Rock-Tenn Company 10-Q 2012
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
Commission File Number 1-12613
(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Its Charter)
Registrant’s Telephone Number, Including Area Code: (770) 448-2193
(Former Name, Former Address and Former Fiscal Year, if Changed Since Last Report.)
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes S No £
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).
Yes S No £
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act (check one):
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).
Yes £ No S
Indicate the number of shares outstanding of each of the issuer’s classes of common stock, as of the latest practicable date:
PART I: FINANCIAL INFORMATION
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF INCOME
(In Millions, Except Per Share Data)
See Accompanying Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME
See Accompanying Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(In Millions, Except Share Data)
See Accompanying Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
See Accompanying Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
For the Three and Six Month Period Ended March 31, 2012
Unless the context otherwise requires, “we”, “us”, “our”, “RockTenn” and “the Company” refer to the business of Rock-Tenn Company, its wholly-owned subsidiaries and its partially-owned consolidated subsidiaries.
We are one of North America's leading integrated manufacturers of corrugated and consumer packaging and recycling solutions and are primarily a manufacturer of containerboard, recycled paperboard, bleached paperboard, packaging products and merchandising displays. We operate locations in the United States, Canada, Mexico, Chile, Argentina, Puerto Rico and China.
Our independent public accounting firm has not audited our accompanying interim financial statements. We derived the Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheet at September 30, 2011 from the audited Consolidated Financial Statements included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2011 (the “Fiscal 2011 Form 10-K”). In the opinion of our management, the Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements reflect all adjustments, which are of a normal recurring nature, necessary for a fair presentation of our results of operations for the three and six months ended March 31, 2012 and March 31, 2011, our comprehensive income for the three and six months ended March 31, 2012 and March 31, 2011, our financial position at March 31, 2012 and September 30, 2011, and our cash flows for the six months ended March 31, 2012 and March 31, 2011.
We have condensed or omitted certain notes and other information from the interim financial statements presented in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q. Therefore, these interim statements should be read in conjunction with our Fiscal 2011 Form 10-K. The results for the three and six months ended March 31, 2012 are not necessarily indicative of results that may be expected for the full year. We have made certain reclassifications to prior year amounts to conform such amounts to the current year presentation.
Recently Adopted Standards
In May 2011, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update 2011-04 “Amendments to Achieve Common Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures in U.S. GAAP and IFRS” which amended certain provisions of ASC 820 “Fair Value Measurement”. These provisions change key principles or requirements for measuring fair value and clarify the FASB's intent regarding application of existing requirements and impact required disclosures. These provisions are effective for interim and annual periods beginning after December 15, 2011 (January 1, 2012 for us). The adoption of these provisions did not have a material effect on our consolidated financial statements.
In June 2011, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update 2011-05 “Comprehensive Income Presentation of Financial Statements” which amended certain provisions of ASC 220 “Comprehensive Income”. These provisions change the presentation requirements for other comprehensive income and total comprehensive income and require one continuous statement or two separate but consecutive statements. Presentation of other comprehensive income in the statement of stockholders' equity is no longer permitted. These provisions are effective for fiscal and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2011 (January 1, 2012 for us). The adoption of these provisions did not have a material effect on our consolidated financial statements.
Recently Issued Standards
In September 2011, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update 2011-09 “Disclosures about an Employer's Participation in a Multiemployer Plan”, which amends certain provisions of ASC 715 “Retirement Plans”. These provisions require enhanced disclosures in our annual financial statements including a general description of the multiemployer plan, the nature of our participation in the plan and whether our contributions into the plan exceed 5% of total contributions. These provisions are effective for fiscal years ending after December 15, 2011 (September 30, 2012 for us). We do not expect the adoption of these provisions to have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements, although the notes to our consolidated financial statements may include additional information concerning our participation in these plans.
In December 2011, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update 2011-11 “Disclosures about Offsetting Assets and Liabilities”, which amends certain provisions in ASC 210 “Balance Sheet”. These provisions require additional disclosures for financial instruments that are presented net for financial statement presentation, including the gross amount of the asset and liability
as well as the impact of any net amount presented in the consolidated financial statements. These provisions are effective for fiscal and interim periods beginning on or after January 1, 2013. We do not expect the adoption of these provisions to have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements.
