calls which are currently made to our subscribers.
Data and Corporate. We face significant competition from several operators. Our principal data communications and business solutions competitors include companies associated with Oni Telecom, Novis, Colt, AR Telecom (formerly Jazztel) and Vodafone Portugal. These companies compete with us in providing data communications, voice services and Internet services to business customers. Such service providers can use lines leased from us or their own networks. This market is now highly competitive. These customers tend to have large volumes of traffic and complex virtual private network services with data, voice and video integration.
Our competitors may use satellite-based networks, the infrastructure of public network operators, leased lines and their own infrastructure to offer telecommunications services to customers. These are all alternatives to leasing lines from us for data communications. As a result of competition, we have reduced our prices for leased lines and are focusing on value-added solutions based on Internet Protocol Virtual Private Networks, or IP VPN.
Competition Facing TMN in Portugal
TMN competes with Vodafone Portugal and Optimus, the two other mobile operators licensed to provide mobile telephone services in Portugal. According to figures from ANACOM, at the end of 2006, in terms of the number of active mobile telephone cards in the Portuguese market, TMN had a 46.7% market share. TMN has made maintaining its market share a priority. As a result of a very competitive market, TMN's market share of mobile subscribers increased 0.3 percentage points in 2006 compared to 2005.
TMN's competitive strategy includes focusing on excellent subscriber care and innovative services. As a result of its customer service, TMN received the "Call Centre 2006" award for best practices. In addition, TMN and Tektronix Inc., which designed the software that allows TMN to evaluate the performance and efficiency of its second and third generation networks, received an award for the "Best Network Quality Initiative" at the GSM Association Awards 2006 in February 2006.
Vodafone Portugal and Optimus each have major shareholders that could provide them with substantial resources to compete aggressively against us in the Portuguese mobile telephone market. Sonae and France Telecom are the major shareholders in Sonaecom, the holding company that controls Optimus.
Competition is increasing in the mobile services sector in Portugal as TMN and its competitors develop new services. In addition, the commercial introduction in Portugal of third generation mobile services has heightened competition and reduced the profitability of providing third generation services. Moreover, ANACOM may open the mobile market to mobile virtual network operators, or MVNOs, which do not have their own network infrastructure and thus would not have the fixed cost burdens
facing our current GSM and UMTS services. Competition from companies providing WLAN services, which can deliver wireless data services more cheaply than UMTS in concentrated areas, may also affect the market and pricing for third generation services. We believe that our mobile competitors, Vodafone and Optimus, will continue to market their services aggressively. In mid-2005, Optimus introduced a low-cost brand "Rede 4" in response to our new brand "Uzo". Vodafone also launched a similar product called Directo in mid-2005 targeting the same market as Uzo and Rede 4.
Competition Facing PT Multimédia's Pay TV and Broadband Internet Business
Certain cable television operators are authorized to provide services in Portugal in addition to PT Multimédia's subsidiary, TV Cabo. PT Multimédia's competitors operate principally in Portugal's major cities and include Cabovisão, Pluricanal Santarem, Pluricanal Leiria, TV TEL and Bragatel. According to ANACOM figures, we estimate that at the end of 2005, TV Cabo's competitors had approximately 17% of the total number of subscribers in the pay-TV market.
TV Cabo currently has control over nine cable authorizations covering 125 counties in seven regions in continental Portugal and the Madeira and Azores Islands, all of which expire in May 2009. In February 2004, a new regulatory framework was introduced under which no specific authorizations or licenses for the provision of cable television services are required. After the current authorizations expire, the existing licenses will not be renewed and the new regulatory framework will apply. See "RegulationTV Cabo's Cable Television Authorizations". We therefore expect competition to increase as a result of this regulatory flexibility.
PT Multimédia competes for advertising revenue with terrestrial television companies (free-to-air channels) and other forms of media such as newspapers, magazines, radio, billboards and the Internet. It also competes with terrestrial television companies for the acquisition of programming to attract viewers. Such competition can increase program acquisition costs.
PT Multimédia competes with cable companies, such as Cabovisão, in the provision of broadband Internet services.
In August 2001, the Portuguese government granted an authorization to Plataforma de Televisão Digital Portuguesa, S.A., or PTDP, to provide digital terrestrial television services. ANACOM instructed PTDP that it must begin operations before March 1, 2003. As PTDP had difficulty complying with the instruction, ANACOM, with PTDP's agreement, proposed to the Ministry of Economy that PTDP's authorization be revoked. By order of the Minister of Economy, dated March 25, 2003 (Ministerial order 6973/2003, published on April 9, 2003), the authorization was revoked. In 2005, the Portuguese government announced that it intends to reopen competitive bidding for a license to provide digital terrestrial television services in Portugal, which could result in increased competition for TV Cabo. In 2007, the Portuguese government is expected to open competitive bidding for one or more licenses for the provision of digital terrestrial television services.
As existing technology develops and new technologies emerge, competition is likely to intensify, in particular with regard to products and services related to subscription TV and the Internet. PT Multimédia's cable and satellite business face competition from broadband local loop access based on wireless technologies (Broadband Wireless Access). In 2005, Ar Telecom (formerly Jazztel), a direct competitor, launched broadband wireless service in the geographic areas where it operates. Also, we expect video over ADSL to increase competition. Novis launched an IP television offer in 2006 that competes with PT Multimédia's television services, and Portugal Telecom launched IPTV service at PT Comunicações in June 2007.
Competition Facing PT Multimédia's Audiovisuals Business
In the four main sub-segments of this business segment (film distribution, cinema exhibition, video distribution and distribution of rights for TV broadcasting), PT Multimédia faces competition from various entities that differ from segment to segment, as follows:
In all of the activities mentioned above, except in the distribution of rights for TV broadcasting, where the free-to-air TV stations are basically supplied by the international market, Lusomundo Audiovisuais and Lusomundo Cinemas are market leaders in Portugal in terms of the number of movie titles distributed and the number of movie theaters owned, according to ICAM, the Portuguese Cinema, Audiovisual and Multimedia Institute.
Competition Facing Vivo in Brazil
Vivo faces intense competition in all the areas in which it operates, principally from other mobile service providers and also from fixed-line operators. Many of these competitors are part of large, national or multinational groups and therefore have access to financing, new technologies and other benefits that are derived from being a part of such a group. Fixed-line operators generally charge much lower tariffs than mobile service providers.
Vivo's main mobile competitor in the state of São Paulo is Claro. Claro is controlled by a consortium led by the Telecom Américas Ltd. (controlled by América Móvil S.A. de C.V.). Claro began providing cellular telecommunications services in this region at the end of 1998. Although Claro provides only digital service, its customers use TDMA dual mode cellular handsets that can operate on an analog network and GSM handsets. The main fixed-line operator in this state is Telecomunicações de São Paulo S.A.Telesp, known as Telefónica.
Vivo's principal cellular competitor in the states of Paraná and Santa Catarina is Tele Celular Sul Participações S.A., or TIM Sul. The main fixed-line operator in those states is Brasil Telecom S.A. Vivo's principal mobile competitor in the region encompassing the states of Mato Grosso do Sul, Mato Grosso, Goiás, Tocantins, Rondônia and Acre and the Federal District is Claro, and its principal competitor in the region encompassing the states of Amazonas, Roraima, Pará, Amapá and Maranhão is TIM. The main fixed-line operators in this area are Brasil Telecom S.A., in the region encompassing the states of Mato Grosso do Sul, Mato Grosso, Goiás, Tocantins, Rondônia and Acre and the Federal District, and Telemar Norte Leste S.A.Telemar, in the region encompassing the states of Amazonas, Roraima, Pará, Amapá and Maranhão. Other competitors include Oi, the Telemar mobile operator.
In the Salvador and Sergipe service areas, Vivo's main mobile competitor is Oi (TNL PCS S.A.). Other mobile competitors are TIM (Maxitel S.A.), which also operates in the state of Minas Gerais, and Claro (Stemar Telecomunicações Ltda.). The principal fixed-line competitor in this area is Telemar Norte Leste S.A.
In the Rio de Janeiro and Espírito Santo service areas, Vivo's main mobile competitor is Claro. The principal fixed-line operator in this area is Telemar Norte Leste S.A. Oi also competes in the mobile market and is integrated with Telemar.
In Rio Grande do Sul, Vivo's primary mobile competitor is Claro, and its other mobile competitors are Brasil Telecom S.A. and TIM. Vivo's main fixed-line competitor in this area is Brasil Telecom.
Vivo also competes with certain other wireless telecommunications services in specific segments, such as mobile radio (including digital trunking technology, offered by Nextel), paging and beeper services, which are used by some operators in its areas as a substitute for cellular telecommunications services. These competing wireless telecommunications services are generally less expensive than mobile telecommunications services.
Satellite-operated services, which provide nationwide coverage, are also available in Brazil. Although these services have the advantage of covering much larger areas than those covered by the cellular telecommunications services, they are considerably more expensive than the mobile telecommunications services Vivo offers and do not provide competitive coverage inside buildings.
The telecommunications industry has traditionally been heavily regulated in most countries of the world, including Portugal and Brazil. Over the last several years, both countries (Portugal beginning in 1990 and Brazil in 1998) have substantially privatized their state-held telecommunications operators and have been opening their telecommunications markets to competition. Portugal, a member of the European Union, opened its telecommunications market to full competition as of January 1, 2000. Portugal is pursuing further EU-led initiatives aimed at increasing the competitiveness of its market. Brazil has also been introducing further measures designed to increase competition. In this section, we explain the main laws and regulations in Portugal and Brazil that affect our operating companies in these two countries.
In the increasingly competitive Portuguese telecommunications market, the regulatory measures which most affect our operations, our revenues and our costs, relate to:
In February 2002, the European Union agreed upon a new regulatory framework for electronic communications networks and services, consisting of five directives governing procedures, authorizations, access, universal service and data protection; one decision on the availability and use of radio spectrum; and a recommendation on relevant product and service markets within the electronic communications sector subject to "ex ante" regulation in accordance with Directive 2002/21/EC of the European Parliament and Council on a common regulatory framework for electronic communications networks and services. Four of the five directives that make up the new EU framework were adopted
into law in Portugal on February 10, 2004 as part of Law 5/2004, the Law of Electronic Communications (which we refer to as "Law 5/2004"). The fifth directive was adopted into law on August 18, 2004. In 2006, the European Commission began a review of the new EU framework, and a new version of the European directives is expected by the end of 2007.
The implementation of the new EU framework is changing the current regulatory framework applicable to us. The new EU directives and recommendations, which adopt competition law principles such as market dominance for the designation of significant market power and the definitions of relevant product and geographic markets which may be subject to "ex ante" regulation, will result in significant changes and refinements to the current regulatory regime applicable to us in Portugal.
Under the new regulatory regime, regulatory obligations can be imposed on operators having significant market power in any one of 18 relevant retail and wholesale markets identified by the European Commission. Since we are active in all of these markets, the new regulatory regime could result in an increase in the regulatory measures affecting our businesses and operations. Under the EU framework directive, ANACOM is required to analyze the 18 retail and wholesale markets and identify which electronic communications operators and service providers it considers to have significant market power in such markets in Portugal and notify the European Commission with respect to its findings.
ANACOM has analyzed 16 of the 18 retail and wholesale markets. ANACOM considers the Portugal Telecom group to have significant market power in all the markets it has analyzed except for one in which it did not find any operator to have significant market power (wholesale transit services) and one in which the results of its analysis are pending (the wholesale broadcasting transmission market). These markets include the following: (1) retail marketsaccess to the public telephone network at a fixed location (residential and business), publicly available local and/or national telephone services provided at a fixed location (residential and business), publicly available international telephone services provided at a fixed location (residential and business), and leased lines; and (2) wholesale marketscall origination on the fixed telephone network provided at a fixed location, call termination on individual public telephone networks provided at a fixed location and wholesale unbundled access to local metallic loops, wholesale leased lines (trunk segments and terminating segments) and wholesale broadband access. ANACOM has notified the European Commission regarding its conclusions about the markets it has already analyzed. In addition, ANACOM added a nineteenth market, covering telephone services at a fixed location using non-geographic numbers, such as toll-free numbers, and has declared the Portugal Telecom group to have significant market power in this area.
In addition to the Portugal Telecom group, all other wireline operators in Portugal were determined to have significant market power in the call termination on individual public telephone networks provided at a fixed location wholesale market. Likewise, all mobile network operators were found to have significant market power in the call termination on individual mobile networks. ANACOM has not yet started the analysis of the two remaining wholesale markets, which are roaming services and access and call origination on mobile telephone networks. Final decisions with respect to the existence of significant market power in access and call origination on the mobile networks market is expected during the course of 2007.
In addition, Law 5/2004 has made more flexible certain other aspects of the former regulatory scheme, such as the basis upon which we and other operators in Portugal can use public rights-of-way and the rules governing access to ducts.
ANACOM. The Autoridade Nacional das Comunicações, or ANACOM, created in January 2001 (formerly The Instituto das Comunicações de Portugal, or ICP), is the Portuguese telecommunications regulator. Since it commenced operations in 1989, it has been closely involved in developing the
telecommunications regulatory framework in Portugal. It advises the Portuguese government on telecommunications policy and legislation and monitors compliance with concessions, licenses and permits granted to telecommunications providers in Portugal.
ANACOM is accountable to the Ministry of Public Works, Transport, and Communications. The Ministry of Public Works, Transport and Communications retains basic responsibility for telecommunications policy in Portugal. Together with the Ministry of Finance, it has ultimate responsibility for monitoring our compliance with our Concession. It also has certain supervisory powers with respect to our activities. The Portuguese government delegated a significant number of those powers and functions to ANACOM in our Concession.
