This excerpt taken from the QGEN 6-K filed Jul 22, 2005.
Biomarker Refers to e.g. proteins which indicate a relevant biological condition (e.g., disease or predisposition to a disease).
Cell line Population of cells cultured in vitro, generally for several generations and subcultures, originally derived from a primary cell culture.
DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid. Macromolecule with a double helix structure built up from the four bases adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine. DNA transmits genetic information.
DNA sequencing The process used to obtain the sequential arrangement of nucleotides in the DNA.
Drug metabolism Drug metabolism is the chemical alteration of a drug by the body.
Drug target Target for clinically relevant or therapeutic molecules used to fight genetic disorders and disease.
Functional genomics Study of the functions of genes.
Gene expression Transfer of genetic information to its active form, usually from DNA via RNA (transcription) into protein (translation).
Gene expression profiling Determines which genetic information has been transferred to its active form.
Gene interaction The collaboration of several different genes in the production of one phenotypic character.
Gene silencing Repression of gene expression especially using the recently discovered mechanism of RNAi (RNA interference). siRNA duplexes can be designed to target and repress expression of specific genes.
Gene therapy Use of DNA to replace or modify the function of faulty genes in a living organism in order to cure or prevent disease and genetic disorders.
Genetic vaccination Use of specific DNA sequences that cause, or promote, an immune response leading to effective vaccination against specific disease-causing agents.
Genome The entire genetic information of an organism. In most organisms consists of DNA, in some viruses can consist of RNA.
Genomic DNA A representative sample of all the DNA in a genome.
Genomics The scientific study of genes and their role in an organisms structure, growth, health, disease (and/or resistance to disease, etc.).
Genotyping Study or testing of genotypes variations in the genetic information among different individuals.
Glycomics One of the newest additions to the omics family. The scientific study of glycosylation of proteins associated with biological functions.
HCV Hepatitis C Virus.
High-throughput screening Testing of large numbers of samples per day, often simultaneously.
HIV Human Immunodeficiency Virus.
HPV Human Papilloma Virus.
Magnetic bead Various tiny pieces of naturally-magnetic materials.
MDA Multiple displacement amplification.
Messenger RNA (mRNA). RNA molecules that acts as messenger of the genetic information encoded by a gene (DNA) produced by the process of transcription. Serves as the template for protein synthesis during translation and frequently has a tail of adenine-residues (poly-A+ mRNA).
Metabolic enzyme A protein that catalyzes biochemical reactions in processes for the synthesis, modification, and breakdown of molecules (e.g. drugs) within a living organism. The metabolic enzyme pattern differs within individuals and provides a basis for the research of individual drug responses in patients.
Metabolic profiling The measurement of biochemical intermediates within a tissue in order to describe the functioning of metabolic pathways.
Metabolic markers A molecular marker associated with a metabolic function.
Metabolism The entire set of enzyme-catalyzed transformations of organic nutrient molecules (to sustain life) in living cells. Conversion of food and water into nutrients that can be used by the bodys cells, and the use of those nutrients by those cells (to sustain life, grow, etc.).
Metabolomics The scientific study of an organisms metabolic response to an environmental stimulus or a genetic modification.
Microarray Array of many macromolecules spotted onto a solid phase to allow interactions with target molecules in solution. For example, DNA oligonucleotides spotted onto a chip interact with target RNA molecules that hybridize to reveal the presence of certain species of RNA molecules in a mixed population.
Microfluidic assays Assays performed on an extremely small scale using very small flow systems of liquids.
Molecular biology The study of life processes at the molecular level, typically through the study of nucleic acids and proteins.
Molecular diagnostics The use of DNA, RNA, and proteins to test for specific states of health or disease.
Nuclear membranes Lipid membranes that surround the nucleus.
Nuclei Plural of nucleus. Small, membrane-bound compartment of cells containing DNA and the nucleolus.
Nucleic acid Single or double-stranded polynucleotide. RNA or DNA.
Oligo Oligonucleotide. Short chain of nucleotide units. Usually chemically synthesized, short single-stranded DNA molecule.
Oncogene Any gene associated with cancer. Oncogenes are derived by the mutation of proto-oncogenes, normal cellular genes involved in growth control.
PCR Polymerase chain reaction. The sequence-specific amplification of DNA molecules using heat-stable polymerase enzymes.
Pharmacogenetics Pharmacogenetics is the study of the association between genetics and response to drug therapy. It is one area of pharmacogenomic research. It refers to people, including gene identification and selecting the right medicine for the right patient.
Pharmacogenomics Pharmacogenomics refers to the entire spectrum of genes that determine drug behavior and sensitivity. By analyzing the whole genome, pharmacogenomics is concerned with genetic effects on drugs themselves and with the genetic variances that contribute to the variable effects of drugs in different individuals. The vision of Pharmacogenomics is that the discovery of genetic variances that affect drug action will lead to the development of new diagnostic procedures and therapeutic products that enable drugs to be prescribed selectively to patients for whom they will be effective and safe. Compared to Pharmacogenetics, Pharmacogenomics includes other applications of genetic information related to drug response, including gene expression, alteration of protein function, and pathological consequences.
Pharmacokinetics The study of the pharmacological effects between drugs and living structures (e.g., tissues, organs).
Plasma Cellular fluid in which blood cells are suspended.
Plasmid DNA Circular DNA molecule commonly found in bacteria and used as the workhorse for many molecular biology procedures.
Polymerases An enzyme that catalyzes the production of a nucleic acid strand by using an existing strand as a template used in PCR and RT-PCR.
Primary cells Cells taken directly from tissues usually for the purpose of creating a cell culture, or cell line.
Prion An abnormally folded protein that causes disease by inducing normal counterparts within the cell to fold in an abnormal manner and aggregate.
Protein expression The translation and post-translational processing of proteins.
Proteome The entire set of proteins that an organism can produce.