The following is a summary of the changes in total equity for the six months ended March 31, 2012 (in millions):
Other Comprehensive Income
The net of tax components of other comprehensive income were determined using effective tax rates of approximately 39% for the three and six months ended March 31, 2012 and March 31, 2011. Foreign currency translation gains deferred into other comprehensive income for the three and six months ended March 31, 2012 and March 31, 2011 were primarily due to the change in the Canadian/U.S. dollar exchange rates. There were no foreign currency reclassification adjustments for the three and six months ended March 31, 2012 and March 31, 2011. Other comprehensive income includes reclassification adjustments related to our defined benefit pension plans for the amortization of actuarial losses and prior service costs. There were no actuarial gains, losses or prior service costs arising during the period deferred into other comprehensive income for our defined benefit pension plans for the three and six months ended March 31, 2012 and March 31, 2011.
Certain of our restricted stock awards are considered participating securities as they receive non-forfeitable rights to dividends at the same rate as common stock. As participating securities, we include these instruments in the earnings allocation in computing earnings per share (“EPS”) under the two-class method described in ASC 260 “Earnings per Share.” The following table sets forth the computation of basic and diluted earnings per share under the two-class method (in millions, except per share data):
Weighted average shares includes approximately 0.7 million of reserved, but unissued shares at March 31, 2012. These reserved shares will be distributed as claims are liquidated or resolved in accordance with the Smurfit-Stone Plan of Reorganization and Confirmation Order.
Options to purchase 0.3 million and 0.2 million common shares in the three and six months ended March 31, 2012 were not included in computing diluted earnings per share because the effect would have been antidilutive. Options to purchase less than 0.1 million common shares in the three and six months ended March 31, 2011 were not included in computing diluted earnings per share because the effect would have been antidilutive.
On May 27, 2011, we completed our acquisition of Smurfit-Stone Container Corporation (the "Smurfit-Stone Acquisition" or "Smurfit-Stone"). We have included in our financial statements the results of Smurfit-Stone's containerboard mill and corrugated converting operations in our Corrugated Packaging segment, Smurfit-Stone's recycling operations in our Recycling and Waste Solutions segment and Smurfit-Stone's display operations in our Consumer Packaging segment. We acquired Smurfit-Stone in order to expand our corrugated packaging business as we believe the containerboard and corrugated packaging industry is a very attractive business and U.S. virgin containerboard is a strategic global asset. The purchase price for the acquisition was $4,919.1 million, net of cash acquired of $473.5 million. The purchase price included cash consideration, net of cash acquired of $1,303.4 million, the issuance of approximately 31.0 million shares of RockTenn common stock valued at $2,378.8 million, including approximately 0.7 million shares reserved but unissued at March 31, 2012 for the resolution of Smurfit-Stone bankruptcy claims, we assumed $1,180.5 million of debt and recorded $56.4 million for stock options to replace outstanding Smurfit-Stone stock options. The reserved shares will be distributed as claims are liquidated or resolved in accordance with the Smurfit-Stone Plan
of Reorganization and Confirmation Order. The shares issued were valued at $76.735 per share which represented the average of the high and low stock price on the acquisition date.
We entered into a new Credit Facility and amended our receivables-backed financing facility at the time of the Smurfit-Stone Acquisition. In fiscal 2011, we recorded a loss on extinguishment of debt of approximately $39.5 million primarily for fees paid to certain creditors and third parties and to write-off certain unamortized deferred financing costs related to the Terminated Credit Facility and capitalized approximately $43.3 million of debt issuance costs in other assets related to the new and amended credit agreements. For additional information on our Credit Facility see “Note 9. Debt”.
The following table summarizes the estimated fair values of the assets acquired and liabilities assumed by major class of assets and liabilities as of the acquisition date, as well as adjustments made during the second quarter of fiscal 2012 (referred to as "measurement period adjustments") (in millions):
We are in the process of analyzing the estimated values of certain assets acquired and liabilities assumed including, among other things, finalizing third-party valuations of certain tangible and intangible assets as well as the fair value of certain contracts and certain tax balances, thus, the allocation of the purchase price is preliminary and subject to material revision.