Over the past several years, the Portuguese government has substantially increased the autonomy of ANACOM and allowed it to become a more effective and independent regulatory body. ANACOM acts on complaints against us by our competitors, our customers, and other interested parties. It can impose fines on us if we do not meet our obligations under our Concession, including our obligations to supply public switched wireline telephone services, leased lines and other services to our competitors on a timely basis. ANACOM has, from time to time, addressed complaints against us by our competitors. However, such complaints have been resolved in a manner that has not had a material adverse effect on our businesses or operations. ANACOM's decisions are subject to possible reconsideration and can be submitted for judicial review.
European Commission. Most of the EU competition rules have the force of law in all EU member states and therefore apply to us in Portugal. The current priority of the European Commission is to ensure that EU member states fully and correctly implement EU requirements in national law. The European Commission routinely monitors the status of EU member states in implementing EU directives.
The Directorate-General for Competition of the European Commission is responsible for considering, on its own initiative as well as in response to complaints by interested parties, potential claims that our business activities or Portuguese government regulations are inconsistent with the key provisions of the Treaty of Amsterdam, also known as the EC Treaty, relating to competition in the EU. Article 81 of the treaty prohibits agreements or coordinated action between competitors that may affect trade between EU member states and have as their objective or effect the prevention, restriction, or distortion of competition within the EU. Article 82 of the treaty prohibits any abuse of a market-dominating position within the EU, or a substantial part of the EU, that may affect trade between EU member states. The Directorate-General for Competition enforces these rules in cooperation with the national competition authorities. In addition, national courts have jurisdiction over violations of EU competition law. In 2005, Sonaecom filed a complaint with the Directorate-General for Competition of the European Commission relating to our activities and the regulatory framework of the Portuguese government. However, the Commission responded that the complaint should be addressed by the Portuguese Autoridade da Concorrência. To our knowledge, proceedings before the European Commission relating to this complaint are now closed. See "Item 3Key InformationRisk FactorsEU Regulation Regarding Abuse of Dominant Position Could Adversely Affect our Business" and "Item 8Financial InformationRegulatory Proceedings".
We understand that at the end of 2001, the Directorate-General for Competition and the Directorate-General for Information Society of the European Commission requested information from the Portuguese government regarding the telecommunications rights-of-way regime in Portugal, which provided PT Comunicações with the exclusive right to use public rights-of-way free of municipalities' fees and taxes. However, the rights-of-way regime was modified in 2004 through Law 5/2004, as described below in "Summary of Our Concession and Existing Licenses". Since we have not been party to the communications between the Directorates-General and the Portuguese government, we are unable to assess whether or not Law 5/2004 has resolved any concerns the Directorates-General may
have had regarding the regulation of rights-of-way in Portugal. We further understand that the Directorate-General for Information Society of the European Commission requested information from the Portuguese government regarding the designation of the universal service provider (currently, PT Comunicações) and regarding the Portuguese government's intention to launch a transparent procedure in order to appoint the universal service provider.
In April 2006, the European Commission sent to the Portuguese government a formal request to abandon the special rights the Portuguese government holds as the sole owner of our A shares. The European Commission believes that the special powers granted to the Portuguese government through the sole ownership of our A shares act as a disincentive for investment by other EU member states in a manner that violates European Community Treaty rules. Should the Portuguese authorities not take satisfactory steps to remedy the alleged infringement of EU law, the European Commission may decide to refer the case to the European Court of Justice.
Autoridade da Concorrência. Our activities are also overseen by Autoridade da Concorrência (formerly Direcção Geral do Comércio e da Concorrência, or DGCC), which is responsible for enforcement of Portuguese competition law. It is also responsible for considering complaints relating to our business practices or other business arrangements. We expect the Autoridade da Concorrência to take a more active role in matters related to pricing, the determination of which companies have "significant market power" and the regulatory implications for such companies.
On February 10 and 11, 2004, the Autoridade da Concorrência conducted an unannounced search of the offices of PT Comunicações and PT Prime, seizing several documents, in order to investigate alleged abusive practices, including predatory pricing, price discrimination at the wholesale level, price discrimination at the retail level in the wireline telephone market and, margin squeezes. The potential penalty for such practices could be as high as 10% of our turnover in the preceding fiscal year. This administrative investigation is still in a preliminary stage involving document collection and review. The Autoridade da Concorrência periodically requests that we provide them with additional information regarding the documents they seized in February 2004, which we have responded to in a timely manner. We expect that the next phase could involve the Autoridade da Concorrência formally charging us with the alleged abusive practices, which would result in an administrative proceeding, referred to as a "statement of objections", in which we would defend our position before the competition authority. If we were unsuccessful in our defense, the competition authority could issue a fine in connection with such abuses. We are permitted under Portuguese law to appeal any adverse decision of the Autoridade da Concorrência to the Commerce Court. To our knowledge, the Autoridade da Concorrência has not yet reached any decision on this matter. See "Item 3Key InformationRisk FactorsRegulatory Investigations and Litigation May Lead to Fines or Other Penalties" and "Item 8Financial InformationLegal ProceedingsRegulatory Proceedings".
To our knowledge, there are also several other complaints related to our activities pending before the Autoridade da Concorrência, including complaints against: (i) PT.com (this complaint was formerly against Telepac, which merged with PT.com in December 2004) and TV Cabo regarding alleged anti-competitive practices in the broadband Internet market; (ii) TV Cabo and Sport TV by TV TEL, a cable TV company operating in the Oporto area, for alleged refusal to supply advertising space; and (iii) PT Comunicações for alleged anti-competitive practices in the public wireline telephone market and for granting discriminatory discounts on leased lines.
In addition, in 2004 the Autoridade da Concorrência initiated a proceeding against PT Comunicações, referred to as a "statement of objections", alleging that PT Comunicações was denying access to the ducts in which the basic telecommunications network is installed. PT Comunicações has responded to this "statement of objections" and does not believe it has violated applicable law and regulations. In June 2005, the Autoridade da Concorrência issued a revised "statement of objections" on this matter. In September 2005, the Autoridade da Concorrência also brought allegations against PT
Multimédia and TV Cabo for practices allegedly in violation of Article 4 of Law 18/2003 (the Portuguese Competition Law) following the execution in 2000 of a partnership agreement among PTM, TV Cabo and SIC-Sociedade Independente de Cominicação, S.A. (SIC) in connection with SIC's acquisition of Lisboa TVInformação e Multimédia, S.A. In response to this accusation, PT Multimédia and TV Cabo contested the alleged by the Competition Authority. However, in August 2006, the Competition Authority imposed a fine of €2.5 million on PT Multimédia. PT Multimédia and TV Cabo appealed to the Commerce Court of Lisbon on September 8, 2006. The appeal suspended the decision of the Portuguese Competition Authority.
Pricing of Wireline Services
ANACOM established a new pricing regime for wireline services on December 14, 2004 in accordance with the terms of the new EU regulatory framework. This pricing regime created the following regulatory obligations for the retail market for telephone services at a fixed location:
In 2006, our wireline business, PT Comunicações, submitted to the regulator a new pricing scheme that included a flat-rate plan with unlimited off-peak calls on weekdays.
In addition, general regulatory obligations of transparency, non-discrimination, cost orientation, cost accounting and account separation apply to access to the fixed line network and to the telephone services at a fixed location.
Interconnection Prices. Law 5/2004 establishes the new access and interconnection regime in Portugal in accordance with the requirements of the new EU regulatory framework. During 2006, PT Comunicações published its reference interconnection offer for the provision of interconnection at a flat rate. See also "Interconnection" below.
Prices for Leased Lines. Prices for our leased lines are subject to price controls as a result of obligations imposed by ANACOM, based on its finding that we have significant market power in retail leased lines, wholesale termination and trunk segments. Our leased line prices must be cost-oriented and follow the retail-minus rule (which provides for a 26% minimum margin between our wholesale and retail leased line prices).
Universal Service Obligations
Law 5/2004 and the Concession impose universal service obligations on us in Portugal. These obligations include providing connection to the public telephone network at a wireline location. They also include providing access to public switched wireline telephone services, including enabling users to make and receive local, national and international telephone calls, facsimile communications and data communications. They also include providing public pay telephones, publishing directories and making available at least one telephone directory enquiry service covering all public voice telephone subscribers' numbers.
According to Law 5/2004, if ANACOM determines that the provision of universal service obligations has become an excessive burden, it may compensate us accordingly. PT Comunicações has submitted to ANACOM the annual universal service costs (from 1996 to 2003) in order to obtain compensation. Since 2004, it has been the responsibility of ANACOM to calculate the costs of providing the universal service. We believe that obtaining significant compensation under this provision of the law will be very difficult and may not be possible.
The Interconnection Framework. The EU Access and Interconnection Directive requires that interconnection services be made available in a non-discriminatory manner. The EU Access and Interconnection Directive encourages commercial negotiations among operators but requires national regulatory authorities to establish mechanisms for effective dispute resolution. According to the EU Access and Interconnection Directive, all telecommunications companies with significant market power in the call origination or termination markets must:
Law 5/2004 implemented the EU Access and Interconnection Directive in Portugal and established the general conditions for access and interconnection among telecommunications operators in competitive markets. It guarantees the rights of new entrants to obtain interconnection from telecommunications operators with significant market power.
Pursuant to Law 5/2004, ANACOM is entitled to review and modify our proposed interconnection rates and arrangements in our reference interconnection offer. ANACOM has established in Portugal an overall interconnection framework based on cost and consistent with the EU legal framework for both wireline and mobile services.
Wireline Interconnection. As a result of the enactment of Law 5/2004, ANACOM adopted a measure in March 2004 on call origination on fixed telephone networks provided at a fixed location and call termination on individual public telephone networks provided at a fixed location and on significant market power designation in these fixed locations, declaring the Portugal Telecom group to have significant market power in these markets. As a result, we are subject to price controls in these markets based on our costs and other factors and must publish a reference offer that includes these prices and quality of service standards.
Mobile Interconnection. In February 2005, all mobile operators were declared to have significant market power in call termination in mobile networks market. ANACOM has accordingly imposed price controls on interconnection rates for the termination of calls on mobile networks. In 2005, interconnection rates (both fixed-to-mobile and mobile-to-mobile) were reduced by an average of 23.5% compared with 2004 rates. In 2006, these rates were reduced by an average of 18.5% compared to the 2005 rates. These reductions have had, and are expected to continue to have, a significant impact on TMN's interconnection revenues and consequently its earnings. See "Item 5Operating and Financial Review and ProspectsResults of Operations".
ANACOM is in the process of analyzing call origination on the mobile networks market in order to determine who has significant market power in such market. A decision is expected in 2007.
Internet Access. The interconnection regime for access to our network by ISPs provides for a number of different billing structures. Under the first method, ISPs pay us a call origination charge, and, if the ISPs request that we invoice customers on their behalf, they also pay us the corresponding charge for the invoicing service. Under a second method, we charge the ISPs a wholesale flat rate and the ISPs bill their own customers. On September 23, 2003, ANACOM decided that data traffic and Internet traffic should be included in our Reference Interconnection Offer, which previously applied only to interconnection for voice telephony services. Accordingly, we now offer two access regimes to ISPs: (1) the Reference Offer for Internet Access, which includes the two pricing methods described above, and (2) the Reference Interconnection Offer, which includes a pricing method based on call origination. On March 16, 2004, ANACOM issued a new administrative decision regarding the billing structure for our Reference Interconnection Offer. As a result, the call origination pricing arrangements with ISPs now include two billing structures. The primary differences between the two billing structures relate to origination prices, the manner in which ISP infrastructures are connected to our wireline network and billing arrangements. The regime introduced in March 2004 has lower origination charges, involves the use of leased lines and does not require us to maintain billing arrangements with ISPs. The ISPs determine which billing regime will apply to their arrangements to connect with our wireline network.
Number Portability and Carrier Selection
An amendment in September 1998 to the EU Interconnection Directive required member states to introduce number portability among telecommunications operators in most EU countries by January 1, 2000. Where implemented, number portability allows a subscriber at a specific location to change service providers without having to change telephone numbers. PT Comunicações introduced number portability for wireline services on July 1, 2001. Number portability for mobile services was introduced in January 2002.
ANACOM has required call-by-call carrier selection to be offered by us for long distance and international calls since January 1, 2000. We have been offering it for local and regional calls since January 1, 2001 and for fixed-to-mobile calls since October 1, 2000. Call-by-call carrier selection enables customers to select the carrier of their calls by dialing a code connecting them to the selected carrier.
Law 5/2004 requires that all wireline network operators with significant market power must offer carrier pre-selection. Carrier pre-selection allows customers to select the carrier that will be their default carrier. They then do not need to dial any code to connect to their selected carrier when they make their calls. ANACOM introduced interim carrier pre-selection using auto dialers on July 1, 2000 and full carrier pre-selection has been available throughout Portugal since October 15, 2000.
Number portability regulations were revised in 2005 through Regulation 58/2005 of August 18, 2005, but the revisions did not have a significant impact on our business. New regulations for carrier pre-selection were also published in early 2006, extending carrier pre-selection to non-geographic services.
Unbundling of the Local Loop
On December 18, 2000, the European Commission approved a regulation requiring wireline network operators to make the local loop between their customers and the local switches on their networks available to competitors. Such a requirement also exists in Law 5/2004. This allows such competitors to connect their networks to the copper "local loop" and use it to provide their services directly to those customers without having to rely upon the network operator's relationship with the
customers. According to the regulation and Law 5/2004, we are required to maintain a reference offer for unbundled access to our local loops and related facilities and to meet reasonable requests for unbundled access to our local loops and related facilities under transparent, fair and non-discriminatory conditions. Prices charged must be cost-oriented. ANACOM has announced that unbundling of the local loop should be available in Portugal in accordance with the terms of the EC regulation and Law 5/2004. Our PT Comunicações wholesale unit regularly publishes updated versions of the reference offer for unbundled access to our local loops in accordance with terms established by ANACOM.
