This excerpt taken from the PLX 10-K filed Mar 30, 2007.
prGCD for the Treatment of Gaucher Disease
Our lead proprietary product candidate, prGCD, is a plant recombinant Glucocerebrosidase enzyme (GCD) for the treatment of Gaucher Disease. In July 2005, we received FDA approval of our IND application for prGCD, allowing us to initiate an FDA-approved clinical development program for prGCD that does not require us to conduct Phase II clinical trials. The Phase I clinical trial was completed in June 2006. We expect that, based upon the results of such concluded Phase I clinical trial together with the results of certain preclinical studies, we should be able to obtain FDA approval to initiate a pivotal Phase III trial of prGCD for the treatment of Gaucher Disease. We have submitted an application for FDA approval to initiate a Phase III pivotal trial of prGCD, which we expect to commence in 2007. However, there can be no assurance that we will obtain FDA approval to initiate such Phase III trial on a timely basis, if at all.
Gaucher Disease is the most prevalent lysosomal storage disorder in humans. Lysosomes are small membrane-bound organelles within cells that contain hydrolytic enzymes necessary for intracellular digestion. Gaucher Disease is caused by mutations or deficiencies in the gene encoding GCD, a lysosomal enzyme that catalyzes the degradation of glucosylceramide (GlcCer). The normal degradation products of GlcCer are glucose and ceramide, which are easily excreted by the cells through normal biological processes. The absence of an active GCD enzyme leads to the accumulation of GlcCer in lysosomes of certain white blood cells called macrophages. Macrophages affected by the disease become highly enlarged due to the accumulation of GlcCer and are referred to as Gaucher cells. Gaucher cells accumulate in the spleen, liver, lungs, bone marrow and brain.
There are three different types of Gaucher Disease, each determined by the level of GCD activity. The associated clinical symptoms of Type I Gaucher Disease include severe enlargement of the spleen and liver (hepatosplenomegaly), anemia, thrombocytopenia, osteoporosis, skeletal deterioration and bone fractures. Type 1 Gaucher Disease occurs worldwide in all populations; however, it is most prevalent in the Ashkenazi Jewish population (Jewish people of Eastern European ancestry) where it occurs at a rate of approximately 1:450 births. Type 2 Gaucher Disease involves an accumulation of Gaucher cells in the brain leading to acute brain damage and is usually fatal during the first three years of life. Type 2 Gaucher Disease occurs at a rate of 1:100,000 births. Type 3 Gaucher Disease is the chronic neuropathic form of the disease and occurs at a rate of 1:50,000 births. Neurological symptoms of Type 3 Gaucher Disease may include loss of motor control, mental deterioration and myoclonic seizures. Type 3 Gaucher Disease is generally fatal within 20 to 30 years of birth. According to published scientific studies, types 2 and 3 show no ethnic predilection.
Gaucher Disease is currently treated by enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) using recombinant GCD to replace the mutated or deficient natural GCD enzyme. The only recombinant GCD currently available on the market and approved worldwide for the treatment of Gaucher Disease is Cerezyme, produced by Genzyme. There are no known severe side effects to the use of Cerezyme and its approved use over the past decade suggests that it is an effective treatment. According to public reports issued by Genzyme, annual sales of Cerezyme were $1 billion in 2006. Cerezyme is expressed in mammalian
Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. In order for a GCD enzyme to be effective in connection with ERT, exposed terminal mannose sugar residues, the structures on the protein that bind to the target cell and facilitate the internalization of the protein into the target cell, must be present on the sugar residue covering the protein in order to permit binding to macrophage mannose receptors, the structures to which the terminal mannose residues attach. Cerezyme production involves sequential complex laboratory de-glycosilation processing in order to modify the drug to expose the terminal mannose residues so they can bind to the macrophage mannose receptors of the target cells, a procedure that increases the production cost of Cerezyme. According to Genzymes public reports, Cerezyme is currently used to treat approximately 4,800 patients.
Another much less frequently used drug for the treatment of Gaucher Disease is Zavesca® (miglustat), marketed by Actelion Ltd. Zavesca has been approved by the FDA for use in the United States as an oral treatment. However, it has side effects and the FDA has approved it only for administration to those patients who cannot be treated through enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), such as Cerezyme, and, accordingly, have no other treatment alternative. As a result, Zavescas use has been very limited and Actelion reported sales of Zavesca of approximately CHF $18 million for the nine months ended September 30, 2006.
Our prGCD expression in carrot cells permits intracellular manipulation of the protein glycosilation process, generating terminal mannose structures in vivo directly by the cells. This enables the production of a ready to use GCD enzyme, thus precluding the need for the costly post-production de-glycosilation modification required for proteins generated through mammalian cell expression. The prGCD terminal mannose residues on the sugar chains of prGCD facilitate elevated uptake and internalization into the target cells as compared to Cerezyme. Furthermore, when compared to Cerezyme, prGCD displays a superior to equivalent level of the desired enzymatic activity, depending on the biological test used. prGCD is potentially very safe and less expensive to produce as it does not require mammalian-derived components in the manufacturing process. For the foregoing reasons, we believe that prGCDs elevated internalization rates and bioactivity may lead prGCD to become a highly effective, and cost effective, treatment alternative for Gaucher Disease patients.
We have filed process patents, as well as composition of matter patents, for prGCD thereby providing us with patent-pending manufacturing methodologies with respect to GCD. We believe that our strong intellectual property position in combination with the potential cost-effectiveness and superior bioactivity of prGCD, which may be demonstrated in the anticipated Phase III clinical trial, should allow aggressive penetration and establishment of prGCD as a treatment in the market of Gaucher Disease treatment; however, there can be no assurance that prGCD, even if approved for marketing, will effectively penetrate such market.