We recorded preliminary estimated fair values for acquired assets and liabilities including goodwill and intangibles. The preliminary estimated fair value assigned to goodwill is primarily attributable to buyer-specific synergies expected to arise after the acquisition (e.g., enhanced geographic reach of the combined organization, increased vertical integration opportunities and diversification of fiber sourcing) and the assembled work force of Smurfit-Stone. The following table summarizes the weighted
average life (in years) and gross carrying amount relating to intangible assets recognized in the Smurfit-Stone Acquisition, excluding goodwill (in millions):
None of the intangibles have significant residual value. The intangibles are being amortized over estimated useful lives ranging from 1 to 18 years based on the approximate pattern in which the economic benefits are consumed or straight-line if the pattern was not reliably determinable.
The following unaudited pro forma information reflects our consolidated results of operations as if the acquisition had taken place on October 1, 2009. The unaudited pro forma information in the table below is not necessarily indicative of the results of operations that we would have reported had the transaction actually occurred at the beginning of this period nor is it necessarily indicative of future results. The unaudited pro forma financial information does not reflect the impact of future events that may occur after the acquisition, including, but not limited to, anticipated costs savings from synergies or other operational improvements.
The unaudited pro forma financial information presented in the table above has been adjusted to give effect to adjustments that are (1) directly related to the business combination; (2) factually supportable; and (3) expected to have a continuing impact. These adjustments include, but are not limited to, the application of our accounting policies; elimination of related party transactions; depreciation and amortization related to fair value adjustments to property, plant and equipment and intangible assets including contracts assumed; and interest expense on acquisition-related debt.
On October 28, 2011, we acquired the stock of four entities doing business as GMI Group ("GMI" or "CorPak"). We expect to make joint elections under section 338(h)(10) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the "Code") that will increase our tax basis in the underlying assets acquired. The purchase price is approximately $86.7 million, including the estimated amount to be paid to the sellers for the Code section 338(h)(10) elections. There was no debt assumed. We acquired the GMI business to expand our presence in the corrugated markets. The acquisition also increases our vertical integration. We have included the results of GMI's operations since the date of acquisition in our consolidated financial statements in our Corrugated Packaging segment. The acquisition included $39.5 million of customer relationship intangible assets, $22.3 million of goodwill and $2.1 million of net unfavorable lease contracts. We are amortizing the customer relationship intangibles over 11 to 12 years based on a straight-line basis because the pattern was not reliably determinable and amortizing the lease contracts over 2 to 10 years. None of the intangibles have a significant residual value. The estimated fair value assigned to goodwill is primarily attributable to buyer-specific synergies expected to arise after the acquisition (e.g., enhanced geographic reach of the combined organization, increased vertical integration) and the assembled work force of GMI. We expect the goodwill to be amortizable for income tax purposes as a result of the Code section 338(h)(10) elections. We are in the process of determining the amount of the 338(h)(10) payment due to the sellers, thus, the allocation of the purchase price is preliminary and subject to revision.
Summary of Restructuring and Other Initiatives
We recorded pre-tax restructuring and other costs, net, of $28.1 million and $6.3 million for the three months ended March 31, 2012 and March 31, 2011, respectively and recorded pre-tax restructuring and other costs, net, of $38.4 million and $6.9 million for the six months ended March 31, 2012 and March 31, 2011, respectively. These amounts are not comparable since the timing and scope of the individual actions associated with a restructuring, an acquisition or integration can vary. We discuss these charges in more detail below.