We have made available to our competitors all of the local switches for remote and physical co-location where technical and space conditions are available. Co-location means providing space and technical facilities to competitors to the extent necessary to reasonably accommodate and connect the relevant equipment of the competitor.
The regulatory framework requires PT Comunicações to submit periodic reports on quality of service and comply with specified indicators. Penalties may occur if we do not achieve such indicators. We must also provide white page directories and certain other facilities to certain specified categories of subscribers free of charge. In addition, a new Regulation of Quality of Service for voice services at fixed locations was published in June 2005 (Regulamento 46/05).
Internet and Related Services
Various regulatory developments may affect our Internet business. Portugal has adopted Decree Law 290-D/99 regarding digital signatures, which established a legal framework for electronic documents and digital signatures. This framework is a key component for developing e-commerce business. Portugal is expected to enact further measures pursuant to the EU Electronic Signature Directive, adopted in December 1999. The EU Electronic Commerce Directive, which was implemented in January 2002, further promotes the free movement of electronically provided services and commerce within the EU. For example, it requires EU member states to absolve information carriers and host-services providers from liability for the content of information transmitted over the Internet. Such provisions provide us with legal protection that is important in carrying out our business. The 1995 EU Data Protection Directive, which was implemented in Portugal in 1998, places restrictions on the use by Internet companies of personal data stored on their networks. A new Data Protection Directive was adopted by the European Commission in 2006, imposing data-retention obligations on operators. It is not possible at this time to ascertain the burden that data protection schemes or other self-regulation and content-monitoring requirements may impose on our Internet business.
EU Competition Directive
The European Commission issued a directive on September 16, 2002 (Directive 2002/77/EC) that requires member states to enact legislation directing incumbent telecommunications operators to separate their cable television and telecommunications network operations into distinct legal entities. We believe that steps already taken to operate our cable television business in Portugal through PT Multimédia, a separate legal entity, have satisfied the requirements of the directive implemented in Portugal. In addition, we believe that the proposed spin-off of our interest in PT Multimédia will address the long-standing objections of the Portuguese regulators in this regard.
The EU Authorization Directive (Directive 2002/20/EC of March 7, 2002) prohibits any limitation on the number of new entrants in telecommunications markets, except as required to ensure an efficient use of radio frequencies.
Pursuant to this Directive, which is part of the EU electronic communications framework, Law 5/2004 has established a new authorization regime, whereby an operator must have a general authorization for the provision of electronic communications networks or services. A license can e required for the use of radio frequencies or numbering resources. ANACOM is responsible for issuing regulations to implement this authorization regime.
Summary of Our Concession and Existing Licenses
Our Concession is for the provision of universal service and for the operation of the terrestrial broadcasting network in Portugal, and it permits us to provide public switched wireline telephone, packet switched data (the rights to which were transferred to our subsidiary PT Prime) in X.25 mode, leased lines and telex and telegraphy services in Portugal. We also provide mobile telephone services, cable television and data communications services under licenses granted to our subsidiaries by the Portuguese government. The subsidiaries holding the licenses are subject to separate financial reporting and other requirements.
Our Wireline Concession. The Portuguese government granted Portugal Telecom a Concession on March 20, 1995. The Concession had an initial term of 30 years, expiring in 2025. As part of the reorganization of our businesses, Portugal Telecom transferred the Concession to its subsidiary PT Comunicações. The Council of Ministers approved this transfer in a Decree Law that came into effect upon publication in the Portuguese Official Journal on September 9, 2000. The Concession confers rights with respect to provision of transmission infrastructure and leased circuit services as well as wireline telephone, telex and telegraphy services in Portugal.
The Concession granted to us the right to install, manage and operate the infrastructure that forms part of the basic telecommunications network and the terrestrial broadcasting network. Some of our assets that are part of the basic telecommunications network (as defined in Portuguese legislation) were treated as being within the "public domain" under the terms of the Concession. During the term of the Concession, we were permitted to receive economic benefits from the use of public domain assets as if we owned them completely. However, such public domain assets would have reverted to the Portuguese government without compensation when the Concession expired.
On December 11, 2002, we agreed to prepay the future rental payments due under the Concession in exchange for full ownership of the basic telecommunications network and to ensure that there will be no reversion of the assets related to the provision of Concession services to the government in 2025. On December 27, 2002, Portugal Telecom acquired full ownership of the basic telecommunications network for €365 million, which included the 2002 Concession fee in the amount of €16.6 million. As a result of this acquisition, the terms of the Concession have been modified so that PT Comunicações no longer is obligated to pay a concession fee to the Portuguese government and ownership of the network and assets related to the Concession will not revert back to the Portuguese government in 2025. On February 17, 2003, Decree Law 31/2003 was enacted, establishing the basic regulatory principles supporting the terms of our modified Concession. On April 3, 2003, we entered into an agreement formally modifying the terms of our Concession with the Portuguese government.
The Portuguese government retains the ability to suspend or terminate our rights under the Concession. In cases of serious non-performance by us of our obligations under the Concession, the Portuguese government may, on a provisional basis, take over the development and operation of services authorized under the Concession. The Concession may also be terminated in cases of "severe, continual or insoluble" failure to perform our obligations. We believe that we have the resources to fulfill all our obligations under the Concession.
In addition, after 2010 the Portuguese government may revoke the Concession upon at least one year's notice if it deems such action to be justified in the public interest. In that event, we would be
entitled to compensation equaling our annual average net profits for the five years prior to notification of revocation multiplied by the number of years remaining before the Concession expires.
Our modified Concession provides that we are exempt from all taxes, fees and charges with respect to the usage of public rights-of-way for our telecommunications infrastructure. However, Law 5/2004 establishes a new rights-of-way regime in Portugal whereby each municipality may establish a fee, up to a maximum of 0.25% of each wireline services bill, to be paid by the customers of those wireline operators whose network infrastructures are located in each such municipality. This regime was implemented in 2005 pursuant to Regulation No. 38/2004, which was published in September 2004. The new regime replaces Law 91/97, which granted us an exemption from municipal taxes and rights-of-way and other fees with respect to access to and installation and use of our telecommunications network in connection with our obligations under the Concession. Our exemption from municipal taxes prior to the enactment of Law 91/97 is still being challenged in the Portuguese courts by the Municipality of Oporto. See "Item 8Financial InformationLegal ProceedingsClaims for Municipal Taxes and Fees".
We are required to provide special telephone prices to certain eligible retired and pensioner Portuguese citizens. Until December 31, 2006, the costs of providing these special prices were directly reimbursed by the Portuguese government. In addition, we offer supplementary discounts to certain retired and pensioner Portuguese citizens without reimbursement from the Portuguese government. The cost of these discounts for our wireline business was approximately €7.8 million in 2005 and €6.4 million in 2006.
The Concession imposes a universal service obligation on us. See "Universal Service Obligations" above.
The Ministry of Finance is responsible for monitoring financial issues with respect to the Concession. The Ministry of Economy is responsible for all other issues under the Concession. ANACOM is authorized to monitor and assess penalties up to a maximum of €5,000,000 if we fail to fulfill our obligations under the Concession or other obligations imposed by law. Disputes concerning the application and interpretation of the Concession are dealt with by arbitration.
Our Data Licenses and Registrations. Our subsidiary PT Prime holds:
Our data communications license authorizes us to provide X.25/X.32 synchronous services and X.28 asynchronous services and other switched and non-switched data communications services, including frame relay and virtual private networks for data communications. The license also authorizes us to provide value-added services such as electronic data interchange and videotext services. In addition, the license authorizes us to construct certain networks infrastructure in connection with licensed services. With respect to packet switched data, the data communications license is valid for 30 years, unless our wireline Concession is terminated earlier. Licenses have also been granted to other providers of data communications and Internet access services, including companies associated with major international telecommunications providers. However, under Law 5/2004, and in accordance with the EU licensing regime, companies are not required to have a license to provide data communications services and Internet access. Instead, it is sufficient to register their intended services with ANACOM under its service registration scheme.
In April 1997, ANACOM granted PT Prime a license to provide data communications services using satellite infrastructure.
In April 1997, ANACOM also granted PT Prime a license to offer voice services to corporate networks and other closed groups of users.
Our Mobile Service Licenses. Mobile telephone service licenses are valid for 15 years and are issued by ANACOM under Law No. 5/2004 (which revoked Decree Law 381-A/97). These licenses authorize the use of radio spectrum and the installation of base stations, base station controllers and control switching centers and require the licensee to construct networks capable of reaching at least 75% of Portugal's population within a specified period of time. Charges for the provision of mobile telephone services are not subject to regulation.
Through TMN, we hold a renewable, non-exclusive license to provide traditional and GSM digital mobile telephone services throughout Portugal. The authorization for the use of GSM radio spectrum was renewed in December 2006 and is now valid until 2021. Two other operators hold licenses to provide GSM digital mobile telephone services on substantially the same terms as those applicable to us. Vodafone Portugal was awarded its license in 1991. Optimus was awarded a license in 1997 and began operations in September 1998.
We are required to comply with a number of mobile telephone service criteria. These include satisfying minimum quality standards regarding blocked call rates, network effectiveness and servicing time, and providing certain services. We are also required to provide ANACOM with information about our mobile telephone operations, including the number of customers, number and average duration of calls on a quarterly basis. We are also required to provide annual information to ANACOM about the development of infrastructure.
In 2000, ANACOM conducted a tender for four licenses for universal mobile telecommunications services, known as UMTS. UMTS services are the European version of the globally accepted technical standards for "third generation" mobile communications. UMTS constitutes a significant advance over the "second generation" digital GSM mobile services currently provided. The "first generation" services were traditional analog mobile services. The broadband capacity of the frequency spectrum to be allocated under the UMTS licenses enables operators to supply video and Internet content to mobile handsets at higher transmission speeds.
The UMTS licenses were issued by ANACOM at the end of 2000. The licenses cover all of Portugal and are valid for 15 years. The license fee was €100 million per license. TMN and the other two main mobile operators in Portugal were each awarded one of these licenses at the end of 2000, and TMN's license expires in January 2016. In addition, TMN and the other mobile operators have committed to making contributions to the Portuguese information society. One of the licenses was also awarded to Oniway, a new entrant in the Portuguese mobile market. However, Oniway decided not to participate in the provision of third generation mobile services, and TMN, Vodafone and Optimus requested that the Oniway license be transferred to them, dividing the cost and the resulting spectrum. This request was granted by a special ministerial order in January 2003.
In April 2004, TMN launched UMTS in Portugal with an emphasis on new services, such as video telephony and high-speed data. In 2004 and 2005, we have pursued a strategy of gradual improvements to network coverage, using existing GSM sites where possible in order to minimize the need to install costly new sites.
UMTS License holders are required to offer their services to:
TV Cabo's Cable Television Authorizations. Under the new regulatory framework set out in Law No. 5/2004, of February 10, 2004, the provision of cable television networks and services is subject only to a general authorization regime, which depends on the compliance with the rules provided for in the law and regulations. That is, the new framework does not require specific authorizations or licenses from ANACOM.
Currently, TV Cabo and its subsidiaries Cabo TV Açoreana and Cabo TV Madeirense, hold nine cable television authorizations to provide cable television services in 125 counties in continental Portugal and the Madeira and Azores Islands. All of these authorizations expire in May 2009 and will not be renewed, allowing the new regulatory framework to take effect. Currently, certain other operators are also authorized to provide cable television services in Portugal. See "CompetitionCompetition Facing PT Multimédia's Pay TV and Broadband Internet Business". All these authorizations permit the construction of cable distribution centers and networks. They also contain quality of service standards and, in most cases, obligations to construct networks capable of reaching 80% of the population of the authorized area. The charges for the provision of cable television services are not subject to regulation.
Under Portuguese law, advertising on TV Cabo's channels is generally restricted on the same terms as on broadcast TV. These restrictions include a ban on alcohol advertisements before 10 p.m. and a complete ban on tobacco advertisements. Advertising on premium channels cannot take up more than 10% of air time, and advertising on basic channels cannot take up more than 15% of air time.
Portuguese law currently permits television operators to produce and broadcast their own television programming if they have national coverage. In addition, Portuguese legislation permits the use of two-way signaling capability over cable television networks. The ability to transmit and receive signals allows the introduction of pay-per-view, home shopping and similar products in Portugal.
General. Vivo's mobile business, the services it provides and the prices it charges are subject to regulation under the General Telecommunications Law and various administrative enactments, which regulate the services provided by Brazilian telecommunications operators.
ANATEL is the agency that regulates telecommunications under the General Telecommunications Law and the July 2001 Regulamento da Agência Nacional de Telecomunicações, known as the ANATEL Decree. ANATEL is financially autonomous, and administratively independent of the federal government. ANATEL maintains a close relationship with the Ministry of Communications. Any regulation proposed by ANATEL is subject to a period of public comment, which may include public hearings. ANATEL's actions may be challenged in the Brazilian courts under Brazilian administrative law. On November 25, 1998, ANATEL enacted "Resolution 73Regulation of Telecommunication Services," which regulates in detail the new comprehensive framework for the provision of telecommunications services in Brazil established by the General Telecommunications Law.
Concessions and Authorizations. Prior to January 2000, ANATEL had only authorized two mobile service providers in each of the ten franchise areas under bands A and B. Band A and band B mobile service providers, including Vivo's operating subsidiaries, were granted concessions pursuant to the Lei Mínima, or the Minimum Law. Each concession is a specific grant of authority to supply cellular telecommunications services, subject to certain requirements contained in the applicable list of obligations appended to each concession. If a mobile service provider wishes to offer any telecommunications service other than those authorized by its concession, it may apply to ANATEL for an authorization to offer such other services.
In accordance with the General Telecommunications Law, a concession relates to the provision of telecommunications services under the public regime, as determined by the public administration. A concession may only be granted upon a prior auction bidding process. As a result, regulatory provisions are inserted in the relevant concession agreements, and the concessionaire is subject to public service principles of continuity, changeability and equal treatment of customers. The government authority is also entitled to direct and control the performance of the services, to apply penalties and to declare the expiration of the concession and the return of assets of the concessionaire to the government authority upon termination of the concession. Another distinctive feature is the right of the concessionaire to maintain an economic and financial balance of the concession agreement. The concession is granted for a limited duration and is generally renewable once.
An authorization is a permission granted by the public administration under the private regime, which may or may not be granted upon a prior auction bidding process, to the extent that the authorized party complies with the objective and subjective conditions deemed necessary for the exploitation of the relevant type of telecommunications service in the private regime. The authorization is granted for an indeterminate period of time. Under an authorization, the government will not guarantee an economic and financial balance, as guaranteed under a concession.
SMP Regulation. In November 2000, ANATEL adopted certain regulations for the issuance of new licenses to provide wireless communications services through SMP rules to compete with the then existing cellular operators in the various regions of Brazil. These regulations divided Brazil into three main regions covering the same geographic area as the concessions for the fixed-line telecommunications services. ANATEL organized auctions for three new licenses for each of those regions. The new licenses provided that the new services would be operated in the 1800 MHz radio frequency bands, and they were denominated band C, band D and band E. These new licenses were auctioned by ANATEL and awarded during the first quarter of 2001, at the end of 2002, in September 2004 and in March 2006. In July 2006, the Bill & Keep regime was discontinued. The current rule is "full billing", pursuant to which the SMP operator pays the entire call termination fee of the other mobile network. The partial "Bill and Keep" rule is still used between the SMP and SME (trunking) networks.
Under these new licenses:
Pursuant to the SMP services regulation, each of the three main regions is divided into registration areas, or tariff areas.
Vivo's operating subsidiaries all held concessions prior to the introduction of the SMP regime. Subsequent to its introduction, they have migrated to the new SMP regime, and their concessions have been converted into licenses to use the radio frequency spectrum in their respective bands and provide
services in the regions in which they operate. See "Our BusinessesBrazilian Mobile Business". In order to migrate services to the SMP regime, Vivo's operating subsidiaries were required to comply with several technical and operational conditions, including, among others, the adoption of a carrier selection code for long distance calls originating from their networks.
Each SMP license consists of two licensesone to provide mobile telecommunications services, and another to use the frequency spectrum for a period of 15 years. The frequency license is renewable for a second 15-year period upon the payment of an additional license fee.
According to the General Telecommunications Law and Decree No. 2056/96, control of a concession can only be transferred after five years from the date of privatization in the case of band A concessions, or the commencement of services in the case of band B concessions. On the other hand, under the SMP system, a licensee can be transferred through merger or incorporation of the relevant mobile service provider, whether they are providing services under the band A or band B.
Interconnection. Under the General Telecommunications Law, telecommunications service providers are classified as providers of either collective or restricted services. All mobile operators, including SMP service providers, are classified by ANATEL as collective service providers. All providers of collective services are required to provide interconnection upon request to any other collective service providers. The terms and conditions of the interconnection agreements are freely negotiated between parties, subject to price caps and other rules established by ANATEL. Providers must enter into interconnection agreements, regarding, among other things, tariffs, commercial conditions and technical issues, with all requesting parties on a non-discriminatory basis. If the parties cannot agree on the terms and conditions of interconnection, ANATEL may determine the terms and conditions by arbitration. Interconnection agreements must be approved by ANATEL and may be rejected if they are contrary to the principles of free competition and the applicable regulations.
In 2005, ANATEL further standardized interconnection regulations to facilitate negotiation of interconnection agreements between wireline operators and mobile operators, referred to as the Sistema de Telefonia Fixa Comutada (Fixed Telephony Interconnection System, or STFC).
Obligations of Telecommunications Companies. As telecommunications service providers, the companies operating under the Vivo brand are subject to regulations concerning quality of service and network expansion, as established in their SMP licenses and their original concession agreements.
Any breach by the companies of telecommunications legislation or of any obligation set forth in their authorizations may result in a fine of up to R$50 million.
Vivo's SMP licenses impose obligations to meet quality of service standards, such as the system's ability to make and receive calls, call failure rates, the network's capacity to handle peak periods, failed interconnection of calls and customer complaints. ANATEL published the method for assessing these quality service standards on April 23, 2003 (ANATEL Resolution No. 335/03).
Rate Regulation. SMP licenses continue to provide for a price-cap mechanism to set and adjust rates on an annual basis. The cap is a maximum weighted average price for a package of services. The package consists of the services in Vivo's Basic Plan, including activation fees, monthly subscription fees, and certain roaming charges, which are charged for the use of mobile services under the SMP regime. The price cap is revised annually to reflect the rate of inflation as measured by the IGP-DI. However, mobile operators are able to freely set the rates for alternative service plans.
The initial price cap agreed to by ANATEL and Vivo's operating subsidiaries in their SMP licenses was based on the previously existing or bidding prices, and was adjusted annually on the basis of a
formula contained in their licenses. The price cap has been revised to reflect the rate of inflation as measured by the IGP-DI.
Internet and Related Services. In Brazil, Internet service providers, or ISPs, are deemed to be suppliers of value-added services and are not considered telecommunications service providers. ANATEL's Resolution 190 requires cable operators to act as carriers of third-party Internet service providers. The Brazilian House of Representatives is considering a law that would penalize Internet service providers for knowingly providing services that allow illegal goods or services to be sold on the Internet and would impose confidentiality requirements on Internet service providers regarding nonpublic information transmitted or stored on their networks. This would affect Vivo indirectly because mobile phones are used extensively for Internet traffic.
Competition Issues. ANATEL is required to consult with the Brazilian competition authority, Conselho Administrativo de Direito Econômico, or CADE, in carrying out certain of its responsibilities, including those related to the review of acquisitions and joint venture agreements entered into by telecommunications operators. In turn, CADE does not exercise its responsibilities without initially seeking the views of ANATEL and would not intervene with respect to any proposed acquisition or agreement affecting competition in the telecommunications sector without first seeking the views of ANATEL. Telecommunications operators must concurrently seek review from ANATEL and CADE of acquisitions and joint venture agreements.
We received a comment from the staff of the Securities and Exchange Commission (the "Staff") in connection with our Annual Report on Form 20-F for the year ended December 31, 2005 asking whether our equity investee Universe Online S.A. ("UOL") was significant under Rule 3-09 of Regulation S-X for such year. We have concluded that our interest in UOL represented a significant portion of our net income from continued operations before change in accounting principles under U.S. GAAP for purposes of Rule 3-09 of Regulation S-X for the year ended December 31, 2005. Consequently, we have included in Item 18 to this Annual Report (1) audited financial statements for UOL for the years ended December 31, 2005 and 2006 and (2) a descriptive disclosure of the differences between U.S. GAAP and Brazilian Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (BGAAP) applicable to UOL. We understand that the related Staff comment will be resolved upon the inclusion of such financial statements in this Annual Report.
You should read the following discussion in conjunction with our audited consolidated financial statements and the accompanying notes included elsewhere in this report. Our audited consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards, or IFRS, as adopted by the European Commission for use in the European Union. IFRS differs in significant respects from U.S. GAAP. For a discussion of the principal differences between IFRS and U.S. GAAP, as they relate to us, see "U.S. GAAP Reconciliation and Recent Accounting Pronouncements" below and Notes 47, 48 and 49 to our audited consolidated financial statements.
Our Business and Revenue Reporting Categories
Portugal Telecom, SGPS S.A. is a group holding company. Our business operations are conducted by our subsidiaries, which are classified for financial reporting purposes according to the general type of telecommunications services provided and the manner in which our management views and manages our operations. Portugal Telecom's businesses consist of the following:
Consolidation Treatment of Vivo and Sport TV
Vivo. We provide mobile telecommunications services in Brazil through Vivo Participações S.A., or Vivo. We hold our participation in Vivo through our 50% interest in Brasilcel N.V., a joint venture with Telefónica. Following a series of reorganizations described in "Item 4Information on the CompanyOur BusinessesBrazilian Mobile Business", Vivo Participações S.A. has one wholly owned subsidiary, Vivo S.A. As of December 31, 2006, Brasilcel and its subsidiaries held 88.85% of the common shares of Vivo Participações, 47.76% of its preferred shares and 62.77% of its total share capital.
We proportionally consolidate the financial results of Vivo in our consolidated financial results for the years ended December 31, 2004, 2005 and 2006.
Sport TV. We acquired an additional 16.6% stake in Sport TV in a purchase completed in April 2004, increasing our ownership in that company to 50%. We proportionally consolidate the financial results of Sport TV in our consolidated financial results for the years ended December 31, 2004, 2005 and 2006.
Business Drivers and Measures
The businesses of each of our segments are affected by a number of significant industry trends. In operating our businesses and monitoring their performance, we also pay attention to a number of operational and other factors. We summarize some of these trends and factors for each of our business segments below.
relating to wholesale services has not been significant. Decreases in transit traffic (calls that use our network but neither originate nor terminate on our network) also have affected our wholesale revenues. See "Item 4Information on the CompanyOur BusinessesWireline BusinessRetailFixed Line Telephone Services" and "WholesalePrices".
Domestic Mobile Business
Brazilian Mobile Business
All our business segments are subject to significant competition and operate in highly regulated environments. You should carefully review "Item 4Information on the CompanyCompetition" and "Regulation" for more information. In addition, you should be aware of the risks to which each of our businesses is subject. See "Item 3Key InformationRisk Factors".
Transition to International Financial Reporting Standards
Portugal Telecom applies IFRS as adopted by the European Union, and including all interpretations of the International Financial Reporting Interpretation Committee as of December 31, 2006. For Portugal Telecom, there are no differences between IFRS as adopted by the EU and IFRS as published by the International Accounting Standards Board. Portugal Telecom's consolidated financial statements prepared in accordance with IFRS include comparative financial statements for the years ended December 31, 2004, 2005 and 2006. IFRS requires that an entity develop accounting policies based on the standards and related interpretations effective at the reporting date of its first annual IFRS consolidated financial statements. These accounting policies must be applied as of the date of transition to IFRS (January 1, 2004) and throughout all periods presented in the first IFRS consolidated financial statements.
Explanation of Exemptions Applied Under IFRS 1. In general, the carrying amounts of the assets and liabilities in the consolidated balance sheet under Portuguese GAAP for the year ended
December 31, 2003 must be recognized and measured retrospectively in the opening IFRS consolidated balance sheet as of January 1, 2004 on the basis of those standards under IFRS in force at December 31, 2005. IFRS 1 nevertheless provides exemptions from this principle in specific cases. The main exemptions applied by Portugal Telecom are explained below:
Critical Accounting Policies under International Financial Reporting Standards
Our discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations are based on our consolidated financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with IFRS. Our reported financial condition and results of operations are sensitive to accounting methods, assumptions and estimates that underlie preparation of the financial statements. We base our estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions, the results of which form the basis for judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources.
We believe the following critical accounting policies involve the most significant judgments and estimates used in the preparation of our consolidated financial statements.
Property, plant and equipment, and intangible assets. Accounting for property, plant and equipment, and intangible assets involves the use of estimates for determining fair value at the acquisition date, in particular in the case of assets acquired in a business combination, and for determining the expected useful lives of those assets. The determination of the fair values of assets, as well as of the useful lives of the assets is based on management's judgment.
The determination of impairments of property, plant and equipment, and intangible assets involves the use of estimates that include, but are not limited to, the cause, timing and amount of the impairment. Impairment analysis is based on a large number of factors, such as changes in current competitive conditions, expectations of growth in the telecommunications industry, increased cost of capital, changes in the future availability of financing, technological obsolescence, discontinuance of services, current replacement costs, prices paid in comparable transactions and other changes in circumstances that indicate an impairment exists. The determination of recoverable amounts and fair values are typically based on discounted cash flow methodologies that incorporate reasonable market assumptions. The identification of impairment indicators, the estimation of future cash flows and the determination of fair values of assets (or groups of assets) require management to make significant judgments concerning the identification and validation of impairment indicators, expected cash flows, applicable discount rates, useful lives and residual values. At December 31, 2006, 2005 and 2004, Portugal Telecom concluded that the carrying value of these assets did not exceed their recoverable amounts.
Under U.S. GAAP, the recoverability of intangible assets subject to amortization is measured by comparing the sum of the future undiscounted cash flows derived from an asset (or a group of assets) to their carrying value. If the carrying value of the asset (or the group of assets) exceeds the sum of the future undiscounted cash flows, an impairment is considered to exist. If an impairment is considered to exist on the basis of undiscounted cash flows, the impairment charge is measured using an estimation of the assets' fair value. Reversal of previously recognized impairment losses is not permitted.
Goodwill. Goodwill arising on consolidation represents the excess of the cost of acquisition over our interest in the fair value of the identifiable assets and liabilities of a subsidiary at the date of acquisition. The assets and liabilities acquired are measured provisionally at the date on which control is acquired, and the resulting value is reviewed in a maximum period of one year from the date of acquisition. Until the fair value of the assets and liabilities has been definitively determined, the difference between the cost of acquisition and the carrying amount of the company acquired is recognized provisionally as goodwill.
Goodwill acquired on or after January 1, 2004 is measured at acquisition cost, and goodwill acquired in previous periods is recognized at the carrying amount at December 31, 2003, in accordance with Portuguese GAAP. In both cases, since January 1, 2004, goodwill has not been amortized, and at the end of each reporting period, goodwill of each cash-generating unit is reviewed for impairment (i.e., a reduction in its recoverable amount to below its carrying amount) and written down if necessary. The recoverability analysis of goodwill is performed systematically at the end of each year or whenever it is
considered necessary to perform such an analysis. The recoverable amount is the higher of the estimated selling price of the asset less the related selling costs and value in use. Value in use is taken to be the present value of the estimated future cash flows. In calculating the recoverable amount of goodwill, Portugal Telecom used the value in use approach for all cases, preparing the projections of future pre-tax cash flows on the basis of the budgets most recently approved by our board of directors. These budgets include the best available estimates of the income and costs of the cash-generating units using industry projections, past experience and future expectations. These projections cover the coming five years, and the flows for future years are estimated by applying reasonable growth rates that in no case are increasing or exceed the growth rates of prior years.