The following table presents a summary of restructuring and other charges, net, related to active restructuring and other initiatives that we incurred during the six months ended March 31, 2012 and March 31, 2011, the cumulative recorded amount since we started the initiative, and the total we expect to incur (in millions):
Summary of Restructuring and Other Costs, Net
When we close a facility, if necessary, we recognize an impairment charge primarily to reduce the carrying value of equipment or other property to their estimated fair value less cost to sell, and record charges for severance and other employee related costs. Any subsequent change in fair value, less cost to sell, prior to disposition is recognized as identified; however, no gain is recognized in excess of the cumulative loss previously recorded. At the time of each announced closure, we also generally expect to record future charges for equipment relocation, facility carrying costs, costs to terminate a lease or contract before the end of its term and other employee related costs. Expected future charges are reflected in the table above in the “Expected Total” lines until incurred. Although specific circumstances vary, our strategy has generally been to consolidate our sales and operations into large well-equipped plants that operate at high utilization rates and take advantage of available capacity created by operational excellence initiatives. Therefore, we transfer a substantial portion of each plant's assets and production to our other plants. We believe these actions have allowed us to more effectively manage our business.
Acquisition expenses also include expenses associated with other acquisitions whether consummated or not. Acquisition expenses primarily consist of advisory, legal, accounting, valuation and other professional or consulting fees. Integration expenses reflect primarily severance and other employee costs, professional services for work being performed to facilitate the Smurfit-Stone integration including information systems integration costs, and lease expense. We are currently evaluating the amount of expenses we expect to incur as a result of the Smurfit-Stone integration.
The following table represents a summary of and the changes in the restructuring accrual, which is primarily composed of lease commitments, accrued severance and other employee costs, followed by a reconciliation of the restructuring accrual to the
line item “Restructuring and other costs, net” on our Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations for the six months ended March 31, 2012 and March 31, 2011 (in millions):
The effective tax rates for the three and six months ended March 31, 2012 were approximately 38.6% and 38.4%, respectively. The effective tax rates for the three and six months ended March 31, 2011 were approximately 31.4% and 33.3%, respectively. The increase in effective tax rates for the three and six months ended March 31, 2012 compared to the prior year periods were primarily due to the impact of an increased proportion of taxable income in fiscal 2012 being U.S. based. We are subject to a higher effective tax rate in the U.S. as compared to some of our foreign tax jurisdictions. In addition, the effective tax rate is higher due to a decrease in the estimated amount of Internal Revenue Code Section 199 deductions, which reduces the effective tax rate, due to lower taxable income in fiscal 2012 after the application of net operating losses, and due to the impact of U.S. state tax rate increases, including the impact of those rate changes on state deferred tax balances. The effective tax rates for the three and six months ended March 31, 2011 were lower than the statutory rate and were primarily due to the second quarter of fiscal 2011 release of a valuation allowance related to state credits and the reinstatement of the federal research and development credit in the first quarter of fiscal 2011.
As of March 31, 2012, the gross amount of unrecognized tax benefits was approximately $288.6 million, exclusive of interest and penalties. Of this balance, if we were to prevail on all unrecognized tax benefits recorded, approximately $267.1 million would benefit the effective tax rate. We regularly evaluate, assess and sometimes adjust our unrecognized tax benefits in light of changing facts and circumstances.
We recognize estimated interest and penalties related to unrecognized tax benefits in income tax expense. As of March 31, 2012, we had a recorded liability of $2.8 million for the estimated payment of interest and penalties.
We file federal, state and local income tax returns in the U.S. and in various foreign jurisdictions. With few exceptions, we are no longer subject to U.S. federal, state and local, or non-U.S. income tax examinations by tax authorities for years prior to fiscal 2008.
We value substantially all of our U.S. inventories at the lower of cost or market, with cost determined on the last-in first-out (“LIFO”) inventory valuation method, which we believe generally results in a better matching of current costs and revenues than under the first-in first-out (“FIFO”) inventory valuation method. In periods of increasing costs, the LIFO method generally results in higher cost of goods sold than under the FIFO method. In periods of decreasing costs, the results are generally the opposite. Since LIFO is designed for annual determinations, it is possible to make an actual valuation of inventory under the LIFO method
only at the end of each fiscal year based on the inventory levels and costs at that time. Accordingly, we base interim LIFO estimates on management’s projection of expected year-end inventory levels and costs. We value all other inventories at the lower of cost or market, with cost determined using methods which approximate cost computed on a FIFO basis. These other inventories represent primarily foreign inventories and spare parts inventories. Inventories were as follows (in millions):
For more information regarding certain of our debt characteristics, see “Note 9. Debt” of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements section of the Fiscal 2011 Form 10-K.