Under U.S. GAAP, effective January 1, 2002, we adopted SFAS No. 142, Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets. The goodwill impairment test, which is based on fair value, is performed on a reporting unit level. Goodwill on equity method investments continues to be tested for impairment in accordance with Accounting Principles Board ("APB") Opinion No. 18, The Equity Method of Accounting for Investments in Common Stock ("APB 18"). The fair value of the reporting units for which goodwill has been assigned was considered to be the best reasonably consistent measurement of fair value measurements that included both income and market approaches, as explained above. Goodwill in each operating segment will be tested for impairment at the year end.
In light of the fact that analyzing the impairment of our recorded goodwill requires a combination of various assumptions and variables, it is very difficult to analyze the sensitivity of the projections to changes in any isolated variable on its own, since a change in one variable may have an effect on one or more of the other variables used.
The goodwill impairment analysis that we conducted as of December 31, 2006 did not suggest that any such impairment was likely in a future period.
Impairment tests. The determination of the recoverable amount of a cash-generating unit (under IFRS) or the fair value of an asset group or a reporting unit (under U.S. GAAP) for impairment testing purposes involves the use of estimates by management. Methods used to determine these amounts include discounted cash flow methodologies and models based on quoted stock market prices. Key assumptions on which management has based its determination of fair value include ARPU (monthly average revenue per user), subscriber acquisition and retention costs, churn rates, capital expenditures and market share. These estimates can have a material impact on fair value under both IFRS and U.S. GAAP and the amount of any goodwill write-down.
Accrued post retirement liability. As of December 31, 2006, we recorded an accrued post retirement liability amounting to €1,673.5 million to cover our net unfunded obligations regarding pensions and post retirement healthcare benefits. We estimate our obligations regarding post retirement benefits based on actuarial valuations prepared annually by our independent actuaries, which use the projected unit credit method and consider certain demographic and financial assumptions. The key financial assumptions affecting post retirement benefit costs are based, in part, on actuarial valuations, including discount rates used to calculate the amount of the post retirement benefit obligations. The discount rate reflects the weighted average timing (approximately 25 years) of the estimated defined benefit payments. The discount rate premium is determined based on European corporate bonds with a high quality rating. The assumptions concerning the expected return on plan assets are determined on a uniform basis, considering long-term historical returns, asset allocation and future estimates of long-term investment returns. In the event that further changes in assumptions are required with respect to discount rates and expected returns on invested assets, the future amounts of our post retirement benefit costs may be materially affected.
Provisions. Provisions are recorded when, at the end of the period, we have an obligation to a third party that is probable or certain to create an outflow of resources to the third party, without at
least equivalent return expected from the third party. This obligation may be legal, regulatory and contractual in nature. It may also be derived from our practice or from public commitments having created a legitimate expectation for such third parties that we will assume certain responsibilities.
To estimate the expenditure that we are likely to bear to settle its obligation, our management takes into consideration all of the available information at the closing date for its consolidated financial statements. If no reliable estimate of the amount can be made, no provision is recorded; information is then presented in the notes to the financial statements.
Contingencies, representing obligations which are neither probable nor certain at the time of drawing up the financial statements, and probable obligations for which the cash outflow is not probable are not recorded. Information about them is presented in the notes to the consolidated financial statements.
Because of the inherent uncertainties in the foregoing evaluation process, actual losses may be different from the original estimated amount provisioned at the closing date.
Revenue and expense recognition from telecommunications services. Revenues from telecommunications services are recognized when rendered. Billings for these services are made on a monthly basis throughout the month. Operating revenues are reported on a gross basis, with the compensation paid to other telecommunications operators being accounted for as operating expenses in the same period the revenue is recognized. Unbilled revenues from the billing cycle are estimated based on the minutes of usage of the period and the prior month's pattern of traffic revenues, and are accrued at the end of the month.
Unbilled expenses related to telecommunications costs incurred during the period (which primarily consist of interconnection fees paid to other operators) are also estimated based on the traffic information regarding the usage of other operators' networks during the period and the prior month's pattern of telecommunications costs.
Differences between estimated and actual unbilled revenues and expenses, which are recognized in the following period, may impact our results of operations in the period that such differences are recorded.
Allowance for doubtful accounts. The allowance for doubtful accounts receivable is stated at the estimated amount necessary to cover potential risks in the collection of overdue accounts receivable balances. A determination of the amount of allowances required is made after careful analysis of the evolution of accounts receivable balances, and, in specific cases, our analysis is also based on our knowledge of the financial situation of our customers. The required allowances may change in the future due to changes in economic conditions and our knowledge of specific issues. Future possible changes in recorded allowances would impact our results of operations in the period that such changes are recorded.
Our results reflect the changing patterns in our business described above in "Overview". The key changes over the course of 2005 and 2006 include:
The following tables set forth the contribution to our consolidated operating revenues of each of our major business lines, as well as our major consolidated operating costs and expenses, for the years ended December 31, 2004, 2005 and 2006.
minority shareholders in the income of PT Multimédia (€52.0 million) and Cabo Verde Telecom (€7.1 million). In 2005, income applicable to minority interest primarily included 50% of the share of minority shareholders of Vivo's subsidiaries in their income (negative €11.0 million) and the share of minority shareholders in the income of PT Multimédia (€33.9 million) and Cabo Verde Telecom (€8.2 million). In 2006, income applicable to minority interests primarily included 50% of the share of minority shareholders of Vivo's subsidiaries (prior to the elimination of those subsidiaries in Vivo's reorganizations in 2006) in their corresponding income (€558.4 million) and the share of minority shareholders in the income of PT Multimedia (€171.0 million), MTC (€62.6 million) and Cabo Verde Telecom (€37.6 million)
Year Ended December 31, 2006 Compared to Year Ended December 31, 2005
Our operating revenues decreased to €6,343.0 million in 2006 from €6,385.4 million in 2005, a decrease of 0.7%, reflecting in part the decrease in interconnection tariffs (a negative impact at the wireline business and TMN of €22 million and €49 million, respectively), which was offset by a higher contribution from Vivo, due to the appreciation of the Real against the Euro during the period, and PT Multimédia. Although the contribution from Vivo increased 3.3% to €2,104.7 million in 2006 from €2,036.9 million in 2005, in local currency terms our proportion of Vivo's revenues decreased by 7.2% to R$5,749.0 million in 2006 from R$6,193.5 million in 2005. The reasons for these changes are explained in more detail below.
We present below the revenue information for each of our business segments. The revenue information for each segment in the tables below differs from the contribution to our consolidated revenues for each such segment in the table above because it is presented on a stand-alone basis and includes revenues from services rendered to other Portugal Telecom group companies.
Wireline Business. The table below sets forth the operating revenues from our wireline business in 2005 and 2006.
Retail. Retail revenues decreased 11.0% to €1,173.5 million in 2006 from €1,318.8 million in 2005. This decrease occurred mainly due to lower traffic revenues and, to a lesser degree, fixed charges resulting from competition from fixed and mobile operators. The decrease in volume is due to the reduction in PSTN and ISDN lines to 3,317 thousand as of December 31, 2006 from 3,769 thousand as of December 31, 2005. Of those lines, 408 thousand lines were being used by customers of our wireline competitors through carrier pre-selection as of December 31, 2006, a decrease of 29.1% from 575 thousand lines as of December 31, 2005. In addition, a decrease in the regulated fixed-to-mobile interconnection tariffs had a negative impact of €21.6 million on retail traffic revenues in 2006. The decreases in fixed line traffic and prices in recent years are described further in "Item 4Information on the CompanyOur BusinessesWireline BusinessTraffic" and "Retail". The number of pricing plans in use by our customers increased significantly to 2,827 thousand in 2006 from 1,795 thousand in
2005, contributing to an increase in revenues from fixed charges. However, the growing percentage of flat rate pricing plans contributed in part to the decrease in traffic revenues.
The decreases in traffic revenues and fixed charges were partially offset by a 13.0% increase in ADSL retail revenues to € 170.1 million in 2006 from €150.6 million in 2005. ADSL retail lines increased to 685 thousand lines as of December 31, 2006 from 585 thousand lines as of December 31, 2005 as increasing numbers of customers switched to ADSL service from dial-up Internet service.
Wholesale. Wholesale revenues increased by 1.4% to €464.2 million in 2006 from €457.7 million in 2005. This increase is primarily explained by the increase in leased lines due to the rollout of mobile 3G networks in Portugal, as well as the growth in unbundled local loop (ULL) and wholesale line rental (WLR) revenues. Domestic and international revenue per minute for calls terminated on our network, which are recorded as wholesale revenues, declined 7.8% and 21.0%, respectively, in 2006. Wholesale revenues also were affected by decrease in wholesale Internet traffic as reflecting the increasing switch to broadband from dial-up service described in "Item 4Information on the CompanyOur BusinessesWireline BusinessWholesaleTraffic".
Data and Corporate. Data and corporate revenues increased by 2.3% to € 250.5 million in 2006 from €244.9 million in 2005, partly as a result of the growth in network management and outsourcing, partially offset by a decline in revenues from virtual private networks (VPN) and circuits. See "Item 4Information on the CompanyOur BusinessesWireline BusinessData and Corporate".
Domestic Mobile Business. The table below sets forth the operating revenues from our domestic mobile business in 2005 and 2006.
Operating revenues from our domestic mobile business decreased by 3.5% to € 1,502.4 million in 2006 from €1,557.1 million in 2005, primarily as a result of the impact on service revenues of the mobile termination rate cuts (€49 million) and lower equipment sales. Customer growth in 2006 supported the performance of billing revenues, which remained stable at €1,117.0 million in 2006 (and increased 7.7% in the second half of 2006 compared to the first half of 2006). However, interconnection revenues continued to decline sharply due to the reduction in mobile termination rates over the past quarters. The reduction of the fixed-to-mobile and mobile-to-mobile interconnection rates at the beginning of each quarter of the year led to an average decline in 2006 of 18.5% and 18.6%, respectively, in interconnection rates to €0.11 per minute for both rates at the beginning of October 2006. Excluding the €49 million impact of lower mobile termination rates, service revenues would have increased by 0.6% in 2006. Revenues from sales of handsets decreased by 11.4% to € 129.7 million in 2006 from €146.3 million in 2005.
Operating revenues from our multimedia business increased by 6.1% to €666.5 million in 2006 from €628.5 million in 2005. This increase was primarily due to the growth in Pay TV and broadband Internet revenues. Average monthly revenue per customer in the Pay TV business increased by 5.7% to €29.1 in 2006 from €27.6 in 2005. Revenues from the audiovisuals business decreased by 1.5% in 2006 to €52.6 million from €53.4 million in 2005 with a reduction in video/DVD sales being partially offset by an increase in revenues from exhibition and transmission rights. Revenues from the cinema business increased by 9.2% to €40.0 million in connection with the growth in ticket sales.
Brazilian Mobile Business. The table below sets forth both our operating revenues from our Brazilian mobile business in 2005 and 2006 in Euros and the total operating revenues of the Brazilian mobile business (including the portion attributable to our joint venture partner) in Reais.
Operating revenues from our Brazilian mobile business increased by 3.3% to € 2,104.7 million in 2006 from €2,036.9 million in 2005, primarily as a result of the impact of the appreciation of the Real against the Euro. In local currency terms, operating revenues decreased by 7.2% as a result of the decrease in service revenues, equipment sales and other operating revenues. Service revenues decreased by 7.5% in 2006, largely as a result of the challenging operating environment in Brazil. The average revenue per user per month in 2006 was R$27.1 million, as compared to R$28.7 million in 2005 primarily due to the decrease in incoming traffic, the migration of fixed-to-mobile to mobile-to-mobile traffic and traffic promotions. See "Item 4Information on the CompanyOur BusinessesBrazilian Mobile Business".
Other Businesses. Operating revenues from our other businesses contributed €238.2 million to our consolidated operating revenues in 2006, an increase of 10.7% from €215.2 million in 2005. This increase was primarily due to the full consolidation of MTC for the first time in 2006 following the acquisition of a 34% stake in this company in September 2006.
Costs, Expenses, Losses and Income
As explained in more detail below, our costs decreased in 2006 due to, among other factors, the reduction in net curtailment costs and in post retirement benefits expenses, which were partially offset by increases in depreciation and amortization and other costs, net. For more detail on these costs and expenses as they relate to each of our segments, see Note 7 to our audited consolidated financial statements.
Wages and Salaries. Wages and salaries, including employee benefits and social charges, increased by 0.2% to €668.4 million in 2006 from €667.3 million in 2005. On a constant currency basis, wages and salaries would have decreased by 2.6%, primarily as a result of the 5.1% decrease in the wireline business in connection with its workforce reduction program. These effects were partially offset by the 5.8% increase in local currency terms in wages and salaries of Mobitel, PT's call center business in Brazil, due to the increase in its average number of employees in 2006 by 1,310 employees compared to 2005.
Post Retirement Benefits. We recorded a €72.1 million gain from post retirement benefits in 2006, compared to a gain of €21.6 million in 2005, primarily as a result of (1) the increase in prior year service gains (from €137 million in 2005 to €151 million in 2006) and (2) an improvement in the return on assets resulting from contributions made to our pension funds in 2005 and 2006. In 2006, the prior year service gains of €151 million were primarily related to a reduction in healthcare benefits (€127 million) in connection with changes made to our healthcare plan in order to maintain its long-term sustainability and financing. In 2005, the prior year service gains of €137 million were primarily related to (1) a change in the retirement age in Portugal (€110 million) and (2) a change in the pension formula from 90% of the last salary to 90% of the average of the last three years of salaries (€27 million). This cost item does not include early termination costs related to our workforce reduction program, which are discussed under "Workforce Reduction Program Costs" below.
Direct Costs. Direct costs increased by 3.1% to €908.4 million in 2006 from €881.2 million in 2005. This increase was primarily due to an increase of 7.4% in programming costs at PT Multimédia to €149.9 million and an increase in other direct costs, primarily due to the growth in content expenses related to 3G services at TMN. Telecommunications costs, which are the main component of direct costs, increased by 0.2% to €562.6 million in 2006, with lower wireline traffic volumes and lower fixed-to-mobile and mobile-to-mobile interconnection rates in Portugal being more than offset by an increase in telecommunications costs at Vivo, mainly due to the end of the partial "Bill & Keep" interconnection regime.
Costs of Products Sold. The costs of products sold decreased by 8.5% to €596.5 million in 2006 from €652.3 million in 2005. This decrease was primarily due to lower handset prices at TMN and Vivo, notwithstanding the increase in commercial activity, partially offset by the effects of the appreciation of the Real against the Euro.
Support Services. Support services remained stable at €230.0 million in 2006, compared to €230.2 million in 2005. The impact of the appreciation of the Real against the Euro (€12.1 million) and the increase of support services at Vivo on a constant currency basis (€5.3 million) in connection with the growth in call center expenses related to an increase in commercial activity were offset by a reduction of these expenses in the wireline business.
Marketing and Publicity. Marketing and publicity costs decreased 15.7% to €155.4 million in 2006 from €184.4 million in 2005, due to a reduction across all businesses: Wireline (€2.7 million), TMN (€5.2 million), Vivo (€29.7 million) and PT Multimedia (€2.0 million). These effects were partially offset by the effects of the appreciation of the Real against the Euro (€6.6 million).
Supplies and External Services. Supplies and external services increased by 7.0% to €1,025.5 million in 2006 from €958.6 million in 2005, mainly as a result of the appreciation of the Real against the Euro (€36.2 million). On a constant currency basis, supplies and external services expenses would have increased by 3.2% in 2006 to €989.3 million, primarily as a result of the increase in commissions at TMN due to an increase in commercial activity.
Indirect Taxes. Indirect taxes increased 6.8% to €177.3 million in 2006 from €166.0 million in 2005, primarily due to the appreciation of the Real against the Euro during the period (€14.0 million).
Provisions and Adjustments. Provisions and adjustments increased 34.2% to €230.2 million in 2006 from €171.5 million in 2005. This increase was primarily related to the increases of €51 million and €18.7 million in the wireline business and Vivo, respectively. The increase in the wireline business is primarily related to the reversals in 2005 of (1) a provision for a receivable from Angola Telecom (€23.2 million) that was received in that period and (2) a provision to cover risks associated with the cancellation of certain onerous contracts (€30.0 million), each of which favorably affected the amounts recorded for 2005. The increase in Vivo is partly explained by the impact of the appreciation of the Real against the Euro (€17.0 million). The provisions and adjustments recorded at Vivo include provisions for accounts receivable (including doubtful receivables relating to the improper use of Vivo's network) and tax contingencies (including reversals of provisions upon receiving favorable tax judgments).
Depreciation and Amortization. Depreciation and amortization costs increased 8.0% to €1,209.8 million in 2006 from €1,120.7 million in 2005. This increase was primarily due to an increase in the contributions of Vivo (€51.7 million) and PT Multimédia (€17.1 million). The increase in Vivo's contribution is primarily related to the impact of the appreciation of the Real against the Euro (€51.4 million), while the increase in PT Multimedia's contribution is primarily related to the higher level of capital expenditures in 2005 and first half of 2006.
Curtailment Costs. Curtailment costs decreased to €20.3 million in 2006 from €314.3 million in 2005, which includes net gains related to the termination of the protocol with the Portuguese national healthcare system. Excluding this gain, curtailment costs would have amounted to €229.2 million, corresponding to a reduction in the workforce at our wireline business by 792 employees in 2006. See "Liquidity and Capital ResourcesPost Retirement Benefits" for a description of these reductions.
Other Costs. Other costs amounted to €98.4 million in 2006, compared to €17.7 million in 2005. This increase is primarily due to an adjustment to the realizable amount of certain CDMA network fixed assets at Vivo due to technological obsolescence (€50.9 million), the impact of the change in the estimated useful life of certain tangible assets at PT Multimedia (€5.7 million) and expenses incurred by Portugal Telecom and PT Multimedia totaling €37 million related to the tender offer launched on these companies in 2006.
Financial Income and Expenses
Net Interest Expenses. Net interest expenses decreased by 11.8% to €227.2 million in 2006 from €257.6 million in 2005, primarily as a result of the reduction of approximately 0.9% in the average cost of debt to 5.7% in 2006. Excluding net interest incurred by Vivo and the interest cost associated with the equity swaps for shares of PT Multimedia, the average cost of debt was 3.8% in 2006, as compared to 4.5% in 2005.
Net Foreign Currency Exchange Losses (Gains). We had net foreign currency gains of €4.9 million in 2006, compared to net foreign currency gains of €41.3 million in 2005. In 2006, this item primarily included foreign currency gains related to the effect of the appreciation of the Real against the U.S. dollar on Vivo's U.S. dollar debt not swapped to Reais, partially offset by foreign currency losses related to dividends receivable from Unitel (denominated in U.S. dollars) following the devaluation of
the U.S. dollar against the Euro in the period. Foreign currency gains recorded in 2005 are primarily related to Vivo's U.S. dollar debt not swapped to Reais and to the effect of the appreciation of the U.S. dollar against the Euro on intercompany loans granted by PT Finance to Vivo (denominated in U.S. dollars).
Net Losses (Gains) on Financial Assets. We recorded net gains on financial assets of €18.3 million in 2006, compared to net losses on financial assets of €8.8 million in 2005. This caption primarily includes the following gains and losses on certain derivative contracts: (1) equity swap contracts on PT Multimedia shares (gains of €10.2 million in 2006, compared to gains of €25.0 million in 2005); (2) gains recorded in 2006 related to the financial settlement of equity swaps for Portugal Telecom's own shares (€23.5 million); (3) Vivo's free-standing cross currency derivatives (net losses of €4 million in 2006, compared to net losses of €50.5 million in 2005), and (4) Portugal Telecom's free-standing cross currency derivatives (losses of €8.4 million in 2006, as compared to gains of €14.1 million in 2005).
Equity in Earnings of Affiliated Companies. Equity in earnings of affiliated companies amounted to €131.4 million in 2006, compared to €238.2 million in 2005. This item included mainly our shares in the earnings of Unitel in Angola (€82.5 million), Médi Télécom in Morocco (€45.6 million) and CTM in Macao (€14.8 million). The reduction in this caption of €106.9 million is primarily explained by the decrease in the gains related to UOL (from €175.4 million in 2005 to €6.2 million in 2006), which in 2005 included the gain and other effects of the disposal of a 16% stake in the initial public offering of this associated company in December 2006. This effect was partially offset by the increase in earnings of Unitel and Médi Télécom.
Net Other Financial Expenses. Net other financial expenses decreased 18.9% to €52.3 million in 2006 from €64.5 million in 2005 and include banking services expenses, commissions, financial discounts and other financing costs.
Income taxes decreased to €7.7 million in 2006, compared to €323.3 million in 2005. The reduction in this caption is primarily related to the net effect of (1) a gain of €134.5 million recorded by Vivo following the completion of its corporate restructuring in the fourth quarter of 2006, (2) the recognition of a tax credit amounting to €53.3 million in 2006 following the liquidation of a subsidiary in Portugal, (3) a gain of €142.0 million recorded in 2006 in connection with the reduction of deferred tax liabilities resulting from the voluntary taxation of certain capital gains and (4) a loss of €16 million in adjustments of deferred taxes due to the reduction in the nominal tax rate from 27.5% to 26.5% in the beginning of 2007. Adjusting for these one-off effects in 2006, the provision for income taxes would have been €321.2 million in 2006, compared to €323.3 million in 2005, corresponding to an effective tax rate of 33% in 2006 and 2005.
Net Income From Continued Operations
For the reasons described above, net income from continuing operations increased 43.0% to €954.1 million in 2006 from €667.2 million in 2005.
Discontinued operations reflect the results of companies that have been disposed of during the reportable periods and the after-tax gains obtained with the sale of these investments. Due to the announced disposals of Lusomundo Serviços (PT Multimédia's media business) and PrimeSys in 2005, these businesses were reported as discontinued operations in the consolidated income statement for 2005. The earnings of these companies were included in this caption until the effective date of the disposals, which were concluded on August 25, 2005 in the case of Lusomundo Serviços and on November 25, 2005 in the case of PrimeSys. In 2005, this line item includes a gain of €16.8 million from the sale of Lusomundo Serviços and a gain of €4.0 million from the sale of PrimeSys.
Net Income (Before Minority Interests)
Net income (before minority interests) increased by 38.5% to €954.1 million in 2006 from €688.9 million in 2005 for the reasons described above.
Net income from our wireline business increased by 50.0% to €489.1 million in 2006 from €326.1 million in 2005, primarily due to the gains obtained from the cancellation of the Protocol with the Portuguese national healthcare service, partially offset by the increase in provisions and by the reduction in net wireline revenues.
Net income from our domestic mobile business decreased 5.6% to €318.1 million in 2006 from €337.0 million in 2005, primarily due to the decrease in operating revenues net of direct costs and costs of products sold, and also due to the increase in depreciation and amortization.
Net income from continuing operations (before minority interests) of our multimedia business decreased by 25.1% to €74.1 million in 2006 from €99.0 million in 2005, primarily due to an increase in depreciation and amortization expenses, partially offset by an increase in operating revenues due to the growth in Pay TV and broadband Internet revenues
Net losses (before minority interests) from our Brazilian mobile business decreased to €(26.5) million in 2006 from €(134.0) million in 2005, primarily due to the income tax gain related to the completion of Vivo's corporate restructuring in the fourth quarter of 2006.
Net Income Attributable to Minority Interests
Net income attributable to minority interests in 2006 amounted to €87.4 million and related primarily to 50% of the minority interests attributable to the share of minority shareholders in the net income of Vivo's subsidiaries (€33.5 million) and to the share of minority shareholders in the net income of PT Multimédia (€28.7 million), Cabo Verde Telecom (€10.2 million) and MTC (€8.9 million). In 2005, net income attributable to minority interests amounted to €35.0 million and related primarily to 50% of the minority interests attributable to the share of minority shareholders in the net income of Vivo subsidiaries (€11.0 million) and to the share of minority shareholders in the net income of PT Multimédia (€33.9 million) and Cabo Verde Telecom (€8.2 million).
Net Income Attributable to Equity Holders of the Parent
For the reasons described above, our net income attributable to equity holders of Portugal Telecom increased by 32.5% to €866.8 million in 2006 from €654.0 million in 2005.
Basic earnings per ordinary and A shares from total operations in 2006 increased to €0.78 in 2006 from €0.57 in 2005 on the basis of 1,128,856,500 shares issued at December 31, 2006 and 2005.
Year Ended December 31, 2005 Compared to Year Ended December 31, 2004
Our operating revenues increased to €6,385.4 million in 2005 from €5,967.4 million in 2004, an increase of 7.0%, primarily reflecting the higher contribution from Vivo (which was primarily due to the appreciation of the Real during 2005) and, to a lesser extent PT Multimédia and other businesses. Although the contribution from Vivo increased 27.4% to €2,036.9 million in 2005 from €1,599.1 million in 2004, in local currency terms our proportion of Vivo's revenues increased by 6.5% to R$6,193.5 million in 2005 from R$5,814.0 million in 2004. The increase in revenues from the Vivo, PT Multimédia and other businesses more than offset a 4.4% decrease in contribution of our wireline business to €2,050.4 million in 2005 from €2,144.8 million in 2004 (primarily due to decreases in both retail and wholesale revenues) and a 0.5% decrease in contribution of our domestic mobile business to €
1,455.4 million in 2005 from €1,462.4 million in 2004. The reasons for these changes are explained in more detail below.
We present below the revenue information for each of our business segments. The revenue information for each segment in the tables below differs from the contribution to our consolidated revenues for each such segment in the table above because it is presented on a stand-alone basis and includes revenues from services rendered to other Portugal Telecom group companies.
Wireline Business. The table below sets forth the operating revenues from our wireline business in 2004 and 2005.
Retail. Retail revenues decreased 4.4% to €1,318.8 million in 2005 from €1,379.4 million in 2004. This decrease occurred primarily because of a decrease in traffic revenues due to (1) decreases in call volume as a result of the continuing trend among customers to use mobile services instead of fixed line services and competition from other wireline providers, and (2) the continuing downward trend in prices for domestic and international fixed line calling prices. The decrease in volume is illustrated by the decrease in PSTN and ISDN lines to 3,769 thousand as of December 31, 2005 from 3,948 thousand as of December 31, 2004. Of those lines, 575 thousand lines were being used by customers of our wireline competitors through carrier pre-selection as of December 31, 2005, an increase of 18.5% from 485 thousand lines as of December 31, 2004. In addition, a decrease in the regulated fixed-to-mobile interconnection tariffs had a negative impact of €23 million on retail traffic revenues in 2005. The decreases in fixed line traffic and prices in recent years are described further in "Item 4Information on the CompanyOur BusinessesWireline BusinessTraffic" and "Retail". The number of pricing plans in use by our customers increased significantly to 1,795 thousand in 2005 from 947 thousand in 2004, contributing to an increase in revenues from fixed charges. However, the growing percentage of flat rate pricing plans contributed in part to the decrease in traffic revenues.