The following were individual components of debt (in millions):
A portion of the debt classified as long-term, which includes the term loans, receivables-backed, revolving credit and swing facilities, may be paid down earlier than scheduled at our discretion without penalty.
owned U.S. subsidiaries, including those acquired in the Smurfit-Stone Acquisition, except for certain present and future unrestricted subsidiaries and certain other limited exceptions.
On March 14, 2012, we drew down the full amount of the term loan A2 tranche, along with revolver borrowings, to pay off our March 2016 Notes. The applicable margin on LIBOR based term loan A2 is dependent upon our Leverage Ratio. For the quarter ended March 31, 2012 the applicable margin was 1.75%. The variable interest rate, including the applicable margin, on our term loan A2 facility was 2.00% at March 31, 2012. On March 30, 2012, we amended our Credit Facility which provides for the ability to guaranty the obligations of any restricted subsidiary in respect of indebtedness incurred by a restricted subsidiary to the extent such indebtedness is permitted under the Credit Agreement, to incur unsecured indebtedness in respect of letters of credit, letters of guaranty or similar instruments having an aggregate face amount not to exceed $100.0 million at any time outstanding and to incur indebtedness in an aggregate principal amount of up to $50.0 million pursuant to an “additional indebtedness” carveout to the indebtedness covenant in the Credit Agreement.
Up to $250.0 million under the revolving credit facility may be used for the issuance of letters of credit. In addition, up to $300.0 million of the revolving credit facility may be used to fund borrowings in Canadian dollars. At March 31, 2012 and September 30, 2011, the amount committed under the Credit Facility for loans to a Canadian subsidiary was $300.0 million and $300.0 million, respectively. At March 31, 2012, available borrowings under the revolving credit portion of the Credit Facility, reduced by outstanding letters of credit not drawn upon of approximately $65.6 million, were approximately $1,031.6 million. The applicable margin on LIBOR based term loan A and revolving credit loans is dependent upon our Leverage Ratio. For the quarter ended March 31, 2012 the applicable margin was 2.00%, and for the quarter ended September 30, 2011 the applicable margin was 2.00%. The variable interest rate, including the applicable margin, on our term loan A facility, before the effect of interest rate swaps, was 2.25% and 2.23% at March 31, 2012 and September 30, 2011, respectively. Interest rates on our revolving credit facility for borrowings both in the U.S. and Canada ranged from 2.25% to 4.25% at March 31, 2012 and from 3.25% to 4.00% at September 30, 2011.
Certain restrictive covenants govern our maximum availability under this facility, including Maximum Leverage Ratio and Minimum Consolidated Interest Ratio Coverage, as discussed in our Debt Footnote in our Fiscal 2011 Form 10-K. We test and report our compliance with these covenants each quarter. We are in compliance with all of our covenants.
outstanding, under this facility were approximately $507.0 million and $559.9 million, respectively. The carrying amount of accounts receivable collateralizing the maximum available borrowings at March 31, 2012 was approximately $783.1 million. We have continuing involvement with the underlying receivables as we provide credit and collections services pursuant to the securitization agreement.
We are exposed to interest rate risk, commodity price risk and foreign currency exchange risk. To manage these risks, from time-to-time and to varying degrees, we enter into a variety of financial derivative transactions and certain physical commodity transactions that are determined to be derivatives. Interest rate swaps may be entered into to manage the interest rate risk associated with a portion of our outstanding debt. Interest rate swaps are either designated as cash flow hedges of forecasted floating rate interest payments on variable rate debt or fair value hedges of fixed rate debt, or we may elect not to treat them as accounting hedges. Forward contracts on certain commodities may be entered into to manage the price risk associated with forecasted purchases or sales of those commodities. In addition, certain commodity derivative contracts and physical commodity contracts that are determined to be derivatives are not designated as accounting hedges because either they do not meet the criteria for treatment as accounting hedges under ASC 815, “Derivatives and Hedging”, or we elect not to treat them as accounting hedges under ASC 815. We may also enter into forward contracts to manage our exposure to fluctuations in Canadian foreign currency rates with respect to transactions denominated in Canadian dollars.