The decrease in traffic revenues was partially offset by a 50.8% increase in ADSL retail revenues to €150.6 million in 2005 from €99.9 million in 2004. ADSL retail lines increased to 585 thousand lines as of December 31, 2005 from 382 thousand lines as of December 31, 2004 as increasing numbers of customers switched to ADSL service from dial-up Internet service.
Wholesale. Wholesale revenues decreased by 3.9% to €457.7 million in 2005 from €476.4 million in 2004. This decrease is primarily explained by the decrease in traffic revenues due to the decrease in the price of international mobile interconnection and the decrease in transit traffic. Domestic and international revenue per minute for calls terminated on our network, which are recorded as wholesale revenues, declined 10.1% and 18.1%, respectively, in 2005. Wholesale revenues also were affected by decrease in wholesale Internet traffic as reflecting the increasing switch to broadband from dial-up service, as well as the other decreases in traffic described in "Item 4Information on the CompanyOur BusinessesWireline BusinessWholesaleTraffic".
Data and Corporate. Data and corporate revenues increased by 1.2% to €244.9 million in 2005 from €242.0 million in 2004, primarily due to increases in revenues from network management and outsourcing, including online back-up security solutions and long-term outsourcing contracts. We also
introduced a series of pricing plans to stimulate use of our services by small and medium-sized businesses. Without giving effect to the one-time impact of the Euro 2004 soccer championship, data and corporate revenues would have increased at a higher rate for the reasons described above. See "Item 4Information on the CompanyOur BusinessesWireline BusinessData and Corporate".
Domestic Mobile Business. The table below sets forth the operating revenues from our domestic mobile business in 2004 and 2005.
Operating revenues from our domestic mobile business decreased by 3.1% to €1,557.1 million in 2005 from €1,606.3 million in 2004, primarily as a result of the impact of lower interconnection rates (both fixed-to-mobile and mobile-to-mobile) set by ANACOM in 2005. Interconnection rates declined by an average of 23.5% in 2005 and contributed to €82 million of the decrease in revenues from interconnection. The increase in revenues from customer billing (due to growth in the number of postpaid customers and revenues from data) was not sufficient to offset the effect of lower interconnection revenues. Although the number of TMN's active mobile telephone cards increased 5.1% in 2005, many of the new additions were customers of our low-cost Uzo service, and revenues from customer billings therefore increased less than the number of active mobile phone cards. We estimate that TMN's revenues per active mobile telephone card decreased by 6.8% in 2005 to an average of approximately €22.8 per month, compared to €24.5 per month in 2004, and average revenue per minute decreased 7.3%, in each case primarily due to the decrease in interconnection rates. The effect of lower interconnection fees on average revenues per active mobile telephone card was partially offset by the increase in use of non-SMS data services, such as ring tones, screen savers, games and other downloads. Revenues from sales of handsets decreased 4.5% to €146.3 million in 2005 from €153.3 million in 2004.
Multimedia Business. The table below sets forth the operating revenues from our multimedia business in 2004 and 2005.
Operating revenues from our multimedia business increased by 5.0% to €628.5 million in 2005 from €598.8 million in 2004. This increase was primarily due to growth in Pay TV and cable Internet revenues, which increased 7.7% in 2005, due to the continuing popularity of PT Multimédia's Pay TV and broadband internet offers, price increases in Pay TV and a steady increase in broadband
penetration of the Pay TV customer base. Average monthly revenue per customer in the Pay TV business increased by 8.5% to €27.6 in 2005 from €25.4 in 2004. Revenues from the audiovisuals business decreased 0.5% in 2005 to €53.4 million from €53.7 million in 2004 mainly due to fewer blockbuster movies in 2005. Revenues from the cinema business decreased by 4.3% in 2005 due to lower attendance rates in the cinema exhibition business stemming from the continuing effects of growth in the DVD market.
Brazilian Mobile Business. The table below sets forth both our operating revenues from our Brazilian mobile business in 2004 and 2005 in Euros and the total operating revenues of the Brazilian mobile business (including the portion attributable to our joint venture partner) in Reais.
Operating revenues from our Brazilian mobile business increased 27.4% to €2,036.9 million in 2005 from €1,599.1 million in 2004, primarily due to appreciation of the Brazilian Real. In local currency terms, operating revenues increased 6.5%, primarily due to increased sales of handsets stemming from a higher proportion of high-end handsets sold and the increase in the price of entry-level handsets and, to a lesser degree, an increase in service revenues. In general, the increase in mobile usage charges due to an increase in the customer base (especially of prepaid customers) more than offset (1) a decrease in revenues from interconnection charges due to the effects of the trend toward mobile-to-mobile calls (which were subject to lower interconnection charges than fixed-to-mobile calls) and the effects of the partial "Bill & Keep" interconnection regime and (2) a decrease in monthly subscription charges, as the trend toward prepaid service in a highly competitive environment continued. The average revenue per user per month in 2005 was R$28.7, as compared to R$32.8 in 2004, primarily due to the increasing proportion of prepaid customers and the lower interconnection charges applicable to mobile-to-mobile calls. See "Item 4Information on the CompanyOur BusinessesBrazilian Mobile Business".
Other Businesses. Operating revenues from our other businesses contributed €215.2 million to our consolidated operating revenues in 2005, an increase of 32.5% from €162.4 million in 2004. This increase was primarily due to the increase in revenues recorded by Mobitel (a call center company in Brazil), PT Inovação (R&D consultancy) and PT Contact (call centers in Portugal). The increase in Mobitel's revenues, however, were significantly affected by the appreciation of the Real. The contribution of Mobitel's operating revenues to our consolidated operating revenues increased 60.2% to €51.7 million in 2005 from €32.3 million in 2004 but increased 34.0% in local currency terms to R$157.3 million in 2005 from R$117.4 million in 2004.
Costs, Expenses, Losses and Income
As explained in more detail below, our costs increased in 2005 due to, among other factors, the appreciation of the Real against the Euro and higher commercial activity across all businesses. For
more detail on these costs and expenses as they relate to each of our segments, see Note 7 to our audited consolidated financial statements.
Wages and Salaries. Wages and salaries, including employee benefits and social charges, increased 5.6% to €667.3 million in 2005 from €631.8 million in 2004. This increase was primarily due to the effect of the incorporation of 5,460 additional employees by Mobitel, although the effect on our consolidated financial statements was exacerbated by the appreciation of the Real. Wages and salaries at Mobitel increased 72.9% in local currency terms, but the contribution of Mobitel's wages and salaries to our consolidated wage and salaries increased 106.7% to €64.8 million in 2005 from €31.3 million in 2004. These increases in wage and salary expenses at Mobitel and at Vivo were partially offset by a 3.3% decrease in wages and salaries in our wireline business.
Post Retirement Benefits. We recorded a €21.6 million gain from post retirement benefits in 2005, compared to post retirement benefit expenses of €58.8 million in 2004, primarily due to changes made by the Portuguese government in the vested rights under our defined benefit plan, namely (1) the change in the retirement age in Portugal (which had a positive impact of approximately €110 million) and (2) changes in the method of calculating the pension of an employee upon retirement, which is now computed based on the average of the last three years of salary instead of the last salary (which had a positive impact of approximately €27 million). In 2004, our post retirement benefit expenses were partially offset by a prior years service gain in the amount of approximately €67 million related to a decrease in the percentage of the last salary prior to retirement (from 100% to 90%) used to calculate pensions. Our interest costs on our post retirement obligations increased to €229.1 million in 2005 from €212.9 million in 2004, but the expected return on the assets of the funds that cover a portion of our liabilities for post retirement benefit obligations increased to €139.0 million in 2005 from €111.1 million in 2004 due to our €300 million contribution to a new autonomous fund we established in 2005. Our interest costs net of our expected return on fund assets, therefore, decreased €12 million in 2005. See Note 9.2 to our audited consolidated financial statements. Excluding the effect of this extraordinary contribution, our net interest costs would have increased due to the increase in our post retirement benefit obligations as a result of further workforce reductions in our wireline business. This cost item does not include early termination costs related to our workforce reduction program, which are discussed under "Workforce Reduction Program Costs" below.
Direct Costs. Direct costs increased by 3.4% to €881.2 million in 2005 from €852.0 million in 2004. This increase was primarily due to a 1.5% increase in telecommunications costs, which are the main component of direct costs, to €562 million in 2005. These telecommunications costs include the interconnection fees we pay to other operators for calls terminated on their networks in our wireline and mobile businesses. Increases in telecommunications costs at Vivo, due in part to the appreciation of the Real against the Euro (which had an effect of approximately €37 million) were partially offset by lower telecommunications costs in our wireline and mobile businesses due to lower wireline traffic volumes and lower mobile-to-mobile interconnection rates affecting our domestic mobile business. In local currency, Vivo's telecommunications costs increased by 26.5% in 2005 as a result of higher traffic volumes. In our multimedia business, direct costs consist primarily of the costs of cable television programming. These programming costs increased 10.0% in 2005 to €140 million in 2005, primarily as a result of the launch of our Funtastic Life digital package in the Pay-TV business.
Costs of Products Sold. The costs of products sold increased by 9.5% to €652.3 million in 2005 from €595.8 million in 2004. This increase was primarily due to the appreciation of the Real against the Euro (which had an effect of approximately €70 million) and to increased sales of handsets by our domestic mobile business, partially offset by decreases in the costs of products sold in our wireline and multimedia businesses. In local currency, Vivo's costs of products sold decreased 7.1% to R$2,557.1 due to the decrease in gross additions of customers.
Marketing and Publicity. Marketing and publicity costs increased 15.4% to €184.4 million in 2005 from €159.8 million in 2004. This increase was primarily due to a higher expenses for marketing and promotional activities in the highly competitive mobile service markets of Vivo and, to a lesser degree, TMN. The appreciation of the Real against the Euro exacerbated the effect of Vivo's higher spending on our consolidated marketing and publicity expenses. Vivo's marketing and publicity expenses increased 27.5% in local currency terms, but Vivo's contribution to our consolidated marketing and publicity expenses increased 52.5% to €87.0 million in 2005 from €57.1 million in 2004.
Support Services. Support services increased 12.9% to €230.2 million in 2005 from €203.8 million in 2004, primarily due to increases at Vivo and in our wireline business as a result of the outsourcing of certain additional functions and higher call center costs related to increased commercial activity. The appreciation of the Real against the Euro exacerbated the effect of Vivo's higher expenses on our consolidated support services expenses. Vivo's support services expenses increased 22.7% in local currency terms, but Vivo's contribution to our consolidated support services expenses increased 33.0% to €94.8 million in 2005 from €71.3 million in 2004.
Maintenance and Repairs. Maintenance and repairs increased 10.9% to €157.2 million in 2005 from €141.7 million in 2004 due to increases in maintenance expenses at Vivo and in our multimedia business, partially offset by decreases in such expenses in our wireline and domestic mobile businesses.
Supplies and External Services. Supplies and external services increased 18.2% to €760.4 million in 2005 from €643.5 million in 2004, primarily due to increases in sales commissions at TMN and Vivo due to increased commercial activity. The appreciation of the Real against the Euro exacerbated the effect of Vivo's higher expenses on our consolidated supplies and external services expenses. Vivo's expenses increased 19.5% in local currency terms, but Vivo's contribution to our consolidated supplies and external services expenses increased 41.3% to €267.5 million in 2005 from €189.3 million in 2004.
Provisions for Doubtful Receivables, Inventories and Other. Provisions for doubtful receivables, inventories and other increased 1.6% to €171.5 million in 2005 from €168.8 million in 2004. This increase was primarily due to an increase of €92.6 million in Vivo's contribution to this consolidated cost item, as a result of increases in provisions for doubtful receivables relating to certain calls not acknowledged by our customers and the impact of the appreciation of the Real against the Euro (which had an effect of approximately €24 million). This increase in provisions for doubtful receivables at Vivo was partially offset by a reduction in provisions in the wireline business, including the reversal of a provision for a receivable from Angola Telecom (€23 million) that was received in the period and the reduction of a provision recorded in 2004 to cover risks associated with the cancellation of certain contracts (€30 million). The reduction in the latter provision resulted from positive developments in the negotiations for the settlement of these contracts.
Indirect Taxes. Indirect taxes increased 34.7% to €166.0 million in 2005 from 123.2 million in 2004, primarily due to increased expenses at Vivo for FISTEL fees (Fundo de Fiscalização das Telecomunicações), a Brazilian federal tax applicable to telecommunications transmission equipment. Such expenses increased by €35 million, of which €18 million was related to the appreciation of the Real against the Euro.
Depreciation and Amortization. Depreciation and amortization costs increased by 19.9% to €1,120.7 million in 2005 from €934.9 million in 2004. This increase was primarily due to the increase of €165.3 million in the contribution of Vivo to our consolidated depreciation and amortization. This increase was primarily due to the impact of the Real's appreciation against the Euro (which had an effect of approximately €74 million) and to the allocation of goodwill generated in the tender offers for additional shares of the Vivo subsidiaries in October 2004 to an intangible asset (the telecommunications licenses held by these companies) that is being amortized over the remaining period of those licenses.
Workforce Reduction Program Costs. Workforce reduction program costs increased 89.8% to €314.3 million in 2005 from €165.6 million in 2004 in connection with the reduction of the workforce at our wireline business by 1,272 employees in 2005. See "Liquidity and Capital ResourcesPost Retirement Benefits" for a description of these reductions.
Other Costs. Other costs amounted to €18.8 million in 2005, compared to €92.8 million in 2004. This decrease is primarily due to the following costs recorded in 2004: (1) a provision of €26 million in the Pay TV business related to the dismantling of the analog network, (2) a provision amounting to €12 million for tax contingencies at PT Multimédia and (3) an expense of €10 million incurred in the wireline business for the settlement of a litigation case with DECO, the Portuguese consumer association, as described in greater detail in "Item 8Financial InformationLegal Proceedings".