Outstanding financial derivative instruments expose us to credit loss in the event of nonperformance by the counterparties to the agreements. Our credit exposure related to these financial instruments is represented by the fair value of contracts reported as assets. We manage our exposure to counterparty credit risk through minimum credit standards, diversification of counterparties and procedures to monitor concentrations of credit risk. We enter into derivative contracts that may contain credit-risk-related contingent features which could result in a counterparty requesting immediate payment or demanding immediate and ongoing full overnight collateralization on derivative instruments in net liability positions. Certain of our interest rate swap derivative contracts contain a provision whereby if we default on the Credit Facility, we may also be deemed in default of the interest rate swap obligation. None of our derivative transactions are significant unless otherwise disclosed.
Cash Flow Hedges
For financial derivative instruments that are designated as a cash flow hedge, the effective portion of the gain or loss on the financial derivative instrument is reported as a component of other comprehensive income and reclassified into earnings in the same line item associated with the forecasted transaction, and in the same period or periods during which the forecasted transaction affects earnings. Gains and losses on the financial derivative representing either hedge ineffectiveness or hedge components excluded from the assessment of effectiveness are recognized in current earnings.
We have entered into interest rate swap agreements that effectively modify our exposure to interest rate risk by converting a portion of our interest payments on floating rate debt to a fixed rate basis, thus reducing the impact of interest rate changes on future interest expense. These agreements involve the receipt of floating rate amounts in exchange for fixed interest rate payments over the life of the agreements without an exchange of the underlying principal amount. We have designated these swaps as cash flow hedges of the interest rate exposure on an equivalent amount of certain variable rate debt. As of March 31, 2012, our interest rate swap agreements, which terminated in April 2012, require that we pay fixed rates of approximately 4.00% and receive the one-month LIBOR rate on the notional amounts. As of March 31, 2012, the aggregate notional amount of outstanding debt related to these interest rate swaps was $132 million, which represents the aggregate notional amount prior to expiration. The fair value of our outstanding interest rate derivative instruments are a liability of $0.5 million at March 31, 2012 and are included in Other Current Liabilities in the Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheet.
As of March 31, 2012, the amounts remaining in accumulated other comprehensive income associated with our outstanding interest rate derivative cash flow hedges that expired April 2012 were not significant. We believe amounts in accumulated other comprehensive income related to interest rate derivatives are appropriately included as a component of accumulated other comprehensive income because the forecasted transactions related to those amounts are probable of occurring.
Assets and Liabilities Measured at Fair Value
We estimate fair values in accordance with ASC 820 “Fair Value Measurement”. ASC 820 provides a framework for measuring fair value and expands disclosures required about fair value measurements. Specifically, ASC 820 sets forth a definition of fair value and a hierarchy prioritizing the inputs to valuation techniques. ASC 820 defines fair value as the price that would be received from the sale of an asset or paid to transfer a liability in the principal or most advantageous market for the asset or liability in an orderly transaction between market participants on the measurement date. Additionally, ASC 820 defines levels within the hierarchy based on the availability of quoted prices for identical items in active markets, similar items in active or inactive markets and valuation techniques using observable and unobservable inputs. We incorporate credit valuation adjustments to reflect both our own nonperformance risk and the respective counterparty’s nonperformance risk in our fair value measurements.
We have, or from time to time may have, supplemental retirement savings plans that are nonqualified deferred compensation plans where the assets are invested primarily in mutual funds, interest rate derivatives, commodity derivatives or other similar classes of assets or liabilities. Other than our pension and postretirement assets and liabilities which we disclosed in our Fiscal 2011 Form 10-K and the fair value of our long-term debt disclosed below, the fair value of none of these items are significant.
The following table summarizes the carrying amount and estimated fair value of our long-term debt (in millions):
In the absence of quoted prices in active markets, considerable judgment is required in developing estimates of fair value. Estimates are not necessarily indicative of the amounts we could realize in a current market transaction.
Financial Instruments not Recognized at Fair Value
Financial instruments not recognized at fair value on a recurring or nonrecurring basis include cash and cash equivalents, accounts receivable, certain other current assets, short-term debt, accounts payable, certain other current liabilities, and long-term debt. With the exception of long-term debt, the carrying amounts of these financial instruments approximate their fair values due to their short maturities.