Financial Income and Expenses
Net Interest Expenses. Net interest expenses increased 25.7% to €257.6 million in 2005 from €204.9 million in 2004. In 2005, net interest expenses related to our debt excluding Brazil increased 30.0% to €156.0 million in 2005 as a result of the increase in average net debt in the period, in view of, among other things, contributions to fund pension and healthcare post retirement obligations and working capital requirements, and taking into account higher cash balances following financings in 2005, in part to repay the Eurobonds due in February 2006. In 2005, Vivo's contribution to our interest expenses increased 19.8% to €101.7 million in 2005 from €84.9 million in 2004 due primarily to the appreciation of the Real against the Euro during the period and higher CDI (a Brazilian interbank deposit interest rate) levels. In local currency, Vivo's interest expenses increased 0.2% during the period. Our net interest expenses in 2005 were equivalent to an average cost of debt, including debt in Brazil, of approximately 6.6%. Our net interest expenses for our Portuguese businesses represented an average cost of debt of approximately 4.7% in 2005.
Net Foreign Currency Exchange Losses (Gains). We had net foreign currency gains of €41.3 million in 2005, compared to net foreign currency losses of €4.5 million in 2004, primarily as a result of the evolution of the Real/Dollar and Euro/Dollar exchange rates over the period. The gains recorded in 2005 are mainly related to (1) the appreciation of the Real against the U.S. dollar, which led Vivo to record gains in connection with its U.S. dollar-denominated debt not swapped into Reais and (2) the depreciation of the Euro against the U.S. dollar, which generated gains in connection with the inter-company loans (denominated in U.S. dollars) granted to Vivo in previous years that were fully repaid by the end of 2005.
Net Losses (Gains) on Financial Assets. We recorded net losses on financial assets of €8.8 million in 2005, compared to net gains on financial assets of €11.6 million in 2004. This line item primarily includes gains and losses on derivative contracts, namely (1) equity swap contracts for PT Multimédia shares (which produced a net gain of €26 million in 2005, compared to €54 million in 2004), (2) foreign exchange derivatives of Vivo (which produced net losses of €50 million in 2005, compared to net losses of €34 million in 2004) and (3) foreign exchange derivatives of Portugal Telecom (which produced net gains of €14 million in 2005, compared to net losses of €12 million in 2004).
Equity in Earnings of Affiliated Companies. Equity in earnings of affiliated companies amounted to €238.2 million in 2005, compared to €20.9 million in 2004. This increase occurred primarily due to (1) the gain of €174 million related to the restructuring of Portugal Telecom's investment in UOL and the subsequent disposal of a portion of the investment (16%) following the initial public offering of that company in Brazil in December 2005, as described in more detail in Note 28 to our audited consolidated financial statements, and (2) an increase in the earnings of Unitel (from €17 million to €51 million), CTM (from €11 million to €16 million) and Médi Télécom (from €(6) million to €3 million).
Net Other Financial Expenses. Net other financial expenses increased 15.9% to €64.5 million in 2005 from €55.6 million in 2004 and include banking services expenses, commissions, financial discounts and other financing costs. The increase in 2005 is primarily due to operations in Brazil (including €3 million due to the appreciation of the Real against the Euro), namely in connection with the disposal of a portion of the investment in UOL and expenses relating to the corporate reorganization of Vivo that was completed in the first quarter of 2006.
Income taxes increased 53.9% to €323.2 million in 2005 from €210.0 million in 2004. This increase was primarily due to the recognition in 2004 of a deferred tax asset of €104 million in connection with tax losses carried forward at PT Multimédia. Other than the effect of this deferred tax asset, our effective tax rate increased from 34.6% in 2004 to 36.5% in 2005, mainly as a result of the increase in net losses at certain Vivo subsidiaries during the period that did not generate corresponding tax credits that could be used to lower our income tax expenses for the period.
Net Income From Continued Operations
For the reasons described above, net income from continuing operations decreased 4.6% to €667.2 million in 2005 from €699.1 million in 2004.
Discontinued operations reflect the results of companies that have been disposed of during the reportable periods, and the after-tax gains obtained with the sale of these investments. Due to the announced disposal of Lusomundo Serviços (PT Multimédia's media business) and PrimeSys in 2005, these businesses were reported as discontinued operations in the consolidated statement of income for the years 2004 and 2005 in accordance with IFRS. The earnings of these companies were included in discontinued operations until the effective date of the disposals, which were concluded on August 25, 2005 in the case of Lusomundo Serviços and on November 25, 2005 in the case of PrimeSys. In 2005, this line item includes a gain of €16.8 million from the sale of Lusomundo Serviços and a gain of €4.0 million from the sale of PrimeSys. In 2004, discontinued operations include the earnings of Lusomundo Serviços and PrimeSys for the full year, the earnings of Mascom until September 7, 2005 (the date of effective disposal of that company) and a gain of €23.4 million related to the sale of Mascom.
Net Income (before minority interests)
Net income (before minority interests) decreased 5.0% to €689.0 million in 2005 from €725.2 million in 2004 for the reasons described above.
Net income (before minority interests) from our wireline business increased 9.5% to €326.1 million in 2005 from €297.8 million in 2004, due to decreases in direct costs, post retirement benefit expenses, provisions for doubtful receivables and other factors, partially offset by the effects of lower operating revenues and a significant increase in workforce reduction program costs. Net income (before minority interests) from our domestic mobile business decreased 13.9% to €337.0 million in 2005 from €391.1 million in 2004 due to decreases in interconnection revenues, increases in the cost of products sold and supplies and external services, and other factors. Net losses (before minority interests) from our Brazilian mobile business increased to €(134.0) million in 2005 from €(8.5) million in 2004, where increases in expenses from depreciation and amortization, supplies and external services, provisions for doubtful receivables, direct costs and other expenses more than offset increases in operating revenues, in each case exacerbated by the effect of the appreciation of the Real against the Euro. Net income from continuing operations (before minority interests) of our multimedia business decreased 19.5% to €
99.4 million in 2005 from €123.4 million in 2004, primarily due to the absence in 2005 of deferred tax assets in the amount of €104 million recognized in 2004.
Net Income Attributable to Minority Interests
Net income attributable to minority interests in 2005 amounted to €35.0 million and related primarily to 50% of the minority interests attributable to the share of minority shareholders in the net income of Vivo's subsidiaries (negative €11.0 million) and to the share of minority shareholders in the net income of PT Multimédia (€33.9 million) and Cabo Verde Telecom (€8.2 million). In 2004, net income attributable to minority interests amounted to €102.0 million and related primarily to 50% of the minority interests attributable to the share of minority shareholders in the net income of Vivo subsidiaries (€37.8 million), and to the share of minority shareholders in the net income of PT Multimédia (€52.0 million) and Cabo Verde Telecom (€7.1 million).
Net Income Attributable to Equity Holders of the Parent
For the reasons described above, our net income attributable to equity holders of Portugal Telecom increased by 4.9% to €654.0 million in 2005 from €623.2 million in 2004.
Basic earnings per ordinary and A share from total operations in 2005 increased to €0.58 in 2005 from €0.53 in 2004 on the basis of 1,128,856,500 shares issued at December 31, 2005 and 1,166,485,050 shares issued at December 31, 2004.
Our principal capital requirements relate to:
Our principal sources of funding for these capital requirements are cash generated from our operations and equity and debt financing. Our cash and cash equivalents and short-term investments decreased 46.7% to €2,083.7 million as of December 31, 2006 from €3,911.8 million as of December 31, 2005. We believe that our cash balances, together with the cash that we expect to generate from our operations and available liquidity under our credit facilities and lines of credit, are currently sufficient to meet our present funding needs.
The table below sets forth a breakdown of our cash flows for the years ended December 31, 2004, 2005 and 2006.
Cash Flow From Operating Activities. Cash flows from operating activities and used in operating activities include collections from clients, payments to suppliers, payments to personnel and other collections and payments of post retirement benefits activities. Our cash flows from operating activities result primarily from operations conducted by our subsidiaries and not by Portugal Telecom. None of our subsidiaries is subject to economic or legal restrictions on transferring funds to us in the form of cash dividends, loans or advances that would materially affect our ability to meet our cash obligations. Our joint venture in Brazil contains provisions relating to important decisions, including the declaration and/or payment of dividends or other distributions by Brasilcel, the corporate entity that holds the joint venture's interests in Vivo. A proposal by the managing board of Brasilcel for the payment of dividends or other distributions requires the approval of Brasilcel's supervisory board and Brasilcel's shareholders. Because of the composition of Brasilcel's supervisory board and the 50% interest of each party in the joint venture, it will effectively be necessary for Telefónica and us to agree to transfer funds from Vivo and its subsidiaries to us if we wish to do so. See "Item 4Information on the CompanyOur BusinessesStrategic AlliancesAlliance with Telefónica".
Net cash flow from operating activities increased by 28.4% to €1,787.8 million in 2006 from €1,392.3 million in 2005. This increase was primarily due to a €204.4 million increase in collections from customers, a €140.0 million reduction in payments to suppliers and a €138.0 million decrease in payments relating to post retirement benefits, mainly as result of a reduction in the contributions to our pension funds.
Net cash flow from operating activities decreased by 28.9% to €1,392.3 million in 2005 from €1,958.9 million in 2004. This decrease was primarily due to a €421.4 million increase in payments to suppliers, a €401.2 million increase in payments relating to post retirement benefits (including the €300.0 million contribution to the autonomous fund we created in 2005 to finance our healthcare benefit obligations) and other payments, which more than offset a €422.4 million increase in collections from customers.
Cash Flow From (Used in) Investing Activities. Cash flows from investing activities include proceeds of dispositions of investments in associated companies and property, plant and equipment, as well as interest and related income on investments. Cash flows used in investing activities primarily include investments in short-term financial applications, capital expenditures for telecommunications equipment and investments in other companies.
Net cash receipts from investing activities amounted to €1,147.8 million in 2006, compared to net cash payments of €1,910.7 million in 2005. The increase in net cash receipts in 2006 was primarily due to the increase in net cash receipts from short-term financial applications, mainly related to higher balances of short-term financial applications maintained by Portugal Telecom in 2006 as part of our centralized cash management strategy, including for purposes of repaying debt due in 2006. This effect was partially offset by a €384.9 million decrease in cash receipts from disposals of investments compared to 2005, as explained in the next paragraph.
Net cash used in investing activities increased to €1,910.7 million in 2005 from net cash receipts of €185.5 million in 2004. This increase was primarily due to (1) the increase in cash payments, net of cash receipts, from short-term financial applications, primarily as a result of the refinancings done in 2005, which were partially used in 2006 to repay a Eurobond maturing in February 2006 and (2) a €151.3 million increase in payments for investments in tangible assets reflecting an increase in capital expenditures on our network infrastructure and information systems. The increase in net cash used in investing activities was partially offset by the increase in cash receipts from dispositions of investments, including €173.8 million from the sale of Lusomundo Media, €101.8 million from the sale of PrimeSys and €85.6 million from the sale of an interest in UOL, and a decrease in payments relating to investments, especially a €222.5 million decrease in payments relating to Vivo due to the absence in 2005 of payments to finance the tender offers for additional shares of the Vivo subsidiaries completed in October 2004.
Cash Flows From (Used In) Financing Activities. Cash flows used in financing activities include borrowings and repayments of debt, payments of interest on debt and payments of dividends to shareholders. Cash flows from financing activities primarily consist of borrowings.
Net cash payments from financing activities amounted to €2,992.7 million in 2006, compared to net cash receipts of €590.2 million in 2005. In 2006, cash payments for the repayment of loans, net of cash receipts from loans obtained, amounted to €1,741,1 million and primarily included (1) €899.5 million related to the repayment of the notes issued by PT Finance in February 2001, (2) €460.0 million related to the partial repayment of the multicurrency credit facility entered into in 2003 and (3) €390.3 million related to the repayment of convertible bonds issued by PT Finance in December 2001. In 2005, cash receipts from loans obtained, net of cash payments from loans repaid, amounted to €1,951.0 million and primarily reflected (1) €2 billion in Eurobonds issued by PT Finance in 2005 and (2) €250 million related to two loans obtained from the European Investment Bank (EIB), partially offset by €585.0 million related to the repayment of the floating rate notes issued by PT Finance in December 2001.
Net cash receipts from financing activities amounted to €590.2 million in 2005, compared to net cash payments of €1,958.2 in 2004. In 2004, cash payments to repay loans, net of cash flows from loans obtained, amounted to €726.8 million and primarily reflected (1) repayments of the exchangeable bonds issued in June 1999 in the amount of €450.5 million and (2) the repayment of the PT/97 bond issued in 1997 in the amount of €124.7 million.
In 2005, dividend payments increased 49.9% to €445.4 million. In addition, acquisitions of our own shares decreased 31.3% to €340.5 million in 2005.
In 2006, dividends paid amounted to €581.5 million, compared to €445.4 million in 2005. In addition, there were no acquisitions of our own shares in 2006, compared to €340.5 million in acquisitions of shares in 2005.
Our total consolidated indebtedness decreased 23.0% to €5,840.3 million at the end of 2006, compared with €7,584.2 million at December 31, 2005, mainly due to (1) the repayment of the Eurobonds issued in February 2001, amounting to €899.5 million, (2) the repayment of the exchangeable bonds issued in December 2001, amounting to €390.3 million and (3) lower amounts drawn down under our standby facilities (€185 million at the end of 2006 compared to €575 million one year earlier). Our cash and cash equivalents decreased 10.4% to €548.5 million as of December 31, 2006 from €612.2 million as of December 31, 2005, and our short-term investments decreased 53.5% t