Fair Value of Nonfinancial Assets and Nonfinancial Liabilities
We measure certain nonfinancial assets and nonfinancial liabilities at fair value on a nonrecurring basis. These assets and liabilities include cost and equity method investments when they are deemed to be other-than-temporarily impaired, assets acquired
and liabilities assumed in an acquisition or in a nonmonetary exchange, and property, plant and equipment and intangible assets that are written down to fair value when they are held for sale or determined to be impaired. During the three and six months ended March 31, 2012 and March 31, 2011, we did not have any significant nonfinancial assets or nonfinancial liabilities that were measured at fair value on a nonrecurring basis in periods subsequent to initial recognition.
We have defined benefit pension and other postretirement plans for certain U.S. and Canadian employees. In addition, under several labor contracts, we make payments based on hours worked into multi-employer pension plan trusts established for the benefit of certain collective bargaining employees in facilities both inside and outside the United States. We also have a Supplemental Executive Retirement Plan (“SERP”) and other non-qualified defined benefit pension plans that provide unfunded supplemental retirement benefits to certain of our executives and former executives. The SERP provides for incremental pension benefits in excess of those offered in our principal pension plan. For more information regarding our retirement plans see “Note 14. Retirement Plans” of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements section of the Fiscal 2011 Form 10-K.
The following table represents a summary of the components of net pension cost (in millions):
During the three and six months ended March 31, 2012, we contributed an aggregate of $54.3 million and $134.9 million to our qualified defined benefit pension plans. Based on our current assumptions, we estimate contributing approximately $357 million in fiscal 2012 to our qualified defined benefit pension plans. However, it is possible that our assumptions may change, actual market performance may vary or we may decide to contribute additional amounts. We contributed an aggregate of $3.9 million and $6.5 million to our qualified defined benefit pension plans in the three and six months ended March 31, 2011.
The postretirement benefit plans that were acquired in connection with the Smurfit-Stone Acquisition provide certain health care and life insurance benefits for certain salaried and hourly employees who meet specified age and service requirements as defined by the plans.
The following table represents a summary of the components of the postretirement benefits costs (in millions):
During the three and six months ended March 31, 2012, we contributed an aggregate of $1.4 million and $4.5 million to our postretirement benefit plans.
During the second quarter of fiscal 2012, we granted options to purchase 253,750 shares of our Class A common stock “Common Stock” to certain employees. These options generally vest three years from the grant date, however, a portion of them are subject to earlier expense recognition due to retirement eligibility rules. These grants were valued at $23.80 per share using the Black-Scholes option pricing model. The approximate assumptions used were: an expected term of 5.3 years; an expected volatility of 47.3%; expected dividends of 1.4%; and a risk free rate of 0.8%. We amortize these costs using the accelerated attribution method.
The aggregate intrinsic value of options exercised during the three months ended March 31, 2012 and March 31, 2011 was $6.6 million and $1.2 million, respectively, and during the six months ended March 31, 2012 and March 31, 2011 it was $7.3 million and $1.4 million, respectively.The table below summarizes the changes in all stock options during the six months ended March 31, 2012:
During the second quarter of fiscal 2012, we granted 20,700 shares of restricted stock, which vest over one year, to our non-employee directors and we granted target awards of 387,550 shares of restricted stock with a service and a performance condition that generally vest over three years, to certain employees pursuant to our 2004 Incentive Stock Plan, as amended.
The aggregate fair value of restricted stock that vested during the three months ended March 31, 2012 and March 31, 2011 was $32.8 million and $18.5 million, respectively, and during the six months ended March 31, 2012 and March 31, 2011 it was $32.9 million and $18.5 million, respectively.
Certain of our restricted stock that have met all restrictions other than service conditions are treated as issued and carry dividend and voting rights; if the service conditions are not met, the shares of restricted stock are forfeited. At March 31, 2012 and September 30, 2011, there were less than 0.1 million and 0.4 million shares of restricted stock, respectively, reflected in our accompanying balance sheets as issued that have not yet met the service condition to vest.
The table below summarizes the changes in unvested restricted stock awards during the six months ended March 31, 2012:
the level of performance attained.
For additional information about our share-based payment awards, refer to “Note 16. Share-Based Compensation” of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements section of the Fiscal 2011 Form 10-K.
Environmental and Other Matters
Environmental compliance requirements are a significant factor affecting our business. We employ processes in the manufacture of pulp, paperboard and other products which result in various discharges, emissions and wastes. These processes are subject to numerous federal, state, local and foreign environmental laws and regulations. We operate and expect to continue to operate, under environmental permits and similar authorizations from various governmental authorities that regulate such discharges, emissions and wastes. Environmental programs in the U.S. are primarily established, administered and enforced at the federal level by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (“EPA” or “Agency”). In addition, many of the jurisdictions in which we operate have adopted equivalent or more stringent environmental laws and regulations or have enacted their own parallel environmental programs.
In 2004, the EPA promulgated a Maximum Achievable Control Technology (“MACT”) regulation that established air emissions standards, monitoring, record keeping and reporting requirements for industrial, commercial and institutional boilers. The rule was challenged by third parties in litigation, and in 2007, the United States Court of Appeals for the D. C. Circuit issued a decision vacating and remanding the rule to the EPA. Under court order, the EPA published a set of four interrelated rules on March 21, 2011, commonly referred to as the “Boiler MACT”. These rules include air emission standards for boilers at large and small facilities, as well as criteria for determining whether secondary materials are wastes when burned in combustion units. Under another rule that was part of the March 21, 2011 interrelated rules published by the EPA, units burning “solid waste” as fuel are subject to stringent standards for waste incinerators. The EPA also published notice on March 21, 2011 that it would reconsider certain aspects of the Boiler MACT in order to address “difficult technical issues” raised during the public comment period. The Agency stayed a portion of the final Boiler MACT during its reconsideration process; however, this stay was vacated by a federal district court on January 9, 2012. On December 23, 2011, the EPA published a proposed rule containing multiple changes to the Boiler MACT rules issued in March 2011. While certain changes made in the December 23, 2011 proposed rule would provide additional flexibility, others would impose more stringent requirements on some types of boilers, such as those that burn pulverized coal and wet biomass. RockTenn's preliminary estimate of the cost of compliance with the Boiler MACT rules is approximately $200 million; however, the EPA has indicated its intention to make further changes to these rules that could materially impact the ultimate costs to us, as well as other operators in our industry. As a result, neither the amount that RockTenn will be required to spend for compliance with the final Boiler MACT nor the timing of those expenditures can be quantified with certainty until the EPA issues its revised, final rules.
Certain jurisdictions in which the Company has manufacturing facilities or other investments have taken actions to address climate change. In the U.S., the EPA has issued the Clean Air Act permitting regulations applicable to facilities that emit greenhouse gases (“GHGs”). These regulations became effective for certain GHG sources on January 2, 2011, with implementation for other sources to be phased in over the next several years. The EPA also has promulgated a rule requiring facilities that emit 25,000 metric tons or more of carbon dioxide (CO2) equivalent per year to file an annual report of their emissions. Some U.S. states and Canadian provinces in which RockTenn has manufacturing operations are also taking measures to reduce GHG emissions. For example, on November 18, 2009, Quebec, which is participating in the Western Climate Initiative, adopted a target of reducing GHG emissions by 20% below 1990 levels by 2020. In December 2011, Quebec issued a final regulation establishing a cap-and-trade program that will require reductions in GHG emissions from covered emitters beginning on January 1, 2013. Enactment of the Quebec cap-and-trade program may require capital expenditures to modify our containerboard mill assets in Quebec to meet required GHG emission reduction requirements in future years. Such requirements also may increase energy costs above the level of general inflation and result in direct compliance and other costs. However, we do not believe that compliance with the requirements of the new cap-and-trade program will have a material adverse effect on our operations or financial condition. We have systems in place for tracking the GHG emissions from our energy-intensive facilities, and we carefully monitor developments in climate change laws, regulations and policies to assess the potential impact of such developments on our operations and financial